WorldWideScience

Sample records for serial transmission system

  1. Study of a mixed parallel and serial data transmission in trigger system of Beijing Spectrometer III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Yin Zejie; Liu Zhen'an; Zhao Dixin; Guo Ya'nan

    2005-01-01

    Serial optical fiber transmission technology will be used to transfer data from the detector electronics systems to the trigger system in the Beijing Spectrometer III. This technology has the advantages of cutting off the ground loops between the electronics systems and the trigger system, improving the system immunity to electro-magnetic interference and lengthening the transfer distance. Some important aspects of this technology are carefully studied, such as the bit-error-rate, error report, synchronization-back, delay skew of channels and phase stability. Design for single line self-synchronizing back is given, which makes the system more robust. The skew of channels is half a period. So the synchronous parallel data can be gotten if the rising of sample clock is set at the middle of the stable time of all deserialized data. This method can meet the requirement of BES III data transmission. (authors)

  2. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  3. Serial interprocessor communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-01-01

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM

  4. Timing system for TRISTAN AR using time division multiplexed serial transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kadokura, Eiichi.

    1984-10-01

    The global timing signals of standard clock pulse, event code and time code for TRISTAN AR are transmitted by means of a single coaxial cable. The timing system is composed of the CAMAC system with a microcomputer (LSI-11) and the control computers (Hidic 80 E's). The CAMAC modules and the softwares for the timing system have been developed, and so the flexible and extensible system has been completed. (author)

  5. Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

    2001-09-01

    One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

  6. Transmission market support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinschmidt, K.F.; Coles, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    An interactive, computer-based market support system has been developed for transmission access that is efficient, equitable, and fair to all parties concerned with electrical transmission: utilities, electric generators, owners of transmission networks, and wholesale purchasers of electrical power. Each participant transmits electronically to the computer system his proposed price schedule for buying, selling, or transmitting power for each future time period. The price for transmission on a single line in one direction can differ from the price in the other direction. The total quantity offered in the transmission bid represents the capacity of the line, and the flow on the line cannot exceed this value. The system automatically computes the prices that clear the market; that is, the price that each generator receives at each bus, the price that each transmission operator receives on each line, and the price that each customer pays at each bus. The computer system maximizes the benefits to all three classes while satisfying the electrical characteristics of the transmission system by means of load flow calculations. Customers never pay more than their bid prices (but may pay less), and generators and transmission operators never receive less than their bid prices (but may receive more). The price at each bus applies to all buyers and sellers at that bus: all buyers at the same bus pay the same price and all generators at a bus receive the same price

  7. Comparison of serial field bus topologies at high transmission rates; Topologievergleich serieller Feldbusse bei hohen Uebertragungsraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, U. [Fachhochschule Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Meinhardt, S. [Eltromat Gesellschaft fuer Industrieelektronik mbH, Leopoldshoehe (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    This paper investigates the maximum transmission rate of serial field-busses for different line topologies. The unidirectional point-to-point topology (e.g. INTERBUS-S) and the bidirectional multi-drop topology (e.g. PROFIBUS-DP) are compared. Developed simulation models and their results will be presented and causes of different transmission ranges will be discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dieser Beitrag untersucht die maximal nutzbare Uebertragungsrate serieller Feldbusse unter Beruecksichtigung ihrer unterschiedlichen Leitungstopologien. Vergleichend gegenuebergstellt werden eine unidirektionale Punkt-zu-Punkt-Topologie (z.B. INTERBUS-S) und eine bidirektionale Multi-Drop-Topologie (z.B. PROFIBUS-DP). Entwickelte Simulationsmodelle und deren Ergebnisse werden vorgestellt und die Ursachen der unterschiedlichen Uebertragungsreichweiten eroertert. (orig.)

  8. ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredi, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hughes, Electron Dynamics Division is developing gyrotrons for ECRH requirements. In the development program, techniques have been evolved for transmission system components. These techniques include over-moded waveguide tapers, high average power windows, and rf water loads for testing

  9. ETR transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, D.

    1983-01-01

    The presentation concentrates on factors associated with transmission systems for reactors and/or reactor relevant devices. For present day mirrors and their upgrades where power levels are in the few hundred kW range, waveguide systems with mode control are preferred. Beyond the early 1990's time frame are the ETR DEMO and reactor devices. These require injected power levels of about 75 MW. If only power oscillators are available at that time, then a MARS like transmission system may be appropriate or possibly a guided wave waveguide

  10. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  11. High speed serial communications for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieson, D.; Kalbfleisch, C.; Hunt, S.; Low, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is a complex of accelerators being built in Ellis County, Texas. The SSCL control system consists of front-end processors and their associated control points remotely distributed from the Central and Regional control rooms. Control messages passing between these locations require timely (deterministic) distribution. A prototype network consisting of point-to-point links utilizing commercial T1 (1.544 Mb/s) communication boards has been implemented. These dedicated communication links will replace networking services traditionally provided for by shared medium networks like Ethernet(IEEE 802.3) and FDDI(IEEE 802.5). A seamless migration will be achieved by using packet encapsulation based on PPP(Point-to-Point Protocol, RFC 1171). All other networking functions including routing and reliable delivery are still being handled by the usual internet services. A distributed control system that currently uses Ethernet for communication is being re-implemented using these point-to-point links. The authors report on throughput measurements, timing constraints and ease of transition of a point-to-point network

  12. Serial network simplifies the design of multiple microcomputer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkes, D.

    1981-01-01

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in developing network communication schemes for carrying digital data between locally distributed computing stations. Many of these schemes have focused on distributed networking techniques for data processing applications. These applications suggest the use of a serial, multipoint bus, where a number of remote intelligent units act as slaves to a central or host computer. Each slave would be serially addressable from the host and would perform required operations upon being addressed by the host. Based on an MK3873 single-chip microcomputer, the SCU 20 is designed to be such a remote slave device. The capabilities of the SCU 20 and its use in systems applications are examined.

  13. On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-12-01

    Two reduced-complexity (RC) LDPC decoders are proposed, which can be used in combination with large-girth LDPC codes to enable beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission. We show that optimally attenuated RC min-sum sum algorithm performs only 0.45 dB worse than conventional sum-product algorithm, while having lower storage memory requirements and much lower latency. We further evaluate the proposed algorithms for use in beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission in combination with PolMUX 32-IPQ-based signal constellation and show that low BERs can be achieved for medium optical SNRs, while achieving the net coding gain above 11.4 dB.

  14. A 16:1 Serializer ASIC for Data Transmission at 5 Gbps

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A high speed, low power 16:1 serializer has been developed with a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The serializer operates from 4.0 to 5.7 Gbps. Total jitter is 62 ps and the eye openning of the bathtub curve is 122 ps at bit rate error of 10-12 at 5 Gbps. Power consumption is 463 mW at 5 Gbps. A proton beam test indicates the serializer is suitable for applications in high energy physics experiments.

  15. A Serializer ASIC for High Speed Data Transmission in Cryogenic and HiRel Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A low power 16:1 serializer (called LOCs1), operates from 4.0 to 5.8 Gb/s, has been developed using a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. LOCs1 is the first step towards an optical link for the readout upgrade of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAr) in ATLAS for the super LHC. This optical link needs to operate at 100 Gb/s for one front-end board (FEB) over a 12-way fiber ribbon, with 20% redundant channels to improve system reliability in the radiation environment of the LHC. There are 1524 FEBs so the total data bandwidth will be over 150 Tb/s. LOCs1 is also a candidate for another optical link system proposed to readout the experimental data in the large Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). In this application the transmitting side of the link will operate inside a cryostat at 89 K. In this paper we present the test results of LOCs1, both in room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K. A proton irradiation of LOCs...

  16. A Serializer ASIC for High Speed Data Transmission in Cryogenic and HiRel Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A high speed 16:1 serializer ASIC has been developed using a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. At room temperature the ASIC operates from 4.0 to 5.7 Gbps with power consumption of 463 mW. The total jitter is 62 ps at the bit error rate of 10-12 at 5 Gbps. A 200-MeV proton beam test indicates that the ASIC is suitable for high energy physics applications. A liquid nitrogen temperature test indicates that the ASIC may be used at cryogenic temperature applications. The reliability of the serializer at liquid nitrogen temperature is to be studied. A 6-lane serializer array with 10 Gbps/lane with redundancy capability is under development.

  17. Implementation of Bluetooth serial port based profiles in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanglei; Qiu, Zhengding; Wang, Quanping; Gao, Qiang

    2001-10-01

    Bluetooth is a new short-range wireless communication technology developing rapidly in recent years. Bluetooth software architecture consists of stack and profiles. Serial Port Profile (SPP) is an underlying profile that emulates RS232 serial cable connections between two peer devices. Based on SPP, Dial-up Networking (DUN) Profile establishes PPP connection with remote dial-up server, Fax Profile realizes document facsimile function and LAN Access Profile (LAP) provides local area network access service. When it comes to their implementation in embedded systems, there are several challenges such as memory consumption, code efficiency, code reliability, and code portability onto different OS and hardware platforms to be attacked. In this paper, we propose integrated software architecture after discussing the great similarities shared among the three SPP based profiles. Then implementation of the architecture is given, in which OS-dependent and OS-independent parts are clearly separated. Profile interfaces with stack and OS are specified respectively so that the three profiles as a whole can be ported onto various software and hardware platforms easily. As a result, policy of transplanting our implementation onto different platforms is addressed at the end of the paper.

  18. A 16:1 Serializer ASIC for Data Transmission at 5 Gbps

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A high speed, low power 16:1 serializer is developed using a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. It operates from 4.0 to 5.8 Gbps in the lab test. Its total jitter is measured to be 62 ps and the bathtub scan demonstrates a 122 ps opening at BER of less than 10-12 level at 5 Gbps. The measured power consumption is 507 mW at this data rate. A proton test of this chip is scheduled in June and test results will be discussed when available.

  19. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  20. Development and application of a quality data acquisition system based on a serial data highway (PDV-Bus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, T.; Ruehle, W.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the setup of a pilotsystem for test and inspection data acquisition within a qualitydata acquisition-system (QDA-System) and the principles how the data transmission system acts. First a general description of the system concept for test- and inspection data acquisition is given and then acquisition-equipments, -components and -systems will be touched. Depending on the structure of the test- and inspection equipment and the termination of the gauge process, different concepts of substations will be described. Based on requirements for serial data-highways used in QDA-systems, the architecture and the operation sequence of the PDV-Bus pilot system will be presented. The detailed description of the data transmission system will be pointed out as well as the implemented system software moduls. The achieved results are shown in a system estimation. (orig.) [de

  1. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  2. Automation of 3D reconstruction of neural tissue from large volume of conventional serial section transmission electron micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2009-01-30

    We describe an approach for automation of the process of reconstruction of neural tissue from serial section transmission electron micrographs. Such reconstructions require 3D segmentation of individual neuronal processes (axons and dendrites) performed in densely packed neuropil. We first detect neuronal cell profiles in each image in a stack of serial micrographs with multi-scale ridge detector. Short breaks in detected boundaries are interpolated using anisotropic contour completion formulated in fuzzy-logic framework. Detected profiles from adjacent sections are linked together based on cues such as shape similarity and image texture. Thus obtained 3D segmentation is validated by human operators in computer-guided proofreading process. Our approach makes possible reconstructions of neural tissue at final rate of about 5 microm3/manh, as determined primarily by the speed of proofreading. To date we have applied this approach to reconstruct few blocks of neural tissue from different regions of rat brain totaling over 1000microm3, and used these to evaluate reconstruction speed, quality, error rates, and presence of ambiguous locations in neuropil ssTEM imaging data.

  3. Serial killers, spiders and cybersex: Social and survival information bias in the transmission of urban legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbersfield, Joseph M; Tehrani, Jamshid J; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-05-01

    This study uses urban legends to examine the effects of the social information bias and survival information bias on cultural transmission across three phases of transmission: the choose-to-receive phase, the encode-and-retrieve phase, and the choose-to-transmit phase. In line with previous research into content biases, a linear transmission chain design with 60 participants aged 18-52 was used to examine the encode-and-retrieve phase, while participants were asked to rank their interest in reading the story behind a headline and passing a story on for the other two phases. Legends which contained social information (Social Type), legends which contained survival information (Survival Type), and legends which contained both forms of information (Combined Type) were all recalled with significantly greater accuracy than control material, while Social and Combined Type legends were recalled with significantly greater accuracy than Survival Type legends. In another study with 30 participants aged 18-22, no significant differences were found between legend types in either the choose-to-receive phase or the choose-to-transmit phase. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    . The comparison shows that results obtained used both types of the cores are the same, so it is concluded that both cores can be used for harmonic measurements. Low-inductance resistors are introduced in the secondary circuits, in series with the metering and protective relaying. On those resistors, the harmonic......Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... end only so the ground is not used as a return path. A way to reduce the capacitive coupling is to provide shielding. Harmonic currents are measured using the conventional inductive voltage transformers. Both protective and metering cores were compared if they could be used for harmonic measurements...

  5. Towards an optimal transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calviou, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation provided background on National Grid USA and discussed transmission investment in the United States (US) and United Kingdom. It also discussed barriers to transmission investments and improvements, thoughts on solutions and a long-term vision. The presentation identified that transmission investment should follow from clear reliability rules designed to promote better operation and management; investment does not necessarily mean new rights-of-way; and transmission investment should target benefits to customers. It was stated that US transmission investment levels have decreased. A comparison between US and UK transmission investment was presented along with a chart of increasing US congestion costs. Barriers to investment in US transmission include vertical integration; misperception of transmission as a market product; federal and state jurisdiction issues; fragmentation in transmission ownership and operation; rate cap based plans that impact transmission; lack of clarity in cost allocation; and the site selection process. Possible solutions include policy and incentives, promoting independence and resolving structural issues. tabs., figs

  6. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D; Macedo, F X; Mcconnach, J S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-15

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  8. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-01

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  9. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  10. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  11. Single-chip serial channel enhances multi-processor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper multiprocessor systems are described and explained. The impact that VLSI advancements are having on multiprocessor design is pointed out. The TMS 7041 single-chip microcomputer is described briefly, highlighting its multiprocessor communication capability. And finally, a typical multiprocessor system is shown, implementing the TMS 7041.

  12. [A novel serial port auto trigger system for MOSFET dose acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangwen; Qi, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    To synchronize the radiation of microSelectron-HDR (Nucletron afterloading machine) and measurement of MOSFET dose system, a trigger system based on interface circuit was designed and corresponding monitor and trigger program were developed on Qt platform. This interface and control system was tested and showed stable operate and reliable work. This adopted serial port detect technique may expand to trigger application of other medical devices.

  13. Co-simulation of dynamic systems in parallel and serial model configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweafford, Trevor; Yoon, Hwan Sik

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancement in simulation software and computation hardware make it realizable to simulate complex dynamic systems comprised of multiple submodels developed in different modeling languages. The so-called co-simulation enables one to study various aspects of a complex dynamic system with heterogeneous submodels in a cost-effective manner. Among several different model configurations for co-simulation, synchronized parallel configuration is regarded to expedite the simulation process by simulation multiple sub models concurrently on a multi core processor. In this paper, computational accuracies as well as computation time are studied for three different co-simulation frameworks : integrated, serial, and parallel. for this purpose, analytical evaluations of the three different methods are made using the explicit Euler method and then they are applied to two-DOF mass-spring systems. The result show that while the parallel simulation configuration produces the same accurate results as the integrated configuration, results of the serial configuration, results of the serial configuration show a slight deviation. it is also shown that the computation time can be reduced by running simulation in the parallel configuration. Therefore, it can be concluded that the synchronized parallel simulation methodology is the best for both simulation accuracy and time efficiency.

  14. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  15. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  16. Multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Various potential architectures of branching units for multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems are presented. It is also investigated how different architectures of branching unit influence the number of fibers and those of inline components.......Various potential architectures of branching units for multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems are presented. It is also investigated how different architectures of branching unit influence the number of fibers and those of inline components....

  17. Methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Robert E [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID; West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Heath, Gail L [Iona, ID; Scott, Clark L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-31

    A sensing platform for monitoring a transmission system, and method therefor, may include a sensor that senses one or more conditions relating to a condition of the transmission system and/or the condition of an environment around the transmission system. A control system operatively associated with the sensor produces output data based on an output signal produced by the sensor. A transmitter operatively associated with the control system transmits the output data from the control system.

  18. Four-dimensional optical multiband-OFDM for beyond 1.4 Tb/s serial optical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Batshon, Hussam G; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2011-01-17

    We propose a four-dimensional (4D) coded multiband-OFDM scheme suitable for beyond 1.4 Tb/s serial optical transport. The proposed scheme organizes the N-dimensional (ND) signal constellation points in the form of signal matrix; employs 2D-inverse FFT and 2D-FFT to perform modulation and demodulation, respectively; and exploits both orthogonal polarizations. This scheme can fully exploit advantages of OFDM to deal with chromatic dispersion, PMD and PDL effects; and multidimensional signal constellations to improve OSNR sensitivity of conventional optical OFDM. The improvement of 4D-OFDM over corresponding polarization-multiplexed QAM (with the same number of constellation points) ranges from 1.79 dB for 16 signal constellation point-four-dimensional-OFDM (16-4D-OFDM) up to 4.53 dB for 128-4D-OFDM.

  19. APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R; Biagioni, A; Frezza, O; Lonardo, A; Cicero, F Lo; Paolucci, P S; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P

    2013-01-01

    APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint

  20. APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R [INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 - 00133 Roma Italy (Italy); Biagioni, A; Frezza, O; Lonardo, A; Cicero, F Lo; Paolucci, P S; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2 - 00185 Roma Italy (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint.

  1. 3D analysis of synaptic vesicle density and distribution after acute foot-shock stress by using serial section transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, M; Darkner, S; Nava, N

    2017-01-01

    was employed to compare two groups of male rats: (1) rats subjected to foot-shock stress and (2) rats with sham stress as control group. Two-dimensional (2D) density measures are common in microscopic images and are estimated by following a 2D path in-section. However, this method ignores the slant...... in comparison to the 2D measures. Our results showed that acute foot-shock stress exposure significantly affected both the spatial distribution and density of the synaptic vesicles within the presynaptic terminal.......Behavioural stress has shown to strongly affect neurotransmission within the neocortex. In this study, we analysed the effect of an acute stress model on density and distribution of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles within medial prefrontal cortex. Serial section transmission electron microscopy...

  2. Serial transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I by blood transfusion in rabbits and its prevention by use of X-irradiated stored blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Yamato, K.; Fujishita, M.; Yamashita, M.; Ohtsuki, Y.; Taguchi, H.; Miyoshi, I.

    1986-06-15

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was serially transmitted for 5 passages from rabbit to rabbit by blood transfusion. The virus could be transmitted with 20 ml of whole blood or washed blood cell suspension (fresh or stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C) but not with cell-free plasma from seroconverted rabbits. Seroconversion occurred 2-4 weeks after blood transfusion and serum anti-HTLV-I titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:640 with the immunofluorescence assay. From transfusion recipients of the 1st to 4th passages, virus-producing cell lines were established by culturing lymphocytes in the presence of T-cell growth factor (TCGF). Three of the 4 cell lines became TCGF-independent after 2-12 months of continuous culture. Blood was transfused between rabbits of opposite sexes and the recipient origin of each cell line was determined by chromosome analysis. We also investigated the effect of X-irradiation (6,000 rad) on blood from seropositive rabbits. Seroconversion likewise occurred in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated immediately before transfusion but not in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated and stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C. Thus, our rabbit model shows that HTLV-I is serially transmissible by blood transfusion and that this can be prevented by irradiation of blood. The same procedure, therefore, may be useful for the prevention of transfusion-related transmission of HTLV-I in humans.

  3. Decoupling Identification for Serial Two-Link Two-Inertia System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaki, Junji; Adachi, Shuichi

    The purpose of our study is to develop a precise model by applying the technique of system identification for the model-based control of a nonlinear robot arm, under taking joint-elasticity into consideration. We previously proposed a systematic identification method, called “decoupling identification,” for a “SCARA-type” planar two-link robot arm with elastic joints caused by the Harmonic-drive® reduction gears. The proposed method serves as an extension of the conventional rigid-joint-model-based identification. The robot arm is treated as a serial two-link two-inertia system with nonlinearity. The decoupling identification method using link-accelerometer signals enables the serial two-link two-inertia system to be divided into two linear one-link two-inertia systems. The MATLAB®'s commands for state-space model estimation are utilized in the proposed method. Physical parameters such as motor inertias, link inertias, joint-friction coefficients, and joint-spring coefficients are estimated through the identified one-link two-inertia systems using a gray-box approach. This paper describes accuracy evaluations using the two-link arm for the decoupling identification method under introducing closed-loop-controlled elements and varying amplitude-setup of identification-input. Experimental results show that the identification method also works with closed-loop-controlled elements. Therefore, the identification method is applicable to a “PUMA-type” vertical robot arm under gravity.

  4. The paradox of transmission system value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.Z.; Feldman, R.D.; Charnetzki, P.

    1995-01-01

    The central importance of utility strategic planning with respect to transmission systems has developed as a result of the passage of the Energy Policy Act and the rapid emergence of the era of open grid access. As a consequence, utilities have had to redefine transmission as being more than a cost center managed with reliability as the principal focus and regulated on a rate of return basis. Transmission must now be managed with a view to protection of customers, where possible, and to revenue maximization, both through pricing strategy and through operations. This shift has been compounded by the pressures being thrust upon utilities by regulators or being fomented by competitors to unbundle transmission and distribution from generation. This paper explores how the value of the transmission system can be viewed from the vantage points of different organizations (utilities, regulators, customers, independent generators, etc.). The paper addresses the uncertain and apparently paradoxical nature of transmission system value as it will be impacted by the possible alternative future structures of the electric power industry. Lastly, this paper suggests the strategic possibilities for utilities that this uncertainty presents

  5. Modeling of serial data acquisition structure for GEM detector system in Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, Piotr; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Chernyshova, Maryna; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Krawczyk, Rafal D.; Wojenski, Andrzej; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Byszuk, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    This article presents method of modeling in Matlab hardware architecture dedicated for FPGA created by languages like VHDL or Verilog. Purposes of creating such type of model with its advantages and disadvantages are described. Rules presented in this article were exploited to create model of Serial Data Acquisition algorithm used in X-ray GEM detector system. Result were compared to real working model implemented in VHDL. After testing of basic structure, other two structures were modeled to see influence parameters of the structure on its behavior.

  6. Microwave transmission system for space power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wave-length microwaves.

  7. Eco-design of power transmissions systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.

    2011-01-01

    The demand to preserve the environment and form a sustainable development is greatly increasing in the recent decades all over the world, and this environmental concern is also merged in electrical power industry, resulting in many eco-design approaches in Transmission and Distribution (T and D) industries. As a method of eco-design, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a systematic tool that enables the assessment of the environmental impacts of a product or service throughout its entire life cycle, i.e. raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. In T and D industries, LCA has been done for a lot of products individually, in order to see one product's environmental impacts and to seek for ways of improving its environmental performance. This eco-design for product approach is a rather well-developed trend, however, as only a single electrical product cannot provide the electrical power to users, electrical system consists of a huge number of components, in order to investigate system's environmental profile, the entire environmental profiles of different composing products has to be integrated systematically, that is to say, a system approach is needed. Under this philosophy, the study 'Eco-design of Power Transmission Systems' is conducted in this thesis, with the purpose of analysing the transmission systems' environmental impacts, locating the major environmental burden sources of transmission systems, selecting and/or developing methodologies of reducing its environmental impacts. (author)

  8. Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.

  9. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  10. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    ; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than....... Using a 9 ps pulsed RZ Tx, transmission is achieved over a 400 km link consisting of 5 spans of 80 km standard-SMF with a Quality (Q) factor of 17.7 dB, while for NRZ it is reduced to 15 dB. In another experimental verification over 40 km spans of standard-SMF, we could achieve transmission over 6 spans...

  11. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  12. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Pixton, David S [Lehi, UT; Johnson, Monte L [Orem, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael [Springville, UT

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  13. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  14. A high-speed, multi-input serial-interfacing system for a computer with simultaneous back-up recording on magnetic tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andeweg, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A system has been developed that interfaces nuclear-instrument data modules and a multichannel analyser into a computer. The interface converts 4-bit binary-coded decimal (BCD) data into 8-bit packed BCD data, and converts the parallel data into serial data. The data are transmitted up to a distance of 500m at a transfer rate of 153,6kbaud via an RS422 transmission link to a central computer system. One or more multichannel analyser systems can be connected to the system via a routine device. The routing device serves these analysers on a first-come-first-served mode. The data transmitted to the computer system are recorded simultaneously on a digital magnetic-tape drive to provide a back-up facility

  15. Radio transmission system for industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, M.; Culcer, M.; Curuia, M.; Anghel, N.M.; Stefanescu, I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with a data transmission system operating in a large, noisy industrial area. The radio transmission system permits data and commands communication between the local units of collecting data and a central monitoring and/or command station ( dispatch). The communication support are radio waves in the range 450 MHz. The transducers are of transmitter type, with 4-20 mA output signal, providing information about environmental and/or work parameters. Data are primarily acquisitioned in a data logger with microcontroller, then transmitted via a FSK radio modem and a radio station to the dispatch. Data logger can also be connected in a network. The dispatch personal computer receives and processes data and transmits commands. The system functioning is supervised by a communication software in MCS - 51 assembler and an application software in Visual C ++ . (author)

  16. Transmission techniques for 4G systems

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, Mario Marques

    2012-01-01

    Fourth Generation (4G) wireless communication systems support current and emergent multimedia services such as mobile TV, social networks and gaming, high-definition TV, video teleconferencing, and messaging services. These systems feature the All-over-IP concept and boast improved quality of service. Several important R&D activities are currently under way in the field of wireless communications for 4G systems, but the coverage is widespread in the literature. Transmission Techniques for 4G Systems presents a compilation of the latest developments in the field of wireless communications for 4

  17. Ongoing studies for the control system of a serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, S.; Püllen, L.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of the phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS detector, the entire inner tracker (ITk) of ATLAS will be replaced. This includes the pixel detector and the corresponding detector control system (DCS). The current baseline is a serial powering scheme of the detector modules. Therefore a new detector control system is being developed with emphasis on the supervision of serially powered modules. Previous chips had been designed to test the radiation hardness of the technology and the implementation of the modified I2C as well as the implementation of the logic of the CAN protocol. This included tests with triple redundant registers. The described chip is focusing on the implementation in a serial powering scheme. It was designed for laboratory tests, aiming for the proof of principle. The concept of the DCS for ATLAS pixel after the phase-2 upgrade is presented as well as the status of development including tests with the prototype ASIC

  18. Cardiac Myocyte Diversity and a Fibroblast Network in the Junctional Region of the Zebrafish Heart Revealed by Transmission and Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2013-08-23

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart. © 2013 Lafontant et al.

  19. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  20. Sound transmission reduction with intelligent panel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Chris R.; Clark, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations are performed of the use of intelligent panel systems to control the sound transmission and radiation. An intelligent structure is defined as a structural system with integrated actuators and sensors under the guidance of an adaptive, learning type controller. The system configuration is based on the Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) concept where control inputs are applied directly to the structure to minimize an error quantity related to the radiated sound field. In this case multiple piezoelectric elements are employed as sensors. The importance of optimal shape and location is demonstrated to be of the same order of influence as increasing the number of channels of control.

  1. Transmission problem for the Brinkman system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2014), s. 1664-1678 ISSN 1747-6933 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Brinkman system * transmission problem * single- layer potential * double layer potential Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933.2013.870563

  2. Realistic modeling of radiation transmission inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied Monte Carlo particle transport methods to assess a proposed neutron transmission inspection system for checked luggage. The geometry of the system and the time, energy and angle dependence of the source have been modeled in detail. A pulsed deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target generates a neutron pulse with a very broad energy spectrum which is detected after passage through the luggage item by a plastic scintillator detector operating in current mode (as opposed to pulse counting mode). The neutron transmission as a function of time information is used to infer the densities of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in the volume sampled. The measured elemental densities can be compared to signatures for explosives or other contraband. By using such computational modeling it is possible to optimize many aspects of the design of an inspection system without costly and time consuming prototyping experiments or to determine that a proposed scheme will not work. The methods applied here can be used to evaluate neutron or photon schemes based on transmission, scattering or reaction techniques

  3. Development of serial measurement system for three-dimensional stress determination by over-coring the strains on borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itamoto, Masaharu; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Tanno, Takeo; Nakayama, Yoshiki; Mizuta, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the three-dimensional stress state in serial order, the authors developed the serial measurement system for three-dimensional stress determination by over-coring the strains on the borehole wall. The serial stress measurements give the value of the stresses with high accuracy and bring the regional stress variations. In this paper, the authors describe the studies through FEM analysis on the effect of over-coring diameter, the influence of strain gauge length and the behavior of strain on the borehole wall, induced by biaxial external loading. We developed the multi-strain gauge mounted packer and examined it by measuring the strains on the borehole wall through biaxial loading test. The Laboratory tests showed its applicability to practical use. (author)

  4. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  5. The Associative Memory Serial Link Processor of the ALTAS Fast TracKer Processing System

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgraded Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC will improve the capability of the detector to select the events with the greatest scientific potential. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is one of the ATLAS TDAQ upgrades that is presently under commissioning. FTK is a custom hardware system that feeds the High Level Trigger (HLT) with charged particle tracks reconstructed from hits in silicon detectors at the rate of 105 events per second. The main processing element of FTK is the Associative Memory (AM) system that is used to perform pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. Its implementation is called the AM Board Serial Link Processor (AMBSLP) and it is a very efficient pattern matching machine that handles in parallel massive data samples. The AMBSLP consists of two types of boards: the Little Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME motherboard that hosts four LAMB daughter-boar...

  6. The Associative Memory Serial Link Processor of the ALTAS Fast TracKer Processing System

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upgraded trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC will improve the capability of the detectors to select the events with the greatest scientific potential. The FastTracker (FTK) is one of the ATLAS trigger upgrade that is presently under commissioning. FTK is a hardware system that feeds the High Level Trigger with charged particle tracks reconstructed from hits in silicon detectors at the rate of 105 events per second. Once a track candidate is found, the track reconstruction proceeds by matching low resolution hits to predefined patterns. Selected hits matching the predefined pattern are used in a second processing step for a more precise track fitting algorithm. The main processing element of FTK is the Associative Memory (AM) system that is used to perform pattern matching with high degree of parallelism. Its implementation is called the AM Board Serial Link Processor (AMBSLP) and it is a very efficient pattern matching machine that handles massively parallel data. The AMB SLP consists of two typ...

  7. LHCb: SPECS: a Serial Protocol for the Experiment Control System of LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Charlet, D

    2007-01-01

    The SPECS is a single master, multi slave serial bus. It communicates between an unique master and up to 32 slaves (limit fixed by the address range), at a 10 MHz rate, thanks to 4 different unidirectional lines.

  8. A COMPUTER CLUSTER SYSTEM FOR PSEUDO-PARALLEL EXECUTION OF GEANT4 SERIAL APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memmo Federici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of the interactions between particles and matter in studies for developing X-rays detectors generally requires very long calculation times (up to several days or weeks. These times are often a serious limitation for the success of the simulations and for the accuracy of the simulated models. One of the tools used by the scientific community to perform these simulations is Geant4 (Geometry And Tracking [2, 3]. On the best of experience in the design of the AVES cluster computing system, Federici et al. [1], the IAPS (Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali INAF laboratories were able to develop a cluster computer system dedicated to Geant 4. The Cluster is easy to use and easily expandable, and thanks to the design criteria adopted it achieves an excellent compromise between performance and cost. The management software developed for the Cluster splits the single instance of simulation on the cores available, allowing the use of software written for serial computation to reach a computing speed similar to that obtainable from a native parallel software. The simulations carried out on the Cluster showed an increase in execution time by a factor of 20 to 60 compared to the times obtained with the use of a single PC of medium quality.

  9. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopant type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed

  10. International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Electricity transmission system operators (TSO) in Europe are increasing subject to high-powered performance-based regulation, such as revenue-cap regimes. The determination of the parameters in such regimes is challenging for national regulatory authorities (NRA), since there is normally a single...... TSO operating in each jurisdiction. The solution for European regulators has been found in international regulatory benchmarking, organized in collaboration with the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) in 2008 and 2012 for 22 and 23 TSOs, respectively. The frontier study provides static cost...... weight restrictions and a correction method for opening balances....

  11. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a... distributed transmission system (DTS). Except as expressly provided in this section, DTV stations operating a...

  12. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  13. Full counting statistics in a serially coupled double quantum dot system with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Xie, Hai-Qing

    2018-04-01

    We study the full counting statistics of electron transport through a serially coupled double quantum dot (QD) system with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) weakly coupled to two electrodes. We demonstrate that the spin polarizations of the source and drain electrodes determine whether the shot noise maintains super-Poissonian distribution, and whether the sign transitions of the skewness from positive to negative values and of the kurtosis from negative to positive values take place. In particular, the interplay between the spin polarizations of the source and drain electrodes and the magnitude of the external magnetic field, can give rise to a gate-voltage-tunable strong negative differential conductance (NDC) and the shot noise in this NDC region is significantly enhanced. Importantly, for a given SOC parameter, the obvious variation of the high-order current cumulants as a function of the energy-level detuning in a certain range, especially the dip position of the Fano factor of the skewness can be used to qualitatively extract the information about the magnitude of the SOC.

  14. Protocol converter for serial communication between digital rectifier controllers and a power plant SCADA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the protocol converter INT-485-MBRTU, developed for serial communication between the thyristor rectifier (based on the proprietary protocol "INT-CPD-05", according to standard RS-485 and the SCADA system (based on protocol "Modbus RTU", of the same standard in the thermal power plant "Nikola Tesla B1". Elementary data on industrial communication protocols and communication gateways were provided. The basic technical characteristics of the "Omron" programmable logic controller CJ series were described, as well as the developed device INT-485-MBRTU. Protocol converters with two versions of communication software were tested, differing only in one control word, intended for a forced successive change of communication sequences, in opposite to automatic sequence relieve. The device iNT-485-MBRTU, with the program for forced successive change of communication sequences, demonstrated the reliability of data transfer of 100 %, in a sample of approximately 480 messages. For nearly the same sample, the same protocol converter, with a version of the program without any type of message identifiers, transferred less than 60 % of the foreseen data. During multiple sixty-hour tests, the reliability of data transfer of at least 99.9979% was recorded, in 100% of the analysed cases, and for a sample of nearly 96,000 pairs of the send and receive messages. We analysed the results and estimated the additional possibilities for application of the INT-485-MBRTU protocol converter.

  15. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  16. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  17. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... distributed transmission system. [73 FR 74064, Dec. 5, 2008] ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission...

  18. Design of high-speed data transmission system for Lanzhou heavy ion therapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wenyu; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Li Guihua

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the transmission requirements of partial synchronization data and process data for the heavy ion therapy accelerator, a high-speed, error-correction, long-distance, and real-time data transmission system was proposed and achieved. It can improve the efficiency and reliability of the accelerator control and synchronization. The system optimizes the hardware configuration and layout of the traditional system. FPGA, gigabit fiber module, PXI and SDRAM are the main parts of the system. It replaces the low-speed, short-distance, and poor anti-interference of the traditional data path and the data processing chips. Through the programming in the two FPGA chips, the PXI and DMA transmission mode was used to exchange data with the server of the accelerator. The front-end of the system achieves a real-time, long-distance, and high-speed serial frame transmission with 800 MHz carrier and 100 MHz base band signal. The real-time -data like synchronous event signal, power waveform data of the heavy ion therapy accelerator can be transmitted efficiently between the server and the remote controller through the system. (authors)

  19. Combined heuristic with fuzzy system to transmission system expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Sousa, Aldir; Asada, Eduardo N. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    A heuristic algorithm that employs fuzzy logic is proposed to the power system transmission expansion planning problem. The algorithm is based on the divide to conquer strategy, which is controlled by the fuzzy system. The algorithm provides high quality solutions with the use of fuzzy decision making, which is based on nondeterministic criteria to guide the search. The fuzzy system provides a self-adjusting mechanism that eliminates the manual adjustment of parameters to each system being solved. (author)

  20. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    of the transmission system must be re‐thought in order to accommodate the transmission needs for the future. New lines have to be constructed. Transmission lines are usually laid out as overhead lines, which are large structures, i.e. a 400 kV power pylon is 50 meters high. According to public opinion, such power...

  1. Commercial information system of Slovak Electricity Transmission System, Plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznicka, L.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial Information System (CIS), which main role of is to support the commercial activities of the company, is built up by business department of SEPS, Plc in close co-operation with the supplier company Sfera, Plc. The system entries are data from electricity meters obtained by automatized data acquisition and from bugging sheets, contractual hour diagrams, parameters of transmission system like measuring schemes and formulas for calculation of demand and supply, contractual data resulting from agreements, business conditions, URSO decisions and valid legislative. A part of the system is also support of process of data evaluation like calculation of transmitted energy quantity, calculation of actual output diagrams, comparison of actual and contractual diagrams, calculation of system divergence, calculation of demand divergence, etc. The final price for the drawings of services, which are joined with transmission of the electric power will be determined by the accounting process. In this causality there are automatically made out invoices for access, losses, system charges, system services, short-term and long-term transits, divergences and for cross-border transmission auctions. System also generates various specialized synopses and statistics for the evaluation requirements of important aspects and for parameter observations. Successive liberalisation of the electricity power market, changes in legislative and URSO decisions require CIS to be sufficiently configurable and to adapt flexible on the alternating environs. (author)

  2. Information transmission via fiber optics in the shiva laser control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Serial Link package performs the functions of transmission and reception of signals over a pair of fiber optic cables and the I/O of serial data to a local device in EIA format. Present sysems requirements include fiber cable transmission length of up to 150 m and baud rates up to 9600, although the design criterium of transmission at 19.2 KB has been met. Fiber optic links are used between the central control area and each of the alignment control subsystems, in addition to sending timing signals over long distances between subsystems

  3. A new data transmission system for deep water applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Gerald K.

    2000-01-01

    A novel data transmission system is now available. Conventional data transmission methods include systems that require satellites, hard wires, fiber optics and other methods that do not lend themselves to buried, remote, or deep water applications. The Data Transmission System (DTS) induces a signal into a structure such as the transmission line and retrieving the signal at a distant point. In deep water applications the power required comes from an anode array that generates its own power. In addition to deep water applications, the DTS can be used in onshore, drilling, and downhole applications. With repeater stations, most lengths of gathering and transmission lines can be used. Therefore data from control valves, strain gauges, corrosion monitoring, sand monitoring, valve position and other process variables can all be transmitted. Comparisons are made between the different data transmission systems showing the advantages and disadvantages of each type with comparative costs showing the advantages of the new DTS system. (author)

  4. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  5. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart.

  6. Towards development of a fiber optic-based transmission monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Chris S.; Kiddy, Jason S.; Samuel, Paul D.

    2011-06-01

    There is interest in the rotorcraft community to develop health monitoring technologies. Among these technologies is the ability to monitor the transmission planetary gear system. The gearbox environment does not lend itself to traditional sensing technologies due to the harsh environment and crowed space. Traditional vibration-based diagnostics are based on the output from externally mounted sensors, usually accelerometers fixed to the gearbox exterior. This type of system relies on the ability of the vibration signal to travel from the gears through the gearbox housing. These sensors are also susceptible to other interference including electrical magnetic interference (EMI). For these reasons, the development of a fiber optic-based transmission monitoring system represents an appealing alternative to the accelerometer due to their resistance to EMI and other signal corrupting influences. Aither Engineering has been working on integrating the fiber optic sensors into the gearbox environment to measure strain on the ring gear of the planetary gear system. This application utilizes a serial array of wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Work in this area has been conducted at both the University of Maryland, College Park and more recently at the NASA Glenn Research Center (NGRC) OH-58 transmission test rig facility. This paper discusses some of the testing results collected from the fiber optic ring gear sensor array. Based on these results, recommendations for system requirements are addressed in terms of the capabilities of the FBG instrumentation.

  7. Transmission of Single-Channel 16-QAM Data Signals at Terabaud Symbol Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Thomas; Palushani, Evarist; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We present latest results for OTDM transmission systems in combination with digital coherent detection achieving record-high serial data rates in a single-wavelength channel. We show serial data transmission of 5.1 Tb/s (640 GBd) over 80-km and 10.2 Tb/s (1.28 TBd) over 29-km dispersion managed f...

  8. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  9. Multi-LED parallel transmission for long distance underwater VLC system with one SPAD receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Hong-Yi; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Ji, Ya-Wei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a multiple light emitting diode (LED) chips parallel transmission (Multi-LED-PT) scheme for underwater visible light communication system with one photon-counting single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) receiver is proposed. As the lamp always consists of multi-LED chips, the data rate could be improved when we drive these multi-LED chips parallel by using the interleaver-division-multiplexing technique. For each chip, the on-off-keying modulation is used to reduce the influence of clipping. Then a serial successive interference cancellation detection algorithm based on ideal Poisson photon-counting channel by the SPAD is proposed. Finally, compared to the SPAD-based direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system, the proposed Multi-LED-PT system could improve the error-rate performance and anti-nonlinearity performance significantly under the effects of absorption, scattering and weak turbulence-induced channel fading together.

  10. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  11. 2015 Plan. Project 5: transmission systems of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The planning aspects of transmission system expansion in Brazil are described, mentioning the evolution at long date of the transmission system, emphasizing the qualitative and strategic aspects. The engineering aspects and the technological development are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  12. Multicore fibers for high-capacity submarine transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md.; Morioka, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Applications of multicore fibers (MCFs) in undersea transmission systems are investigated, and various potential architectures of branching units for MCF-based undersea transmission systems are presented. Some MCF-based submarine network architectures based on the amount of data traffic are also...

  13. Optimum transmission system expansion offshore considering renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torbaghan, Shahab S.; Gibescu, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of transmission expansion planning (TEP) methods and their practical application. First, it discusses the strategic importance of the transmission system. Next, it describes the reasons why TEP remains a challenge for systems with a large share of renewable energy.

  14. 47 CFR 73.1350 - Transmission system operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interference. (e) If a broadcast station is operating in a manner that poses a threat to life or property or... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.1350 Section... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1350 Transmission system...

  15. Security of the data transmission in the industrial control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bednarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is to present the data transmission security system between the stations of the industrial control system. The possible options for secure communications between process stations, as well as between process and operator station are described. Transmission security mechanism is based on algorithms for symmetric and asymmetric encryption. The authentication process uses a software token algorithm and a one-way hash function. The algorithm for establishing a secured connection between the stations, including the authentication process and encryption of data transmission is given. The process of securing the transmission consists of 4 sub-processes: (I authentication; (II asymmetric, public keys transmission; (III symmetric key transmission; (IV data transmission. The presented process of securing the transmission was realized in the industrial controller and emulator. For this purpose, programming languages in accordance with EN 61131 were used. The functions were implemented as user function blocks. This allows us to include a mixed code in the structure of the block (both: ST and FBD. Available function categories: support of the asymmetric encryption; asymmetric encryption utility functions; support of the symmetric encryption; symmetric encryption utility functions; support of the hash value calculations; utility functions of conversion.[b]Keywords[/b]: transmission security, encryption, authentication, industrial control system

  16. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured supply function (CSF) model calculates an oligopolistic equilibrium among competing generating companies (GenCos), presuming that GenCos anticipate that rival firms will react to price increases by expanding their sales at an assumed rate. The CSF model is generalized here to include each generator's conjectures concerning how the price of transmission services (point-to-point service and constrained interfaces) will be affected by the amount of those services that the generator demands. This generalization reflects the market reality that large producers will anticipate that they can favorably affect transmission prices by their actions. The model simulates oligopolistic competition among generators while simultaneously representing a mixed transmission pricing system. This mixed system includes fixed transmission tariffs, congestion-based pricing of physical transmission constraints (represented as a linearized dc load flow), and auctions of interface capacity in a path-based pricing system. Pricing inefficiencies, such as export fees and no credit for counterflows, can be simulated. The model is formulated as a linear mixed complementarity problem, which enables very large market models to be solved. In the second paper of this two-paper series, the capabilities of the model are illustrated with an application to northwest Europe, where transmission pricing is based on such a mixture of approaches

  17. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 2. Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wals, A.F.; Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured transmission price response model presented in the first of this two-paper series considers the expectations of oligopolistic generators regarding how demands for transmission services affect the prices of those services. Here, the model is applied to northwest Europe, simulating a mixed transmission pricing system including export fees, a path-based auction system for between-country interfaces, and implicit congestion-based pricing of internal country constraints. The path-based system does not give credit for counterflows when calculating export capability. The application shows that this no-netting policy can exacerbate the economic inefficiencies caused by oligopolistic pricing by generators. The application also illustrates the effects of different generator conjectures regarding rival supply responses and transmission prices. If generators anticipate that their increased demand for transmission services will increase transmission prices, then competitive intensity diminishes and energy prices rise. In the example here, the effect of this anticipation is to double the price increase that results from oligopolistic (Cournot) competition among generators

  18. Research on Travel Control System of Hydrostatic Transmission Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the control problem of driving system of hydrostatic transmission chassis, the composition of the control system of hydrostatic transmission chassis is introduced and the control method of dual engine is solved. According to the number of driving axles in driving process, The external characteristic curve of the engine controls the variable hydraulic pump by one parameter, controls the rotational speed of the variable hydraulic motor according to the change of the vehicle speed, and introduces the control flow of the brake system. It provides a reference for the design of driving control system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission chassis.

  19. Distance Protection of Cross-Bonded Transmission Cable-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; F. Jensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the problems of protecting a cross-bonded cable system using distance protection are analysed. The combination of the desire to expand the high voltage transmission grid and the public's opinion towards new installations of overhead lines (OHL), more and more transmission cable syst...

  20. Centralized Coordination of Load Shedding & Protection System of Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    The power system integrity is vulnerable to thermal limit of transmission lines due to overloading and consequently activation of their protection devices following severe contingencies. In this paper, the loading rate of transmission lines is monitored online and is considered in the centralized......, over current protection....

  1. New developments in electron microscopy for serial image acquisition of neuronal profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in electron microscopy largely automate the continuous acquisition of serial electron micrographs (EMGs), previously achieved by laborious manual serial ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome and ultrastructural image capture process with transmission electron microscopy. The new systems cut thin sections and capture serial EMGs automatically, allowing for acquisition of large data sets in a reasonably short time. The new methods are focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, ultramicrotome/serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, automated tape-collection ultramicrotome/scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope camera array. In this review, their positive and negative aspects are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovytskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of the diesel locomotive repair enterprises was analyzed. It is achieved based on a detailed review of existing foreign information-measuring test systems for hydraulic transmission of diesel locomotives, BelAZ earthmover, aircraft tug, slag car, truck, BelAZ wheel dozer, some brands of tractors, etc. The problem for creation the information-measuring test systems for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission is being solved, starting in the first place from the possibility of automation of the existing test stand of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission at Dnipropetrovsk Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant "Promteplovoz". Methodology. In the work the researchers proposed the method to create a microprocessor automated system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission stand testing in the locomotive plant conditions. It acts by justifying the selection of the necessary sensors, as well as the application of the necessary hardware and software for information-measuring systems. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis there was grounded the necessity of improvement the plant hydraulic transmission stand testing by creating a microprocessor testing system, supported by the experience of developing such systems abroad. Further research should be aimed to improve the accuracy and frequency of data collection by adopting the more modern and reliable sensors in tandem with the use of filtering software for electromagnetic and other interference. Originality. The

  3. Automated transmission system operation and management : meeting stakeholder information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelo, D.F.; Toom, P.O. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    Information monitoring is considered to be the fundamental basis for moving beyond substation automation and into automated transmission system operation and management. Information monitoring was defined as the acquisition of data and processing the data into decision making. Advances in digital technology and cheaper, more powerful computing capability has made it possible to capture all transmission stakeholder needs in a shared and automated operation and management system. Recognizing that the key to success in the development of transmission systems is automation, BC Hydro has initiated a long-term research and development project to develop the structure and detail of transmission system automation. The involvement of partners, be they utility or equipment suppliers, is essential in order to deal with protocol and similar issues. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Design of wireless data transmission system for spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Wang Fuquan; Liu Huaili

    2010-01-01

    A new wireless data transmission scheme based on UWB was proposed after studying the structure and character of spiral CT transmission system, the system was designed and validated. Using UWB device as wireless module to realize wireless data transmission. Using FPGA as main controller to meet the requirement of timing control for system module. Using two pieces of SDRAM in pingpang operation to realize large capacity storage mechanism. Using USB 2.0 interface to realize high-speed connection with UWB module. The results show that the transmission speed of the system arrival at 16.87 M bit ps within 3 meters, and the precision is 100%, it can be used for line-array spiral CT. (authors)

  5. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (2) Those that would cause the transmission system to exceed the equipment performance measurements... radiofrequency radiation guidelines. In addition, applications solely filed pursuant to paragraphs (c)(1) or (c...

  6. Dissociation of verbal working memory system components using a delayed serial recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, J M; Fiez, J A

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of component processes in verbal working memory. Based on behavioral research using manipulations of verbal stimulus type to dissociate storage, rehearsal, and executive components of verbal working memory, we designed a delayed serial recall task requiring subjects to encode, maintain, and overtly recall sets of verbal items for which phonological similarity, articulatory length, and lexical status were manipulated. By using a task with temporally extended trials, we were able to exploit the temporal resolution afforded by fMRI to partially isolate neural contributions to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval stages of task performance. Several regions commonly associated with maintenance, including supplementary motor, premotor, and inferior frontal areas, were found to be active across all three trial stages. Additionally, we found that left inferior frontal and supplementary motor regions showed patterns of stimulus and temporal sensitivity implicating them in distinct aspects of articulatory rehearsal, while no regions showed a pattern of sensitivity consistent with a role in phonological storage. Regional modulation by task difficulty was further investigated as a measure of executive processing. We interpret our findings as they relate to notions about the cognitive architecture underlying verbal working memory performance.

  7. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  8. Analysis and evaluation of hybrid scooter transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Formosa University, 64 Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yuenlin 63208 (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a new design concept of transmissions for the hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train to from a split power system and to combine the power of two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. In order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions, the transmissions can provide a hybrid scooter to run five operating modes: electric motor mode; engine mode; engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative braking mode. The main advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper include the use of only one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for the shift of the operating modes, and high efficiency. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency analyzes are performed; and according to these results, the evaluation of transmission power performances are accomplished. (author)

  9. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puellen, Lukas

    2015-02-10

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  10. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puellen, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  11. Considering system non-linearity in transmission pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Salehizadeh, M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The contribution of a contract on power flow of a transmission line is used as extent-of-use criterion for transmission pricing. In order to determine the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line, first the contribution of each contract on each voltage angle is determined, which is called voltage angle decomposition. To this end, DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for voltage angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on voltage angle decomposition, a method is presented to determine the share of different terms of sine argument in sine value. Then the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow using the presented sharing method. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system and the results are analyzed. (author)

  12. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka's NPP candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-09-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  13. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  14. [Study on a wireless energy transmission system for the noninvasive examination micro system inside alimentary tracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiu; Yan, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Fu-Min

    2008-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system for the MEMS system inside alimentary tracts is reported here in the paper. It consists of an automatic frequency tracking circuit of phase lock loop and phase shift PWM control circuit. Experimental results show that the energy transmission system is capable of automatic frequency-tracking and transmission power-adjusting and has stable received energy.

  15. Transmission embedded cost allocation methodology with consideration of system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, D.; Park, J.-K.; Yoo, C.-I.; Kim, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a vertically integrated utility industry, the cost of reliability, as a separate service, has not received much rigorous analysis. However, as a cornerstone of restructuring the industry, the transmission service pricing must change to be consistent with, and supportive of, competitive wholesale electricity markets. This paper focuses on the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded costs including the transmission reliability cost based on the contributions of each generator to branch flows under normal conditions as well as the line outage impact factor under a variety of load levels. A numerical example on a six-bus system is given to illustrate the applications of the proposed methodology. (author)

  16. European standards applied by Gas Transmission System Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, M.; Kuchta, K.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Teperek, T.

    2005-01-01

    The lecture described actual state of implementation of European standards concerning transmission of natural gas and underlined their importance for proper performance of Transmission System Operator (TSO). European standards implemented to Polish Standards as PN-EN, necessary for TSO, related to design, construction and operation of high pressure gas network were also described. The lecture underlined as well the impact of standards application on preparation process of national regulations. They obligate TSO to create the technical conditions that ensure safety of gas transmission network functioning as well as environmental and surroundings safety. (authors)

  17. Design and Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kayzad A.; Patel, Bhaumikkumar A.; Patel, Dhruvin J.; Parsana, Parth M.; Patel, Jitendra P.

    2018-02-01

    This study develops a hydraulic circuit to drive a conveying system dealing with heavy and delicate loads. Various safety circuits have been added in order to ensure stable working at high pressure and precise controlling. Here we have shown the calculation procedure based on an arbitrarily selected load. Also the circuit design and calculations of various components used is depicted along with the system simulation. The results show that the system is stable and efficient enough to transmit heavy loads by functioning of the circuit. By this information, one can be able to design their own hydrostatic circuits for various heavy loading conditions.

  18. Investigation of a matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems; Untersuchung eines Matrixumrichters fuer kontaktlose Energieuebertragungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklebe, Andreas

    2009-05-22

    The publication discusses a three- to two-phase matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems. Based on relevant publications, possible resonance setups for contactless power transmission systems are investigated to begin with. An analysis of relevant parameters shows the differences between the various setups, but it also shows that for an investigation focusing on the feeding converter, simple modelling of the three investigated resonance setups is possible with the aid of a serial oscillating circuit. In consequence, it should be possible to apply the results also to the matrix converter with other serially resonant loads. The second part of the investigation focuses on the matrix converter. After a theoretical description, a combination von high-frequency control - e.g. bulk pulsing - and low-frequency pulsing patterns for setting the harmonics level of the grid currents is presented. The similarity to a conventional H bridge circuit enables an assessment of commutation and the identification of the necessary inverter states. These are characterized in that a bidirectional connection between the input system and each output phase is available at any time. The functioning of the commutation and of the inverter as a whole is proved by simulation in a first step, in which also the dynamic switching characteristics of the power semiconductors is taken into account. Finally, the results of laboratory measurements are presented and compared with the theoretical results. The laboratory setup consists of the power section of the matrix converter with input filters and modular gate drivers, a DSP/FPGA control system, and a contactless power transmission system with a current inverter and load on the secondary side. The investigation thus provides information on the use of the three-to-two phase matrix converter as an interesting alternative for feeding of contactless power transmission systems and other serially resonant loads. (orig.) [German] Diese

  19. Flexible AC transmission systems. Modelling and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Rehtanz, Christian [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany); Pal, Bikash [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    This monograph presents advanced modelling, analysis and control techniques of FACTS. These topics reflect the recent research and development of FACTS controllers, and anticipate the future applications of FACTS in power systems. The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. The book presents the modelling of the latest FACTS controllers for power flow control, compensation and power quality (IPFC, GUPF, VSC HVDC and M-VSCHVDC, etc.) in power system analysis. The selection is evaluated by the actual and likely future practical relevance of each. The material is derived mainly from the research and industrial development in which the authors have been heavily involved. The book is timely and of great value to power engineering engineers and students of modelling, simulations and control design of FACTS for a broad practical range of power system operation, planning and control problems.

  20. Data transmission system with encryption by chaotic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politans’kyy R. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of transferable information in the telecommunication systems is possible by its imposition of coding sequence on a plaintext. Encryption of pseudorandom sequences can be performed by using generation algorithms which are implemented on the basis of the phenomenon of dynamical chaos, which is sensitive to changes in the initial conditions. One of the major problems encountered in the construction of secure communication systems is to provide synchronization between the receiving and transmitting parties of communication systems. Improvement of methods of hidden data transfer based on the systems with chaotic synchronization is the important task of research in the field of information and telecommunication systems based on chaos. This article shows an implementation of a data transmission system, encrypted by sequences, generated on the basis of one-dimensional discrete chaotic maps with ensuring synchronization of the transmitting and receiving sides of the system. In this system realization of synchronization is offered by a transmission through certain time domains of current value of xn generated by a logistic reflection. Xn transmission period depends on computer speed and distance between subscribers of the system. Its value is determined by transmitting a test message before the session. Infallible reception of test message indicates the optimal choice of a transmission period of the current value of xn. Selection period is done at the program level. For the construction of communication network modern software was used, in particular programming language Delphi 7.0. The work of the system is shown on the example of information transmission between the users of the system. The system operates in real time full duplex mode at any hardware implementation of Internet access. It is enough for the users of the system to specify IP address only.

  1. Characterization of a 300-GHz Transmission System for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlička, Martin; Salhi, Mohammed; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the characterization of a 300-GHz transmission system for modern digital communications. The quality of the modulated signal at the output of the system (error vector magnitude, EVM) is measured using a vector signal analyzer. A method using a digital real-time oscilloscope and consecutive mathematical processing in a computer is shown for analysis of signals with bandwidths exceeding that of state-of-the-art vector signal analyzers. The uncertainty of EVM measured using the real-time oscilloscope is open to analysis. Behaviour of the 300-GHz transmission system is studied with respect to various modulation schemes and different signal symbol rates.

  2. Transmission computed tomography data acquisition with a SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, K.L.; Harris, C.C.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Hedlund, L.W.; Floyd, C.E.; Manglos, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Phantom and animal transmission computed tomography (TCT) scans were performed with a camera-based single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to determine system linearity as a function of object density, which is important in the accurate determination of attenuation coefficients for SPECT attenuation compensation. Results from phantoms showed promise in providing a linear relationship in measuring density while maintaining good image resolution. Animal images were essentially free of artifacts. Transmission computed tomography scans derived from a SPECT system appear to have the potential to provide data suitable for incorporation in an attenuation compensation algorithm at relatively low (calculated) radiation doses to the subjects

  3. FPGA Implementation of Video Transmission System Based on LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support high-definition video transmission, an implementation of video transmission system based on Long Term Evolution is designed. This system is developed on Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 Evaluation Board. The paper elaborates the features of baseband link designed in Xilinx ISE and protocol stack designed in Xilinx SDK, and introduces the process of setting up hardware and software platform in Xilinx XPS. According to test, this system consumes less hardware resource and is able to transmit bidirectional video clearly and stably.

  4. Natural Characteristics of The Herringbone Gear Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianxing; Sun, Wenlei; Cao, Li

    2018-03-01

    According to the structure characteristics of herringbone gear transmission, a more realistic dynamic model of the transmission system is built in consideration of the inner excitation, herringbone gears axial positioning and sliding bearing etc. The natural frequencies of the system are calculated, and the vibration mode is divided into symmetric vibration modes and asymmetric vibration modes. The time history of system dynamic force is obtained by solving the dynamic model. The effects of the connection stiffness of left and right sides of herringbone gears and axial support stiffness on natural characteristics are discussed.

  5. Subcarrier multiplexing tolerant dispersion transmission system employing optical broadband sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-16

    This paper presents a novel SCM optical transmission system for next-generation WDM-PONs combining broadband optical sources and a Mach-Zehnder interferometric structure. The approach leeds to transport RF signals up to 50 GHz being compatible with RoF systems since a second configuration has been proposed in order to overcome dispersion carrier suppression effect using DSB modulation. The theoretical analysis validates the potentiality of the system also considering the effects of the dispersion slope over the transmission window. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  6. Creating a robust and integrated electrical transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLain, S.

    2004-01-01

    The service territory for Puget Sound Energy (PSE) was presented in terms of electric power and gas transmission. Issues affecting the Puget Sound area include high growth and the west coast energy crisis which has had an adverse financial impact on the power industry. The transmission system is basically at capacity and has been impacted by imports and exports between the United States and Canada. Other issues include the separation between energy resources and transmission, modernizing the power grid, and challenges for independent power producers (IPPs). The Northwest Transmission Assessment Committee (NTAC), which was formed under the Northwest Power Pool, has the potential to bring interested parties to study constrained paths and to plan a single utility concept for the region. It is expected that new challenges such as financing and risk management will emerge once the technical solutions are identified and agreed upon. The issue of enforceable and mandatory reliability standards was also discussed. 1 fig

  7. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  8. EBT-S ECH transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.

    1983-01-01

    Over the past 18 months the EBT-S 28-GHz 200 kW cw mixed mode ECH system efficiency has increased from 70 to 80% by the substitution of 90 0 smooth radius W/G bends for the earlier miter bends, by eliminating several mode absorbers necessary for miter bend operation, and by optimizing the microwave coupling through the quasi-optical toroidal distribution manifold. Along with reduced system losses, these improvements have allowed the gyrotron sources to operate in a wider parameter range with high dc to rf conversion efficiency than previously attainable. Other components that have been developed besides radiused bends include T/sub i/O 2 mode absorbers, power splitters, bellows, and several types of high field mixed mode launchers. Details on these components will be presented as time allows

  9. 75 FR 62476 - Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... would be obtained from measurements taken with the system operating in its normal operating mode. At the... with the transmitter operating continuously at a fundamental transmission frequency. 9. Subsequent to... systems, measured in their normal operating modes, is less than that of a UWB transmitter employing...

  10. Serial powering optimization for CMS and ATLAS pixel detectors within RD53 collaboration for HL-LHC: system level simulations and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Stella; Hamer, Matthias; Hinterkeuser, F; Karagounis, M; Pradas Luengo, Alvaro; Marconi, Sara; Ruini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Serial powering is the baseline choice for low mass power distribution for the CMS and ATLAS HL-LHC pixel detectors. Two 2.0 A Shunt-LDO regulators are integrated in a prototype pixel chip implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology and used to provide constant supply voltages to its power domains from a constant input current. Performance results from testing prototype Shunt-LDO regulators are shown, including their behaviour after x-ray irradiation. The system level simulation studies, which had been performed with a detailed regulator design in a serially powered topology, have been validated.

  11. Microwave energy transmission system for solar power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1988-05-05

    This paper deals with a microwave wireless energy transmission system which will be required for a solar power station under investigation, particularly, it describes its foundation and future investigation. It is supposed that for realization of microwave wireless transmission techniques, it is most important to investigate the effect of strong microwave beams on a plasma environment, establish control techniques for microwave beams in which a retro-directive system is combined with a computer control system, and develop a semiconductor transmission module. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) made an experiment on the effect of microwaves on ionospheric plasma by using an observatory rocket. The institute has planned to make an experiment on a microwave energy transmission system which is to be mounted to a small-scale space flyer unit in order to examine the control of microwave beams and 10 KW power transmission, in addition to investigation on the interaction of microwave energy beams with a plasma environment. (4 figs, 3 tabs, 20 refs)

  12. Design of data transmission for a portable DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenxiong; Nan Gangyang; Zhang Jianchuan; Wang Yanyu

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), combined with ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) is increasingly employed in the portable data acquisition (DAQ) system for nuclear experiments to reduce the system volume and achieve powerful and multifunctional capacity. High-speed data transmission between FPGA and ARM is one of the most challenging issues for system implementation. In this paper, we propose a method to realize the high-speed data transmission by using the FPGA to acquire massive data from FEE (Front-end electronics) and send it to the ARM whilst the ARM to transmit the data to the remote computer through the TCP/IP protocol for later process. This paper mainly introduces the interface design of the high-speed transmission method between the FPGA and the ARM, the transmission logic of the FPGA, and the program design of the ARM. The theoretical research shows that the maximal transmission speed between the FPGA and the ARM through this way can reach 50 MB/s. In a realistic nuclear physics experiment, this portable DAQ system achieved 2.2 MB/s data acquisition speed. (authors)

  13. Technology Transmission Across National Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    This paper advances our understanding of how technology upgrading in the Chinese wind turbine industry is linked to internationalisation of Danish component suppliers. In order to grasp the interlinkages and implications hereof, the paper combines perspectives of global value chains (GVC), national.......e. linking up with global suppliers in the wind turbine global value chain, and the new role of component suppliers as technology transmitters across national innovation systems into emerging markets. Conceptually, the paper contributes to understanding how technological catching up in value chains links...

  14. Technology Transmission Across National Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2018-01-01

    This paper advances our understanding of how technology upgrading in the Chinese wind turbine industry is linked to internationalisation of Danish component suppliers. In order to grasp the interlinkages and implications hereof, the paper combines perspectives of global value chains (GVC), national.......e. linking up with global suppliers in the wind turbine global value chain, and the new role of component suppliers as technology transmitters across national innovation systems into emerging markets. Conceptually, the paper contributes to understanding how technological catching up in value chains links...

  15. Integrated removal of organic load, P, N, on a filters serial system, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic on dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Mauricio Andres; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the results obtained during the operation under dynamic conditions of a three biofilters serial system, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic at lab scale to evaluate the N, P, and organic matter removal. The reactors were continuously fed for 200 days, including the adherence and stability periods, with hydraulic retention time among 2,27 and 0,66 d. for the ANABF and among 1,5 and 0,5 d. for the ANXBF. The adherence period was followed by a control of SSV and the DQO removal in each BF. After good results of adherence the system was fed with an initial average volumetric organic load of 0,441 kg DQO/m 3 /d. and gradually increase during the results of DQO removal over the 50%, until the achievement of the system stability for a maximum organic load of 1,5 kg. The reactor control was made by DQO, PO 4 3 , NTK, NO 2 , NO 3 , SS and alkalinity, determined at enter and exit of each reactor. The removal results for the system of growing adherence was among 90-96% for DQO, 80-90% for total P, and 65-70% for total N

  16. Development of a coordinated control system for BWR nuclear power plant and HVDC transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Hara, T.; Hirayama, K.; Sekiya, K.

    1986-01-01

    The combined use of dc and ac transmissions or so-called hybrid transmission was under study, employing both dc and ac systems to enable stable transmission of 10,000 MW of electric power generated by the BWR nuclear plant, scheduled to be built about 800 km away from the center of the load. It was thus necessary to develop a hybrid power transmission control system, the hybrid power transmission system consisting of a high voltage dc transmission system (HVDC) and an ultrahigh ac transmission system (UHVAC). It was also necessary to develop a control system for HVDC transmission which protects the BWR nuclear power plant from being influenced by any change in transmission mode that occurs as a result of faults on the UHVAC side when the entire power of the BWR plant is being sent by the HVDC transmission. This paper clarifies the requirements for the HVDC system control during hybrid transmission and also during dc transmission. The control method that satisfies these requirements was studied to develop a control algorithm

  17. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhongxiong; Zhang Haibing; Rong Ru; Zhang Tao

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

  18. Stokes Space in Direct-Detection Data Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zibar, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Stokes-based processing permits complete and phase-insensitive characterization of the field’s SOP, readily unlocking polarization diversity in transmission systems where DD is desired. We present an overview on Stokes notions and most recent achievements in this context.......Stokes-based processing permits complete and phase-insensitive characterization of the field’s SOP, readily unlocking polarization diversity in transmission systems where DD is desired. We present an overview on Stokes notions and most recent achievements in this context....

  19. Synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems using a single transmission channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yong; Yu Xinghuo; Sun Lixia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust sliding mode observer for synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. A new control strategy is proposed for the construction of the robust sliding mode observer, which can avoid the strict conditions in the design process of Walcott-Zak observer. A new method of multi-dimensional signal transmission via single transmission channel is proposed and applied to chaos synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. The simulation results are presented to validate the method

  20. A Proposal on Low Frequency AC Transmission as a Multi-Terminal Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achara Pichetjamroen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the discussion and comparison of characteristics and behavior of three low frequency ac (LFAC transmission system configurations operating under the same control scheme and conditions to identify the most promising operation system for LFAC. Merits of LFAC over high voltage direct current (HVDC are mentioned first. By changing power flow direction without auxiliary switches in multi-terminal application and easiness of short circuit protection are explained. The three configurations of LFACs are described and applied by the control scheme with the aid of the tool of the PSCAD/EMTDC software to consider the behavior of each LFAC system on line frequency and low frequency sides. For two-phase system, no fluctuation occurs on the line frequency side, which is the advantage over single-phase system. Furthermore, current rating on thyristor devices during operation and number of devices that used in each type of LFAC are calculated and compared. These results can lead to determine the most suitable transmission system for the LFAC system operation.

  1. Developments in Serials: 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  2. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  3. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  4. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm.

  5. Medical data transmission system for remote healthcare centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E A; Cagnolo, F J; Olmos, C E; Centeno, C A; Riva, G G; Zerbini, C A

    2007-01-01

    The main motivation of this project is to improve the healthcare centres equipment and human resources efficiency, enabling those centres for transmission of parameters of medical interest. This system facilitates remote consultation, in particular between specialists and remote healthcare centres. Likewise it contributes to the qualification of professionals. The electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are acquired, processed and then sent, fulfilling the effective norms, for application in the hospital network of Cordoba Province, which has nodes interconnected by phone line. As innovative aspects we emphasized the low cost of development and maintenance, great versatility and handling simplicity with a modular design for interconnection with diverse data transmission media (Wi-Fi, GPRS, etc.). Successfully experiences were obtained during the acquisition of the signals and transmissions on wired LAN networks. As improvements, we can mention: energy consumption optimization and mobile communication systems usage, in order to offer more autonomy

  6. Integration of new nuclear power plants into transmission grids part I: Transmission system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi-Samra, N.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of new nuclear plants into a transmission system is a two sided problem. On one side, adding the nuclear plant into an existing grid will change the attributes of that grid: e.g., loading of certain transmission lines will increase; voltages will be affected, etc. On the other side, the grid itself will affect the plant, and the plant needs to be designed to accommodate the specifics of the grid. Based on that, this paper is divided into two parts. Part I addresses the grid issues with the integration of the new plant, with emphasis on the electrical aspects of these issues. Part II of this paper, concentrates on the vulnerability of the plant from grid disturbances. Part II reintroduces a relatively new concept by this author called the Zone of Vulnerability (ZoV) for the new nuclear plants. (authors)

  7. A high-resolution optical imaging system for obtaining the serial transverse section images of biologic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Ping; Liu, Qian; Gong, Hui

    2007-05-01

    A high-resolution optical imaging system was designed and developed to obtain the serial transverse section images of the biologic tissue, such as the mouse brain, in which new knife-edge imaging technology, high-speed and high-sensitive line-scan CCD and linear air bearing stages were adopted and incorporated with an OLYMPUS microscope. The section images on the tip of the knife-edge were synchronously captured by the reflection imaging in the microscope while cutting the biologic tissue. The biologic tissue can be sectioned at interval of 250 nm with the same resolution of the transverse section images obtained in x and y plane. And the cutting job can be automatically finished based on the control program wrote specially in advance, so we save the mass labor of the registration of the vast images data. In addition, by using this system a larger sample can be cut than conventional ultramicrotome so as to avoid the loss of the tissue structure information because of splitting the tissue sample to meet the size request of the ultramicrotome.

  8. New serial time codes for seismic short period and long period data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a new time code for time indexing multichannel short period (1 to 25 hz) seismic event data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format and discusses its usefulness in contrast to Vela time code used in continuous analog multichannel data recording system on multitrack instrumentation tape deck. This paper also discusses another time code, used for time indexing of seismic long period (DC to 2.5 seconds) multichannel data recorded on a single track of magnetic tape in digital format. The time code decoding and display system developed to provide quick access to any desired portion of the tape in both data recording and repro duce system is also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  9. On Multiple AER Handshaking Channels Over High-Speed Bit-Serial Bidirectional LVDS Links With Flow-Control and Clock-Correction on Commercial FPGAs for Scalable Neuromorphic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Amirreza; Jablonski, Miroslaw; Iakymchuk, Taras; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Rosado, Alfredo; Plana, Luis A; Temple, Steve; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Furber, Steve B; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2017-10-01

    Address event representation (AER) is a widely employed asynchronous technique for interchanging "neural spikes" between different hardware elements in neuromorphic systems. Each neuron or cell in a chip or a system is assigned an address (or ID), which is typically communicated through a high-speed digital bus, thus time-multiplexing a high number of neural connections. Conventional AER links use parallel physical wires together with a pair of handshaking signals (request and acknowledge). In this paper, we present a fully serial implementation using bidirectional SATA connectors with a pair of low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) wires for each direction. The proposed implementation can multiplex a number of conventional parallel AER links for each physical LVDS connection. It uses flow control, clock correction, and byte alignment techniques to transmit 32-bit address events reliably over multiplexed serial connections. The setup has been tested using commercial Spartan6 FPGAs attaining a maximum event transmission speed of 75 Meps (Mega events per second) for 32-bit events at a line rate of 3.0 Gbps. Full HDL codes (vhdl/verilog) and example demonstration codes for the SpiNNaker platform will be made available.

  10. Transmission over UWB channels with OFDM system using LDPC coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziwoki, Grzegorz; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Sulek, Wojciech

    2009-06-01

    Hostile wireless environment requires use of sophisticated signal processing methods. The paper concerns on Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmission over Personal Area Networks (PAN) including MB-OFDM specification of physical layer. In presented work the transmission system with OFDM modulation was connected with LDPC encoder/decoder. Additionally the frame and bit error rate (FER and BER) of the system was decreased using results from the LDPC decoder in a kind of turbo equalization algorithm for better channel estimation. Computational block using evolutionary strategy, from genetic algorithms family, was also used in presented system. It was placed after SPA (Sum-Product Algorithm) decoder and is conditionally turned on in the decoding process. The result is increased effectiveness of the whole system, especially lower FER. The system was tested with two types of LDPC codes, depending on type of parity check matrices: randomly generated and constructed deterministically, optimized for practical decoder architecture implemented in the FPGA device.

  11. Strategic environmental evaluation of National Transmission System Plan in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanadio, E.; Motawi, A.; Rizzuto, R.; Cappiello, A.; Micotti, M.

    2008-01-01

    The entry into force of part II of D. Lgs. 152/2006 establishing the procedures for strategic environmental assessment for plans and programs. The application of legislation to the development plan of the electric network of the National Transmission System verify testing conducted by Terna with ministries and authorities with environmental competences [it

  12. The effect of Ontario's transmission system policies on cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that the establishment of transmission tariffs would have on the viability of cogeneration projects in Ontario was discussed. The proposal to establish such tariffs on the basis of a 'postage stamp' rate would ensure that all electricity users have access to electricity at the same price. However, this would unfairly penalize short-haul transmission transactions and would possibly result in the inappropriate location of new generation facilities. Electricity users would ultimately be burdened with these inefficiencies. This presentation also discussed another public policy which proposes to determine what parts of the electricity system should have their costs recovered at postage stamp rates. The costs would include not only transmission charges but also distribution and generation costs. The restructuring of Ontario Hydro into the Ontario Power Generation Company (OPGC) and the Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC) and its impact on the cogeneration projects was also discussed

  13. Imports, exports, and Alberta's transmission system impact on price fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    2002-01-01

    The roles, responsibilities and objectives of ESBI, a private for-profit company, appointed by the Alberta Government to be the Independent Transmission Administrator in the province, is sketched, prior to a discussion of price volatility in electricity, Alberta interconnections, intertie issues, the economic theory and the reality impact on prices. Given that imports and exports constitute a relatively small proportion of total generation or load in Alberta, price volatility is considered to have been only minimally affected by imports/exports. In contrast, transmission constraints, i.e. the limits on physical capacity of the existing transmission system to accommodate all desired transactions, have significant impact on imports/exports. Factors underlying constraints and price volatility such as uncertainty of generation dispatch, leading to reduced interest to invest, which in turn leads to scarce capacity for imports/exports, and the actions required to reduce uncertainty and address other issues such as congestion management, tariff design and the creation of regional transmission organizations, are also discussed to provide further clarification of the issues. It is suggested that these and other related issues need to be resolved to provide the clarity around transmission access and the tools required to manage price fluctuations

  14. Serial cranial computed-tomography scans in children with leukemia given two different forms of central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, J.J.; Parvey, L.S.; Whitaker, J.N.; Bowman, W.P.; Ch'ien, L.; Campbell, M.; Coburn, T.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) was used to estimate the frequency and permanence of brain abnormalities in 108 consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Fifty-five patients received cranial irradiation (1,800 rad) with intrathecal methotrexate (RT group) and 53 patients received intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate without irradiation (IVIT group). Continuation treatment included sequential drug pairs for the RT group and periodic IVIT methotrexate for the other group. After 12 to 24 months of serial evaluation, five (9%) of the 55 patients in the RT group have had CT scan abnormalities, compared to 10 (19%) of 52 in the IVIT group (p . 0.171). Fourteen of the 15 patients with CT scan abnormalities had focal or diffuse white-matter hypodensity; these have reverted to normal in most cases, reflecting a dynamic process. While such CT findings are of concern and may be an early indicator of central nervous system toxicity, this remains to be proven. Therapy should not be altered on the basis of abnormal CT scans alone but in the context of the entire clinical situation

  15. Simulation Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhiqiang; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Cong, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, more and more implantable medical devices have been used in the medical field. Some of these devices, such as brain pacemakers, require long-term power support. The WPT(wireless power transmission) technology which is more convenient and economical than replacing the battery by surgery, has become the first choice of many patients. In this paper, we design a WPT system that can be used in implantable medical devices, simulate the transmission efficiency of the system in the air and in the head model, and simulate the SAR value when the system working in the head model. The results show that when implantation depth of the secondary coil is 3 mm, the efficiency of the system can reach 45%, and the maximum average SAR value is 2.19 W / kg, slightly higher than the standard of IEEE.

  16. A stable wireless energy transmission system for gastrointestinal microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, W H; Yan, G Z; Wang, W X

    2010-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system using a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a 3-dimensional secondary coil inside the body is introduced. It is designed to transmit stable power to a gastrointestinal microsystem regardless of its position and orientation when working in the gastric tract. Up to 310 mW of usable DC power can be delivered under worst-case geometrical conditions. Measured data of the system performance are presented and evaluated.

  17. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.V.F.; Gorenstin, B.G.; Alvarenga Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  18. Transmission dispatch and congestion management in open market systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Risheng

    This thesis is located in the domain of electricity supply industry restructuring. It deals with emerging issues, whose understanding is essential to advancing knowledge of open access transmission theory and proceeds to develop approaches for solving the transmission dispatch and congestion management problem. An overview of current trends and experiences in utility restructuring and the main models for restructuring, as well as the classifications of system operators, is first presented. A fully unbundled competitive electricity market model, called the bilateral/multilateral trades model, is then developed. A survey of current research in transmission dispatch and congestion management is included with discussion of transmission capacity and ancillary services. A methodology for the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts is presented. Group structures are mathematically formulated and explored and three basic types of curtailment strategies proposed for use by market participants. A more complex model is then developed, which takes into account the co-existence of bilateral and multilateral contracts with pool type dynamic supplies and demands based on bids and market clearing prices. An integrated dispatch strategy to reconcile all three types of transactions (bilateral, multilateral and pool) is then developed. Prioritization of electricity transactions and related curtailment strategies are explored and a mechanism for coordination between market participants to achieve additional economic advantages is described. A theory of security based rescheduling is presented in order to investigate the security-related aspects of operation in an unbundled and deregulated system. The impact of post-contingency corrective capability on optimal rescheduling results has been identified and the advantage of incorporating post-contingency corrective rescheduling into the objective function demonstrated. Finally

  19. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. This paper describes a number of umbilical, onboard, and wireless systems used in transmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Experimental investigation of alternative transmission functions: Quantitative evidence for the importance of nonlinear transmission dynamics in host-parasite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlofske, Sarah A; Flaxman, Samuel M; Joseph, Maxwell B; Fenton, Andy; Melbourne, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2018-05-01

    Understanding pathogen transmission is crucial for predicting and managing disease. Nonetheless, experimental comparisons of alternative functional forms of transmission remain rare, and those experiments that are conducted are often not designed to test the full range of possible forms. To differentiate among 10 candidate transmission functions, we used a novel experimental design in which we independently varied four factors-duration of exposure, numbers of parasites, numbers of hosts and parasite density-in laboratory infection experiments. We used interactions between amphibian hosts and trematode parasites as a model system and all candidate models incorporated parasite depletion. An additional manipulation involving anaesthesia addressed the effects of host behaviour on transmission form. Across all experiments, nonlinear transmission forms involving either a power law or a negative binomial function were the best-fitting models and consistently outperformed the linear density-dependent and density-independent functions. By testing previously published data for two other host-macroparasite systems, we also found support for the same nonlinear transmission forms. Although manipulations of parasite density are common in transmission studies, the comprehensive set of variables tested in our experiments revealed that variation in density alone was least likely to differentiate among competing transmission functions. Across host-pathogen systems, nonlinear functions may often more accurately represent transmission dynamics and thus provide more realistic predictions for infection. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  1. R and D of seismic emergency information transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsumi; Kuno, Tetsuya; Shibata, Katsuyuki; Abe, Ichiro; Tuzuki, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The R and D Seismic Emergency Information Transmission System has been conducted involving the latest progress in earthquake engineering with regard to estimation techniques on the hypocenter, fault and earthquake motion parameters and in information technologies. This system is the disaster management system which consists of user site and disaster information center and is capable of mutual information transmission through Inter-Net and walkie-talkie. The concept of the disaster management system which is adaptable with DiMSIS (Disaster Management Spatial Information System) developed by professor Kameda et al. of Kyoto University has been established. Based on this concept, a prototype system has been developed. This system has following functions, (1) compatible application both in usual condition and emergency time, (2) the decentralized independence, and (3) the integration of space and time information. The system can estimate the earthquake motion information with 500 m square mesh in a local area and transmit in a few minutes. In the development of the system, seismometer network, surface soil database and amplification functions were prepared for the examination of system function. Demonstration against the Tokai area was carried out and the function was verified. (author)

  2. A 1.2 Gb/s Data Transmission Unit in CMOS 0.18 μm technology for the ALICE Inner Tracking System front-end ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Benotto, F.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Lupi, M.; Ravasenga, I.

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System is based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor and ASIC designed in a CMOS 0.18 μ m process. In order to provide the required output bandwidth (1.2 Gb/s for the inner layers and 400 Mb/s for the outer ones) on a single high speed serial link, a custom Data Transmission Unit (DTU) has been developed in the same process. The DTU includes a clock multiplier PLL, a double data rate serializer and a pseudo-LVDS driver with pre-emphasis and is designed to be SEU tolerant.

  3. Rigorous theoretical derivation of lumped models to transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of the negative electric parameter concept, i.e. negative lumped resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance (N-RLGC), the lumped equivalent models of transmission line systems, including the circuit model, two-port π-network and T-network, are given. We start from the N-segment-ladder-like equivalent networks composed distributed parameters, and achieve the input impedance in the form of a continued fraction. Utilizing the continued fraction theory, the expressions of input impedance are obtained under three kinds of extreme cases, i.e. the load impedances are equal to zero, infinity and characteristic impedance, respectively. When the number of segment N is limited to infinity, they are transformed to lumped elements. Comparison between the distributed model and lumped model of transmission lines, the expression of tanh γd, which is the key term in the transmission line equations, are obtained by RLGC, furthermore, according to input admittance, admittance matrix and ABCD matrix of transmission lines, the lumped equivalent circuit models, π-networks and T-networks have been given. The models are verified in the frequency and time domain, respectively, showing that the models are accurate and efficient. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  5. Adaptive Image Transmission Scheme over Wavelet-Based OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOXinying; YUANDongfeng; ZHANGHaixia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive image transmission scheme is proposed over Wavelet-based OFDM (WOFDM) system with Unequal error protection (UEP) by the design of non-uniform signal constellation in MLC. Two different data division schemes: byte-based and bitbased, are analyzed and compared. Different bits are protected unequally according to their different contribution to the image quality in bit-based data division scheme, which causes UEP combined with this scheme more powerful than that with byte-based scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that image transmission by UEP with bit-based data division scheme presents much higher PSNR values and surprisingly better image quality. Furthermore, by considering the tradeoff of complexity and BER performance, Haar wavelet with the shortest compactly supported filter length is the most suitable one among orthogonal Daubechies wavelet series in our proposed system.

  6. Data Acquisition and Transmission System for Building Energy Consumption Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building energy consumption monitoring and management system have been developed widely in China in order to gain the real-time data of energy consumption in buildings for analyzing it in the next state work. This paper describes a low-cost and small-sized collector based on the STM32 microcontroller, which can be placed in a building easily to implement the work of data acquisition, storage, and transmission. The collector gathers the electricity, water, heat, and energy consumption data through the RS485 field bus and stores the data into an SD card with mass storage, finally, using Internet to finish the communication and transmission to data server through TCP protocol. The collector has been used in application for two years, and the results show that the system is reliable and stable.

  7. Control strategies for VSC-based HVDC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Silva, Rodrigo Da

    2011-01-01

    Throughout this paper the modeling and control of the VSC-based HVDC systems are investigated and described. Two different control methods capable of controlling such systems are proposed. Both developed control strategies are implemented in the dq synchronous reference frame. In order to analyze...... the behavior of the developed VSC-based HVDC transmission system two study cases are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained from simulations show acceptable performances, of the proposed strategies, when changes in the reference parameters are considered. The active power flow between...

  8. A GIS-based Power Transmission Management Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Based on analyzing the shortcomings of electric power enterprise in traditional operation pattern,this paper combines components GIS with the application of management information system,and uses the structure which unifies three layers C/S and B/S.Also,proposed using the GPS intellectualization patrol.This may be useful to guarantees the transmission line’s operation to be safe and stable.

  9. Impedance Synthesis Based Vibration Analysis of Geared Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of gear noise response depends on the sensitivity of geared rotor system dynamics to the transmission error. As gearbox design trending towards lighter weight and lower noise, the influence of housing compliance on system dynamic characteristics cannot be ignored. In this study, a gear-shaft-bearing-housing coupled impedance model is proposed to account for the effect of housing compliance on the vibration of geared transmission system. This proposed dynamic model offers convenient modeling, efficient computing, and ability to combine computed parameters with experimental ones. The numerical simulations on system dynamic characteristics are performed for both a rigid housing configuration and a flexible one. Natural frequencies, dynamic mesh forces, and dynamic bearing reaction loads are computed, and the housing compliance contribution on system dynamic characteristics is analyzed. Results show that increasing housing compliance will decrease the system natural frequencies and will affect the dynamic bearing reaction loads significantly but have very little influence on the dynamic mesh force. Also, the analysis shows that bearing stiffness has significant influence on the degree of housing contribution on system dynamic characteristics.

  10. Dynamic simulation of hvdc transmission systems on digital computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingorani, N G; Hay, J L; Crosbie, R E

    1966-05-01

    A digital computer technique is based on the fact that the operation of an hvdc converter consists of similar consecutive processes, each process having features which are common to all processes. Each bridge converter of an hvdc system is represented by a central process, and repetitive use of the latter simulates continuous converter operation. This technique may be employed to obtain the waveforms of transient or steady state voltages and currents anywhere in the dc system. To illustrate the method, an hvdc link is considered; the link which connects two independent ac systems conprises two converters with their control systems, and a dc transmission line. As an example, the transient behavior of the system is examined following changes in the current settings of the control system.

  11. Error Probability Analysis of Hardware Impaired Systems with Asymmetric Transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah; Amin, Osama; Ikki, Salama S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Error probability study of the hardware impaired (HWI) systems highly depends on the adopted model. Recent models have proved that the aggregate noise is equivalent to improper Gaussian signals. Therefore, considering the distinct noise nature and self-interfering (SI) signals, an optimal maximum likelihood (ML) receiver is derived. This renders the conventional minimum Euclidean distance (MED) receiver as a sub-optimal receiver because it is based on the assumptions of ideal hardware transceivers and proper Gaussian noise in communication systems. Next, the average error probability performance of the proposed optimal ML receiver is analyzed and tight bounds and approximations are derived for various adopted systems including transmitter and receiver I/Q imbalanced systems with or without transmitter distortions as well as transmitter or receiver only impaired systems. Motivated by recent studies that shed the light on the benefit of improper Gaussian signaling in mitigating the HWIs, asymmetric quadrature amplitude modulation or phase shift keying is optimized and adapted for transmission. Finally, different numerical and simulation results are presented to support the superiority of the proposed ML receiver over MED receiver, the tightness of the derived bounds and effectiveness of asymmetric transmission in dampening HWIs and improving overall system performance

  12. Error Probability Analysis of Hardware Impaired Systems with Asymmetric Transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2018-04-26

    Error probability study of the hardware impaired (HWI) systems highly depends on the adopted model. Recent models have proved that the aggregate noise is equivalent to improper Gaussian signals. Therefore, considering the distinct noise nature and self-interfering (SI) signals, an optimal maximum likelihood (ML) receiver is derived. This renders the conventional minimum Euclidean distance (MED) receiver as a sub-optimal receiver because it is based on the assumptions of ideal hardware transceivers and proper Gaussian noise in communication systems. Next, the average error probability performance of the proposed optimal ML receiver is analyzed and tight bounds and approximations are derived for various adopted systems including transmitter and receiver I/Q imbalanced systems with or without transmitter distortions as well as transmitter or receiver only impaired systems. Motivated by recent studies that shed the light on the benefit of improper Gaussian signaling in mitigating the HWIs, asymmetric quadrature amplitude modulation or phase shift keying is optimized and adapted for transmission. Finally, different numerical and simulation results are presented to support the superiority of the proposed ML receiver over MED receiver, the tightness of the derived bounds and effectiveness of asymmetric transmission in dampening HWIs and improving overall system performance

  13. High voltage direct current transmission converters, systems and DC grids

    CERN Document Server

    Jovcic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive reference guides the reader through all HVDC technologies, including LCC (Line Commutated Converter), 2-level VSC and VSC HVDC based on modular multilevel converters (MMC) for an in-depth understanding of converters, system level design, operating principles and modeling. Written in a tutorial style, the book also describes the key principles of design, control, protection and operation of DC transmission grids, which will be substantially different from the practice with AC transmission grids. The first dedicated reference to the latest HVDC technologies and DC grid developments; this is an essential resource for graduate students and researchers as well as engineers and professionals working on the design, modeling and operation of DC grids and HVDC.

  14. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible

  15. Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2012-01-01

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  16. Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau, E-mail: thanchau7787@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-733 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-733 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-733 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  17. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Methodology for methane emission inventory from Snam transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, M.; Riva, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methane, the main component of natural gas, is recognised as one of the most important contributors of the greenhouse effect, responsible for about 22% of the total. Several industries of natural gas, among which Snam, have undertaken intensive programs focused on the quantification of the total amounts of methane emitted in their operating activities. Snam elaborated a scientifically reliable methodology, for evaluating the annual methane emissions from its transmission system, based on a statistic approach using specific 'activity factors', that are the emitting equipment population and the frequency of emitting events, and emission factors. Part of the latter are based on GRI-EPA emission factors calculated for natural gas systems in the U.S. and adjusted to Snam system, and the other were measured during a field campaign on a random sample of previously identified large emission sources in Snam compressor and metering and regulating stations. The study showed that the methane release to the air from Snam natural gas transmission system was only the 0.1% of the total amount of methane in the natural gas imported and produced in Italy in 1993. (au)

  19. A nano continuous variable transmission system from nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Shi, Jiao; Xie, Yi Min; Qin, Qing H.

    2018-02-01

    A nano continuous variable transmission (nano-CVT) system is proposed by means of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The dynamic behavior of the CNT-based nanosystem is assessed using molecular dynamics simulations. The system contains a rotary CNT-motor and a CNT-bearing. The tube axes of the nanomotor and the rotor in the bearing are laid in parallel, and the distance between them is known as the eccentricity of the rotor with a diameter of d. By changing the eccentricity (e) of the rotor from 0 to d, some interesting rotation transmission phenomena are discovered, whose procedures can be used to design various nanodevices. This might include the failure of rotation transmission—i.e. the rotor has no rotation—when e ≥ d at an extremely low temperature, or when the edges of the two tubes are orthogonal at their intersections in any condition. This hints that the state of the nanosystem can be used as an on/off switch or breaker. For a system with e = d and a high temperature, the rotor rotates in the reverse direction of the motor. This means that the output signal (rotation) is the reverse of the input signal. When changing the eccentricity from 0 to d continuously, the output signal gradually decreases from a positive value to a negative value; as a result a nano-CVT system is obtained.

  20. Structural vulnerability in transmission systems: Cases of Colombia and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Gabriel J.; Yusta, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vulnerability analysis of transmission electric systems in Colombia and Spain. • Based on scale-free graph statistic indexes. • Evaluating both current conditions and expansion plans of infrastructures. • Comparison of random error and deliberate attack tolerance evaluation. - Abstract: In this paper the authors apply methodological strategies for the structural vulnerability assessment in high voltage power networks based upon the combination of power flow models and scale-free graph statistic indexes. Thus, it is possible to study risk scenarios based on events that may trigger cascading failures within a power system. The usefulness of graph theory techniques has been validated on previous works of the authors, and may be applied in analysis of the vulnerability of different power electric networks. A case study for vulnerability analysis is carried out through methodologies that allow comparison on random error and deliberate attack tolerance evaluation in transmission electric systems from countries like Colombia and Spain. Such vulnerability assessment methodology takes into account the current conditions of the power networks (base case), as well as the impact of expansion plans into infrastructures as defined by their governments. Consequently, the authors show the advantage on the use of graph theory based techniques for vulnerability analysis of electrical power systems

  1. MFTF-B quasi-optical ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The microwave transmission system for ERCH on MFTF-B will utilize quasi-optical transmission techniques. The system consists of ten gyrotron oscillators: two gyrotrons at 28 GHz, two at 35 GHz, and six at 56 GHz. The 28 and 35 GHz gyrotrons both heat the electrons in the end plug (potential peak) while the 56 GHz sources heat the minimum-B anchor region (potential minimum). Microwaves are launched into a pair of cylindrical mirrors that form a pseudo-cavity which directs the microwaves through the plasma numerous times before they are lost out of the cavity. The cavity allows the microwave beam to reach the resonance zone over a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures. The fundamental electron cyclotron resonance moves to higher axial positions as a result of beta-depression of the magnetic field, doppler shifting of the resonance, and relativistic mass corrections for the electrons. With this system the microwave beam will reach the resonance surface at the correct angle of incidence for any density or temperature without active aiming of the antennas. The cavity also allows the beam to make multiple passes through the plasma to increase the heating efficiency at low temperatures and densities when the single pass absorption is low. In addition, neutral beams and diagnostics have an unobstructed view of the plasma

  2. [A wireless power transmission system for capsule endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-06-01

    In order to deliver power to the capsule endoscope, whose position and orientation are always changing when traveling along the alimentary tract, a wireless power transmission system based on electromagnetic coupling was proposed. The system is composed of Helmholtz transmitting coil and three-dimensional receiving coil. Helmholtz coil outside the body generates a uniform magnetic field covering the whole alimentary tract; three-dimensional coil inside retrieves stable power regardless of its position and orientation. The transmitter and receiver were designed and implemented, and the experiments validated the feasibility of the system. The results show that at least 320 mW of usable power can be transmitted to capsule endoscope when its position and orientation are changing at random and the transmitting power is 25W.

  3. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  4. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years it has been a consistent plan by all Danish governments to turn the Danish power production away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy. The result today is that 37% of the total Danish power consumption was covered by mainly wind energy in 2013 aiming at 50% by 2020......, objectives, constraints, algorithms for optimal power flow and some special functions in particular systems, which inspires the concept design of a Danish AVC system to address the future challenges of voltage control. In the concept, the Danish AVC design is based on a centralized control scheme. All...... the substation loses the telecommunications to the control center. RPCs will be integrated to the AVC system as normative regulators in the later stage. Distributed generation units can be organized as virtual power plants and participate in voltage control at transmission level. Energinet.dk as the Danish TSO...

  5. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  6. A flexible computerized system for environmental data acquisition and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, G.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years increasing importance has been addressed to the knowledge of the marine environment, either to help detecting and understanding global climate change phenomena, or to protect and preserve those coastal areas, where multiple interests converge (linked to the tourism, recreational or productive activities…) and which suffer greater impact from anthropogenic activities; this has in turn stimulated the start of research programs devoted to the monitoring and surveillance of these particular zones, coupling the needs for knowledge, sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. There is an increasing need to have data available in real time or near real time in order to intervene in emergency situations. Cabled or wireless data transmission can be used. The first allows the transmission of a higher amount of data only in coastal sites, while the second gives a bigger flexibility in terms of application to different environments; more, using mobile phone services (either terrestrial or satellite), it is possible to allocate the data centre in the most convenient place, without any need of proximity to the sea. Traditional oceanographic techniques, based on ship surveys, hardly fit the needs of operational oceanography, because of their high cost and fragmentary nature, both in spatial and temporal domains. To obtain a good synopticity, it is necessary to complement traditional ship observations with measurements from fixed stations (buoys moored in sites chosen to be representative of wider areas, or to constitute a sentinel against the arrival of pollutants), satellite observations, use of ships of opportunity and of newly developed instruments, like the gliders, or towed sliding devices, like the SAVE. Modern instruments rely on an electronic heart; an integrated hardware-software system developed in Messina is here presented, used in various versions to control data acquisition and transmission on buoys or on ship

  7. Nonlinear Vibroimpact Characteristics of a Planetary Gear Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the vibroimpact characteristics of a planetary gear transmission system under high speed and lightly loaded conditions, a new modeling method is proposed. In the modeling process, linear spring was used to simulate gear mesh elasticity under heavy load cases, and Hertz contact theory was used to calculate the contact force of gear pair under light load cases. Then, effects of the working conditions on the system vibroimpact characteristics are analyzed. The results show that, with input speed growing, the mesh force produced obvious fluctuations on the resonance frequencies of the sun gear and carrier torsion vibration, ring gear’s transverse vibration under the heavy load. Under light load condition, the collision vibration occurs in the gear pair; the changing trend of the contact force shows strongly nonlinear characteristics. The time of mesh-apart in gears pair decreases gradually as the load is increased; until it reaches collision vibration threshold value, the gear pair is no longer mesh-apart. With increasing of the input speed, the time of mesh-apart is decreased gradually; the fluctuation amplitude of contact force shows a linearly increasing trend. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for planetary gear transmission low-noise design.

  8. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J; Hansen, Bryan J; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  9. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A.; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J.; Hansen, Bryan J.; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. Approach. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. Main results. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. Significance. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  10. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2007-01-01

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  11. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  12. Classifying serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-08

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  13. SURGNET: An Integrated Surgical Data Transmission System for Telesurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sriram; Ganz, Aura

    2009-01-01

    Remote surgery information requires quick and reliable transmission between the surgeon and the patient site. However, the networks that interconnect the surgeon and patient sites are usually time varying and lossy which can cause packet loss and delay jitter. In this paper we propose SURGNET, a telesurgery system for which we developed the architecture, algorithms and implemented it on a testbed. The algorithms include adaptive packet prediction and buffer time adjustment techniques which reduce the negative effects caused by the lossy and time varying networks. To evaluate the proposed SURGNET system, at the therapist site, we implemented a therapist panel which controls the force feedback device movements and provides image analysis functionality. At the patient site we controlled a virtual reality applet built in Matlab. The varying network conditions were emulated using NISTNet emulator. Our results show that even for severe packet loss and variable delay jitter, the proposed integrated synchronization techniques significantly improve SURGNET performance.

  14. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with AC Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...... on the basis of 39 references published by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk. Part I of the paper explains the events that lead to the research project, reactive power compensation, modelling for transient studies, including field measurements and improvements to the existing models, and temporary overvoltages due...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  15. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with Ac Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...... on the basis of 39 references published by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk. Part I of the paper explains the events that lead to the research project, reactive power compensation, modelling for transient studies, including field measurements and improvements to the existing models, and temporary overvoltages due...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  16. Voltage control in the future power transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan

    Wind energy in Denmark covers 42% of the total power consumption in 2015, and will share up to 50% by 2020. Consequently, the conventional power plants are decommissioning. Under the progress of the green transition, the national decision leads to underground many overhead lines in the future...... stages. The voltage uncertainty caused by the wind power forecasting errors is estimated, which is applied as a voltage security margin to further constrain the voltage magnitude in the optimization problem. The problem under the uncertainty is therefore converted to a deterministic problem, which...... to ensure a highly reliable transmission, e.g. balancing the generation and the consumption in large geographic regions, the exchange capacities will be enlarged by upgrading the interconnections. The Danish power system, the electricity transportation hub between the Nordic and continental European systems...

  17. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  18. The coordinate system transformation of a serial kinematic structures and use in the derivation of systems motion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zátopek Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the use of transformation matrices to determine the motion equations of the complex mechanical structure. Use of the transformation matrix does not apply only to motion equations but has the general use in relative positions determine of objects in the 3D space. Analysed model is divided into seven physical objects, the transformation matrix and the corresponding inertia/pseudo-inertia matrix is included in each of them. This matrices are strictly necessary to the system dynamic description using the matrix form of Lagrange Equations of the Second Type. Another possibility to use the transformation matrix is shown in the camera system measurement. Model was designed in 3D CAD system SolidWorks, MATLAB was used for the mathematical calculations.

  19. Diagnostics of power transmissions system with tooth gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz WOJNAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of laboratory tests that were aimed at detecting early stages of various faults in toothed wheels by measurement and analysis of transverse vibration speed of the transmission gear shafts. In experimental investigation, cracking of the root tooth and chipping of the tooth were detected. The laser vibrometer Ometron VH300+ was used for non-contact measurement of shaft transversal vibration speed. Gear vibrations were recorded in selected points of gear housing and gear shafts at different speeds and gear loads. Results were analyzed and compared but in this paper is presented only selected examples. This paper shows that on the basis of the transverse vibration speed of transmission gear shafts, it is possible to detect defects at an earlier stage than on the basis of the housing vibration accelerations. In the case of measuring gear shaft vibration velocity, the way of the signal generated by the defect of a gear wheel (or bearing is shortened as well as the influence of composed transmittance of the bearing-gear housing system is eliminated. WV time-frequency analysis and complex continuous wavelet transformations were used for detection. The authors introduced a measure of local tooth damage, which was proportional to the size of damage. The results of research presented in this paperconfirmed that the defect's measure is very sensitive to the development of teeth faults.

  20. Fiber-optic data-transmission system for borehole logging. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the system is to provide signal transmission media for transmission of digital data from a borehole logging probe (and associated processor-electronics) to a borehole logging truck at the surface. This fiber optic transmission system is specifically designed for use on the Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (BFEC) R and D logging truck

  1. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.

    2012-10-01

    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  2. The Comprehensive Assessment List for Affective Disorders (COALA): a polydiagnostic, comprehensive, and serial semistructured interview system for affective and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T; Takahashi, K; Kitamura, T; Okawa, M; Miyaoka, H; Hirai, T; Ueda, H; Sakamoto, K; Miki, K; Fujita, K

    1995-01-01

    This supplement describes the development and structure of the Comprehensive Assessment List of Affective Disorders (COALA) system, which was recently developed for a collaborative follow-up study of a broad spectrum of affective disorders in Japan and which consists of a series of semistructured interviews for affective and related disorders. The COALA distinguishes itself from the extant semistructured interviews by being able to provide polydiagnostic, comprehensive and serial assessments. It is polydiagnostic because it derives diagnoses according to 29 historical and modern diagnostic systems through computer algorithms. It is comprehensive because it not only depicts the symptoms profile and rates their severity according to various endogenicity indices and severity rating scales but also measures, in the psychosocial domain, the life events and their characteristics. In addition, it has sections for past illnesses and family history. It is serial because the system includes follow-up semistructured interviews that can be administered monthly and that monitor changes in the psychopathological and psychosocial features. The theoretical underpinnings of the COALA system, especially its polydiagnostic approach to a broad spectrum of affective disorders and its treatment of psychosocial factors, are discussed in view of recent proposals for the future nosological research. The findings of the interrater reliability study (n = 107) are also presented, with satisfactory to excellent results for almost all of the psychopathological and psychosocial variables, all of the composite severity ratings and most of the polydiagnostic evaluations.

  3. The role of facts and HVDC in the future pan-European transmission system development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abbate, A.; Migliavacca, G.; Hager, U.; Rehtanz, C.; Ruberg, S.; Lopes Ferreira, H.M.; Fulli, G.; Purvins, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper focuses on FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System) and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission technologies. Particular attention is paid to different specific technical, economic and environmental features of these power electronics-based devices. Final

  4. Development of high speed and reliable data transmission system for industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fuqiang; Dong Yanli; Liu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of large capacity,high speed and high reliability of data transmission for industrial CT, a data transmission system based on USB 2.0 was designed. In the process of data transmission, FPGA was the main controller, and USB 2.0 CY7C68013A worked in slave FIFO mode. The system sent the data got from data acquisition system to host computer for image reconstruction. The testing results show that the transmission rate can reach 33 MB/s and the precision is 100%. The system satisfies the requirements of data transmission for industrial CT. (authors)

  5. On multiuser switched diversity transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users share the spectrum with primary users. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting the user among those that satisfy the interference constraints and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level. The first scheme selects the user with the maximum SNR at the receiver, whereas in the second scheme the users are scanned in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition, we consider two power adaptive settings. In the on/off power adaptive setting, the users transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not while in the full power adaptive setting, the users vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results of our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load of both schemes. © 2012 ICST.

  6. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Spencer L; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-07

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method's performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm(-1) was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly

  7. Implementation of a level 1 trigger system using high speed serial (VXS) techniques for the 12GeV high luminosity experimental programs at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C.; Raydo, B.; Dong, H.; Gupta, A.; Barbosa, F.J.; Wilson, J.; Taylor, W.M.; Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.

    2009-01-01

    We will demonstrate a hardware and firmware solution for a complete fully pipelined multi-crate trigger system that takes advantage of the elegant high speed VXS serial extensions for VME. This trigger system includes three sections starting with the front end crate trigger processor (CTP), a global Sub-System Processor (SSP) and a Trigger Supervisor that manages the timing, synchronization and front end event readout. Within a front end crate, trigger information is gathered from each 16 Channel, 12 bit Flash ADC module at 4 nS intervals via the VXS backplane, to a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP). Each Crate Trigger Processor receives these 500 MB/S VXS links from the 16 FADC-250 modules, aligns skewed data inherent of Aurora protocol, and performs real time crate level trigger algorithms. The algorithm results are encoded using a Reed-Solomon technique and transmission of this Level 1 trigger data is sent to the SSP using a multi-fiber link. The multi-fiber link achieves an aggregate trigger data transfer rate to the global trigger at 8 Gb/s. The SSP receives and decodes Reed-Solomon error correcting transmission from each crate, aligns the data, and performs the global level trigger algorithms. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250 MHz with the Trigger Supervisor managing not only the front end event readout, but also the distribution of the critical timing clocks, synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals to each front end readout crate. These signals are distributed to the front end crates on a separate fiber link and each crate is synchronized using a unique encoding scheme to guarantee that each front end crate is synchronous with a fixed latency, independent of the distance between each crate. The overall trigger signal latency is <3 uS, and the proposed 12GeV experiments at Jefferson Lab require up to 200KHz Level 1 trigger rate.

  8. The development of a gas transmission system in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudian, Serko; Rickaert, Stefan [Tractebel Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Tractebel Engineering is undertaking for the Lebanese Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) advisory services for the launching and for the awarding of a DBOT (Design, Build, Operate and Transfer) contract for the development of a gas transmission system through Lebanon. The service embraces a global approach, integrating legal, market, technical and financial matters, to provide MEW with a clear strategy to its gas development program, aimed at attracting private investors willing to tender on this DBOT project.The Legal Framework Report examines the existing Lebanese legal system and analyzes its suitability to the regulatory framework required to operate gas networks; it also provides recommendations aimed at attracting potential DBOT developers, by facilitating bureaucratic procedures with possible enactment of new laws. The Gas Demand Due Diligence Report provides the market study for present and future demand of gas in Lebanon in the next 25 years (duration of the DBOT contract), with anticipated needs resulting from power generation, industrial sector, commercial and residential sectors. The Pipeline Alternative Solutions Report provides several alternative routing and configurations for the gas transmission pipeline, including surveys, in-land routing (through rough mountain and heavily populated areas), or off-shore routing (through rough marine canyons and sea water depth in excess of 1,500 meters). Basic technical economical study is elaborated for more than 30 options.The Pipeline Financial Optimization Report compares the economics and provides for each solution the expected postal tariff (the compensation that MEW would need to pay to the developer for the execution of the 25 year DBOT contract). The advisory services are completed with preparation of the Pre-Qualification Notice (aimed at selecting a short list of qualified Bidders), preparation of the Request For Proposal (bidding on the selected pipeline option), evaluation of proposal, selection of

  9. Gas data transmission system by satellite telephone; Systeme de transmission de donnees sur le gaz utilisant le telephone par satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, S.; Tanji, A. [Dengineer Co., Ltd (Japan); Akiyama, S. [Buyo Gas Company (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Dengineer Co., Ltd. and Buyo Gas Co., Ltd. had been developing and using the data and alarm transmission system by public telephone since 1984, that was first practical use in Japan. It is very important for business management that adjusts the production value of gas by measuring gas pressures in each governor. Also, it is indispensable to know the accident of gas leakage or abnormal gas pressure quickly. But this convenient system is not spread yet in Japanese market cause of the following reasons. - Take time and cost for installation of terminal station. - Terminal station is apt to damage by thunder. - Big disaster must stop working this system. In order to solve those problems, we have developed and tested the system organized of the satellite telephone system and solar cells for power. This system will be very useful for wide place, not only Japanese market but also the area, which has no electricity and phone. Also, it will be convenient for international rescue as is able to access it from the foreign countries. (authors)

  10. The Windows serial port programming handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of serial port communications. Serial port programming in ANSI C and Assembly languages for MS-DOS. Serial ports interface developed in VC++ 6.0. Serial port programming in Visual Basic. Serial port programming in LabVIEW. Serial port programming in MATLAB. Serial port programming in Smalltalk. Serial port programming in Java.

  11. Parallel processing data network of master and slave transputers controlled by a serial control network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1996-01-01

    The present device provides for a dynamically configurable communication network having a multi-processor parallel processing system having a serial communication network and a high speed parallel communication network. The serial communication network is used to disseminate commands from a master processor (100) to a plurality of slave processors (200) to effect communication protocol, to control transmission of high density data among nodes and to monitor each slave processor's status. The high speed parallel processing network is used to effect the transmission of high density data among nodes in the parallel processing system. Each node comprises a transputer (104), a digital signal processor (114), a parallel transfer controller (106), and two three-port memory devices. A communication switch (108) within each node (100) connects it to a fast parallel hardware channel (70) through which all high density data arrives or leaves the node.

  12. An optical ASK and FSK phase diversity transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, H.; Vanetten, W.; Dekrom, W. H. C.; Vanbennekom, P.; Huijskens, F.; Niessen, L.; Deleijer, F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a contribution to an electrooptical project for a 'phase diversity system', covering ASK and FSK (Amplitude and Frequency Shift Keying), are described. Specifications of subsystems, and tolerances and consequences of these tolerances for the final system performance, were derived. For the optical network of the phase diversity receiver, a manufacturing set up for three by three fused biconical taper fiber couplers was developed. In order to characterize planar optical networks, a set up was constructed to measure the phase relations at 1523 nm. The optical frequency of the local oscillator laser has to be locked on to the frequency of the received optical signal. This locking circuit is described. A complete optical three by three phase diversity transmission system was developed that can be used as a testbed for subsystems. The sensitivity of the receiver at a bit error rate of 10 to the minus 9th power is -47.2 dBm, which is 4.2 dB better than the value of the specifications.

  13. The Diagnostic System of A – 604 Automatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaban Jaroslaw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic gearbox gains increasing popularity in Europe. Little interest in diagnosis of such type of transmission in Poland results from the fact of small share in the whole market of operated cars, so there is a lack of availability of special diagnostic devices. These factors cause issues of expensive repairs, often involving a replacement of subassembly to new or aftermarket one. To a small extent some prophylactic diagnostic tests are conducted, which can eliminate future gearbox system failures. In the paper, the proposition of diagnostic system of popular A - 604 gearbox was presented. The authors are seeking for the possibility of using such type of devices to functional elaboration of gearboxes after renovation. The built system pursues the drive of the researched object, connected with simulated load, where special controller, replacing the original one, is responsible for controlling gearbox operation. This way is used to evaluate the mechanic and hydraulic parts' state. Analysis of signal runs, registered during measurements lets conclude about operation correctness, where as comparison with stock data verifies the technical state of an automatic gearbox.

  14. Transmissibility of the monkeypox virus clades via respiratory transmission: investigation using the prairie dog-monkeypox virus challenge system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is endemic within Africa where it sporadically is reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. In 2003, an outbreak of human MPXV occurred in the US after the importation of infected African rodents. Since the eradication of smallpox (caused by an orthopoxvirus (OPXV related to MPXV and cessation of routine smallpox vaccination (with the live OPXV vaccinia, there is an increasing population of people susceptible to OPXV diseases. Previous studies have shown that the prairie dog MPXV model is a functional animal model for the study of systemic human OPXV illness. Studies with this model have demonstrated that infected animals are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple routes of exposure causing subsequent infection, but were not able to prove that infected animals could transmit the virus exclusively via the respiratory route. Herein we used the model system to evaluate the hypothesis that the Congo Basin clade of MPXV is more easily transmitted, via respiratory route, than the West African clade. Using a small number of test animals, we show that transmission of viruses from each of the MPXV clade was minimal via respiratory transmission. However, transmissibility of the Congo Basin clade was slightly greater than West African MXPV clade (16.7% and 0% respectively. Based on these findings, respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model.

  15. In-service crosstalk monitoring for dense space division multiplexed multi-core fiber transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, T.; Isoda, A.; Shibahara, K.

    2017-01-01

    We present in-service inter-core crosstalk monitoring for MCF transmission systems. We transmit 54-WDM PDM-16QAM signals over 111.6-km 32-core DSDM transmission line incorporating cladding-pumped 32-core MC-EYDFA, and demonstrate -30 dB crosstalk monitoring without affecting transmission...

  16. Application of WebSphere MQ in data transmission of retail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the requirements of enterprise data communication system functions,this article uses WebSphere message queue (MQ technology to ensure effective data transmission for large amount of commercial files.Taking daily sales data transmission between foreground and background as example,we design and realize the typical retail data transmission function.

  17. Progress and monitoring system on compression and transmission technologies of dynamic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Saijo, Nobuyuki; Nakajo, Ken

    2001-01-01

    The Toshiba Corporation developed a real-time dynamic image transmission matched with quality of transmission circuit by using MPEG-4 which was recent international standard system for the dynamic image coding system. Concretely, this system made possible on real-time dynamic image transmission even at transmission on wireless circuit such as portable telephone, PHS, wireless LAN, and so on, at viewpoint of the mobile communication. And, by using the wireless circuit, it could be built without any limit of transmission cable, to realize its layout-free establishment. In addition, this system uses only image for communication without using voice, and some devices were carried out to upgrade image and frame speed as possible. Here were described on outlines of transmission system and principle of detection MPEG-4, and function and application of monitoring system using this system. (G.K.)

  18. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  19. Wheeling and transmission system service policy in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.; Schultz, A.J.; Limmer, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a review and discussion of the status of wheeling in the USA and Canada; the pros and cons of the new policies that are evolving and under consideration for wheeling and transmission access; specific case examples of some of the difficulties that have arisen; and the potential for new transmission technology. (author)

  20. Economic Aspect of HVDC Transmission System for Indonesia Consideration in Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2009-01-01

    As a country with hundreds million people, Indonesia needs to generate large scale power and distribute it to thorough country to improve gross domestic product of the population. In the power transmission domain, the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system should be considered for the next decades concerning any technical and economical problems with HVAC transmission. HVDC transmission system is the answer for the Indonesian condition. This system can connect the high energy potential regions to the high energy demand regions. HVDC is the most efficient to transport energy from one region to another one region. Dismantling and removing assets costs are included to the estimated for capital costs, while the environmental and property costs are the costs of securing designations and resource consents, and valuation and legal advice for the HVDC investment. Although converter terminals are expensive however, for long transmissions HVDC system can compensate the costs over breakeven distance through very efficient transmission system. Efficiency of HVDC is appearing from conductor wire, supporting tower, low energy loses and free space used by route of the transmission line. HVDC system is also free from some problem, concerning stability, inductive and capacitive load components, phase differences and frequency system. In the economic aspect the HVDC capital costs for the transmission options comprise estimates of the cost to design, purchase and construct new HVDC transmission components. While operating and maintenance costs of HVDC assets comprise the costs for replacement the old existing overhead transmission lines, underground and submarine cables, and HVDC converter station components. (author)

  1. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  2. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  3. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  4. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  5. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  6. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  7. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  8. A Proposal of New Reference System for the Standard Axial, Sagittal, Coronal Planes of Brain Based on the Serially-Sectioned Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyo Seok; Shin, Dong Sun; Har, Dong-Hwan; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Jae-Yong; Chi, Je-Geun

    2010-01-01

    Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radiological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48 bit color and obtained axial, sagittal, and coronal images based on the proposed reference system. This reference system consists of one principal reference point and two ancillary reference points. The two ancillary reference points are the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure. And the principal reference point is the midpoint of two ancillary reference points. It resides in the center of whole brain. From the principal reference point, Cartesian coordinate of x, y, z could be made to be the standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. PMID:20052359

  9. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  10. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  11. Use of new technologies in the solution of concrete problems in the national transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gil, Javier

    2007-01-01

    As part of the elaboration of the expansion plan of the national transmission system, the UPME carries out analysis that contribute in the good and efficient use of this system, its amplification and correction of its weaknesses, for they revised it the state of the art of the flexible systems of transmission of alternating current and carry out preliminary analysis of its application

  12. Electric power transmission system: A new expansion scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose of responding to the interconnection requirements among the main cities of the country, a company of public character was created, in charge of the planning and of the development of the national interconnected system (NIS), in such form that their work optimized the use of the available energy resources for the electricity supply and it improved the accounting levels and quality of the service. Starting from 1967, interconnection electric Corp., ISA, a very important task began in the development of methodologies and strategies of expansion of the INS that it allowed, in very short term, to connect the areas of Bogota the Atlantic Cost, Antioquia and the Cauca Valley and to develop important generation projects for the supply of electric power of the country. Then, the electric sector was reformed through the laws 142 and 143 of 1994, in search of the specialization of the business and in that sense, ISA is divided in two companies: ISAGEN that the activities degeneration and electric power commercialization, and ISA, company electric power transport, that it takes charge of the interconnection of the national system assumes. In connection with the execution of the transmission works and in the face of the possibility of lingering courts of energy, the law establishes that ISA will carry out the works that are needed and that the particular initiative doesn't develop. For that same time, it is considered that the planning should be carried out in an integral way, taking into account the requirements of the population's energy and its possibilities of supply and through programs and actions of appropriate use of the available energy resources. The UPME (Unit of Planning Miner Energetic) was created for assumes this work, so with their analyses they already offer signs to the state the investors, about the population's necessities and of the business opportunities, respectively

  13. System of failures diagnosis for energy transmission systems, using Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, German; Grisales, John Faber; Gomez, Juan Camilo; Quintero Henao, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    An expert system of second generation was used integrating the inverse Petri nets (RPN) and the systems based on rules (rule-based system) for the accomplishment of a program in Visual Basic that helps in the obtaining of an opportune and fast analysis of transmission of energy at the time of happening a fault in anymore of its components (line or bus). The program is proven in a portion of system IEEE -118 standard bus test system, in which two extracted cases of literature are developed and are the obtained results. Finally tests realized with the method developed in the laboratory of machines of the national university of Colombia, Medellin campus, simulating a system of transmission with two lines and two buses

  14. Development and Evaluation of cooperative control system for an HVDC transmission system connected with an isolated BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Susumu; Hara, Tsukusi; Matori, Iwao; Hirayama, Kaiichirou.

    1987-01-01

    In the cooperative control system developed for an HVDC transmission system connected with an isolated BWR power plant, the equilibrium state between power plant output and DC transmission power is examined by way of the detection of the generator frequency. And, thereby start-up and shutdown of the DC system and controlling of the transmission power are made, so that the signal transmission with the power plant becomes unnecessary, enabling the easy cooperative operation. In order to investigate validity of this control system, various digital simulation and simulator test with the control system were carried out. In this way, behavior of the power plant and stability of the DC transmission system were evaluated in the connection to the DC system at power plant start-up, follow of the transmission power in change of the power plant output and in various system failures. (Mori, K.)

  15. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongseog

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment

  16. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  17. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mok, E-mail: jmkim@kriss.re.kr; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Brain Cognition Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  18. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  19. Performance analysis for optimum transmission and comparison with maximal ratio transmission for MIMO systems with cochannel interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sheng-Chou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the performance analysis of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO systems with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM transmission in the presence of cochannel interference (CCI in nonfading and flat Rayleigh fading environments. The use of optimum transmission (OT and maximum ratio transmission (MRT is considered and compared. In addition to determining precise results for the performance of QAM in the presence of CCI, it is our another aim in this article to examine the validity of the Gaussian interference model in the MRT-based systems. Nyquist pulse shaping and the effects of cross-channel intersymbol interference produced by CCI due to random symbol of the interfering signals are considered in the precise interference model. The error probability for each fading channel is estimated fast and accurately using Gauss quadrature rules which can approximate the probability density function (pdf of the output residual interference. The results of this article indicate that Gaussian interference model may overestimate the effects of interference, particularly, for high-order MRT-based MIMO systems over fading channels. In addition, OT cannot always outperform MRT due to the significant noise enhancement when OT intends to cancel CCI, depending on the combination of the antennas at the transmitter and the receiver, number of interference and the statistical characteristics of the channel.

  20. Computer System For Diagnostics of Mobile Machinery Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Antipenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for diagnostics of mechanical transmissions of mobile machinery is proposed in the paper. The method presupposes an application of computing equipment and its purpose is to decrease labor-consumption of diagnostics procedure and increase diagnostics efficiency.The method is based on comparison of duration of impulse periods picked up at primary transducers which are installed at transmission input and output. A signal picked up at a flywheel ring gear is taken as a reference signal.While selecting clearances of one and then the direction in speed-up - braking transmission regime changes in number of reference impulses at output provide data on angular clearance value in every gearing. As data are supplied registration and processing of results and forecasting of residual resource are to be done with the help of a program on the basis of realized algorithms for every gearing.

  1. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  2. Tuning of JET transmission line/antenna system during ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, J.

    1993-05-01

    The launched toroidal wave spectrum for ICRH and ICRH current drive is controlled by the phasing of the antenna currents. This causes imbalance in the transmission lines, which makes it more difficult to use the full power of the ICRH generators. Further, the generators are sensitive to the amount of reflected power. To reduce the amount of reflected power the transmission lines have to be constantly tuned. To study the tuning three models of the antenna are developed and compared with experimental results. A method is suggested which enables better usage of the generated power using a power correction unit to evenly distribute the power load between the generators. 4 refs, 24 figs

  3. The design of laser atmosphere transmission characteristic measurement system based on virtual instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan; Xu, Jiawen

    2010-10-01

    The laser atmosphere transmission characteristic affects the use of laser in engineering greatly. This paper designed a laser atmosphere transmission characteristic measurement system based on LabVIEW software, a product of NI. The system acquires laser spacial distribution by means of controlling NI image acquisition card and CCD through PCI, controls oscillograph to acquire laser time domain distribution through Ethernet and controls power meter to acquire energy of laser through RS-232. It processes the data acquired and analyses the laser atmosphere transmission characteristic using Matlab, which is powerful in data processing, through software interface. It provided a new way to study the laser atmosphere transmission characteristic.

  4. PROXY-BASED PATCHING STREAM TRANSMISSION STRATEGY IN MOBILE STREAMING MEDIA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Jianxin; Lei Zhengxiong; Ma Xutao; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    A mobile transmission strategy, PMPatching (Proxy-based Mobile Patching) transmission strategy is proposed, it applies to the proxy-based mobile streaming media system in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) network. Performance of the whole system can be improved by using patching stream to transmit anterior part of the suffix that had been played back, and by batching all the demands for the suffix arrived in prefix period and patching stream transmission threshold period. Experimental results show that this strategy can efficiently reduce average network transmission cost and number of channels consumed in central streaming media server.

  5. Optimization of output power and transmission efficiency of magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongge; Guo, Xiaoting; Cao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    Magnetically coupled resonance (MCR) wireless power transfer (WPT) system is a promising technology in electric energy transmission. But, if its system parameters are designed unreasonably, output power and transmission efficiency will be low. Therefore, optimized parameters design of MCR WPT has important research value. In the MCR WPT system with designated coil structure, the main parameters affecting output power and transmission efficiency are the distance between the coils, the resonance frequency and the resistance of the load. Based on the established mathematical model and the differential evolution algorithm, the change of output power and transmission efficiency with parameters can be simulated. From the simulation results, it can be seen that output power and transmission efficiency of the two-coil MCR WPT system and four-coil one with designated coil structure are improved. The simulation results confirm the validity of the optimization method for MCR WPT system with designated coil structure.

  6. A review on fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems: Part-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avagaddi Prasad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The countless extent of power systems and applications requires the improvement in suitable techniques for the fault classification in power transmission systems, to increase the efficiency of the systems and to avoid major damages. For this purpose, the technical literature proposes a large number of methods. The paper analyzes the technical literature, summarizing the most important methods that can be applied to fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems.The part 2 of the article is named “A review on fault classification methodologies in power transmission systems”. In this part 2 we discussed the advanced technologies developed by various researchers for fault classification in power transmission systems. Keywords: Transmission line protection, Protective relaying, Soft computing techniques

  7. Issues affecting the electricity transmission system in Mexico under a competitive integrated model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila Rosales, M.A.; Gonzalez Flores, J. [Federal Electricity Commission, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The electricity sector in Mexico is undergoing a process of significant structural change. The traditional industry framework has been exposed to new market structures and greater competition, both of which are being introduced by changing regulations regarding who can generate, transmit, distribute and sell electricity. Mexico's power industry is changing to a competitive integrated model. Electricity industry restructuring is partly based on the assumption that transmission systems should be flexible, reliable, and open to all exchanges no matter where the suppliers and consumers of energy are located and who they are. However, neither the existing transmission systems nor its management infrastructure can fully support this open exchange. This paper described the primary issues affecting the transmission system in Mexico under a competitive environment and a transmission expansion planning approach that took the uncertainties associated with the location and size of new generating power stations into consideration in order to produce least-cost and robust transmission plans. The paper described the planning process, including a rigorous analysis of the economics of the resulting transmission plans. Specifically, the paper described the current regulatory framework and supply adequacy as well as current procedures and methodologies for transmission management and expansion planning. The transmission planning methodology was also presented. This included a minimum cost analysis; profit analysis; and least-cost transmission plan. It was concluded that the transmission expansion planning approach stressed that a horizon year viewpoint was important because transmission additions have long-term use. The transmission expansion planning approach, further defined the process of selecting transmission projects as one of comparing and optimizing attributes such as near-term needs; long-term utilization; contribution to overall reliability; and favorable or least

  8. Influence of Shaft Torsional Stiffness on Dynamic Response of Four-Stage Main Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic response analysis has potential for increasing fatigue life of the components in the transmission of a multistage main transmission system. The calculated data can demonstrate the influence of shaft torsional stiffness on dynamic characteristics of the system. Detecting key shafts of the system and analyzing their sensitivity are important for the design of four-stage helicopter gear box. Lumped mass method is applied for dynamic modeling and Fourier method is used to solve differential equation of the system. Results of the analysis indicate that key shafts can be designed carefully to improve the performance of the transmission system.

  9. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  10. Dual-Hop VLC/RF Transmission System with Energy Harvesting Relay under Delay Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Gebali, Fayez; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a dual-hop visible light communication (VLC) / radio frequency (RF) transmission system to extend the coverage of indoor VLC systems. The relay between the two hops is able to harvest light energy from different

  11. Initial assessment: electromagnetic compatibility aspects of proposed SPS Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    An analysis of major concerns with regard to the effects on radio and electronic systems by the proposed Microwave Power Transmission System for transmitting power from a satellite solar power station to earth is presented. (LCL)

  12. Analysis of transmission efficiency of the superconducting resonance coil according the materials of cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Kyeong; Hwang, Jun Won; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The wireless power transfer (WPT) system using a magnetic resonance was based on magnetic resonance coupling of the transmission and the receiver coils. In these system, it is important to maintain a high quality-factor (Q-factor) to increase the transmission efficiency of WPT system. Our research team used a superconducting coil to increase the Q-factor of the magnetic resonance coil in WPT system. When the superconductor is applied in these system, we confirmed that transmission efficiency of WPT system was higher than normal conductor coil through a preceding study. The efficiency of the transmission and the receiver coil is affected by the magnetic shielding effect of materials around the coils. The magnetic shielding effect is dependent on the type, thickness, frequency, distance, shape of materials. Therefore, it is necessary to study the WPT system on the basis of these conditions. In this paper, the magnetic shield properties of the cooling system were analyzed using the High-Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS, Ansys) program. We have used the shielding materials such as plastic, aluminum and iron, etc. As a result, when we applied the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), the transmission efficiency of WPT was not affected because electromagnetic waves went through the FRP. On the other hand, in case of a iron and aluminum, transmission efficiency was decreased because of their electromagnetic shielding effect. Based on these results, the research to improve the transmission efficiency and reliability of WPT system is continuously necessary.

  13. Converting serial networks to Ethernet communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2008-07-01

    Many oil and gas producers and pipeline companies find themselves in an awkward position. They have invested millions of dollars in legacy serial communications systems and in most cases, millions more in older SCADA remote terminal units and electronic flow meters. There is a desire throughout most of the industry to convert these systems to Ethernet. This presentation will explore how Ethernet protocol offers advantages over the older serial communications in terms of peer to peer communication, faster polling cycles, and the ability to poll multiple devices at the same time. (author)

  14. Performance Evaluation on Transmission Tower-Line System with Passive Friction Dampers Subjected to Wind Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration control and performance evaluation on a transmission-tower line system by using friction dampers subjected to wind excitations are carried out in this study. The three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a transmission tower is firstly constructed. A two-dimensional lumped mass model of a transmission tower is developed for dynamic analysis. The analytical model of transmission tower-line system is proposed by taking the dynamic interaction between the tower and the transmission lines into consideration. The mechanical model of passive friction damper is presented by involving the effects of damper axial stiffness. The equation of motion of the transmission tower-line system incorporated with the friction dampers disturbed by wind excitations is established. A real transmission tower-line system is taken as an example to examine the feasibility and reliability of the proposed control approach. An extensive parameter study is carried out to find the optimal parameters of friction damper and to assess the effects of slipping force axial stiffness and hysteresis loop on control performance. The work on an example structure indicates that the application of friction dampers with optimal parameters could significantly reduce wind-induced responses of the transmission tower-line system.

  15. Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-Over-Fiber Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiupu Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linearization technologies that can be used for linearizing RoF transmission are reviewed. Three main linearization methods, i.e. electrical analog linearization, optical linearization, and electrical digital linearization are presented and compared. Analog linearization can be achieved using analog predistortion circuits, and can be used for suppression of odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as third and fifth order. Optical linearization includes mixed-polarization, dual-wavelength, optical channelization and the others, implemented in optical domain, to suppress both even and odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as second and third order. Digital predistortion has been a widely used linearization method for RF power amplifiers. However, digital linearization that requires analog to digital converter is severely limited to hundreds of MHz bandwidth. Instead, analog and optical linearization provide broadband linearization with up to tens of GHz. Therefore, for broadband radio over fiber transmission that can be used for future broadband cloud radio access networks, analog and optical linearization are more appropriate than digital linearization. Generally speaking, both analog and optical linearization are able to improve spur-free dynamic range greater than 10 dB over tens of GHz. In order for current digital linearization to be used for broadband radio over fiber transmission, the reduced linearization complexity and increased linearization bandwidth are required. Moreover, some digital linearization methods in which the complexity can be reduced, such as Hammerstein type, may be more promising and require further investigation.

  16. Line Capacity Expansion and Transmission Switching in Power Systems With Large-Scale Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Bronmo, Geir; Philpott, Andy B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2020 electricity production from wind power should constitute nearly 50% of electricity demand in Denmark. In this paper we look at optimal expansion of the transmission network in order to integrate 50% wind power in the system, while minimizing total fixed investment cost and expected cost...... of power generation. We allow for active switching of transmission elements to reduce congestion effects caused by Kirchhoff's voltage law. Results show that actively switching transmission lines may yield a better utilization of transmission networks with large-scale wind power and increase wind power...

  17. Research on Image Transmission System Based on 3G Communication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Zang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A wireless image real-time transmission system is designed by using 3G wireless communication platform and ARM + DSP embedded system. In the environment of 3G networks, the embedded equipment has realized the functions of coding, acquisition, network transmission, decoding and playing. It is realized for real-time video of intelligent control and video compression, storage and playback in the 3G embedded image transmission system. It is especially suitable for remote location or irregular cable network transmission conditions applications. It is shown that in the 3G network video files are transferred quickly. The real-time transmission of H.264 video is broadcasted smoothly, and color distortion is less. The server can control client by remote intelligent units.

  18. Mathematical modeling and fuzzy availability analysis for serial processes in the crystallization system of a sugar plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anil Kr.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Vikram

    2017-03-01

    The binary states, i.e., success or failed state assumptions used in conventional reliability are inappropriate for reliability analysis of complex industrial systems due to lack of sufficient probabilistic information. For large complex systems, the uncertainty of each individual parameter enhances the uncertainty of the system reliability. In this paper, the concept of fuzzy reliability has been used for reliability analysis of the system, and the effect of coverage factor, failure and repair rates of subsystems on fuzzy availability for fault-tolerant crystallization system of sugar plant is analyzed. Mathematical modeling of the system is carried out using the mnemonic rule to derive Chapman-Kolmogorov differential equations. These governing differential equations are solved with Runge-Kutta fourth-order method.

  19. 75 FR 81264 - Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-11-000] Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint... and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e (2006), Critical Path Transmission, LLC and...

  20. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  1. Nonlinear Seismic Behavior of Different Boundary Conditions of Transmission Line Systems under Earthquake Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear seismic behaviors of different boundary conditions of transmission line system under earthquake loading are investigated in this paper. The transmission lines are modeled by cable element accounting for the nonlinearity of the cable. For the suspension type, three towers and two span lines with spring model (Model 1 and three towers and four span lines’ model (Model 2 are established, respectively. For the tension type, three towers and two span lines’ model (Model 3 and three towers and four span lines’ model (Model 4 are created, respectively. The frequencies of the transmission towers and transmission lines of the suspension type and tension type are calculated, respectively. The responses of the suspension type and tension type are investigated using nonlinear time history analysis method, respectively. The results show that the responses of the transmission tower and transmission line of the two models of the suspension type are slightly different. However, the responses of transmission tower and transmission line of the two models of the tension type are significantly different. Therefore, in order to obtain accurate results, a reasonable model should be considered. The results could provide a reference for the seismic analysis of the transmission tower-line system.

  2. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  3. Performance Analysis of a Voltage Source Converter (VSC based HVDC Transmission System under Faulted Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri RABIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltage Source Converter (VSC based HVDC transmission technology hasbeen selected as the basis for several recent projects due to its controllability,compact modular design, ease of system interface, and low environmentalimpact. This paper investigates the dynamic performance of a 200MW,±100kV VSC-HVDC transmission system under some faulted conditionsusing MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results confirm the satisfactoryperformance of the proposed system under active and reactive powervariations and fault conditions.

  4. Noise and signal interference in optical fiber transmission systems an optimum design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bottacchi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to noise and signal interference in optical fiber communications Noise and Signal Interference in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems is a compendium on specific topics within optical fiber transmission and the optimization process of the system design. It offers comprehensive treatment of noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) components affecting optical fiber communications systems, containing coverage on noise from the light source, the fiber and the receiver. The ISI is modeled with a statistical approach, leading to new useful computational m

  5. Transmission prices in the electric system. Technical constraints and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidori, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article analyses the two main models at the core of today's theoretical discussion on transmission pricing in electricity sectors under competition. The first aim of the paper is showing how technical constraints that characterise transmission systems may affect energy production and transmission and therefore the definition of the price system for using the electric grid. The second aim of the paper is showing how it is possible to suggest solutions, although not free from limitations, that can be used for an efficient management of electric systems characterised by generation and consumption sectors under competition [it

  6. Implementation of a new composting technology, serial self-turning reactor system, for municipal solid waste management in a small community in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Bureecam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available “Serial Self-turning Reactors” (STR is an innovative technology, which was developed to be an alternative organicwaste treatment for small communities in Thailand. It is a vertical-flow composting system which consists of a set of aerobicreactors sandwiched with a set of self-turning units. Combination of those components results to a high performance compostingwith capacity flexible. The pilot-scaled prototype of the new technology has been tested to ensure its effectiveness.This paper focuses on the implementation of STR technology. The study consisted of four parts: 1 selection of a targetcommunity and investigation of its current MSW practice, 2 preparation of a proposal which STR incorporated would andsubmit to the university’s administration for approval, 3 establishment of a demonstration plant and trial on actual practice,and 4 discussion and evaluation of the new technology in general and economical aspects. Thammasat University Rangsitcampus was selected to be the target community to approach the new technology. An improvement program, namely“Recycling and Composting Pretreatment Program” (RCPP was proposed and implemented. Trial operation on plant-scaleperformed effectively with low running costs. An economic evaluation of STR was carried out to generalize the system.

  7. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  8. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  9. Interface of data transmission for a transcutaneous communication system using the human body as transmission medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kato, Yoshikuni; Seino, Kazuyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2012-03-01

    We have been developing a new transcutaneous communication system (TCS) that uses the human body as an electrical conductive medium. We studied an interface circuit of the TCS in order to optimize the leading data current into the human body effectively. Two types of LC circuits were examined for the interface circuit, one was an LC series-parallel circuit, and the other was a parallel-connected LC circuit. The LC series-parallel circuit connected to the body could be tuned to a resonant frequency, and the frequency was determined by the values of an external inductor and an external capacitor. Permittivity of the body did not influence the electrical resonance. Connection of the LC series-parallel circuit to the body degraded the quality factor Q because of the conductivity of the body. However, the LC parallel-connected circuit when connected to the body did not indicate electrical resonance. The LC series-parallel circuit restricts a direct current and a low-frequency current to flow into the body; thus, it can prevent a patient from getting a shock. According to the above results, an LC series-parallel circuit is an optimum interface circuit between the TCS and the body for leading data current into the body effectively and safely.

  10. A high-speed transmission method for large-scale marine seismic prospecting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KeZhu, Song; Ping, Cao; JunFeng, Yang; FuMing, Ruan

    2012-01-01

    A marine seismic prospecting system is a kind of data acquisition and transmission system with large-scale coverage and synchronous multi-node acquisition. In this kind of system, data transmission is a fundamental and difficult technique. In this paper, a high-speed data-transmission method is proposed, its implications and limitations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The method we propose has obvious advantages over traditional techniques with respect to long-distance operation, high speed, and real-time transmission. A marine seismic system with four streamers, each 6000 m long and capable of supporting up to 1920 channels, was designed and built based on this method. The effective transmission baud rate of this system was found to reach up to 240 Mbps, while the minimum sampling interval time was as short as 0.25 ms. This system was found to achieve a good synchronization: 83 ns. Laboratory and in situ experiments showed that this marine-prospecting system could work correctly and robustly, which verifies the feasibility and validity of the method proposed in this paper. In addition to the marine seismic applications, this method can also be used in land seismic applications and certain other transmission applications such as environmental or engineering monitoring systems. (paper)

  11. A high-speed transmission method for large-scale marine seismic prospecting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    KeZhu, Song; Ping, Cao; JunFeng, Yang; FuMing, Ruan

    2012-12-01

    A marine seismic prospecting system is a kind of data acquisition and transmission system with large-scale coverage and synchronous multi-node acquisition. In this kind of system, data transmission is a fundamental and difficult technique. In this paper, a high-speed data-transmission method is proposed, its implications and limitations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The method we propose has obvious advantages over traditional techniques with respect to long-distance operation, high speed, and real-time transmission. A marine seismic system with four streamers, each 6000 m long and capable of supporting up to 1920 channels, was designed and built based on this method. The effective transmission baud rate of this system was found to reach up to 240 Mbps, while the minimum sampling interval time was as short as 0.25 ms. This system was found to achieve a good synchronization: 83 ns. Laboratory and in situ experiments showed that this marine-prospecting system could work correctly and robustly, which verifies the feasibility and validity of the method proposed in this paper. In addition to the marine seismic applications, this method can also be used in land seismic applications and certain other transmission applications such as environmental or engineering monitoring systems.

  12. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  13. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  14. Modeling of leak detection system for high pressure transmission system of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.; Paracha, Z.J.; Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Gas Industry can be considered as one of the most important industries in the economy of any country. Safe Transportation of Gas is thus considered to be vital because interruption of Supply of Gas to consumers not only causes domestic problems but also loss of revenue to country. Now most of power generation Sector has switched over their system to Natural Gas. So, interruption of supply to this sector can cause a lot of problems. This paper has provided assessment of technology approach and formulated this approach for Leak Detection Model in High Pressure Transmission system for current and future operations, which will improve the efficiency of any transmission company to a great extent. This model can be extremely helpful in conditions of Rupture Emergencies or Leakage because of corrosive conditions of Pipeline to manage the situation of resources in pipeline network. Any exceptional readings or messages should alert the user to the fact that something is wrong with the system. Such a system helps a lot in the safe and efficient management of pipeline network. The data and information provided by the Leak Detection System applications will allow for efficient and safe pipeline operation maximizing profitability over the pipeline's service lifetime. (author)

  15. 78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... opportunity for each of the eastern Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs)/Independent System Operators... PJM. The report summarizes the approaches taken by each of these RTOs/ISOs with respect to these...

  16. CAMEX-4 DC-8 INFORMATION COLLECTION AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Camex-4 DC-8 Information Collection and Transmission System (ICATS) is designed to: 1) interface and process avionics and environmental paramaters from the...

  17. A Study on the Application for Enhancing the Transmission Capability of the KEPCO Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Han; Kwon, Tea Won; Whang, Jong Young; Lee, Gun Joon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Chang, Byung Hoon; Min, Wan Ki [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Moon; Park, Jong Gun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Joong [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Tae Kwu; Choi, Kwu Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of stability for power system in 2000 year and 2006 year by using the analysis of real power system. Comparative investigation of the conventional transmission line upgrading methods such as HVDC, HOP, new conductor scheme. Investigation of FACTS, the recent transmission line upgrading method, with respect to the aspect of technique and cost and effect analysis when this method is applied to real power system. Development of the evaluation method of transmission type that should be considered when above method is applied to real power system with respect to aspect of technique and cost. Development of a long-range plan for the transmission capacity upgrading and the evaluation method of reliability. (author).

  18. Higher order capacity statistics of multi-hop transmission systems over Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Tabassum, Hina; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact analytical expression to evaluate the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify and forward (AF) multihop transmission systems operating over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we present

  19. Training-based Channel Estimation for Signal Equalization and OPM in 16-QAM Optical Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittalà, Fabio; Hauske, Fabian N.; Ye, Yabin

    2012-01-01

    Efficient channel estimation for signal equalization and OPM based on short CAZAC sequences with QPSK and 8PSK constellation formats is demonstrated in a 224-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM optical linear transmission system....

  20. The PASERO Project: parallel and serial readout systems for gas proportional synchrotron radiation X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, M H J; Briquet-Laugier, F; Epstein, A; Sheldon, S; Beloeuvre, E; Gabriel, A; Hervé, C; Kocsis, M; Koschuch, A; Laggner, P; Leingartner, W; Raad-Iseli, C D; Reimann, T; Golding, F; Torki, K

    2001-01-01

    A project aiming at producing more efficient position sensitive gas proportional detectors and readout systems is presented. An area detector with reduced electrode spacing and a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and two time to digital convertors (TDC) based on ASICs were produced. The first TDC, intended for use with linear detectors, relies on time to space conversion, whereas the second one, for area detectors, uses a ring oscillator with a phase locked loop. A parallel readout system for multi-anode detectors aiming at a maximum count rate extensively uses RISC microcontrollers. An electronic simulator of linear detectors built for test purposes and a mechanical chopper used for attenuation of the X-ray beam are also briefly described.

  1. Calculation and application of energy transaction allocation factors in electric power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Aniss

    The ability to allocate the active power (MW) loading on transmission lines and transformers, is the basis of the "flow based" transmission allocation system developed by the North American Electric Reliability Council. In such a system, the active power flows must be allocated to each line or transformer in proportion to the active power being transmitted by each transaction imposed on the system. Currently, this is accomplished through the use of the linear Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs). Unfortunately, no linear allocation models exist for other energy transmission quantities, such as MW and MVAR losses, MVAR and MVA flows, etc. Early allocation schemes were developed to allocate MW losses due to transactions to branches in a transmission system, however they exhibited diminished accuracy, since most of them are based on linear power flow modeling of the transmission system. This thesis presents a new methodology to calculate Energy Transaction Allocation factors (ETA factors, or eta factors), using the well-known process of integration of a first derivative function, as well as consistent and well-established mathematical and AC power flow models. The factors give a highly accurate allocation of any non-linear system quantity to transactions placed on the transmission system. The thesis also extends the new ETA factors calculation procedure to restructure a new economic dispatch scheme where multiple sets of generators are economically dispatched to meet their corresponding load and their share of the losses.

  2. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H; Yoshimi, A; Takemura, K; Tanaka, A; Douseki, T

    2015-01-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs. (paper)

  3. Massive WDM and TDM Soliton Transmission Systems : a ROSC Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This book summarizes the proceedings of the invited talks presented at the “International Symposium on Massive TDM and WDM Optical Soliton Tra- mission Systems” held in Kyoto during November 9–12, 1999. The symposium is the third of the series organized by Research Group for Optical Soliton C- munications (ROSC) chaired by Akira Hasegawa. The research group, ROSC, was established in Japan in April 1995 with a support of the Japanese Ministry of Post and Telecommunications to promote collaboration and information - change among communication service companies, communication industries and academic circles in the theory and application of optical solitons. The symposium attracted enthusiastic response from worldwide researchers in the field of soliton based communications and intensive discussions were made. In the symposium held in 1997, new concept of soliton transmission based on dispersion management of optical fibers were presented. This new soliton is now called the dispersion managed soliton. The p...

  4. Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Page, Jason S [Kennewick, WA; Kelly, Ryan T [Wet Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02

    A system and method are disclosed that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. A novel "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates the electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer.

  5. Generic transmission zeros in time-reversal symmetric single channel transport through quasi-1d systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Wh study phase coherent transport in a single channel system using the scattering matrix approach. It is show that the Friedel sum rule and the time-reversal symmetry result in the generic appearance of transmission zeros in quasi-1d systems. The transmission zeros naturally lead to abrupt phase changes (without any intrinsic energy scale) and in-phase resonances, thus providing insights to recent experiments on phase coherent transport through a quantum dot

  6. Relocatable fixation systems in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Accuracy of serial CT scans and patient acceptance in a randomized design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theelen, A; Martens, J; Bosmans, G; Houben, R; Jager, J J; Rutten, I; Lambin, P; Minken, A W; Baumert, B G

    2012-01-01

    The goal was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of three different fixation systems for stereotactic radiotherapy and to evaluate patients' acceptance for all fixations. A total of 16 consecutive patients with brain tumours undergoing fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SCRT) were enrolled after informed consent (Clinical trials.gov: NCT00181350). Fixation systems evaluated were the BrainLAB® mask, with and without custom made bite-block (fixations S and A) and a homemade neck support with bite-block (fixation B) based on the BrainLAB® frame. The sequence of measurements was evaluated in a randomized manner with a cross-over design and patients' acceptance by a questionnaire. The mean three-dimensional (3D) displacement and standard deviations were 1.16 ± 0.68 mm for fixation S, 1.92 ± 1.28 and 1.70 ± 0.83 mm for fixations A and B, respectively. There was a significant improvement of the overall alignment (3D vector) when using the standard fixation instead of fixation A or B in the craniocaudal direction (p = 0.037). Rotational deviations were significantly less for the standard fixation S in relation to fixations A (p = 0.005) and B (p = 0.03). EPI imaging with off-line correction further improved reproducibility. Five out of 8 patients preferred the neck support with the bite-block. The mask fixation system in conjunction with a bite-block is the most accurate fixation for SCRT reducing craniocaudal and rotational movements. Patients favoured the more comfortable but less accurate neck support. To optimize the accuracy of SCRT, additional regular portal imaging is warranted.

  7. Relocatable fixation systems in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Accuracy of serial CT scans and patient acceptance in a randomized design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theelen, A.; Martens, J.; Bosmans, G.; Houben, R.; Jager, J.J.; Rutten, I.; Lambin, P.; Baumert, B.G.; Minken, A.W.; Radiotherapeutic Inst. RISO, Deventer

    2012-01-01

    The goal was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of three different fixation systems for stereotactic radiotherapy and to evaluate patients' acceptance for all fixations. Methods A total of 16 consecutive patients with brain tumours undergoing fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SCRT) were enrolled after informed consent (Clinical trials.gov: NCT00181350). Fixation systems evaluated were the BrainLAB registered mask, with and without custom made bite-block (fixations S and A) and a homemade neck support with bite-block (fixation B) based on the BrainLAB registered frame. The sequence of measurements was evaluated in a randomized manner with a cross-over design and patients' acceptance by a questionnaire. Results The mean three-dimensional (3D) displacement and standard deviations were 1.16 ± 0.68 mm for fixation S, 1.92 ± 1.28 and 1.70 ± 0.83 mm for fixations A and B, respectively. There was a significant improvement of the overall alignment (3D vector) when using the standard fixation instead of fixation A or B in the craniocaudal direction (p = 0.037). Rotational deviations were significantly less for the standard fixation S in relation to fixations A (p = 0.005) and B (p = 0.03). EPI imaging with off-line correction further improved reproducibility. Five out of 8 patients preferred the neck support with the bite-block. Conclusion The mask fixation system in conjunction with a bite-block is the most accurate fixation for SCRT reducing craniocaudal and rotational movements. Patients favoured the more comfortable but less accurate neck support. To optimize the accuracy of SCRT, additional regular portal imaging is warranted. (orig.)

  8. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  9. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  10. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Loefstedt, B.; Zurfluh, E.

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

  11. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  12. Long-Haul Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over Low-Crosstalk Heterogeneous 32-Core Transmission Line Using Partial Recirculating Loop System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Shibahara, Kohki; Ye, Feihong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present long-haul 32-core dense space division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission over a single-mode multicore transmission line. We developed a low-crosstalk heterogeneous 32-core fiber with a square lattice arrangement, and a novel partial recirculating loop system...

  13. Combination of AC Transmission Expansion Planning and Reactive Power Planning in the restructured power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Hemmati, Reza; Parastegari, Moein

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► To overcome the disadvantages of DC model in Transmission Expansion Planning, AC model should be used. ► The Transmission Expansion Planning associated with Reactive Power Planning results in fewer new transmission lines. ► Electricity market concepts should be considered in Transmission Expansion Planning problem. ► Reliability aspects should be considered in Transmission Expansion Planning problem. ► Particle Swarm Optimization is a suitable optimization method to solve Transmission Expansion Planning problem. - Abstract: Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is an important issue in power system studies. It involves decisions on location and number of new transmission lines. Before deregulation of the power system, the goal of TEP problem was investment cost minimization. But in the restructured power system, nodal prices, congestion management, congestion surplus and so on, have been considered too. In this paper, an AC model of TEP problem (AC-TEP) associated with Reactive Power Planning (RPP) is presented. The goals of the proposed planning problem are to minimize investment cost and maximize social benefit at the same time. In the proposed planning problem, in order to improve the reliability of the system the Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) index of the system is limited by a constraint. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation method is used to determine the EENS. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to solve the proposed planning problem which is a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem. Simulation results on Garver and RTS systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed planning problem for reduction of the total investment cost, EENS index and also increasing social welfare of the system.

  14. System Reliability Evaluation of Data Transmission in Commercial Banks with Multiple Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kuei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to assess the system reliability of electronic transaction data transmissions made by commercial banks in terms of stochastic flow network. System reliability is defined as the probability of demand satisfaction and it can be used to measure quality of service. In this paper, we study the system reliability of data transmission from the headquarters of a commercial bank to its multiple branches. The network structure of the bank and the probability of successful data transmission are obtained through the collection of real data. The system reliability, calculated using the minimal path method and the recursive sum of disjoint products algorithm, provides banking managers with a view to comprehend the current state of the entire system. Besides, the system reliability can be used not only as a measurement of quality of service, but also an improvement reference of the system by adopting sensitivity analysis.

  15. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka’s NPP candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liun, Edwaren, E-mail: edwaren@batan.go.id; Suparman, E-mail: edwaren@batan.go.id [Centre for Nuclear Energy Development, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  16. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka’s NPP candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-01-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different

  17. A Serializer ASIC at 5 Gbps for Detector Front-end Electronics Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Liu, T; Xiang, A; Ye, J

    2010-01-01

    High speed and ultra low power serial data transmission over fiber optics plays an essential roll in detector front-end electronics readout for experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end readout upgrade for the sLHC calls for an optical link system with a data bandwidth of 100 Gbps per each front-end board (FEB), a factor of 62 increase compared with the present optical link system. The transmitter of this optical link will have to withstand the radiation environment where the front-end crates are situated, and stay within the current power dissipation budget limited by the present FEB cooling capacity. To meet these challenges, we developed a 16:1 serializer based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS technology. This serializer, designed to work at 5 Gbps, is a key component in an optical link system. Test results of this ASIC will be reported. A system design for the 100 Gbps optical link system will also be presented, with discussions about key components identi...

  18. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  19. Optimisation of Transmission Systems by use of Phase Shifting Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verboomen, J

    2008-10-13

    In this thesis, transmission grids with PSTs (Phase Shifting Transformers) are investigated. In particular, the following goals are put forward: (a) The analysis and quantification of the impact of a PST on a meshed grid. This includes the development of models for the device; (b) The development of methods to obtain optimal coordination of several PSTs in a meshed grid. An objective function should be formulated, and an optimisation method must be adopted to solve the problem; and (c) The investigation of different strategies to use a PST. Chapter 2 gives a short overview of active power flow controlling devices. In chapter 3, a first step towards optimal PST coordination is taken. In chapter 4, metaheuristic optimisation methods are discussed. Chapter 5 introduces DC load flow approximations, leading to analytically closed equations that describe the relation between PST settings and active power flows. In chapter 6, some applications of the methods that are developed in earlier chapters are presented. Chapter 7 contains the conclusions of this thesis, as well as recommendations for future work.

  20. Theoretical analysis of a wind heating conversion and long distance transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Bing-Chuan; Nian, Yong-Le; Han, Bing-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel long distance wind power heating system was proposed. • Heat losses could be reduced effectively due to latent heat transmission. • Power consumption and cost would drop greatly compared to hot water convey system. • The maximum transmission distance is 10 times that of conventional system. - Abstract: As a clean and renewable energy, wind power gets a rapid growth in recent years. With the increasing proportion of wind power generation, the fluctuation and intermittency of wind energy impedes the safe and stable operation of national power grids, which causes wind curtailment and energy waste, hindering further development of wind power industry in China. To solve this problem, wind heating conversion was proposed. However, long distance transmission between wind fields and residential areas for thermal energy is an urgent issue for wind heating. This paper presents a novel wind heating conversion and long distance transmission system. A simple device was utilized for wind heating conversion in the present system, then thermal energy was transported to heat demand site through latent heat transmission of the working fluids. A model of the novel system was built and thermodynamics analysis showed that maximum transmission distance of the novel system could extended to 240 km, 9.6 times of that of typical hot water transmission system. And the novel system also could cut down the cost by greatly reducing pump work and pipe diameter. In addition, efficiency and circulation ratio was almost unchanged while wind power density increased from 350 W/m 2 to 650 W/m 2 .

  1. On the Performance Evaluation of a MIMO-WCDMA Transmission Architecture for Building Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsampasis, Eleftherios; Gkonis, Panagiotis K; Trakadas, Panagiotis; Zahariadis, Theodοre

    2018-01-08

    The goal of this study was to investigate the performance of a realistic wireless sensor nodes deployment in order to support modern building management systems (BMSs). A three-floor building orientation is taken into account, where each node is equipped with a multi-antenna system while a central base station (BS) collects and processes all received information. The BS is also equipped with multiple antennas; hence, a multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) system is formulated. Due to the multiple reflections during transmission in the inner of the building, a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) physical layer protocol has been considered, which has already been adopted for third-generation (3G) mobile networks. Results are presented for various MIMO orientations, where the mean transmission power per node is considered as an output metric for a specific signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirement and number of resolvable multipath components. In the first set of presented results, the effects of multiple access interference on overall transmission power are highlighted. As the number of mobile nodes per floor or the requested transmission rate increases, MIMO systems of a higher order should be deployed in order to maintain transmission power at adequate levels. In the second set of results, a comparison is performed among transmission in diversity combining and spatial multiplexing mode, which clearly indicate that the first case is the most appropriate solution for indoor communications.

  2. Design, control and application of modular multilevel converters for HVDC transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharifabadi, Kamran; Nee, Hans-Peter; Norrga, Staffan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems is a comprehensive guide to semiconductor technologies applicable for MMC design, component sizing control, modulation, and application of the MMC technology for HVDC transmission. Separated into three distinct parts, the first offers an overview of MMC technology, including information on converter component sizing, Control and Communication, Protection and Fault Management, and Generic Modelling and Simulation. The second covers the applications of MMC in offshore WPP, including planning, technical and economic requirements and optimization options, fault management, dynamic and transient stability. Finally, the third chapter explores the applications of MMC in HVDC transmission and Multi Terminal configurations, including Supergrids.

  3. An applicable 5.8 GHz wireless power transmission system with rough beamforming to Project Loon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jun Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent, Google proposed the Project Loon being developed with the mission of providing internet access to rural and remote areas using high-altitude balloons. In this paper, we describe an applicable prototype of 5.8 GHz wireless power transmission system with rough beamforming method to Project Loon. From the measurement results, transmit beamforming phased array antenna can transmit power more efficiently compared to a horn antenna and array antenna without beamforming with increasing the transmission distance. For the transmission distance of 1000 mm, transmit beamforming phased array antenna can obtain higher received power about 1.46 times compared to array antenna without transmit beamforming.

  4. Transmission System Vegetation Management Program. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for Bonneville and the public, and interfere with their ability to maintain these facilities. They need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase their program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools they can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would favor a management

  5. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  6. Analysis of Basic Transmission Networks for Integrated Ship Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Granum-Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Description of a computer network for Integrated Ship Control Systems which is going to be developed as part of an EC-project. Today equipment of different make are not able to communicate with each other because most often each supplier of ISC systems has got their own proprietary network.....

  7. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  8. Carbon footprint of the Danish electricity transmission and distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    . The purpose was to evaluate the potential importance of environmental impacts associated with T&D in current and future electricity systems. Including the emissions from electricity T&D is needed to provide a full carbon footprint of electricity systems, and is essential to properly assess the environmental...

  9. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  10. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  11. Coordinated Transmissions to Direct and Relayed Users in Wireless Cellular Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar; Kaneko, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    The ideas of wireless network coding at the physical layer promise high throughput gains in wireless systems with relays and multi–way traffic flows. This gain can be ascribed to two principles: (1) joint transmission of multiple communication flows and (2) usage of a priori information to cancel...... the interference. In this paper we use these principles to devise new transmission schemes in wireless cellular systems that feature both users served directly by the base stations (direct users) and users served through relays (relayed users). We present four different schemes for coordinated transmission...... of uplink and downlink traffic in which one direct and one relayed user are served. These schemes are then used as building blocks in multi–user scenarios, where we present several schemes for scheduling pairs of users for coordinated transmissions. The optimal scheme involves exhaustive search of the best...

  12. Transmission performance of a 400 Gbit s−1 all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jing; Xia, Min; Li, Wei; Yang, Kecheng; Liu, Deming; Huang, Benxiong

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a 400 Gbit s −1 all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) transmission system is researched with the effects of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The numerical simulation results show that the AO-OFDM system can provide a higher spectral efficiency (SE) and a better sensitivity than a dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system. The accumulated dispersion tolerance of the system reaches 330 ps nm −1 . When transmitted over single-span 80 km single-mode fiber (SMF), AO-OFDM signals have a 1.5 dB power penalty at BER=10 −3 due to the fiber Kerr nonlinearities, and the receiver sensitivity of the AO-OFDM system is obviously degraded with increasing incident optical power. In multispan transmission, the interaction of the fiber Kerr nonlinearity with the ASE noise is analyzed. A 1320 km maximum transmission distance is realized at 0 dBm incident optical power. The transmission discount due to the ASE noise and fiber nonlinearities in the AO-OFDM system is calculated. Fiber Kerr nonlinearities impose a greater limitation on the performance of the AO-OFDM system for long-distance transmission. All results clearly indicate the feasibility of AO-OFDM technology for next generation 400 Gbit s −1 fiber communication and multiservice networks. (paper)

  13. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  14. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  15. Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifabadi, Kamran; Harnefors, Lennart; Nee, Hans-Peter

    distinct parts, the first offers an overview of MMC technology, including information on converter component sizing, Control and Communication, Protection and Fault Management, and Generic Modelling and Simulation. The second covers the applications of MMC in offshore WPP, including planning, technical......Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems is a comprehensive guide to semiconductor technologies applicable for MMC design, component sizing control, modulation, and application of the MMC technology for HVDC transmission. Separated into three...

  16. Development and Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems for Wireless ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variations in the magnetic field distribution and power transmission efficiency, resulting from changes in the relative positions of the transmitting and receiving coils, for electromagnetic induction-type wireless power transmission using an elliptical receive coil. Results of simulations using a high-frequency structure simulator were compared to actual measurement results. The simulations showed that the transmission efficiency could be maintained relatively stable even if the alignment between the transmitting and receiving coils was changed to some extent. When the centre of the receiving coil was perfectly aligned with the centre of the transmitting coil, the transmission efficiency was in the maximum; however, the degree of decrease in the transmission efficiency was small even if the centre of the receiving coil moved by ±10 mm from the centre of the transmitting coil. Therefore, it is expected that the performance of the wireless power transmission system will not be degraded significantly even if perfect alignment is not maintained. Animal experiments confirmed good ECG signals for the simulation conditions. The results suggested a standardized application method of wireless transmission in the utilization of wireless power for implantable sensors.

  17. System of automatic control over data Acquisition and Transmission to IGR NNC RK Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, I.I.; Gordienko, D.D.; Kunakov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Automated system for seismic and acoustic data acquisition and transmission in real time was established in Data Center IGR NNC RK, which functions very successively. The system monitors quality and volume of acquired information and also controls the status of the system and communication channels. Statistical data on system operation are accumulated in created database. Information on system status is reflected on the Center Web page. (author)

  18. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  19. Optimal Capacity Proportion and Distribution Planning of Wind, Photovoltaic and Hydro Power in Bundled Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X.; Tang, Q.; Li, T.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhang, X.; Ye, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system attends to become common in Northwest and Southwest of China. To make better use of the power complementary characteristic of different power sources, the installed capacity proportion of wind, photovoltaic and hydro power, and their capacity distribution for each integration node is a significant issue to be solved in power system planning stage. An optimal capacity proportion and capacity distribution model for wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system is proposed here, which considers the power out characteristic of power resources with different type and in different area based on real operation data. The transmission capacity limit of power grid is also considered in this paper. Simulation cases are tested referring to one real regional system in Southwest China for planning level year 2020. The results verify the effectiveness of the model in this paper.

  20. 47 CFR 73.687 - Transmission system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-frequency characteristic of a series inductance-resistance network having a time constant of 75 microseconds... operating precautions should be maintained because of pre-emphasis in the transmitting system. (3) TV... interference to adjacent spectrum land mobile radio service facilities. Where a TV station is authorized and...

  1. 47 CFR 73.644 - Subscription TV transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station must perform such tests and measurements to determine that the transmitted encoded signal conforms... the system being used. A copy of the measurement data is to be maintained in the station files and... being used of both the aural and visual baseband signals and the transmitted radiofrequency signals, and...

  2. A data transmission system for the centrifuge enrichment plant safeguards project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    A novel data transmission system was developed to enable the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO) in Sydney to monitor remotely the running of an experimental enrichment facility at the Lucas Heights Reserch Laboratories, using Telecom telephone lines. The system allowed ASO to monitor the enrichment, flows and activity in sensitive areas of the plant by means of a master computer at ASO and a slave computer at Lucas Heights. The slave computer sent requested data and scanned video pictures to determine intrusive changes to the plant. Detailed descriptions of the transmission system and method of operation are given, together with an outline of experience obtained during a three-month surveillance of the facility

  3. Control and RF-transmission in the ECW system on TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbe, N.J.; Sterk, A.B.; Kruisbergen, R.P.J.J.M.; Kruyt, O.G.; Bestebreurtje, M.E.; Prins, P.R.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Grift, A.F. van der; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time and multitasking control system has been developed for the new ECW system on the TEXTOR tokamak. It allows the system to be remotely controlled by client/server application. A quasi-optical transmission line has been installed which uses confocal mirrors and can be used for different frequencies (>100 GHz). It is suitable for transmission of up to two RF beams from different sources to the plasma. The launcher is mounted in a main horizontal port and injects a focused beam with a spot size of 2 cm (at 110 GHz) near the plasma axis. The launcher is steerable independently in the toroidal and poloidal directions

  4. Control and RF-transmission in the ECW system on TEXTOR-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbe, N.J.; Sterk, A.B. E-mail: sterk@rijnh.nl; Kruisbergen, R.P.J.J.M.; Kruyt, O.G.; Bestebreurtje, M.E.; Prins, P.R.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Grift, A.F. van der; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q

    2001-10-01

    A real-time and multitasking control system has been developed for the new ECW system on the TEXTOR tokamak. It allows the system to be remotely controlled by client/server application. A quasi-optical transmission line has been installed which uses confocal mirrors and can be used for different frequencies (>100 GHz). It is suitable for transmission of up to two RF beams from different sources to the plasma. The launcher is mounted in a main horizontal port and injects a focused beam with a spot size of 2 cm (at 110 GHz) near the plasma axis. The launcher is steerable independently in the toroidal and poloidal directions.

  5. Study on electromagnetic characteristics of the magnetic coupling resonant coil for the wireless power transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxian; Liu, Yiping; Wei, Yonggeng; Song, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    The resonant coil design is taken as the core technology in the magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission system, which achieves energy transmission by the coupling of the resonant coil. This paper studies the effect of the resonant coil on energy transmission and the efficiency of the system. Combining a two-coil with a three-coil system, the optimum design method for the resonant coil is given to propose a novel coil structure. First, the co-simulation methods of Pspice and Maxwell are used. When the coupling coefficient of the resonant coil is different, the relationship between system transmission efficiency, output power, and frequency is analyzed. When the self-inductance of the resonant coil is different, the relationship between the performance and frequency of the system transmission is analyzed. Then, two-coil and three-coil structure models are built, and the parameters of the magnetic field of the coils are calculated and analyzed using the finite element method. In the end, a dual E-type simulation circuit model is used to optimize the design of the novel resonance coil. The co-simulation results show that the coupling coefficients of the two-coil, three-coil, and novel coil systems are 0.017, 0.17 and 0.0126, respectively. The power loss of the novel coil is 16.4 mW. There is an obvious improvement in the three-coil system, which shows that the magnetic leakage of the field and the energy coupling are relatively small. The new structure coil has better performance, and the load loss is lower; it can improve the system output power and transmission efficiency.

  6. Configuration Synthesis of Novel Series-Parallel Hybrid Transmission Systems with Eight-Bar Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Tan Hoang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design approach for the configuration synthesis of series-parallel hybrid transmissions with eight-bar mechanisms. The final design consists of 54 mechanisms with eight members and twelve joints including a simple planetary gear train (PGT and a double planet PGT. Then, by using the techniques of power and clutch arrangements, new series-parallel hybrid transmissions are synthesized. The power arrangement process generates 97 clutchless hybrid systems. The clutch arrangement process generates 100 corresponding series-parallel transmissions. To demonstrate the feasibility of the synthesized configurations, a new hybrid transmission is selected as an example to analyze the working principle with operation modes and power flow paths.

  7. Absence of frequent herpesvirus transmission in a nonhuman primate predator-prey system in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sripriya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Metzger, Sonja; Nowak, Kathrin; De Nys, Helene; Boesch, Christophe; Wittig, Roman; Jarvis, Michael A; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Emergence of viruses into the human population by transmission from nonhuman primates (NHPs) represents a serious potential threat to human health that is primarily associated with the increased bushmeat trade. Transmission of RNA viruses across primate species appears to be relatively frequent. In contrast, DNA viruses appear to be largely host specific, suggesting low transmission potential. Herein, we use a primate predator-prey system to study the risk of herpesvirus transmission between different primate species in the wild. The system was comprised of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and their primary (western red colobus, Piliocolobus badius badius) and secondary (black-and-white colobus, Colobus polykomos) prey monkey species. NHP species were frequently observed to be coinfected with multiple beta- and gammaherpesviruses (including new cytomegalo- and rhadinoviruses). However, despite frequent exposure of chimpanzees to blood, organs, and bones of their herpesvirus-infected monkey prey, there was no evidence for cross-species herpesvirus transmission. These findings suggest that interspecies transmission of NHP beta- and gammaherpesviruses is, at most, a rare event in the wild.

  8. Microcontroller - Based System for Electrogastrography Monitoring Through Wireless Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddab, S.; Laghrouche, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive method for recording the electrical activity of the stomach. This paper presents a system designed for monitoring the EGG physiological variables of a patient outside the hospital environment. The signal acquisition is achieved by means of an ambulatory system carried by the patient and connected to him through skin electrodes. The acquired signal is transmitted via the Bluetooth to a mobile phone where the data are stored into the memory and then transferred via the GSM network to the processing and diagnostic unit in the hospital. EGG is usually contaminated by artefacts and other signals, which are sometimes difficult to remove. We have used a neural network method for motion artefacts removal and biological signal separation.

  9. Effect Through Broadcasting System Access Point For Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Marlina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most universities are already implementing wired and wireless network that is used to access integrated information systems and the Internet. At present it is important to do research on the influence of the broadcasting system through the access point for video transmitter learning in the university area. At every university computer network through the access point must also use the cable in its implementation. These networks require cables that will connect and transmit data from one computer to another computer. While wireless networks of computers connected through radio waves. This research will be a test or assessment of how the influence of the network using the WLAN access point for video broadcasting means learning from the server to the client. Instructional video broadcasting from the server to the client via the access point will be used for video broadcasting means of learning. This study aims to understand how to build a wireless network by using an access point. It also builds a computer server as instructional videos supporting software that can be used for video server that will be emitted by broadcasting via the access point and establish a system of transmitting video from the server to the client via the access point.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT X, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS (PART II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (2) SERVICING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (3) EXAMINING THE RANGE CONTROL VALVE, (4) EXAMINING THE LOCK-UP AND FLOW VALVE, (5) EXAMINING THE MAIN REGULATOR…

  11. A new inductive sensor for online health monitoring of mechanical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Metal debris in lubricating oil contains abundant information regarding the ageing and wear of mechanical transmission systems. The health condition of the lubricated systems can be indicated by the quantity and size of the metal particles, which may provide very early warnings of faults/ failure...

  12. Probe Improvement of Inductive Sensor for Online Health Monitoring of Mechanical Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Metal debris in lubricating oil contains abundant information regarding the ageing and wear/damage of mechanical transmission systems. The health condition of the lubricated systems can be indicated by the concentration and size of the metal abrasive particles, which may provide very early warnin...

  13. Dynamic models for transient stability analysis of transmission and distribution systems with distributed generation : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.C.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Generation is increasing in nowadays power systems. Small scale systems such as photovoltaic, biomass or small cogeneration plants are connected to the distribution level, while large wind farms will be connected to the transmission level. Both trends lead to a replacement of large

  14. Research on a practical telecom and CATV co-network transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Youju

    1998-12-01

    A practical co-network transmission system of Telecom and CATV over installed Telecom network is designed. The system, making use of WDM and other technologies, has undergone experiments and performance tests on the Public Switched Telephone Network, which illustrate that optical fiber telecommunication network could be thereby transformed into a unified broadband network integrating VOICE, DATA, and VEDIO expeditiously and conveniently.

  15. A full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Cheng, Chun-Jen; Lin, Che-Yu; Wan, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-06

    A full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission system consisting of one broadband light source (BLS), two optical interleavers (ILs), one intensity modulator, and one phase modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The downstream light is optically promoted from 10Gbps/25GHz microwave (MW) data signal to 10Gbps/100GHz and 10Gbps/50GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) data signals in fiber-wireless convergence, and intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal. For up-link transmission, the downstream light is phase-remodulated with 10Gbps/25GHz MW data signal in fiber-wireless convergence. Over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport, bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed to perform well in such full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission systems. This full-duplex 100-GHz/50-GHz/25-GHz/550-MHz lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative. This transmission system not only presents its advancement in the integration of fiber backbone and CATV/wireless feeder networks, but also it provides the advantages of a communication channel for higher data rates and bandwidth.

  16. Multiarea Transmission Cost Allocation in Large Power Systems Using the Nodal Pricing Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghayeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for transmission cost allocation (TCA in a large power system based on nodal pricing approach using the multi-area scheme. The nodal pricing approach is introduced to allocate the transmission costs by the control of nodal prices in a single area network. As the number of equations is dependent on the number of buses and generators, this method will be very time consuming for large power systems. To solve this problem, the present paper proposes a new algorithm based on multi-area approach for regulating the nodal prices, so that the simulation time is greatly reduced and therefore the TCA problem with nodal pricing approach will be applicable for large power systems. In addition, in this method the transmission costs are allocated to users more equitable. Since the higher transmission costs in an area having a higher reliability are paid only by users of that area in contrast with the single area method, in which these costs are allocated to all users regardless of their locations. The proposed method is implemented on the IEEE 118 bus test system which comprises three areas. Results show that with application of multi-area approach, the simulation time is greatly reduced and the transmission costs are also allocated to users with less variation in new nodal prices with respect to the single area approach.

  17. Identification of cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve Hervé; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    A major criteria initially used to localize cholinergic neuronal elements in nervous systems tissues that involve acetylcholine (ACh) as neurotransmitter is mainly based on immunochemical studies using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an enzyme which catalyzes ACh biosynthesis and the ACh degradative enzyme named acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Immunochemical studies using anti-ChAT monoclonal antibody have allowed the identification of neuronal processes and few types of cell somata that contain ChAT protein. In situ hybridization using cRNA probes to ChAT or AChE messenger RNA have brought new approaches to further identify cell bodies transcribing the ChAT or AChE genes. Combined application of all these techniques reveals a widespread expression of ChAT and AChE activities in the insect central nervous system and peripheral sensory neurons which implicates ACh as a key neurotransmitter. The discovery of the snake toxin alpha-bungatoxin has helped to identify nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In fact, nicotine when applied to insect neurons, resulted in the generation of an inward current through the activation of nicotinic receptors which were blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin. Thus, insect nAChRs have been divided into two categories, sensitive and insensitive to this snake toxin. Up to now, the recent characterization and distribution pattern of insect nAChR subunits and the biochemical evidence that the insect central nervous system contains different classes of cholinergic receptors indicated that ACh is involved in several sensory pathways.

  18. Polarization mode dispersion in optical fiber transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, John Charles

    The birefringence of optical fibers causes pulse broadening in fiber-optic communication systems. This phenomenon is known as polarization mode dispersion (PMD). PMD is one of the most important limiting factors for high capacity fiber-optic systems. A number of aspects of PMD are examined in this thesis. In Chapter 2 an expression is derived for the probability density function of the pulse broadening due to first-order PMD. This result is used to obtain an expression for the system limitation due to PMD. The birefringence of optical fibers is commonly simulated with the waveplate model. In Chapter 3 two standard versions of the waveplate model are introduced. In addition, a novel waveplate model is proposed. The characteristics of the three versions of the waveplate model are examined to confirm their suitability for use in subsequent chapters of the thesis. Simulations with the waveplate model are performed in Chapter 4 for three purposes: (1) to determine the impact of chromatic dispersion on the system limitation due to PMD, (2) to examine the effectiveness of three different PMD compensation techniques in the presence of chromatic dispersion, and (3) to examine the interaction of second-order chromatic dispersion with PMD. The simulations in Chapter 4 reveal that it is possible with one compensation technique to have output pulses that are narrower than the input pulses. In Chapter 5, this anomalous pulse narrowing is demonstrated analytically for a simple model of PMD and through experiment. It is also shown that this pulse narrowing can be explained as an interference phenomenon. Chapter 6 presents measurements of PMD and state of polarization on installed optical fibers. The PMD coefficients of 122 fibers are presented and the results are analyzed in terms of the age of the fibers and the type of cabling. Measurements of the time evolution of PMD and state of polarization are presented for fibers installed in both buried and aerial cables. The uncertainty

  19. HVDC transmission power conversion applications in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan-Ki; Jang, Gil-Soo; Lim, Seong-Joo; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    HVDC is a critical solution to several major problems encountered when trying to maintain systemic links and quality in large-scale renewable energy environments. HDVC can resolve a number of issues, including voltage stability of AC power networks, reducing fault current, and optimal management of electric power, ensuring the technology will play an increasingly important role in the electric power industry. To address the pressing need for an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the subject, Kim, Sood, Jang, Lim and Lee have collaborated to produce this key text and reference.  Combin

  20. A wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope for colon inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Shi, Yu; Zhu, Bingquan

    2012-07-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes (ACE) have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a double-layer solenoid pair primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. At least 500 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions and the safety restraints in a volume of Φ13 × 13 mm. The wireless power transmission system is integrated to an ACE and applied in animal experiments. The designed wireless power transmission is proved to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application.

  1. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  2. Health monitoring system for transmission shafts based on adaptive parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souflas, I.; Pezouvanis, A.; Ebrahimi, K. M.

    2018-05-01

    A health monitoring system for a transmission shaft is proposed. The solution is based on the real-time identification of the physical characteristics of the transmission shaft i.e. stiffness and damping coefficients, by using a physical oriented model and linear recursive identification. The efficacy of the suggested condition monitoring system is demonstrated on a prototype transient engine testing facility equipped with a transmission shaft capable of varying its physical properties. Simulation studies reveal that coupling shaft faults can be detected and isolated using the proposed condition monitoring system. Besides, the performance of various recursive identification algorithms is addressed. The results of this work recommend that the health status of engine dynamometer shafts can be monitored using a simple lumped-parameter shaft model and a linear recursive identification algorithm which makes the concept practically viable.

  3. Design of free-space optical transmission system in computer tomography equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Fu, Weiwei; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Traditional computer tomography (CT) based on capacitive coupling cannot satisfy the high data rate transmission requirement. We design and experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical transmission system for CT equipment at a data rate of 10 Gb / s. Two interchangeable sections of 12 pieces of fiber with equal length is fabricated and tested by our designed laser phase distance measurement system. By locating the 12 collimators in the edge of the circle wheel evenly, the optical propagation characteristics for the 12 wired and wireless paths are similar, which can satisfy the requirement of high-speed CT transmission system. After bit error rate (BER) measurement in several conditions, the BER performances are below the value of 10 - 11, which has the potential in the future application scenario of CT equipment.

  4. Design and control of electromagnetic clutch actuation system for automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Ashish; Prasanth, S.; Cherian, Fenin; Baskar, P.

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest towards Automatic Transmission in India as it provides better comfort and drivability. But the high cost of this system is limiting itself to be successful in the Indian markets. Due to this, Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) is considered which provides a better solution towards automation as it enhances the drivability and fuel consumption characteristics of a manual transmission at lower costs. However, torque lag and comfort are major issues with AMT which can be addressed by reducing the shift time. In this paper we describe an Electromagnetic Linear Clutch Actuator as a replacement to current electrohydraulic and electromechanical actuator. A control system for the actuator is presented and a clutch engagement strategy is also implemented which reduces the engagement time to 0.78 seconds while reducing jerk and torque lag. The actuator and control system is simulated on a MATLAB Simulink and agreeable results have been obtained.

  5. A Data Transmission Technique for Personal Health Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Fu Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the modular technique to design a personal health data transmitter (PHDT that is composed of the following components: (1 the core is an embedded signal chip, (2 three kinds of transmutation modules such as USB, RF, and UART, (3 an I2C interface is used to acquire the users data, and (4 through Internet it links to the cloud server to store the personal-health data. By the experiment, we find that the modular manner is feasible, stable of functional, integral, and accurate, while it is exploited to design the PHDT. For the experiment, we present each module algorithm to find that our system is very helpful to people.

  6. Cryogenic System for a High-Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed

  7. Adequacy assessment of composite generation and transmission systems incorporating wind energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi

    The development and utilization of wind energy for satisfying electrical demand has received considerable attention in recent years due to its tremendous environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. Electric power generation from wind energy behaves quite differently from that of conventional sources. The fundamentally different operating characteristics of wind energy facilities therefore affect power system reliability in a different manner than those of conventional systems. The reliability impact of such a highly variable energy source is an important aspect that must be assessed when the wind power penetration is significant. The focus of the research described in this thesis is on the utilization of state sampling Monte Carlo simulation in wind integrated bulk electric system reliability analysis and the application of these concepts in system planning and decision making. Load forecast uncertainty is an important factor in long range planning and system development. This thesis describes two approximate approaches developed to reduce the number of steps in a load duration curve which includes load forecast uncertainty, and to provide reasonably accurate generating and bulk system reliability index predictions. The developed approaches are illustrated by application to two composite test systems. A method of generating correlated random numbers with uniform distributions and a specified correlation coefficient in the state sampling method is proposed and used to conduct adequacy assessment in generating systems and in bulk electric systems containing correlated wind farms in this thesis. The studies described show that it is possible to use the state sampling Monte Carlo simulation technique to quantitatively assess the reliability implications associated with adding wind power to a composite generation and transmission system including the effects of multiple correlated wind sites. This is an important

  8. Higher order capacity statistics of multi-hop transmission systems over Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an exact analytical expression to evaluate the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify and forward (AF) multihop transmission systems operating over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we present simple and efficient closed-form expression to the higher order moments of the channel capacity of dual hop transmission system with Rayleigh fading channels. In order to analyze the behavior of the higher order capacity statistics and investigate the usefulness of the mathematical analysis, some selected numerical and simulation results are presented. Our results are found to be in perfect agreement. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Coordinated Direct and Relay Transmission with Interference Cancelation in Wireless Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Two-way relaying schemes in wireless systems obtain throughput gain by utilizing two features (1) jointly serve two communication flows, thus implementing network coding and (2) use of information that is a priori known to cancel interference and obtain the desired signal. Based on these principles......, we propose other schemes that bring throughput gains in wireless cellular systems, where relayed and direct transmissions are carried out in coordinated way. The results show that the coordinated transmission exhibit throughput improvement similar to the two–way relaying schemes....

  10. Fiber optic transmission system delivered to Fusion Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Mutsuo; Hiramoto, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Kunihiro

    1983-01-01

    In general there are many electromagnetically induced noises in the premises of factories, power plants and substations. Under such electrically bad environments, for the computer data transmission that needs high speed processing and high reliability, the optical fiber cable is superion to the coaxial cable or the flat-type cable in aspects of the inductionlessness and a wide bandwidth. Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd. has delivered and installed a computer data transmission system consisting of optical modems and optical fiber cables for connecting every experiment building in the premises of Fusion Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the outline of this system. (author)

  11. Environmental impacts of power plants and transmission lines in power system planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miracapillo, C.; Moreschini, G.; Rome Univ. 'La Sapienza'

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with a criterion to assess the environmental impacts of power plants and transmission lines in power system planning. First, the effects of hydro-plants, thermal plants and transmission lines are reviewed. Then, a number of methods for the evaluation of the environmental impacts of civil and industrial plants are described. A new criterion is proposed to introduce the evaluation of the environmental impact and related costs into methods for power system planning. Finally, the criterion is applied to a simple case

  12. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LOSSES IN THE SUPPLY SYSTEM OF ELECTRIFIED TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Bartłomiejczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of electric energy saving in public transport is currently becoming a key area of interest, a fact connected with both an increase in society’s environmental awareness and a rise in the prices of fuel and electricity. Electricity can be saved by reducing transmission losses in the supply system. The article presents a method of measurement and analysis of transmission losses in the supply system of electrified public transport on the example of trolleybus transport in Gdynia and Lublin in Poland.

  13. Pressure control of a pneumatic control system with a long transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Seong; Lee, Kwang Kuk; Choi, Myung Soo

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a robust controller to control pressure in a pneumatic pressure vessel with a long transmission line is proposed. Frequency response of transmission line using compressible fluid is changed by the flowing state of the fluid. So, if a fixed gain controller designed based on a model supposed the flowing state to a specific state, the performance of the control system could be degraded because of the modelling error. The controller designed in this study is composed of two parts. One is a feedback controller to improve a feedback characteristics and to compensate the influence of the variation of transfer characteristics of a transmission line owing to the change of flowing state and the other is a feed forward controller to regulate command following performance. The experimental results with the designed controller show that the robustness of the control system is achieved regardless of the change of the model of the transmission line. Therefore, the designed controller can be utilized for the performance improvement of a pressure control system with a long transmission line using compressible fluid

  14. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  15. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  16. ANASEC: a model for studying the operation security of a power transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batut, J; Dodu, J C [Electricite de France, 92 - Clamart

    1985-01-01

    Presently, planning studies for the EHV system are carried out using probabilistic models which allow for an assessment of the characteristic values linked to the power transmission system. Among these values, the unsupplied energy (UE) measures the performances of the system from the standpoint of service quality, whereas the availability of the system at a given moment is characterized by the unsupplied power (UP). The ANASEC model computes the mathematical expectation of the UP and UE due to transient losses of load for a fixed load point. To achieve this, the model simulates a great number of incidents liable to result in a progressive degradation of the system. Such a degradation results in the cascade tripping of transmission equipment and generation units through the interplay of protection devices and automata. This cascade tripping is due either to load transfers on the lines, or a loss of unit stability. Since 1983, the ANASEC model is used in the decision-making studies for the planning of EHV transmission systems. To the traditional components of the assets of a new transmission equipment (fuel saving and reduction in structural UE), the ANASEC model makes it possible to add its contribution to the improvement of operation security.

  17. Concept design of the high voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-03-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations -- such as the Channel Tunnel -- demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  18. Concept design of the high-voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations-such as the Channel Tunnel-demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  19. Fuzzy-Wavelet Based Double Line Transmission System Protection Scheme in the Presence of SVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Ravikumar; Shaik, Abdul Gafoor; Tulasi Ram, Sankara S.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the power transfer capability and efficient utilization of available transmission lines, improving the power system controllability and stability, power oscillation damping and voltage compensation have made strides and created Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) devices in recent decades. Shunt FACTS devices can have adverse effects on distance protection both in steady state and transient periods. Severe under reaching is the most important problem of relay which is caused by current injection at the point of connection to the system. Current absorption of compensator leads to overreach of relay. This work presents an efficient method based on wavelet transforms, fault detection, classification and location using Fuzzy logic technique which is almost independent of fault impedance, fault distance and fault inception angle. The proposed protection scheme is found to be fast, reliable and accurate for various types of faults on transmission lines with and without Static Var compensator at different locations and with various incidence angles.

  20. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Sanchez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Cappa, A.; Gama, J. de la; Olivares, J.; Garcia, R.; Chamorro, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs

  1. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring, Roger; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; Wake, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized

  2. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring,; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; /Fermilab; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized.

  3. Adaptable System Increasing the Transmission Speed and Reliability in Packet Network by Optimizing Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great diversity in the transmission technologies in current data networks. Individual technologies are in most cases incompatible at physical and partially also at the link layer of the reference ISO/OSI model. Network compatibility, as the ability to transmit data, is realizable through the third layer, which is able to guarantee the operation of the different devices across their technological differences. The proposed inverse packet multiplexer addresses increase of the speed and reliability of packet transmission to the third layer, and at the same time it increases the stability of the data communication by the regulation of the delay value during the transmission. This article presents implementation of a communication system and its verification in real conditions. The conclusion compares the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed control system.

  4. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  5. Serial Multimodality Imaging and 2-Year Clinical Outcomes of the Novel DESolve Novolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold System for the Treatment of Single De Novo Coronary Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizaid, Alexandre; Costa, Ricardo A; Schofer, Joachim; Ormiston, John; Maeng, Michael; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Botelho, Roberto V; Costa, J Ribamar; Chamié, Daniel; Abizaid, Andrea S; Castro, Juliana P; Morrison, Lynn; Toyloy, Sara; Bhat, Vinayak; Yan, John; Verheye, Stefan

    2016-03-28

    This study sought to report the late multimodality imaging and clinical outcomes of the novel poly-l-lactic-acid-based DESolve novolimus-eluting bioresorbable coronary scaffold for the treatment of de novo coronary lesions. Bioresorbable scaffolds are an alternative to drug-eluting metallic stents and provide temporary vascular scaffolding, which potentially may allow vessel restoration and reduce the risk of future adverse events. Overall, 126 patients were enrolled at 13 international sites between November 2011 and June 2012. The primary endpoint was in-scaffold late lumen loss at 6 months. Major adverse cardiac events, the main safety endpoint, were defined as the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization. All patients underwent angiography at 6 months. Serial intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography were performed in a subset of patients. The scaffold device success rate was 97% (n = 122 of 126), and procedural success was 100% (n = 122 of 122). The major adverse cardiac event rate was 3.3% (n = 4 of 122) at 6 months and 7.4% (n = 9 of 122) at 24 months, including 1 probable stent thrombosis within the first month. At 6-month angiographic follow-up, in-scaffold late lumen loss was 0.20 ± 0.32 mm. Paired intravascular ultrasound analysis demonstrated a significant increase in vessel, lumen and scaffold dimensions between post-procedure and 6-month follow-up, and strut-level optical coherence tomography analysis showed full strut coverage in 99 ± 1.7%. Our results showed favorable performance of the DESolve scaffold, effective inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, and for the first time, early luminal and scaffold growth at 6 months with sustained efficacy and safety through 2 years. (Elixir Medical Clinical Evaluation of the DESolve Novolimus Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold System-The DESolve Nx Trial; NCT02086045). Copyright © 2016 American College of

  6. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  7. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  8. Development of BLDC Electric Motor Control System In Hydraulic Servo Drive Based on Variable Hydrostatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tarasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern robotic systems require the use of servo drives. Owing to encoder and negative feedback these drives ensure highly accurate motion parameters. In case of autonomous systems drives must also have high power characteristics. Moreover, in most cases, it was impossible to select the motor so that the speed and torque on its shaft were in compliance with those of required by the actuator. To match these parameters different types of reducers are used. The article justifies and considers a selection criterion of the gear ratios for such transmission. For clarity, there is an example of selecting a motor and a gear for above transmission, taking into account the proposed criterion. In addition, the article discusses the advantages of using hydrostatic transmission in the drive, which monitors the angular position of the output level, in comparison with a mechanical gearbox. Due to the fact that, at the moment, BLDC motors have the best power characteristics, such a servo drive requires a special control system that will take into account the features of variable hydrostatic transmission and electric BLDC motor. Therefore, the paper proposes a structure of such a system and set out the principles of its construction. Various embodiments of sensor types that may be used in this system and their installation scheme explained.

  9. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  10. Transmission Characteristics of an OFDM signal for Power Line Communication System with High Bit Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira; Watanabe, Yosuke; Tokuda, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koji

    In this paper, we measured what influence the sinusoidal transmission characteristics of the electric power line with various forms gave to the transmission characteristic of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signal through PLC (power line communication system) modem. We classified the electric power line transmission line with various forms in a real environment into two basic elements, which are an outlet type branch and a switch type branch. Next, PHY rate (Physical rate) is measured for each basic element connected with the PLC modem. At this time, the transmission characteristics of the electric power line are simulated from measured data. OFDM sending and receiving systems are composed on the computer, and the PHY rate is simulated. By comparing with measured and calculated values, it is revealed that PHY rate of PLC modem is most affected in the case of the power line transmission characteristics having broad band and high level attenuation and group delay variation, and is not affected in the case of that having narrow band attenuation and group delay variation.

  11. Union Listing via OCLC's Serials Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Terrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes library use of Conversion of Serials Project's (CONSER) online national machine-readable database for serials to create online union lists of serials via OCLC's Serial Control Subsystem. Problems in selection of appropriate, accurate, and authenticated records and prospects for the future are discussed. Twenty sources and sample records…

  12. Reprint of “Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system was designed and fabricated. ► A real-time simulation using Real Time Digital Simulator has been performed. ► The AC loss characteristics of HTS DC power cable caused by harmonics were analyzed. ► The AC loss of the HTS DC power cable will be used as a parameter to design the cable cooling system. -- Abstract: The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail

  13. Reprint of “Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau, E-mail: thanchau7787@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-733 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-733 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-733 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► A model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system was designed and fabricated. ► A real-time simulation using Real Time Digital Simulator has been performed. ► The AC loss characteristics of HTS DC power cable caused by harmonics were analyzed. ► The AC loss of the HTS DC power cable will be used as a parameter to design the cable cooling system. -- Abstract: The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  14. HTGR molten salt sensible energy transmission and storage system design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report, which was prepared for Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates by United Engineers and Constructors under Contract No. GCRA/UE and C 81-203, presents the design and cost for a molten salt Sensible Energy Transmission and Storage (SETS) System. Although the reference system for this study is sized to be compatible with an 1170 MW(t) HTGR Nuclear Heat Source, the results and conclusions should be generally applicable to most large scale molten salt energy transmission system applications. A preliminary conceptual design is presented and alternative configurations are discussed. The sensitivity of system costs to variations in important system parameters are also presented. Costs for a reference case conceptual design are reported in constant 1980 dollars and inflated 1995 dollars

  15. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  16. Sound transmission through pipe systems and into plate structures in buildings. A simplified sea model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron-van der Jagt, G.S.

    2007-01-01

    In the study presented, it has been investigated whether Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) could be applied in a simplified way as a framework for a prediction model regarding noise due to service equipment, specifically sound transmission within (plastic wastewater) pipe systems and between these

  17. A Seismic Transmission System for Continuous Monitoring of the Lithosphere : A Proposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, R.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to enhance earthquake prediction feasibility. We present the concept and the design layout of a novel seismic transmission system capable of continuously monitoring the Lithosphere for changes in Earth physics parameters governing seismic wave propagation.

  18. A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L.M.V.G.; Pereira, M.V.F.; Nunes, A.

    1989-01-01

    A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational resource. Some expansions of this methodology are been investigated: the probabilistic one and the expansion with financier restriction. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 7 figs

  19. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall operate...

  20. Transmission spectrum of a double quantum-dot-nanocavity system in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Jin Shiqi; Gong Shangqing; Qian Yong; Feng Xunli

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the optical transmission properties of a combined system which consists of two quantum-dot-nanocavity subsystems indirectly coupled to a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal. A Mollow-like triplet and the growth of sidebands are found, reflecting intrinsic optical responses in the complex microstructure

  1. Regulating Future Offshore Grids: Economic Impact Analysis on Wind Parks and Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    the respective countries. This study focuses on how investors in wind parks and transmission systems are affected by the choice of regulatory regime in offshore grids with one to four countries connected. In order to capture the uncertainties related to the exposure to market prices as well as risks related...

  2. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  3. 77 FR 24950 - Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Conference. The Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) and/or Potomac Economics, Inc... that is less than 50 percent of the applicable Reference Level. Provide a justification for this... committed? Please explain. b. Can units committed based on economics in the SCUC and SCED processes be...

  4. The development of a subsea power transmission system for deep water boosting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, C.A.F. [Pirelli Cabos S.A. (Brazil); Campagnac, L.A. [Siemens S.A. (Brazil); Nicholson, A. [Tronic Electronics Services Ltd. (WEC); Magalhaes, W.M. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the development of a sub sea power transmission in medium voltage and variable frequency, as a key system for application of Boosting technology and for electrical submersible Pumping in deep water wells. This work focuses on the design and manufacture of sub sea power cables and transformers for 1,000 m water depth. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    The classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions, The method is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Lagrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  6. Transmission modulation system for mobile phone reduces battery consumption without increasing bit error rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, M.; Janssen, G.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The transmission modulation system minimizes the wasted 'out of band' power. The digital data (1) to be transmitted is fed via a pulse response filter (2) to a mixer (4) where it modulates a carrier wave (4). The digital data is also fed via a delay circuit (5) and identical filter (6) to a second

  7. A cooperative game theory approach to transmission planning in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Javier

    The rapid restructuring of the electric power industry from a vertically integrated entity into a decentralized industry has given rise to complex problems. In particular, the transmission component of the electric power system requires new methodologies to fully capture this emerging competitive industry. Game theory models are used to model strategic interactions in a competitive environment. This thesis presents a new decentralized framework to study the transmission network expansion problem using cooperative game theory. First, the players and the rules of the game are defined. Second, a coalition formation scheme is developed. Finally, the optimized cost of expansion is allocated based on the history of the coalition formation.

  8. Design optimization of the transmission system for electric vehicles considering the dynamic efficiency of the regenerative brake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Bolin; Lv, Chen; Hofman, Theo; Steinbuch, Maarten; Zhang, Junzhi; Cao, Dongpu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the

  9. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    with a DFP motor, which has been combined with the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine model. A classical variable speed control strategy for wind speeds below rated is proposed for the turbine, where the pump displacement is fixed and the digital motor displacement is varied for pressure control. The digital...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  10. Three-phase receiving coil of wireless power transmission system for gastrointestinal robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. W.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Power shortage is the bottleneck for the wide application of gastrointestinal (GI) robot. Owing to the limited volume and free change of orientation of the receiving set in GI trace, the optimal of receiving set is the key point to promote the transmission efficiency of wireless power transmission system. A new type of receiving set, similar to the winding of three-phase asynchronous motor, is presented and compared with the original three-dimensional orthogonal coil. Considering the given volume and the space utilization ratio, the three-phase and the three-orthogonal ones are the parameters which are optimized and compared. Both the transmission efficiency and stability are analyzed and verified by in vitro experiments. Animal experiments show that the new one could provide at least 420 mW power in volume of Φ11 × 13mm with a uniformity of 78.3% for the GI robot.

  11. Online Location of Faults on AC Cables in Underground Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær

    under fault conditions well, but the accuracy of the calculated impedance is low for fault location purposes. The neural networks can therefore not be trained and no impedance-based fault location method can be used for crossbonded cables or hybrid lines. The use of travelling wave-based methods...... connection to verify the proposed method. Faults, at reduced a voltage are artificially applied in the cable system and the transient response is measured at two terminals at the cable’s ends. The measurements are time-synchronised and it is found that a very accurate estimation of the fault location can......A transmission grid is normally laid out as an almost pure overhead line (OHL) network. The introduction of transmission voltage level XLPE cables and the increasing interest in the environmental impact of OHL has resulted in an increasing interest in the use of underground cables on transmission...

  12. Network expansion by a proactive transmission system operator: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppi, Angelamaria; Fumagalli, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Complex planning procedures often amplify the difference in investment time between generation and transmission. In this work we consider a transmission project in Italy and, relying on a recently proposed methodology, we compare costs and benefits of anticipating the planning process before the connection of new power plants becomes certain. Whereas the system faces lower congestion costs if the network is reinforced immediately, anticipation constitutes a sunk cost in case generation is not built. For realistic load and generation scenarios, anticipation costs, as well as differences in investment times, our results indicate that anticipation is the most efficient choice for a relatively low connection probability. Analyses of this sort are particularly relevant in light of the increasing complexity of public engagement processes and of the remarkable growth in renewable generation. - Highlights: • Delays in transmission investments can increase congestion costs. • Anticipating a transmission upgrade before a generator connects has costs/benefits. • Case study: real-life transmission project in the North of Italy. • Anticipation is the efficient choice under several scenarios

  13. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems: Tradeoffs and performance analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a number of adaptive transmission techniques in order to improve the performance of the secondary link in a spectrum sharing system. We first introduce the concept of minimum-selection maximum ratio transmission (MS-MRT) as an adaptive variation of the existing MRT (MRT) technique. While in MRT all available antennas are used for transmission, MS-MRT uses the minimum subset of antennas verifying both the interference constraint (IC) to the primary user and the bit error rate (BER) requirements. Similar to MRT, MS-MRT assumes that perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the secondary transmitter (ST), which makes this scheme challenging from a practical point of view. To overcome this challenge, we propose another transmission technique based on orthogonal space-time block codes with transmit antenna selection (TAS). This technique uses the full-rate full-diversity Alamouti scheme in order to maximize the secondary\\'s transmission rate. The performance of these techniques is analyzed in terms of the average spectral efficiency (ASE), average number of transmit antennas, average delay, average BER, and outage performance. In order to give the motivation behind these analytical results, the tradeoffs offered by the proposed schemes are summarized and then demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  14. Voltage Balancing Method on Expert System for 51-Level MMC in High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC have been a spotlight for the high voltage and high power transmission systems. In the VSC-HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current based on Voltage Source Converter transmission system, the energy of DC link is stored in the distributed capacitors, and the difference of capacitors in parameters and charge rates causes capacitor voltage balance which affects the safety and stability of HVDC system. A method of MMC based on the expert system for reducing the frequency of the submodules (SMs of the IGBT switching frequency is proposed. Firstly, MMC with 51 levels for HVDC is designed. Secondly, the nearest level control (NLC for 51-level MMC is introduced. Thirdly, a modified capacitor voltage balancing method based on expert system for MMC-based HVDC transmission system is proposed. Finally, a simulation platform for 51-level Modular Multilevel Converter is constructed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results indicate that the strategy proposed reduces the switching frequency on the premise of keeping submodule voltage basically identical, which greatly reduces the power losses for MMC-HVDC system.

  15. Host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three European bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J; Kerth, G

    2017-02-01

    For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season. The three investigated hosts differ considerably in their social system, most notably in maternity colony size, mating system, and degree of male summer aggregation. We observed marked differences in parasite infection during the autumn mating period between the species, closely mirroring the predictions made based on the social systems of the hosts. Increased host aggregation sizes in summer yielded higher overall parasite prevalence and intensity, both in male and female hosts. Moreover, parasite levels in male hosts differentially increased throughout the autumn mating season in concordance with the degree of contact with female hosts afforded by the different mating systems of the hosts. Critically, the observed host-specific differences have important consequences for parasite population structure and will thus affect the coevolutionary dynamics between the interacting species. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize host-parasite dynamics in hosts with complex social systems, a holistic approach that investigates parasite infection and transmission across all periods is warranted.

  16. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of short necklace states in the logarithmic transmission spectra of localized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Jiang, Xunya

    2013-05-01

    High transmission plateaus exist widely in the logarithmic transmission spectra of localized systems. Their physical origins are short chains of coupled localized states embedded inside the localized system, which are dubbed as 'short necklace states'. In this work, we define the essential quantities and then, based on these quantities, we investigate the properties of the short necklace states statistically and quantitatively. Two different approaches are utilized and their results agree very well. In the first approach, the typical plateau-width and the typical order of short necklace states are obtained from the correlation function of the logarithmic transmission. In the second approach, we investigate the statistical distribution of the peak/plateau-width measured in the logarithmic transmission spectra. A novel distribution is found, which can be exactly fitted by the summation of two Gaussian distributions. These two distributions are the results of sharp peaks of localized states and the high plateaus of short necklace states. The center of the second distribution also tells us the typical plateau-width of short necklace states. With increasing system length, the scaling property of the typical plateau-width is very special since it hardly decreases. The methods and quantities defined in this work can be widely used in Anderson localization studies.

  18. Learning from the blackouts. Transmission system security in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Electricity market reform has fundamentally changed the environment for maintaining reliable and secure power supplies. Growing inter-regional trade has placed new demands on transmission systems, creating a more integrated and dynamic network environment with new real-time challenges for reliable and secure transmission system operation. Despite these fundamental changes, system operating rules and practices remain largely unchanged. The major blackouts of 2003 and 2004 raised searching questions about the appropriateness of these arrangements. Management of system security needs to be transformed to maintain reliable electricity services in this more dynamic operating environment. These challenges raise fundamental issues for policymakers. This publication presents case studies drawn from recent large-scale blackouts in Europe, North America, and Australia. It concludes that a comprehensive, integrated policy response is required to avoid preventable large-scale blackouts in the future.

  19. SELF: expert system for supporting verification of network operating constraints in power transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoria, R; Migliardi, P [Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Pogliano, P [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze (CISE), Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Performing planned studies into very large HV transmission systems is a very complex task which requires the use of simulation models and the application of the heuristic acquired by expert palnners during previous studies. The ENEL Electric Research Center and the CISE Artificial Intelligence Section have developed a knowledge-based system, named SELF, which is aimed at supporting the transmission system palnner. SELF is capable of assisting the engineer both in finding the convergence of the load flow calculation and determining solutions that respect active power, voltage and VAR operating constraints. This paper describes the overall architecture of the system and shows its integration in a larger planning environment called SPIRA, currently utilized at ENEL. More details are given on the least completed modules, the redispatching and network reinforcement subsystems which deal with active power constraint verification.

  20. A low power high speed radiation hard serializer for High Energy Physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080243; Marchioro, Alessandro; Ottavi, Marco

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on the development and the characterization of novel solutions for electronic systems for high-speed data transmission in extremely high radio-active environment (e.g. high energy physics application). The text proposes two alternative full-custom solutions for a fundamental enabling block for a lowpower serial data transmission system, the serializer. This block will find place in a future transceiver conceived for the future upgraded phase of the Large Hadron Collider, or LHC, at CERN. The first solution proposed, called “triple module redundancy”, is based on hardware redundancy, a well-known solution, to obtain protection against the temporary malfunctioning induced by radiation. In the second case a new architecture, called “code protected”, is proposed. This architecture takes advantage of the error correction code present in the data word to obtain radiation robustness on data and some parts of the control logic and to further reduce the power consumption. A test chip ...

  1. Bandwidth Efficient Overlapped FSK Coded Secure Command Transmission for Medical Implant Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman KULAÇ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wireless communication systems are exploited in most health care systems. Implantable Medical Systems (IMS also have wireless communication capability. However, it is very important that secure wireless communication should be provided in terms of both patient rights and patient health. Therefore, wireless transmission systems of IMS should also be robust against to eavesdroppers and adversaries. In this study, a specific overlapped and coded frequency shift keying (FSK modulation technique is developed and security containing with low complexity is provided by this proposed technique. The developed method is suitable for wireless implantable medical systems since it provides low complexity and security as well as bandwidth efficiency.

  2. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE 0,2 ) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE 15,2 ), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE 0,1 mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs

  3. Design and analysis of the Gemini chain system in dual clutch transmission of automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yabing; Guo, Haitao; Fu, Zhenming; Wan, Nen; Li, Lei; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chain drive system is widely used in the conditions of high-speed, overload, variable speed and load. Many studies are focused on the meshing theory and wear characteristics of chain drive system, but system design, analysis, and noise characteristics of the chain drive system are weak. System design and noise characteristic are studied for a new type Gemini chain of dual-clutch automatic transmission. Based on the meshing theory of silent chain, the design parameters of the Gemini chain system are calculated and the mathematical models and dynamic analysis models of the Gemini chain system are established. Dynamic characteristics of the Gemini chain system is simulated and the contact force of plate and pin, plate and sprockets, the chain tension forces, the transmission error and the stress of plates and pins are analyzed. According to the simulation results of the Gemini chain system, the noise experiment about system is carried out. The noise values are tested at different speed and load and spectral characteristics are analyzed. The results of simulation and experimental show that the contact forces of plate and pin, plate and sprockets are smaller than the allowable stress values, the chain tension force is less than ultimate tension and transmission error is limited in 1.2%. The noise values can meet the requirements of industrial design, and it is proved that the design and analysis method of the Gemini chain system is scientific and feasible. The design and test system is built from analysis to test of Gemini chain system. This research presented will provide a corresponding theoretical guidance for the design and dynamic characteristics and noise characteristics of chain drive system.

  4. Using SMES as a multi-purpose interface in power generation, transmission and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Zhang, X.; Yarali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new SMES schemes, the MSMES system, which significantly broadens the ways in which SMES can be applied to electric power systems. On the generation side, the SMES system can convert low-quality power into high-quality power and enhances the utilization of all energy sources available to the power systems. Acting both as an energy storage device and a power flow control device, a MSMES system can act as a hub in a power transmission system. The use of multiple MSMES systems can provide many new solutions to the problems facing the transmission networks of the United States today. On the distribution side, MSMES systems can be used as advanced power distribution centers that supply high-quality power to the customers while providing desirable load shapes to the power systems. In addition to these functions, a MSMES unit can also perform functions such as damping of power oscillation, stability and dynamic performance improvement and other recognized benefits of the conventional SMES system. Functioning as a multi-purpose power processing units, the MSMES systems improve the economics of SMES system. Functioning as a multi-purpose power processing units, the MSMES systems improve the economics of SMES technology and expand its potential market

  5. System for Relay Protection Command Transmission by High-Voltage Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yenkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a system for relay protection command transmission by high-voltage lines is shown in the paper. The paper describes an architecture of the system, main principles of its operation, engineering aspects of the development that is accomplishment of technical requirements, solution of trades-off. Justification of the selected design and an algorithm of the reliable detection of relay protection signals are given in the paper.

  6. Design of a borehole data-acquisition/transmission system. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.L.; Bowden, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Objective of the BDATS program was to design, construct, and demonstrate a borehole probe and associated uphole modules that would allow downhole collection of data from any of several borehole probes and would allow digital transmission of that data uphole to a computer. Specifically, the system was electrically and mechanically configured to interface to six separate borehole probes and a computer in a R and D logging vehicle. However, the system can be used with other types of probes

  7. Wind power plants. Hydraulic transmission with control systems for unrestricted number of revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, R

    1976-09-01

    Basic ideas are presented for the design of a hydraulic transmission with its control system adapted to an electric generator operated by a wind turbine with unrestricted revolutions. The settlement of the principle is shown by means of commercially available parts. The relations of the installed effect, its cost and the length of operational life are discussed. The control system is directly integrated to the hydraulic circuits.

  8. Serial murder: An unusual stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Mandar R; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Farooqui, Jamebaseer M; Janagond, Anand B; Mishra, Pradeep K

    2017-12-01

    Serial murders attract attention from the media, mental health experts, academia, and the general public. We present a case of serial murders that took place in a limited area and which caused public anxiety and anguish in central India. All the victims were homeless beggars, who were bludgeoned to death (crush injury). Individual murders were initially investigated by different police stations; fortunately, since they sent all the bodies to a common autopsy centre, a forensic pathologist was able to link all the cases, the first person to do so. This emphasises the need for sharing information among police stations and autopsy centres.

  9. Power transmission study for a wave energy scheme based on Lancaster Flexible Bag devices. Supervisory and telecontrol system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Various options are considered for power data transmission associated with the power collection and transmission system of a postulated wave energy conversion scheme off the Outer Hebrides. For data transmission between the off-shore and on-shore power collector stations a Power Line Carrier (PLC) system is judged to be most suitable. In the case of data transmission between power collector stations and the main control centre, a microwave/radio link is proposed as the amount of data does not lend itself to a PLC system. Cost estimates, in the main for equipment supply only, are given.

  10. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhwai Tseng

    Full Text Available Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest.The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal.A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k-50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz-2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB.The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the human body with a good signal

  11. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k-50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz-2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the human body with a good signal-to-noise quality of 10 dB if

  12. 10-year development statement on GRTgaz's transmission system 2010-2019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. In accordance with the French Energy Code, GRTgaz publishes a 10-year development plan for its gas distribution network in France every year. This document is produced in line with European and French energy policies. It identifies the transport infrastructure that will need to be built over the next three years, and presents the main infrastructure that is likely to be developed within the next ten years. It incorporates the supply security obligations that TSOs are required to fulfil. It takes account of interested parties' needs and projects at the national, supranational and European levels. It is based on existing gas supply and demand and reasonable medium-term development forecasts for gas infrastructure, consumption and international trade

  13. MDP-based resource allocation for triple-play transmission on xDSL systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lamartine V.; de Carvalho, Glaucio H. S.; Cardoso, Diego L.; de Carvalho, Solon V.; Frances, Carlos R. L.; Costa, João C. W. A.; Riu, Jaume Rius i.

    2007-09-01

    Many broadband services are based on multimedia applications, such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP), video conferencing, video on demand (VoD), and internet protocol television (IPTV). The combination "triple-play" is often used with IPTV. It simply means offering voice, video and data. IPTV and others services uses digital broadband networks such as ADSL2+ (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) and VDSL (Very High Rate DSL) to transmit the data. We have formulated a MDP (Markov Decision Process) for a triple-play transmission on DSL environment. In this paper, we establish the relationship between DSL transmission characteristics and its finite-state Markov model for a triple-play transmission system. This relationship can be used for a resource management for multimedia applications delivered through a broadband infrastructure. The solution to our optimization problem can be found using dynamic programming (DP) techniques, such as value iteration and its variants. Our study results in a transmission strategy that chooses the optimal resource allocation according the triple-play traffic requirements, defined in technical report TR-126 (Triple-Play Services Quality of Experience Requirements) from DSL Forum, minimizing quality of service (QoS) violations with respect to bandwidth. Three traffic classes (video, audio, and best effort internet data) are defined and analyzed. Our simulation results show parameters like as blocking probability for each class, link utilization and optimal control policies. The MDP-based approach provides a satisfactory way of resource management for a DSL system.

  14. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  15. A 10 Gbit/s OCDMA system based on electric encoding and optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Hu, Jin-lin; He, Dong-dong; Chen, Mei-juan; Wang, Da-chi; Chen, Yan

    2013-11-01

    An electric encoded/optical transmission system of code division multiple access (CDMA) is proposed. It encodes the user signal in electric domain, and transfers the different code slice signals via the different wavelengths of light. This electric domain encoder/decoder is compared with current traditional encoder/decoder. Four-user modulation/demodulation optical CDMA (OCDMA) system with rate of 2.5 Gbit/s is simulated, which is based on the optical orthogonal code (OCC) designed in our laboratory. The results show that the structure of electric encoding/optical transmission can encode/decode signal correctly, and can achieve the chip rate equal to the user data rate. It can overcome the rate limitation of electronic bottleneck, and bring some potential applications in the electro-optical OCDMA system.

  16. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  17. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A

  18. Improving the Transmission System Reliability for the 154kV Radial Network Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Jin Boo; Yoo, Myeong Ho; Yoon, Young Beum; Kim, Tae Won [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Won; Chung, Beom Jin; Jung, Jung Won; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Myung Hee; Kim, Hyun Jong; Kim, Chae Hee [KEYIN CO., (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Analyzing that 154kV radial network current ed operated, we developed Automatic Power Reconfiguration System(APRS) which restore blackout area. It consists of special data acquisition system(DAU) and central monitoring system for reason of protecting currently operating power system. In addition, it communicates using optical communication network for high speed data transmission and accuracy. An Accuracy of operation and stability of the developed system is tested using Real Time Digital Simulator in 3-bus equivalent model system. In An Outage case, our developed system can restore a blackout area in three second. An ability of the restoration of a blackout was verified by simulations. For the field test, the developed system was set up at SINCHON S/S, SESOMUN S/S, SINDANG S/S and MAJANG S/S governed by Seoul Power Transmission Center. If the system reliability is proved for a one year test in real power system, application of the system will be extended to the other substations.

  19. [Study on risk assessing indicator system after schistosomiasis transmission interruption in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Jun, Meng; Sheng-Hua, Zong; Xuan, Zhang; Dong-Lin, Gao; Yan-Hua, Qian; Bing, Lu

    2017-07-27

    To establish a risk assessing indicator system after the transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in Wuxi City, so as to provide evidences for formulating strategies on schistosomiasis control and prevention. A primary risk assessing indicator system was established based on the literature review. Alternative indicators were scored and screened to establish a final indicator system through two rounds of Delphy method and the related normalized weights and combined weights were also calculated. The risk assessing indicator system was established through two rounds of expert consultation including 3 first grade indicators and 15 second grade indicators. Among the first grade indicators, the normalized weights of natural environment, key populations and social environment were 0.370 6, 0.292 9 and 0.336 5, respectively. Among the second grade indicators, the migrant population accounted for the highest combined weight of 0.125 2 compared to domestic animal of 0.037 1. The authority degree among the first grade indicators was between 0.91 and 0.93, while the authority degree among the second grade indicators was between 0.79 and 0.92. The scientific and authoritative risk assessing indicator system after the transmission interruption of schistosomiasis is established, which provides the evidences for risk assessment on schistosomiasis transmission in Wuxi City.

  20. Expected Range of Cooperation Between Transmission System Operators and Distribution System Operators After Implementation of ENTSO-E Grid Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pakulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the prospects of cooperation between transmission system operators (TSO and distribution system operators (DSO after entry into force ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity grid codes. New areas of DSO activities, associated with offering TSO aggregated services for national power system regulation based on the regulation resources connected to the distribution grid, and services on the distribution system level as part of the creation of local balancing areas (LBA are presented. The paper also presents the possibilities of providing ancillary services by different types of distributed generation sources in the distribution network. The LBA concept, which involves integrated management of local regulation resources including generation, demand, and energy storage is described. The options of the renewable energy sources (RES using for voltage and reactive power control in the distribution network with the use of wind farms (WF connected to the distribution system are characterized.

  1. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  2. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  3. Hierarchical high-pressure hydraulic system for a continuously variable transmission; Mudan hensokuki no kaisoshiki koyuatsu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M; Wakahara, T; Hiraoka, Y; Ishimori, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A belt CVT system requires a large oil flow during shifts compared with a conventional automatic transmission. And the hydraulic pressure is higher for high-powered engines. As a result the oil pump is bigger and efficiency is lower(fuel consumption is higher). This system develops high pressure in three stages first reducing the hydraulic control system so that a small oil pump is attained. 8 figs.

  4. 10-year development statement on GRTgaz's transmission system 2009-2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. The fourth Development Statement, covering the development of GRTgaz's transmission system over the period 2009-2018, reflects the sustained demand for new transmission capacity. If the connection projects (LNG terminals, combined-cycle gas turbine power stations, etc.) are confirmed, GRTgaz will pursue the expansion of its transmission infrastructures (1,600 km of additional pipelines, upgrading of the compressor fleet) and, in the long run, increase its entry and exit capacity by more than 65%. These investments will contribute to the opening up of the natural gas market, encouraged by the European Commission and already reinforced by the undertakings made to facilitate access to the French natural gas market. By providing tailored solutions and commercial tools, GRTgaz is making natural gas trading more fluid and enabling suppliers to improve their supplies for the benefit of consumers. Over the first six months of 2009, the number of wholesale market transactions in GRTgaz's North zone grew by more than 40% and the volumes traded by 70%, compared with the levels recorded over the same period in 2008. Since 2008, GRTgaz has seen a rise in demand for additional capacity on its transmission system, despite the slowdown in economic activity. The likelihood of projects being implemented in GRTgaz's North zone rose in 2009. A consultation of market players at the end of 2008 revealed very significant need for the development of

  5. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  6. A unified modeling and control design for precision transmission system with friction and backlash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Bao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural flexibility, nonlinear friction, and backlash are the major factors limiting the control performance of precision transmission systems. If uncompensated, these factors compromise the positioning and tracking accuracy of precision transmission systems and even cause limit cycles and oscillation. In this article, a framework for integrated design from dynamic modeling to controller design is proposed. A multi-state dynamic model is presented, which can unify the modeling for a multi-state, discontinuous system including the motor state, the motion state, the mechanical contact state, and the friction state. Then, a control design method related to the dynamic modeling using perturbation separation of the model parameters is presented. Using the proposed modeling method, a continuous dynamic model is established to include all different partition models. The model comprehensively describes the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the precision transmission system. A robust controller is designed using the proposed control method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed modeling method is accurate and the proposed control method significantly improves accuracy and robustness of the controller compared to traditional control methods.

  7. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-01-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system

  8. Safety awareness educational topics for the construction of power transmission systems with smart grid technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Hubbard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Power transmission facilities in the U.S. are undergoing a transformation due to the increased use of distributed generation sources such as wind and solar power.  The current power grid system is also antiquated and in need of substantial retrofits to make it more efficient and reliable.  The new energy transmission system being designed and built to optimize power delivery is known as “Smart Grid”.  The increased activity in the construction of power transmission facilities and installation of new technologies into the current power system raises potential safety concerns.  Existing construction management curriculum may include general information about safety training, but does not typically include information about this specialized sector.  The objective of this study was to work with industry to identify key safety topics appropriate for inclusion in an introductory industrial construction course.  Results of interviews with industry identified numerous hazards that are not typically covered in typical construction curricula.  A joint undergraduate and graduate course in industrial construction was created to address these and additional concepts. A survey of the students was performed to determine the effectiveness of the course and also to determine their thoughts about the smart grid technologies and safety training. Information on electrical system hazards is presented along with results of the student surveys.

  9. 128 Gb/s TWDM PON system using dispersion-supported transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhaiq, Salem; Zulkifli, Nadiatulhuda; Supa'at, Abusahmah M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Salleh, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) trend is considered as the most extraordinary trend of the next generation solution to accommodate exponential traffic growth for converged new services. In this paper, we briefly review recent progress on TWDM-PON system through the use of low cost directly modulated lasers (DMLs) transmission for various line rate transmissions to date. Furthermore, through simulation, we propose and evaluate a cost effective way to upgrade TWDM-PON up to a symmetric capacity of 128 Gb/s using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in optical line terminal (OLT) as a paramount dispersion manager in high speed light-wave systems in both upstream and downstream directions. A low cost and potential chirpless directed modulated grating laser (DMGL) is employed for downstream link and DML with a single delay-interferometer (DI) is employed for upstream link. After illustrating the demonstrated system architecture and configuration, we present the results and analysis to prove the system feasibility. The results show that a successful transmission is achieved over 40 km single mode fiber with a power budget of 33.7 dB, which could support 1:256 splitting ratio.

  10. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  11. Phonon transmission and thermal conductance in one-dimensional system with on-site potential disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Deng Honggui; Yang Bingchu

    2011-01-01

    The role of on-site potential disorder on phonon transmission and thermal conductance of one-dimensional system is investigated. We found that the on-site potential disorder can lead to the localization of phonons, and has great effect on the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of the system. As on-site potential disorder W increases, the transmission coefficients decrease, and approach zero at the band edges. Corresponding, the thermal conductance decreases drastically, and the curves for thermal conductance exhibit a series of steps and plateaus. Meanwhile, when the on-site potential disorder W is strong enough, the thermal conductance decreases dramatically with the increase of system size N. We also found that the efficiency of reducing thermal conductance by increasing the on-site potential disorder strength is much better than that by increasing the on-site potential's amplitude. - Highlights: → We studied the effect of on-site potential disorder on thermal transport. → Increasing disorder will decrease thermal transport. → Increasing system size will also decrease its thermal conductance. → Increasing disorder is more efficient than other in reducing thermal conductance.

  12. Power transfer capability assessment of transmission interfaces with SVC and load shedding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovsky, V. [DMCC-Engineering, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Electrodynamics; Dolzhenitsa, Y. [DMCC Engineering, Kiev (Ukraine); Ushapovskiy, K. [National Power Co. Ukrenergo, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    As a result of deregulation in the power industry, energy trade and markets are pushing transmission system operators to operate their systems closer to the edge of the power transfer capability. Voltage instability and inadequate reactive power support of generators is a key factor in most major outages around the world. The ideal way to control power systems is to avoid emergencies by reliable planning and secure operation of power systems. Therefore, the accurate calculation of the power transfer capability of transmission interfaces is an important task on the planning and operation stages. This paper discussed the issue of transfer capability assessment and monitoring for interfaces with static var compensator (SVC) and load shedding schemes. It also proposed a special measure, a distance to voltage instability point, to monitor transfer capability on-line. The distance may be observed by measurement of SVC output. The paper considered the problem of optimal SVC size selection and a new approach was proposed based on P-V curves analysis. The paper discussed the problem formulation and proposed approach. A case was also presented in order to demonstrate the proposed approach on the IPS Ukraine-Crimea interface. It was concluded that the proposed approach allows the optimal rating of SVC for increasing transfers capability of transmission corridors. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Economic comparison of HVDC transmission and coal transport for Kalimantan - Sulawesi power system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2016-01-01

    Due to the load characteristics on many regions in Indonesia, the electrical system is often inefficient. In areas far from an interconnected network, for example isolated island, the choice of low cost fueled plants such as coal can not be applied, while the oil fueled has a very high generation cost and high burdened on subsidies. As a result, those area are still use oil fueled plant by limiting the generator flame time and consumers do not receive satisfactory service. This paper aims to analyze the extent to which the benefit of HVDC transmission system from Kalimantan to Sulawesi so that consumers could get better services and able to produce in order to improve their welfare. The method used in this analysis is a literature study and perform calculations based on existing formula. The result shows that in term of direct cost, HVDC system which covers transmission line, converter and loses cost, yield in a range of 0.46 - 0.60 USD¢/kWh for the capacity within 500 - 2000 Mwe. While coal transportation cost is in the range of 0.544 - 0.645 USD¢/kWh for long barge between 270 - 300 feet. Therefore, for the region of Indonesia which consist lots of islands and remote areas, power supply using HVDC transmission from area with more evolved electrical system could enable more economical, so that remote region also got excellent electrical services to improve the well-being and incomes of the population. (author)

  14. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiwei, E-mail: jiayege@hotmail.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan [820 Institute, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  15. Study on the dynamics responses of a transmission system made from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hang; Cai, Kun; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qing-Hua; Shi, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    A rotational transmission system from coaxial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using a computational molecular dynamics approach. The system consists of a motor from a single-walled carbon nanotube and a bearing from a double-walled carbon nanotube. The motor has a high fixed rotational frequency and the two ends of the outer tube in the bearing are fixed. The inner tube in the bearing works as a rotor. Because of the interlayer friction in the bearing, configurations of the joint between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor have significant effects on rotational transmission properties. Four factors are considered in simulation, i.e., the bonding types of atoms (sp 1 and sp 2 ) on the ends of motor and rotor, the difference between motor and rotor radii, the rotational speed of motor, and the environmental temperature. It is found that the synchronous transmission happens if the sp 1 atoms on the jointed ends of motor and rotor are bonded each other and become new sp 2 atoms. Therefore, the lower difference between radii of motor and rotor, higher temperature of environment leads to synchronous rotational transmission easily. If the environmental temperature is too low (e.g., <150 K), the end of motor adjacent to rotor is easily under buckling and new sp 2 atoms appear, too. With capped CNTs or higher radii difference between rotor and motor at an appropriate temperature, a stable asynchronous rotation of rotor can be generated, and the rotor's frequency varying linearly with motor's frequency between 230 and 270 GHz. A multi-signal transmission device combined with oscillating and rotational motion is proposed for motor and stator shares a same size in radius

  16. Study on the dynamics responses of a transmission system made from carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hang; Cai, Kun, E-mail: kuicansj@163.com; Wei, Ning [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Qin, Qing-Hua [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601 (Australia); Shi, Jiao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211-2200 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    A rotational transmission system from coaxial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using a computational molecular dynamics approach. The system consists of a motor from a single-walled carbon nanotube and a bearing from a double-walled carbon nanotube. The motor has a high fixed rotational frequency and the two ends of the outer tube in the bearing are fixed. The inner tube in the bearing works as a rotor. Because of the interlayer friction in the bearing, configurations of the joint between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor have significant effects on rotational transmission properties. Four factors are considered in simulation, i.e., the bonding types of atoms (sp{sup 1} and sp{sup 2}) on the ends of motor and rotor, the difference between motor and rotor radii, the rotational speed of motor, and the environmental temperature. It is found that the synchronous transmission happens if the sp{sup 1} atoms on the jointed ends of motor and rotor are bonded each other and become new sp{sup 2} atoms. Therefore, the lower difference between radii of motor and rotor, higher temperature of environment leads to synchronous rotational transmission easily. If the environmental temperature is too low (e.g., <150 K), the end of motor adjacent to rotor is easily under buckling and new sp{sup 2} atoms appear, too. With capped CNTs or higher radii difference between rotor and motor at an appropriate temperature, a stable asynchronous rotation of rotor can be generated, and the rotor's frequency varying linearly with motor's frequency between 230 and 270 GHz. A multi-signal transmission device combined with oscillating and rotational motion is proposed for motor and stator shares a same size in radius.

  17. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  19. Sensor selection of helicopter transmission systems based on physical model and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Kehong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the helicopter transmission systems, it is important to monitor and track the tooth damage evolution using lots of sensors and detection methods. This paper develops a novel approach for sensor selection based on physical model and sensitivity analysis. Firstly, a physical model of tooth damage and mesh stiffness is built. Secondly, some effective condition indicators (CIs are presented, and the optimal CIs set is selected by comparing their test statistics according to Mann–Kendall test. Afterwards, the selected CIs are used to generate a health indicator (HI through sen slop estimator. Then, the sensors are selected according to the monotonic relevance and sensitivity to the damage levels. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the simulation and experimental data. The results show that the approach can provide a guide for health monitoring of helicopter transmission systems, and it is effective to reduce the test cost and improve the system’s reliability.

  20. Shaft torsional oscillation interactions between turbo-generators in parallel in series compensated transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, F.P. de

    1994-12-31

    Several investigators have raised the possibility of interaction between shaft systems of parallel units, particularly among identical units. The question addressed in this paper is the significance of this interaction between shaft systems of units coupled through the electrical system. A time domain model of two parallels units connected to an infinite bus trough a series compensated transmission is used to evaluate the phenomena. The same model is used to extract pertinent frequency response functions by Fourier processing of pulse response tests from which a frequency response analysis is performed to lend additional insight into the phenomena. (author) 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A SECURE MESSAGE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR COMPUTER NETWORKS EMPLOYING SMART CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geylani KARDAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a mobile system architecture which employs smart cards for secure message transmission in computer networks. The use of smart card provides two security services as authentication and confidentiality in our design. The security of the system is provided by asymmetric encryption. Hence, smart cards are used to store personal account information as well as private key of each user for encryption / decryption operations. This offers further security, authentication and mobility to the system architecture. A real implementation of the proposed architecture which utilizes the JavaCard technology is also discussed in this study.

  2. Identification of Conflicts between Transmission and Distribution System Operators when Acquiring Ancillary Services from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    ancillary services from flexible units. The investigation is carried out considering a 3-area power system which allows to take into account local constraints as well as system-wide needs. As outcome, this paper identifies the conflicts from both a theoretical and a practical point of view, by means...... products according to requests coming from both distribution and transmission system operators. The goal of this paper is to provide an identification procedure that is able to detect, identify and catalogue possible conflicts among the involved stakeholders that take place when requesting and/or acquiring...

  3. Causal Tracking Control of a Non-Minimum Phase HIL Transmission Test System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pengfei

    2009-01-01

    The automotive industry has long relied on testing powertrain components in real vehicles, which causes the development process to be slow and expensive. Therefore, hardware in the loop (HIL) testing techniques are increasingly being adopted to develop electronic control units (ECU) for engine and other components of a vehicle. In this thesis, HIL testing system is developed to provide a laboratory testing environment for continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). Two induction motors were u...

  4. Signals transmission via RF systems in a sewage treatment plant; Signaluebertragung via Funk im Klaerwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasas, Joerg [Phoenix Contact Electronics GmbH, Bad Pyrmont (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The Niersverband is a municipal utility located at Viersen, Germany. It covers an area that is more or less identical with the catchment area of the Niers river and the Niers canal. There are 23 sewage treatment plants, rainwater retention basins and pumping stations transporting the collected water to the sewage treatment plants. For signal transmission between the stations, a Trusted Wireless system via Profibus-DP is used. (orig.)

  5. Link adaptation algorithm for distributed coded transmissions in cooperative OFDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Mihaly; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Bota, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a link adaptation algorithm for cooperative transmissions in the down-link connection of an OFDMA-based wireless system. The algorithm aims at maximizing the spectral efficiency of a relay-aided communication link, while satisfying the block error rate constraints at both...... adaptation algorithm has linear complexity with the number of available resource blocks, while still provides a very good performance, as shown by simulation results....

  6. A digital, decentralized power station control system with bus-transmission facilitates the problem of backfitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.E.; Schemmel, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Current NPP control equipment technology is essentially characterized by the transmission of information in parallel using individual cables, and utilizes hardwired techniques for the processing of information. Progress in the area of semiconductor development characterized by micro-processors and LSI-circuits, has opened up new possibilities for the solution of the control tasks. The new power station control system PROCONTROL P utilizes these possibilities

  7. Communications and Information: Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS) Network Security Program. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) Systems, and 33-2, Information Protection. This instruction prescribes the requirements, responsibilities and procedures for the security program for the Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS...

  8. Modeling and application of VSC-HVDC in the European transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Abatte, A.; Fulli, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential technical, environmental, and economic impacts of voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) technologies on the European power system, with particular emphasis on enhancing the attainable transmission capacity in specific applications. To this end, an original steady-state model of the VSC-HVDC was presented and tested. A techno-economic analysis of the potential impact of VSC-HVDC on liberalized power systems in Europe was performed to determine the feasibility of such investment compared to building conventional high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission infrastructures. The land use and environmental impact of HVDC may be lower than HVAC technologies. VSC-HVDC offers several advantages over conventional HVDC, including flexibility and range of power control, compactness and modularity of converter stations, easier expandability for multi-terminal configurations, and greater environmental friendliness. The relative disadvantages of the VSC-HVDC include a greater expense and higher converter losses. When replacing existing HVAC lines, some targeted VSC-HVDC installations were shown to be technologically and economically feasible, particularly when installed on lines between regions with a high electricity price differential, although less profitable than building new HVAC lines. VSC-HVDC can be a more feasible option when socio-political and environmental restraints curtail the extension of the HVAC transmission system. 29 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Interference Robust Transmission for the Downlink of an OFDM-Based Mobile Communications System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio networks for future mobile communications systems, for example, 3GPP Long-Term Evolution (LTE, are likely to use an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing- (OFDM- based air interface in the downlink with a frequency reuse factor of one to avoid frequency planning. Therefore, system capacity is limited by interference, which is particularly crucial for mobile terminals with a single receive antenna. Nevertheless, next generation mobile communications systems aim at increasing downlink throughput. In this paper, a single antenna interference cancellation (SAIC algorithm is introduced for amplitude-shift keying (ASK modulation schemes in combination with bit-interleaved coded OFDM. By using such a transmission strategy, high gains in comparison to a conventional OFDM transmission with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM can be achieved. The superior performance of the novel scheme is confirmed by an analytical bit-error probability (BEP analysis of the SAIC receiver for a single interferer, Rayleigh fading, and uncoded transmission. For the practically more relevant multiple interferer case we present an adaptive least-mean-square (LMS and an adaptive recursive least-squares (RLS SAIC algorithm. We show that in particular the RLS approach enables a good tradeoff between performance and complexity and is robust even to multiple interferers.

  10. A stable high-speed rotational transmission system based on nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Kun; Yin, Hang; Wei, Ning; Chen, Zhen; Shi, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    A stable rotational transmission system is designed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based motor and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs)-based bearing. The system response is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the rotating motor can actuate the rotation of the inner tube in bearing because of the attraction between the two adjacent coaxial ends of motor and rotor (the inner tube in bearing). To have a stable nanostructure, each carbon atom on the adjacent ends of motor and rotor is bonded with a hydrogen atom. To obtain a stable high-speed rotational transmission system, both an armchair and a zigzag model are used in MD simulation. In each model, the motor with different diameters and rotational speeds is employed to examine the rotational transmission of corresponding DWCNTs. It is demonstrated that the long range van der Waals interaction between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor leads to a stable configuration of the adjacent ends, and further leads to a stable rotation of rotor when driven by a high-speed motor. As compared with the armchair model, the rotor in the zigzag model could reach a stable rotation mode much easier

  11. Study on explosion field temperature testing system based on wireless data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinling; Sun Yunqiang

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the transient temperature value produced by explosive blasting may provide the basis for distinguishing the types of the explosive, the power contrast of the explosive and the performance evaluation in the weapons research process. To solve the problems of the Universal Test System emplaced inconveniently and the stored testing system need to be recycled, it has designed the explosion field application in wireless sensor system of temperature measurement. The system based on PIC16F877A micro controller, CPLD complex programmable logic devices and nRF24L01 wireless transmission chip sensor. The system adopts the Tungsten-Rhenium Thermocouple as the temperature sensor, DS600 temperature sensor for cold temperature compensation. This system has arrangement convenient, high-speed data acquisition, trigger and working parameters of adjustable characteristics, has been successfully applied in a test system. (authors)

  12. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  13. A Common Definition of the System Operators' Core Activities[Electric Power Transmission System Operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    In this report a common definition of the system operator's core activities in the Nordic countries is identified and also a list of non-core activities is introduced. As a starting point the common tasks for system responsibility as identified by Nordel has been used for the work. The term TSO (Transmission System Operator) is employed as a common denominator in the report. It is found out that the TSOs carry out common core activities in the roles as a transmission operator, a system operator and a balance settlement responsible. The core activities for the TSO as a transmission network operator are: Maintain the adequate transmission system in the long run and network development plan on the national as well as on the Nordic level using sophisticated analysis and planning methods and tools. Plan the transmission network on the national as well as on the Nordic level utilising new investments, renewal and maintenance of existing network components so that the network is secure to operate and adequate transmission capacity is guaranteed. Aim at timely network expansions using enhanced information exchange between the Nordic TSOs, and on the national level between the TSO and distribution and regional network operators, large consumers and large producers. Secure the technical compatibility with networks across the border and within a country by establishing connection requirements on the national level and ensuring that the national requirements are compatible across the Nordic power system. The core activities for the TSO as a system operator are: Define common technical requirements for the secure system operation using common planning, operation, connection and data exchange procedures. Secure the system operation with the operational planning for the following year by using information exchange between TSOs enabling the TSOs to make the best possible forecast of the global grid situation in order to assess the flows in their network and the available

  14. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  15. Simulation model of an electrohydraulic-actuated double-clutch transmission vehicle: modelling and system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeftner, J.; Ebner, W.

    2017-12-01

    Automated and manual transmissions are the main link between engine and powertrain. The technical term when the transmission provides the desired torque during all possible driving conditions is denoted as powertrain matching. Recent developments in the last years show that double-clutch-transmissions (DCTs) are a reasonable compromise in terms of production costs, shifting quality, drivability and fuel efficiency. They have several advantages compared to other automatic transmissions (AT). Most DCTs nowadays consist of a hydraulic actuation control unit, which controls the clutches of the gearbox in order to induce a desired drivetrain torque into the driveline. The main functions of hydraulic systems are manifold: they initiate gear shifts, they provide sufficient oil for lubrication and they control the shift quality by suitably providing a desired oil flow or pressure for the clutch actuation. In this paper, a mathematical model of a passenger car equipped with a DCT is presented. The objective of this contribution is to get an increased understanding for the dynamics of the hydraulic circuit and its coupling to the vehicle drivetrain. The simulation model consists of a hydraulic and a mechanical domain: the hydraulic actuation circuit is described by nonlinear differential equations and includes the dynamics of the line pressure and the proportional valve, as well as the influence of the pressure reducing valve, pipe resistances and accumulator dynamics. The drivetrain with its gear ratios, moments of inertia, torsional stiffness of the rotating shafts and a simple longitudinal vehicle model represent the mechanical domain. The link between hydraulic and mechanical domain is given by the clutch, which combines hydraulic equations and Newton's laws. The presented mathematical model may not only be used as a simulation model for developing the transmission control software, it may also serve as a virtual layout for the design process phase. At the end of this

  16. Generalized matrix method for transmission of neutrons through multilayer magnetic system with non-colinear magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, F.; Ignatovich, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    A generalized matrix method (GMM) for reflection and transmission of polarized and nonpolarized neutrons for multilayer systems with non-colinear magnetization of neighboring layers is developed. Several methods exist for calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the multilayer systems (MS). We consider here only two of them. One is the recurrence method (RM), and another one is the matrix method. Previously these methods were used for scalar particles and for spinor particles. In the last case a limitation was imposed on the directions of the magnetization of different layers: they were required to lie in the plane parallel to the layers. In 1995 Fermon has described a different approach of the neutrons in MS. Here, the behaviour of the wave inside the layers depends on the position within the plane. The RM, as shown by us earlier, permits to treat multilayer systems with arbitrary directions of the magnetization. We show how to treat these systems with the updated matrix method, which we call the generalized matrix method. In the GMM method the transmission and reflection of a layered system are obtained by finding a 4 x 4 matrix, which is a product of elementary 4 x 4 matrices related to the different layers, and in the RM the solution is found by recurrent application of the same procedure of finding the reflection and transmission matrices for a continuously increasing number of layers. The RM method permits to use a simple algorithm to write analytical formulas for the reflection and transmission. However, for more or less complicated systems these formulas become useless and one needs to do numerical calculations. The GMM does not give a simple analytical algorithm, but it gives a very simple numerical algorithm. We have developed two computer codes for computing the coefficients of reflection and transmission of a layered system using the GMM and RM methods. The calculated reflectivities R ++ and R +- for a polarized beam which fall on

  17. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA's modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes

  18. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  19. ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TRANSMISSION AND LOSSES OF POWER IN THE DEVICES OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Theoretical justification of the "field" approach (based on electromagnetic field to the transmission and losses of power in the devices of traction power supply systems and electric rolling stock. Methodology. The methods of electromagnetic field theory and, in particular, the theory and practice of electromagnetic energy transmission based on the concept of the Poynting vector and elements of the theory of propagation, reflection and refraction of plane electromagnetic waves were used. Findings. Theoretical studies of electromagnetic energy transmission from the traction substation to the electric rolling stock through dielectric (air surrounding traction network: between the contact wire and the rail were carried out. It is proposed strategic designing "squat" (low types of electric rolling stock. The components of electric energy flow through the roof of electric rolling stock and its frontal part of the body were estimated. This allows reliable etimating active power losses in electric traction system. To compensate the reactive power consumed by electric rolling stock, which is conditioned by standing waves, it is proposed (for extinction of the the last to develop and put in front of electric rolling stock the layer of particular environment with the necessary parameters. Originality. The "field" principle of the power transmission analysis and its losses arising in electric traction system was first proposed. The laws of motion of electromagnetic energy flows through the roof and the frontal part of the body of electric rolling stock were established. Practical value. An expression of the absolute value of the Poynting vector in the points of dielectric (air between the contact wire and the rail was obtained. This allows assessing the highest density of energy, which is transferred to the time unit and predicting the main dimensions of the unit of electric rolling stock. The energy indices of the roof of electric rolling stock

  20. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  1. Energy Information Data Base: serial titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Department of Energy Technical Information Center (TIC) is responsible for creating bibliographic data bases that are used in the announcement and retrieval of publications dealing with all phases of energy. The TIC interactive information processing system makes use of a number of computerized authorities so that consistency can be maintained and indexes can be produced. One such authority is the Energy Information Data Base: Serial Titles. This authority contains the full and abbreviated journal title, country of publication, CODEN, and certain codes. This revision replaces previous revisions of this document

  2. Hardware-in-loop simulation of electric vehicles automated mechanical transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C.; Wu, Y.; Wang, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    Automated mechanical transmission (AMT) can be used to enhance the performance of hybrid electric vehicles. In this study, hardware-in-loop (HIL) simulations were used to develop an AMT control system. HIL was used to simulate the running and fault status of the system as well as to optimize its performance. HIL was combined with a commercial simulation tool and an automatic code generation technology in a real time environment tool to develop the AMT control system. A hybrid vehicle system dynamics model was generated and then simulated in various real time operating vehicle environments. Virtual instrument technology was used to develop real time monitoring, parameter matching calibration, data acquisition and offline analyses for the optimization of the control system. Results of the analyses demonstrated that the AMT control system can be used to optimize the performance of hybrid electric vehicles. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  3. DC Grid Control Concept for Expandable Multi-terminal HVDC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    In areas where there are already several HVDC links in operation or under construction, it is more likely that a DC grid emerges as a gradual process. Although the DC grid control concept has been widely discussed, the implementation in the expandable multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) transmission systems...... still faces challenges. The existing converter control system needs to be adjusted when a point-to-point (PtP) link is operated into MTDC system, or when an additional converter is interconnected with an existing MTDC system, or even when a new DC grid control strategy is applied. In this paper, a new...... DC grid control concept is proposed that conserves and uses the existing converter control when an existing PtP link is extended into MTDC system or the existing MTDC system is expanded. An interface is proposed to decouple the DC grid secondary with converter control structures. By using...

  4. Research on the optoacoustic communication system for speech transmission by variable laser-pulse repetition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Qiu, Hongbing; He, Ning; Liao, Xin

    2018-06-01

    For the optoacoustic communication from in-air platforms to submerged apparatus, a method based on speech recognition and variable laser-pulse repetition rates is proposed, which realizes character encoding and transmission for speech. Firstly, the theories and spectrum characteristics of the laser-generated underwater sound are analyzed; and moreover character conversion and encoding for speech as well as the pattern of codes for laser modulation is studied; lastly experiments to verify the system design are carried out. Results show that the optoacoustic system, where laser modulation is controlled by speech-to-character baseband codes, is beneficial to improve flexibility in receiving location for underwater targets as well as real-time performance in information transmission. In the overwater transmitter, a pulse laser is controlled to radiate by speech signals with several repetition rates randomly selected in the range of one to fifty Hz, and then in the underwater receiver laser pulse repetition rate and data can be acquired by the preamble and information codes of the corresponding laser-generated sound. When the energy of the laser pulse is appropriate, real-time transmission for speaker-independent speech can be realized in that way, which solves the problem of underwater bandwidth resource and provides a technical approach for the air-sea communication.

  5. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Pointon, T.D.; Savage, M.E.; Seidel, D.B.; Magne, I.; Vezinet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds

  6. Modeling Exoplanetary Haze and Cloud Effects for Transmission Spectroscopy in the TRAPPIST-1 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sarah E.; Horst, Sarah M.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Batalha, Natasha E.; de Wit, Julien

    2018-01-01

    We present theoretical transmission spectra of the planets TRAPPIST-1d, e, f, and g using a version of the CaltecH Inverse ModEling and Retrieval Algorithms (CHIMERA) atmospheric modeling code. We use particle size, aerosol production rates, and aerosol composition inputs from recent laboratory experiments relevant for the TRAPPIST-1 system to constrain cloud and haze behavior and their effects on transmission spectra. We explore these cloud and haze cases for a variety of theoretical atmospheric compositions including hydrogen-, nitrogen-, and carbon dioxide-dominated atmospheres. Then, we demonstrate the feasibility of physically-motivated, laboratory-supported clouds and hazes to obscure spectral features at wavelengths and resolutions relevant to instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Lastly, with laboratory based constraints of haze production rates for terrestrial exoplanets, we constrain possible bulk atmospheric compositions of the TRAPPIST-1 planets based on current observations. We show that continued collection of optical data, beyond the supported wavelength range of the James Webb Telescope, is necessary to explore the full effect of hazes for transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres like the TRAPPIST-1 system.

  7. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  8. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Alonso-Mori, Roberto [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schafer, Donald W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sellberg, Jonas [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); McQueen, Trevor A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zwart, Petrus H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glatzel, Pieter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zouni, Athina [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Messinger, Johannes [Umeå Universitet, Umeå (Sweden); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bogan, Michael J., E-mail: mbogan@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup −1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup −1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  9. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min −1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min −1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption

  10. Serial killer: il database mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano parente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multisided study of serial killers is partly made difficult by the current level of progress that has led these deviant people to evolve in relation to the aspects of shrewdness (concerning the staging and mobility. Despite the important work of some scholars who proposed important theories, all this shows that, concerning serial murders, it is still particularly frequent not to pay attention to links among homicides committed by the same person but in different parts of the world. It is therefore crucial to develop a worldwide database that allows all police forces to access information collected on crime scenes of murders which are particularly absurd and committed without any apparent reason. It will then be up to the profiler, through ad hoc and technologically advanced tools, to collect this information on the crime scene that would be made available to all police forces thanks to the worldwide database.

  11. Reliability Equivalence to Symmetrical UHVDC Transmission Systems Considering Redundant Structure Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the ultra-high voltage direct current (UHVDC transmission system has been developed rapidly for its significant long-distance, high-capacity and low-loss properties. Equipment failures and overall outages of the UHVDC system have increasingly vital influence on the power supply of the receiving end grid. To improve the reliability level of UHVDC systems, a quantitative selection and configuration approach of redundant structures is proposed in this paper, which is based on multi-state reliability equivalence. Specifically, considering the symmetry characteristic of an UHVDC system, a state space model is established as a monopole rather than a bipole, which effectively reduces the state space dimensions to be considered by deducing the reliability merging operator of two poles. Considering the standby effect of AC filters and the recovery effect of converter units, the number of available converter units and corresponding probability are expressed with in universal generating function (UGF form. Then, a sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of component reliability parameters on system reliability and determine the most specific devices that should be configured in the redundant structure. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis is utilized to help determine the optimal scheme of redundant devices. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Based on the numerical results, configuring a set of redundant transformers is indicated to be of the greatest significance to improve the reliability level of UHVDC transmission systems.

  12. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  13. Stability analysis of transmission system with high penetration of distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza, M.

    2006-12-21

    Nowadays, interest in generating electricity using decentralized generators of relatively small scale ('distributed generation', DG) is increasing. This work deals with the impact of implementing DG on the transmission system transient stability, with the emphasis on a potential transition from a 'vertical power system' to a 'horizontal power system. A problem in power systems is maintaining synchronous operation of all (centralized) synchronous machines. This stability problem associated is called rotor angle stability. In this work, the impact of the DG implementation on this is investigated. The impact of DG levels on the system transient stability when the increasing DG level is followed by a reduction of centralized generators in service resulting in a 'vertical to horizontal' transformation of the power system is also investigated. Furthermore, a stochastic analysis is used to study the transient stability of the power systems. The results show that including the stochastic behavior of DG leads to a more complete and detailed view of the system performance. Finally, the situation when the power system is pushed towards a scenario, where DG penetration reaches a level that covers the total load of the original power system (100% DG level) is investigated. The research performed in this work indicates that from the transmission system stability point of view, if higher DG penetration levels are coming up, sufficient inertia and voltage support must be installed. Furthermore, one should be aware of the fact that the system behaves stochastically, especially with DG. To a certain extent regional balancing of power can be performed by local voltage control.

  14. Transmission-line resonators for the study of individual two-level tunneling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Jan David; Bilmes, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Lisenfeld, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic two-level tunneling systems (TLS) emerge in amorphous dielectrics and constitute a serious nuisance for various microfabricated devices, where they act as a source of noise and decoherence. Here, we demonstrate a new test bed for the study of TLS in various materials which provides access to properties of individual TLS as well as their ensemble response. We terminate a superconducting transmission-line resonator with a capacitor that hosts TLS in its dielectric. By tuning TLS via applied mechanical strain, we observe the signatures of individual TLS strongly coupled to the resonator in its transmission characteristics and extract the coupling components of their dipole moments and energy relaxation rates. The strong and well-defined coupling to the TLS bath results in pronounced resonator frequency fluctuations and excess phase noise, through which we can study TLS ensemble effects such as spectral diffusion, and probe theoretical models of TLS interactions.

  15. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment.

  16. The insertion of environmental impact assessment in the planning process of electrical energy transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, S.H.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this work is to identify and propose adequate methodologies in each stage of the planning process of electrical energy transmission systems. The aim is to incorporate the environmental dimension as a variable of this process, along with the economic and technical aspects. All these factors are to be taken into consideration in the decision-making, design and management of these projects. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) concepts, methods and procedures were analysed, as well as the roles that it should play, as a means to become the effective instrument of the Environmental Policy. In this study we analysed the whole planning process of the implementation of transmission lines and their impact on the environment. The current attitudes about this subject were investigated and scrutinized. Critical evaluations were made to suggest an orientation in the formulation of the proposed methodology. (author). 125 refs, 11 figs, 13 tabs

  17. Harmonics in Offshore Wind Power Plants Employing Power Electronic Devices in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm

    Introduction The trend in power generation is to partly replace conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. Offshore wind power has been selected to take up a significant proportion of the renewable energy production. The grid codes have been updated to accommodate the rising share...... of wind power. The onshore as well as offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) therefore have to meet the same stringent requirement as the conventional power plants. This can be accommodated by employment of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices, such as the static compensator...... gives rise to a number of challenges to the wind power industry with regard to construction, installation as well as transmission of the generated energy. The STATCOM and the voltage-sourced converter high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) are attractive solutions for grid connection of remotely located...

  18. Serial Austen. Mashingups with Zombies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Federici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jane Austen sells. She sells in all possible ways, her novels have been adapted for the cinema and the stage, they have been rewritten as comics and graphic novels. Jane austen is a cultural icon. The interest in her life is so strong that many biographies have been written in order to recover new facts and details. The places where she has lived and the places depicted in her novels have become tourist sites for literary pilgrims. Austen is a cross-over phenomenon, with regency costume balls recreated in her name and an endless proliferation of her works in all media. My essay will investigate Jane Austen and Seth Grahame-Smith’s Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009, a mash-up novel which has become a real cultural phenomenon of the last decade and will demonstrate how it can be considered a serial narrative. If as Henry Jenkins asserts, seriality implies the unfolding of a story over time through a process of “chunking” (that is creating meaningful parts of the same story and of “dispersal” (that is breaking the story into more parts and in more genres and media, mash-ups seems to do this.  Austen’s story remains as a “story hook” which pushes the reader to come back to different products for a continuation of the same story. So, if on the one hand, seriality occurs within the same text, the story-telling of Austen’s stories across genres and media is part of a seriality process.

  19. Drive transmission system between a driving organ and a receiver organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention applies to the control rods of a water cooled nuclear reactor. The drive transmission system is disposed on the internal kinematic chain, between the control rod which is the receiver organ, and the driving organ. The control rod translation is obtained from a motion of rotation transformed in a motion of translation by means of a screw-nut system. The present invention prevents from control rod ejection in case of depressurization of the vessel containing the control rod drives or in case of reactor upsetting when it is embarked [fr

  20. An optimization framework for the integrated planning of generation and transmission expansion in interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Omar J.; Tejada, Diego A.; Reklaitis, Gintaras V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization framework for the design and planning of interconnected power systems is proposed. • The framework integrates generation and transmission capacity expansion planning. • Reserve and emission constraints are included. • Business as usual and CO_2 mitigation policy scenarios are evaluated. • Reconfiguration of existing power generation technologies is the most cost-effective option for CO_2 emissions mitigation. - Abstract: Energy, and particularly electricity, has played and will continue to play a very important role in the development of human society. Electricity, which is the most flexible and manageable energy form, is currently used in a variety of activities and applications. For instance, electricity is used for heating, cooling, lighting, and for operating electronic appliances and electric vehicles. Nowadays, given the rapid development and commercialization of technologies and devices that rely on electricity, electricity demand is increasing faster than overall primary energy supply. Consequently, the design and planning of power systems is becoming a progressively more important issue in order to provide affordable, reliable and sustainable energy in timely fashion, not only in developed countries but particularly in developing economies where electricity demand is increasing even faster. Power systems are networks of electrical devices, such as power plants, transformers, and transmission lines, used to produce, transmit, and supply electricity. The design and planning of such systems require the selection of generation technologies, along with the capacity, location, and timing of generation and transmission capacity expansions to meet electricity demand over a long-term horizon. This manuscript presents a comprehensive optimization framework for the design and planning of interconnected power systems, including the integration of generation and transmission capacity expansion planning. The proposed

  1. Heat transport and solar transmission through a window system with low-emitting coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, B; Ribbing, C G

    1977-12-01

    Heat transfer processes through a double-glazed window system are examined. Network calculations show the good insulation properties of a double-glazed window system including at least one low-emitting film. When the insolation is taken into consideration, absorption in the panes change the heat-balance and a heat-transfer coefficient can not be defined. The thermal and optical properties of windows with low-emitting metallic films are investigated. These windows depress the heat-losses but show a relatively low solar transmission. They are suitable for reducing intense sunlight during the summer period, together with good thermal insulation during periods with low insolation.

  2. Prospective application of advanced series compensation to improve transmission system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, C A; Scavassa, J L; Silva, W.M. da; Silva, J M.M. da; Ponte, J R [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the main aspects and results of the planning studies undertaken to evaluate the technical benefits of using Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC), in a large 500 kV transmission system (Brazilian North-Northeast system). TCSC controllers design and simplified models for digital non-linear time domain simulations are discussed. The proposed controllers are tuned and used to support the comparative analysis between controlled and fixed series compensation. The relevant conclusions concerning this comparison are highlighted. (author) 2 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. An Initial Topology of Multi-terminal HVDC Transmission System in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, technical challenges for realizing offshore multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) transmission system in Europe is evaluated. An offshore MTDC topology is projected by interconnecting point-to-point HVDC links with the same voltage level and technology found in south-eastern part of North Sea....... Availability analysis is done to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed offshore MTDC topology. As compared to point-to-point (PtP) HVDC link, MTDC operation gives a more secure and reliable system. This paper shows that the proposed MTDC topology can operate 98.36% of the time....

  4. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  5. A Secondary Voltage Control Method for an AC/DC Coupled Transmission System Based on Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Fengda; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    For an AC/DC coupled transmission system, the change of transmission power on the DC lines will significantly influence the AC systems’ voltage. This paper describes a method to coordinated control the reactive power of power plants and shunt capacitors at DC converter stations nearby, in order t...

  6. Real-time all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Kong, Deming; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km....

  7. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?

  8. Life Cycle Assessment on a 765 kV Venezuelan Transmission System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlu; Tremouille, Gilles; Beroual, Abderrahmane; Bessede, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    The demand to preserve the environment and form a sustainable development is greatly increasing in the recent decades all over the world, and this environmental concern is also merged in electrical power industry, resulting in many eco-design approaches in T and D industries. As a method of eco-design, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a systematic tool that enables the assessment of the environmental impacts of a product or service throughout its entire life cycle, i.e. raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. In T and D industries, LCA has been done for a lot of products individually, in order to see one product's environmental impacts and to seek for ways of improving its environmental performance. This eco-design for product approach is a rather well-developed trend, however, as only a single electrical product cannot provide the electrical power to users, electrical system consists of a huge number of components, in order to investigate system's environmental profile, the entire environmental profiles of different composing products has to be integrated systematically, that is to say, a system approach is needed. Under this philosophy, in this paper, an LCA using SimaPro (one kind of LCA software) is conducted on a whole Venezuelan 765 kV AC transmission system, which transmits 8000 MW hydro-electrical power through 760 km to this country's load centers, with total 7 substations, i.e. one sending end, 2 intermediate substations and 4 receiving ends. This LCA includes both transmission lines and substations, and then the environmental impacts of the whole transmission system are investigated. (authors)

  9. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  10. A novel synthetic test system for thyristor level in the converter valve of HVDC power transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Longchen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The converter valve is the core equipment in the HVDC power transmission system, a+-nd its performance has a direct effect on the reliability, stability and efficiency of the whole power system. As the basic unit of HVDC converter valve, the thyristor level needs to be test routinely in order to grasp the state of the converter valve equipment. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a novel synthetic test system for the thyristor level with thyristor control unit (TCU. However, currently there is no specific test scheme for the thyristor level of HVDC converter valve. In this paper, the synthetic test principle, content and methods for the thyristor level with TCU are presented based on the analysis of the thyristor reverse recovery characteristic and the IEC technology standard. And a transient high-voltage pulse is applied to the thyristor level during its reverse recovery period in order to test the characteristics of thyristor level. Then, the synthetic test system for the thyristor level is applied to the converter valve test of ±800 kV HVDC power transmission project, and the practical test result verifies the reasonability and validity of the proposed synthetic test system.

  11. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-07-15

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10{sup -15}. The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  12. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-05-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10 -15 . The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  13. Bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-VLLC transmission system based on an OEO-based BLS and a RSOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chang-Jen; Chu, Chien-An; Shiva, Ajay; Mochii, Takao

    2016-02-01

    A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-visible-laser-light-communication (VLLC) transmission system based on an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO)-based broadband light source (BLS) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Through an in-depth observation of such bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-VLLC transmission systems, good bit error rate performances are obtained over a 40 km single-mode fiber and a 10 m RF/optical wireless transport. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-VLLC transmission system is an attractive option for providing broadband integrated services.

  14. Linkage mechanisms in the vertebrate skull: Structure and function of three-dimensional, parallel transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Aaron M; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-12-01

    Many musculoskeletal systems, including the skulls of birds, fishes, and some lizards consist of interconnected chains of mobile skeletal elements, analogous to linkage mechanisms used in engineering. Biomechanical studies have applied linkage models to a diversity of musculoskeletal systems, with previous applications primarily focusing on two-dimensional linkage geometries, bilaterally symmetrical pairs of planar linkages, or single four-bar linkages. Here, we present new, three-dimensional (3D), parallel linkage models of the skulls of birds and fishes and use these models (available as free kinematic simulation software), to investigate structure-function relationships in these systems. This new computational framework provides an accessible and integrated workflow for exploring the evolution of structure and function in complex musculoskeletal systems. Linkage simulations show that kinematic transmission, although a suitable functional metric for linkages with single rotating input and output links, can give misleading results when applied to linkages with substantial translational components or multiple output links. To take into account both linear and rotational displacement we define force mechanical advantage for a linkage (analogous to lever mechanical advantage) and apply this metric to measure transmission efficiency in the bird cranial mechanism. For linkages with multiple, expanding output points we propose a new functional metric, expansion advantage, to measure expansion amplification and apply this metric to the buccal expansion mechanism in fishes. Using the bird cranial linkage model, we quantify the inaccuracies that result from simplifying a 3D geometry into two dimensions. We also show that by combining single-chain linkages into parallel linkages, more links can be simulated while decreasing or maintaining the same number of input parameters. This generalized framework for linkage simulation and analysis can accommodate linkages of differing

  15. A Novel Power-Saving Transmission Scheme for Multiple-Component-Carrier Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Liang Chung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As mobile data traffic levels have increased exponentially, resulting in rising energy costs in recent years, the demand for and development of green communication technologies has resulted in various energy-saving designs for cellular systems. At the same time, recent technological advances have allowed multiple component carriers (CCs to be simultaneously utilized in a base station (BS, a development that has made the energy consumption of BSs a matter of increasing concern. To help address this concern, herein we propose a novel scheme aimed at efficiently minimizing the power consumption of BS transceivers during transmission, while still ensuring good service quality and fairness for users. Specifically, the scheme utilizes the dynamic activation/deactivation of CCs during data transmission to increase power usage efficiency. To test its effectiveness, the proposed scheme was applied to a model consisting of a BS with orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based CCs in a downlink transmission environment. The results indicated that, given periods of relatively light traffic loads, the total power consumption of the proposed scheme is significantly lower than that of schemes in which all the CCs of a BS are constantly activated, suggesting the scheme’s potential for reducing both energy costs and carbon dioxide emissions.

  16. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  17. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes

  18. Principles of functioning of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system in international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliakova Iana O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern international economic relations are characterised with reduction of rates of economic growth of the majority of developed economic systems, gradual oligopolisation of international markets, domination of private investors interests in political relations, growth of intensity and frequency of local, regional and international economic crises, which negatively influences the tendencies of formation of main directions of transmission and use of capital. Consideration of theoretical grounds of functioning of the monetary mechanism and content analysis of the international statistical information for a long period of time allow marking out certain principles of restoration of integrity of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system as basic ones. Introduction of the proposed principles into the mechanism of functioning of the international monetary system would allow increase of the rates of growth of production of the developed economic systems, strengthening of stability of functioning of the developing economies and decrease of interdependence of different participants of international economic relations, which would directly influence improvement of macro-economic indicators.

  19. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils.

  20. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils