WorldWideScience

Sample records for serial covert shifts

  1. Pupillary correlates of covert shifts of attention during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2017-04-01

    The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was used to track covert shifts of attention to items maintained in visual working memory (VWM). In three experiments, participants performed a change detection task in which rectangles appeared on either side of fixation and at test participants indicated if the cued rectangle changed its orientation. Prior to presentation or during the delay, participants were cued to the light or dark side of the screen. When cued to the light side, the pupil constricted, and when cued to the dark side, the pupil dilated, suggesting that the PLR tracked covert shifts of attention. Similar covert shifts of attention were seen when the target stimuli remained onscreen and during a blank delay period, suggesting similar effects for attention to perceptual stimuli and attention to stimuli maintained in VWM. Furthermore, similar effects were demonstrated when participants were pre-cued or retro-cued to the prioritized location, suggesting that shifts of covert attention can occur both before and after target presentation. These results are consistent with prior research, suggesting an important role of covert shifts of attention during VWM maintenance and that the PLR can be used to track these covert shifts of attention.

  2. Spatially distributed encoding of covert attentional shifts in human thalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulme, Oliver J; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Shipp, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    /central-intralaminar (oculomotor thalamus), caudal intralaminar/parafascicular, suprageniculate/limitans, and medial pulvinar/lateral posterior. Hence, the cortical network generating a top-down control signal for relocating attention acts in concert with a spatially selective thalamic apparatus-the set of active nuclei mirroring...... the thalamic territory of cortical "eye-field" areas, thus supporting theories which propose the visuomotor origins of covert attentional selection.......Spatial attention modulates signal processing within visual nuclei of the thalamus--but do other nuclei govern the locus of attention in top-down mode? We examined functional MRI (fMRI) data from three subjects performing a task requiring covert attention to 1 of 16 positions in a circular array...

  3. Covert shift of attention modulates the value encoding in the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Nie, Chechang; Yang, Tianming

    2018-03-13

    During value-based decision making, we often evaluate the value of each option sequentially by shifting our attention, even when the options are presented simultaneously. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to encode value during value-based decision making. Yet it is not known how its activity is modulated by attention shifts. We investigated this question by employing a passive viewing task that allowed us to disentangle effects of attention, value, choice and eye movement. We found that the attention modulated OFC activity through a winner-take-all mechanism. When we attracted the monkeys' attention covertly, the OFC neuronal activity reflected the reward value of the newly attended cue. The shift of attention could be explained by a normalization model. Our results strongly argue for the hypothesis that the OFC neuronal activity represents the value of the attended item. They provide important insights toward understanding the OFC's role in value-based decision making. © 2018, Xie et al.

  4. Using task effort and pupil size to track covert shifts of visual attention independently of a pupillary light reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Harbecke, Raphael; Graf, Tim; Memmert, Daniel; Hüttermann, Stefanie

    2018-03-07

    We tested the link between pupil size and the task effort involved in covert shifts of visual attention. The goal of this study was to establish pupil size as a marker of attentional shifting in the absence of luminance manipulations. In three experiments, participants evaluated two stimuli that were presented peripherally, appearing equidistant from and on opposite sides of eye fixation. The angle between eye fixation and the peripherally presented target stimuli varied from 12.5° to 42.5°. The evaluation of more distant stimuli led to poorer performance than did the evaluation of more proximal stimuli throughout our study, confirming that the former required more effort than the latter. In addition, in Experiment 1 we found that pupil size increased with increasing angle and that this effect could not be reduced to the operation of low-level visual processes in the task. In Experiment 2 the pupil dilated more strongly overall when participants evaluated the target stimuli, which required shifts of attention, than when they merely reported on the target's presence versus absence. Both conditions yielded larger pupils for more distant than for more proximal stimuli, however. In Experiment 3, we manipulated task difficulty more directly, by changing the contrast at which the target stimuli were presented. We replicated the results from Experiment 1 only with the high-contrast stimuli. With stimuli of low contrast, ceiling effects in pupil size were observed. Our data show that the link between task effort and pupil size can be used to track the degree to which an observer covertly shifts attention to or detects stimuli in peripheral vision.

  5. Conversion and matched filter approximations for serial minimum-shift keyed modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, R. E.; Ryan, C. R.; Stilwell, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Serial minimum-shift keyed (MSK) modulation, a technique for generating and detecting MSK using series filtering, is ideally suited for high data rate applications provided the required conversion and matched filters can be closely approximated. Low-pass implementations of these filters as parallel inphase- and quadrature-mixer structures are characterized in this paper in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation from ideal and envelope deviation. Several hardware implementation techniques utilizing microwave devices or lumped elements are presented. Optimization of parameter values results in realizations whose SNR degradation is less than 0.5 dB at error probabilities of .000001.

  6. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  7. Power shifts track serial position and modulate encoding in human episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serruya, Mijail D; Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    The first events in a series exert a powerful influence on cognition and behavior in both humans and animals. This is known as the law of primacy. Here, we analyze the neural correlates of primacy in humans by analyzing electrocorticographic recordings in 84 neurosurgical patients as they studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. We found that spectral power in the gamma frequency band (28-100 Hz) was elevated at the start of the list and gradually subsided, whereas lower frequency (2-8 Hz) delta and theta band power exhibited the opposite trend. This gradual shift in the power spectrum was found across a widespread network of brain regions. The degree to which the subsequent memory effect was modulated by list (serial) position was most pronounced in medial temporal lobe structures. These results suggest that globally increased gamma and decreased delta-theta spectral powers reflect a brain state that predisposes medial temporal lobe structures to enhance the encoding and maintenance of early list items.

  8. Spatial attention interacts with serial-order retrieval from verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Abrahamse, Elger L; Majerus, Steve; Fias, Wim

    2013-09-01

    The ability to maintain the serial order of events is recognized as a major function of working memory. Although general models of working memory postulate a close link between working memory and attention, such a link has so far not been proposed specifically for serial-order working memory. The present study provided the first empirical demonstration of a direct link between serial order in verbal working memory and spatial selective attention. We show that the retrieval of later items of a sequence stored in working memory-compared with that of earlier items-produces covert attentional shifts toward the right. This observation suggests the conceptually surprising notion that serial-order working memory, even for nonspatially defined verbal items, draws on spatial attention.

  9. [Experiences in short-term dialyses with 2 capillary dialyzers in parallel and serial circuit in 2 and 3 shift operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, W; Krohs, G

    1976-02-01

    It is reported on experiences made in 200 short-term dialyses with every 2 capillary dialysators. 167 dialyses of which 112 were performed by means of parallel arrangement and 55 by means of serial arrangement of the dialysators are analysed in detail. In their effectivity of dialysis the two variants proved to be nearly equivalent, in which cases the series-connection is of practical advantage. In two shifts of nurses up to 3 shifts of patients could be treated. In the large area dialysis an adaptation of the dialysate and a more intensive control of the patients must be performed. Advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed.

  10. The Evolution of Covert Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Flamson, Thomas J; McElreath, Richard

    2018-03-20

    Human sociality depends upon the benefits of mutual aid and extensive communication. However, diverse norms and preferences complicate mutual aid, and ambiguity in meaning hinders communication. Here we demonstrate that these two problems can work together to enhance cooperation through the strategic use of deliberately ambiguous signals: covert signaling. Covert signaling is the transmission of information that is accurately received by its intended audience but obscured when perceived by others. Such signals may allow coordination and enhanced cooperation while also avoiding the alienation or hostile reactions of individuals with different preferences. Although the empirical literature has identified potential mechanisms of covert signaling, such as encryption in humor, there is to date no formal theory of its dynamics. We introduce a novel mathematical model to assess when a covert signaling strategy will evolve, as well as how receiver attitudes coevolve with covert signals. Covert signaling plausibly serves an important function in facilitating within-group cooperative assortment by allowing individuals to pair up with similar group members when possible and to get along with dissimilar ones when necessary. This mechanism has broad implications for theories of signaling and cooperation, humor, social identity, political psychology, and the evolution of human cultural complexity.

  11. Rethinking covert stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher Dominick; Manning, Walter H; Nordstrom, Susan Naomi

    2017-09-01

    The experience of passing as fluent, also called covert stuttering, has been uncritically framed as an inherently negative pursuit. Historically passing has been understood as a repression of one's true, authentic self in response to either psychological distress or social discrimination. The authors of this paper seek a more nuanced understanding of passing. We ask, how must a person relate to herself in order to pass as fluent? This is a qualitative research study in which the authors utilized the ethical theories of philosopher Michel Foucault to contextualize data obtained from semi-structured interviews with nine participants who pass as fluent. Rather than a repression of an authentic self our data suggests passing is more usefully understood as a form of resistance by people who stutter to a hostile society. Participants learned from experiences of delegitimization that their stuttering had ethical ramifications. Consequently, they used a variety of self-forming practices to pass and thereby achieve the privileges that come with perceived able-bodiedness. Passing as fluent is not an inauthentic form of stuttering but a form of stuttering that is produced through the use of specific technologies of communication. These technologies of communication are constituted by the unique ethical relationship of the person who stutters with herself. Passing can be understood as an active form of resistance rather than a passive form of repression. By theorizing passing as fluent as an ethical relationship, we open up the possibility of changing the relationship and performing it differently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Serial Rehearsal Training on Memory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Charley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Half the subjects were trained to use a serial rehearsal strategy during target set storage and half were given no strategy training. The results indicate that the rate of memory search is IQ-related, and that serial rehearsal training facilitates memory search when rehearsal is covert. (Author/BW)

  13. Information-Limited Parallel Processing in Difficult Heterogeneous Covert Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial…

  14. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…

  15. Automated quantification of cerebral edema following hemispheric infarction: Application of a machine-learning algorithm to evaluate CSF shifts on serial head CTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF volume (∆CSF on serial computed tomography (CT scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting. We developed and validated an automated technique for CSF segmentation via integration of random forest (RF based machine learning with geodesic active contour (GAC segmentation. The proposed RF + GAC approach was compared to conventional Hounsfield Unit (HU thresholding and RF segmentation methods using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC and the correlation of volumetric measurements, with manual delineation serving as the ground truth. CSF spaces were outlined on scans performed at baseline (<6 h after stroke onset and early follow-up (FU (closest to 24 h in 38 acute ischemic stroke patients. RF performed significantly better than optimized HU thresholding (p < 10−4 in baseline and p < 10−5 in FU and RF + GAC performed significantly better than RF (p < 10−3 in baseline and p < 10−5 in FU. Pearson correlation coefficients between the automatically detected ∆CSF and the ground truth were r = 0.178 (p = 0.285, r = 0.876 (p < 10−6 and r = 0.879 (p < 10−6 for thresholding, RF and RF + GAC, respectively, with a slope closer to the line of identity in RF + GAC. When we applied the algorithm trained from images of one stroke center to segment CTs from another center, similar findings held. In conclusion, we have developed and validated an accurate automated approach to segment CSF and calculate its shifts on serial CT scans

  16. Moral perspectives on covert research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton van Niekerk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘covert research’ refers to research on human subjects for which informed consent is not, and allegedly cannot, be solicited – not because of wilful negligence or the deliberate transgression of research ethics guidelines on the part of the researcher(s, but because the revelation of the nature of the research to the involved research participants would necessarily invalidate the research results. While covert research is deemed necessary in a number of sciences, such as ethnography, such research nevertheless elicits major ethical concern due to the fact that it seemingly violates the values of respect for autonomy and the protection of research subjects – values that have, since the first formulations of the Nuremberg Code, the Belmont Declaration and the series of Helsinki accords, become almost axiomatic in our understanding of the basic tenets of responsible and ethical research on human subjects. In this article, I contend that while subject autonomy is a pivotal value in morally legitimate research generally, there is more to morally legitimate research than informed consent. I conclude by formulating a few guidelines for the identification of circumstances under which covert research might and might not be morally in order.

  17. Do Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word n + 2? A Test of Serial Attention Shift versus Distributed Lexical Processing Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading

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    Rayner, Keith; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Brown, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from serial lexical processing and parallel distributed models of eye movement control in reading. The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used, and the boundary location was set either at the end of word n - 1 (the word just to the left of the target word) or at the end of word n - 2. Serial lexical…

  18. Controlling covert integration in EU politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, J.; Coremans, E.; Bursens, Peter; De Landtsheer, Christl; Braeckmans, Luc; Segaert, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Without the prospect of new treaty revisions, integration in the European Union is often believed to come at a standstill. However, recent research suggests that deepening integration still continues, albeit in more covert ways. The risk associated with such covert integration is that it is not

  19. Leaderless Covert Networks : A Quantitative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Lindelauf et al. (2009a) introduced a quantitative approach to investigate optimal structures of covert networks. This approach used an objective function which is based on the secrecy versus information trade-off these organizations face. Sageman (2008) hypothesized that covert networks

  20. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  1. Effects of environmental support on overt and covert visuospatial rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Myerson, Joel; Abrams, Richard A; Hale, Sandra

    2018-09-01

    People can rehearse to-be-remembered locations either overtly, using eye movements, or covertly, using only shifts of spatial attention. The present study examined whether the effectiveness of these two strategies depends on environmental support for rehearsal. In Experiment 1, when environmental support (i.e., the array of possible locations) was present and participants could engage in overt rehearsal during retention intervals, longer intervals resulted in larger spans, whereas in Experiment 2, when support was present but participants could only engage in covert rehearsal, longer intervals resulted in smaller spans. When environmental support was absent, however, longer retention intervals resulted in smaller memory spans regardless of which rehearsal strategies were available. In Experiment 3, analyses of participants' eye movements revealed that the presence of support increased participants' fixations of to-be-remembered target locations more than fixations of non-targets, and that this was associated with better memory performance. Further, although the total time fixating targets increased, individual target fixations were actually briefer. Taken together, the present findings suggest that in the presence of environmental support, overt rehearsal is more effective than covert rehearsal at maintaining to-be-remembered locations in working memory, and that having more time for overt rehearsal can actually increase visuospatial memory spans.

  2. Gaze-based rehearsal in children under 7: a developmental investigation of eye movements during a serial spatial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C; Mareva, Silvana; Lelonkiewicz, Jaroslaw R; Chevalier, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has also been characterized as a shift from passive visual to more active verbal mnemonic strategy use, but no investigation of the development of overt spatial rehearsal has informed this explanation. We measured serial spatial order reconstruction in adults and groups of children 5-7 years old and 8-11 years old, while recording their eye movements. Children, particularly the youngest children, overtly fixated late-list spatial positions longer than adults, suggesting that younger children are less likely to engage in covert rehearsal during stimulus presentation than older children and adults. However, during retention the youngest children overtly fixated more of the to-be-remembered sequences than any other group, which is inconsistent with the idea that children do nothing to try to remember. Altogether, these data are inconsistent with the notion that children under 7 do not engage in any attempts to remember. They are most consistent with proposals that children's style of remembering shifts around age 7 from reactive cue-driven methods to proactive, covert methods, which may include cumulative rehearsal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  4. Automated quantification of cerebral edema following hemispheric infarction: Application of a machine-learning algorithm to evaluate CSF shifts on serial head CTs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yasheng; Dhar, Rajat; Heitsch, Laura; Ford, Andria; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Carrera, Caty; Montaner, Joan; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang; An, Hongyu; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume (??CSF) on serial computed tomography (CT) scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volum...

  5. Effects of stimulus response compatibility on covert imitation of vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Nuttall, Helen; Bekkering, Harold; Maegherman, Gwijde

    2018-03-13

    When we observe someone else speaking, we tend to automatically activate the corresponding speech motor patterns. When listening, we therefore covertly imitate the observed speech. Simulation theories of speech perception propose that covert imitation of speech motor patterns supports speech perception. Covert imitation of speech has been studied with interference paradigms, including the stimulus-response compatibility paradigm (SRC). The SRC paradigm measures covert imitation by comparing articulation of a prompt following exposure to a distracter. Responses tend to be faster for congruent than for incongruent distracters; thus, showing evidence of covert imitation. Simulation accounts propose a key role for covert imitation in speech perception. However, covert imitation has thus far only been demonstrated for a select class of speech sounds, namely consonants, and it is unclear whether covert imitation extends to vowels. We aimed to demonstrate that covert imitation effects as measured with the SRC paradigm extend to vowels, in two experiments. We examined whether covert imitation occurs for vowels in a consonant-vowel-consonant context in visual, audio, and audiovisual modalities. We presented the prompt at four time points to examine how covert imitation varied over the distracter's duration. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrated covert imitation effects for vowels, thus supporting simulation theories of speech perception. Covert imitation was not affected by stimulus modality and was maximal for later time points.

  6. Noiseless Steganography The Key to Covert Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Desoky, Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Among the features that make Noiseless Steganography: The Key to Covert Communications a first of its kind: The first to comprehensively cover Linguistic Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Graph Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Game Steganography Although the goal of steganography is to prevent adversaries from suspecting the existence of covert communications, most books on the subject present outdated steganography approaches that are detectable by human and/or machine examinations. These approaches often fail because they camouflage data as a detectable noise b

  7. The Processing of Somatosensory Information Shifts from an Early Parallel into a Serial Processing Mode: A Combined fMRI/MEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Huonker, Ralph; Witte, Otto W

    2016-01-01

    The question regarding whether somatosensory inputs are processed in parallel or in series has not been clearly answered. Several studies that have applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to fMRI data have arrived at seemingly divergent conclusions. However, these divergent results could be explained by the hypothesis that the processing route of somatosensory information changes with time. Specifically, we suggest that somatosensory stimuli are processed in parallel only during the early stage, whereas the processing is later dominated by serial processing. This hypothesis was revisited in the present study based on fMRI analyses of tactile stimuli and the application of DCM to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data collected during sustained (260 ms) tactile stimulation. Bayesian model comparisons were used to infer the processing stream. We demonstrated that the favored processing stream changes over time. We found that the neural activity elicited in the first 100 ms following somatosensory stimuli is best explained by models that support a parallel processing route, whereas a serial processing route is subsequently favored. These results suggest that the secondary somatosensory area (SII) receives information regarding a new stimulus in parallel with the primary somatosensory area (SI), whereas later processing in the SII is dominated by the preprocessed input from the SI.

  8. The Processing of Somatosensory Information shifts from an early parallel into a serial processing mode: a combined fMRI/MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Michael Klingner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question regarding whether somatosensory inputs are processed in parallel or in series has not been clearly answered. Several studies that have applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM to fMRI data have arrived at seemingly divergent conclusions. However, these divergent results could be explained by the hypothesis that the processing route of somatosensory information changes with time. Specifically, we suggest that somatosensory stimuli are processed in parallel only during the early stage, whereas the processing is later dominated by serial processing. This hypothesis was revisited in the present study based on fMRI analyses of tactile stimuli and the application of DCM to magnetoencephalographic (MEG data collected during sustained (260 ms tactile stimulation. Bayesian model comparisons were used to infer the processing stream. We demonstrated that the favored processing stream changes over time. We found that the neural activity elicited in the first 100 ms following somatosensory stimuli is best explained by models that support a parallel processing route, whereas a serial processing route is subsequently favored. These results suggest that the secondary somatosensory area (SII receives information regarding a new stimulus in parallel with the primary somatosensory area (SI, whereas later processing in the SII is dominated by the preprocessed input from the SI.

  9. End-of-treatment and serial PET imaging in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R: A paradigm shift in clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Christopher; Advani, Ranjana; Roschewski, Mark; Walters, Kelsey M; Chen, Clara C; Baratto, Lucia; Ahlman, Mark A; Miljkovic, Milos D; Steinberg, Seth M; Lam, Jessica; Shovlin, Margaret; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S; Wilson, Wyndham H

    2018-05-10

    Dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R obviates the need for radiotherapy in most patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. End-of-treatment PET, however, does not accurately identify patients at risk of treatment failure, thereby confounding clinical decision making. To define the role of PET in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R, we extended enrollment and follow-up on our published phase II trial and independent series. Ninety-three patients received dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R without radiotherapy. End-of-treatment PET was performed in 80 patients, of whom 57 received 144 serial scans. One nuclear medicine physician from each institution blindly reviewed all scans from their respective institution. End-of-treatment PET was negative (Deauville 1-3) in 55 (69%) patients with one treatment failure (8-year event-free and overall survival of 96.0% and 97.7%). Among 25 (31%) patients with a positive (Deauville 4-5) end-of-treatment PET, there were 5 (20%) treatment failures (8-year event-free and overall survival of 71.1% and 84.3%). Linear regression analysis of serial scans showed a significant decrease in SUVmax in positive end-of-treatment PET non-progressors compared to an increase in treatment failures. Among 6 treatment failures, the median end-of-treatment SUVmax was 15.4 (range, 1.9-21.3) and 4 achieved long-term remission with salvage therapy. Virtually all patients with a negative end-of-treatment PET following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R achieved durable remissions and should not receive radiotherapy. Among patients with a positive end-of-treatment PET, only 5/25 (20%) had treatment-failure. Serial PET imaging distinguished end-of-treatment PET positive patients without treatment failure, thereby reducing unnecessary radiotherapy by 80%, and should be considered in all patients with an initial positive PET following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R (NCT00001337). Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. Covert Censorship in Libraries: A Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Librarians, through their professional associations, have long been committed to the social justice principle embedded in the concept of "free access to information". External censorship challenges to library collections threaten this principle overtly. However, censorship can also occur in libraries in various covert and often unconscious ways.…

  11. Covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia: a group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Palermo, Romina; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max

    2012-03-01

    Even though people with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) never develop a normal ability to "overtly" recognize faces, some individuals show indices of "covert" (or implicit) face recognition. The aim of this study was to demonstrate covert face recognition in CP when participants could not overtly recognize the faces. Eleven people with CP completed three tasks assessing their overt face recognition ability, and three tasks assessing their "covert" face recognition: a Forced choice familiarity task, a Forced choice cued task, and a Priming task. Evidence of covert recognition was observed with the Forced choice familiarity task, but not the Priming task. In addition, we propose that the Forced choice cued task does not measure covert processing as such, but instead "provoked-overt" recognition. Our study clearly shows that people with CP demonstrate covert recognition for faces that they cannot overtly recognize, and that behavioural tasks vary in their sensitivity to detect covert recognition in CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Covert Saccade Functionally Relevant in Vestibular Hypofunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, R; Pelisson, D; Dumas, O; Urquizar, Ch; Truy, E; Tilikete, C

    2018-06-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex maintains gaze stabilization during angular or linear head accelerations, allowing adequate dynamic visual acuity. In case of bilateral vestibular hypofunction, patients use saccades to compensate for the reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function, with covert saccades occurring even during the head displacement. In this study, we questioned whether covert saccades help maintain dynamic visual acuity, and evaluated which characteristic of these saccades are the most relevant to improve visual function. We prospectively included 18 patients with chronic bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Subjects underwent evaluation of dynamic visual acuity in the horizontal plane as well as video recording of their head and eye positions during horizontal head impulse tests in both directions (36 ears tested). Frequency, latency, consistency of covert saccade initiation, and gain of covert saccades as well as residual vestibulo-ocular reflex gain were calculated. We found no correlation between residual vestibulo-ocular reflex gain and dynamic visual acuity. Dynamic visual acuity performance was however positively correlated with the frequency and gain of covert saccades and negatively correlated with covert saccade latency. There was no correlation between consistency of covert saccade initiation and dynamic visual acuity. Even though gaze stabilization in space during covert saccades might be of very short duration, these refixation saccades seem to improve vision in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction during angular head impulses. These findings emphasize the need for specific rehabilitation technics that favor the triggering of covert saccades. The physiological origin of covert saccades is discussed.

  13. Visualization and Analysis of Complex Covert Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Bisharat

    systems that are covert and hence inherently complex. My Ph.D. is positioned within the wider framework of CrimeFighter project. The framework envisions a number of key knowledge management processes that are involved in the workflow, and the toolbox provides supporting tools to assist human end......This report discusses and summarize the results of my work so far in relation to my Ph.D. project entitled "Visualization and Analysis of Complex Covert Networks". The focus of my research is primarily on development of methods and supporting tools for visualization and analysis of networked......-users (intelligence analysts) in harvesting, filtering, storing, managing, structuring, mining, analyzing, interpreting, and visualizing data about offensive networks. The methods and tools proposed and discussed in this work can also be applied to analysis of more generic complex networks....

  14. The Relationship between Visual Attention and Visual Working Memory Encoding: A Dissociation between Covert and Overt Orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A. Caglar; Luck, Steven J.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial debate over whether visual working memory (VWM) and visual attention constitute a single system for the selection of task-relevant perceptual information or whether they are distinct systems that can be dissociated when their representational demands diverge. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between visual attention and the encoding of objects into visual working memory (VWM). Participants performed a color change-detection task. During the retention interval, a secondary object, irrelevant to the memory task, was presented. Participants were instructed either to execute an overt shift of gaze to this object (Experiments 1–3) or to attend it covertly (Experiments 4 and 5). Our goal was to determine whether these overt and covert shifts of attention disrupted the information held in VWM. We hypothesized that saccades, which typically introduce a memorial demand to bridge perceptual disruption, would lead to automatic encoding of the secondary object. However, purely covert shifts of attention, which introduce no such demand, would not result in automatic memory encoding. The results supported these predictions. Saccades to the secondary object produced substantial interference with VWM performance, but covert shifts of attention to this object produced no interference with VWM performance. These results challenge prevailing theories that consider attention and VWM to reflect a common mechanism. In addition, they indicate that the relationship between attention and VWM is dependent on the memorial demands of the orienting behavior. PMID:26854532

  15. The relationship between visual attention and visual working memory encoding: A dissociation between covert and overt orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A Caglar; Luck, Steven J; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    There is substantial debate over whether visual working memory (VWM) and visual attention constitute a single system for the selection of task-relevant perceptual information or whether they are distinct systems that can be dissociated when their representational demands diverge. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between visual attention and the encoding of objects into VWM. Participants performed a color change-detection task. During the retention interval, a secondary object, irrelevant to the memory task, was presented. Participants were instructed either to execute an overt shift of gaze to this object (Experiments 1-3) or to attend it covertly (Experiments 4 and 5). Our goal was to determine whether these overt and covert shifts of attention disrupted the information held in VWM. We hypothesized that saccades, which typically introduce a memorial demand to bridge perceptual disruption, would lead to automatic encoding of the secondary object. However, purely covert shifts of attention, which introduce no such demand, would not result in automatic memory encoding. The results supported these predictions. Saccades to the secondary object produced substantial interference with VWM performance, but covert shifts of attention to this object produced no interference with VWM performance. These results challenge prevailing theories that consider attention and VWM to reflect a common mechanism. In addition, they indicate that the relationship between attention and VWM is dependent on the memorial demands of the orienting behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Design of Transport Layer Based Hybrid Covert Channel Detection Engine

    OpenAIRE

    K, Anjan; Abraham, Jibi; Jadhav V, Mamatha

    2010-01-01

    Computer network is unpredictable due to information warfare and is prone to various attacks. Such attacks on network compromise the most important attribute, the privacy. Most of such attacks are devised using special communication channel called "Covert Channel". The word "Covert" stands for hidden or non-transparent. Network Covert Channel is a concealed communication path within legitimate network communication that clearly violates security policies laid down. The non-transparency in cov...

  17. The Technique to Prevent the Data Leakage using Covert Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasilievna Arkhangelskaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to analyze technique to prevent information leakage using covert channels. The main steps are as follows: involving covert channels identification, data throughput estimation, its elimination or limitation, audit and detection. Three schemes of identification had been analyzed: shared resources methodology, covert flow tree method, message sequence diagram method. Ways of guarantee information delivery from systems with low security level to systems with high security level have been investigated.

  18. EEG predictors of covert vigilant attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the α-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.

  19. Covert Binary Communications through the Application of Chaos Theory: Three Novel Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Bradbury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, most covert communications systems use a spreadspectrum approach to ensure that transmissions remain clandestine. This paper expands beyond traditional spreadspectrum schemes and into chaos theory in communications by presenting a novel design for a covert noncoherent binary communication system that uses chaotic signals. Three techniques are developed, with varying performance. Each system uses two chaotic signals with antipodal attractors as the information carriers. Although the two chaotic signals used are continuously generated from random starting values without containing repetitious patterns, the receiver requires neither those initial values nor does it require synchronization with the transmitter. The chaotic signals used are both spreadspectrum in the frequency domain and undetectable using matched-filter receivers, thereby achieving a level of covertness. The signal-to-noise ratio performance is presented through simulated receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for a comparison to binary phase shift keying. This system provides a binary communication scheme which is not detectable by standard matched filtering techniques and has noise-like spectra, requiring a new receiver configuration and yielding security.

  20. Developments in Serials: 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  1. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  2. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  3. CovertCast: Using Live Streaming to Evade Internet Censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson Richard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We design, implement, and evaluate CovertCast, a censorship circumvention system that broadcasts the content of popular websites in real-time, encrypted video streams on common live-streaming services such as YouTube. CovertCast does not require any modifications to the streaming service and employs the same protocols, servers, and streaming software as any other user of the service. Therefore, CovertCast cannot be distinguished from other live streams by IP address filtering or protocol fingerprinting, raising the bar for censors.

  4. Calling Out Cheaters : Covert Security with Public VerifiabilitySecurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asharov, Gilad; Orlandi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of covert security with public verifiability, building on the covert security model introduced by Aumann and Lindell (TCC 2007). Protocols that satisfy covert security guarantee that the honest parties involved in the protocol will notice any cheating attempt with some...... constant probability ε. The idea behind the model is that the fear of being caught cheating will be enough of a deterrent to prevent any cheating attempt. However, in the basic covert security model, the honest parties are not able to persuade any third party (say, a judge) that a cheating occurred. We...... propose (and formally define) an extension of the model where, when an honest party detects cheating, it also receives a certificate that can be published and used to persuade other parties, without revealing any information about the honest party’s input. In addition, malicious parties cannot create fake...

  5. Imaging in covert ectopic ACTH secretion: a CT pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookur, Paul A.; Sahdev, Anju; Rockall, Andrea G.; Reznek, Rodney H. [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology, Dominion House, London (United Kingdom); Isidori, Andrea M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Medical Pathophysiology, Rome (Italy); Monson, John P.; Grossman, Ashley B. [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    The syndrome of ectopic adrenocorticotrophin secretion (EAS) is rare and is due to excess adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) production from a nonpituitary tumour. These tumours can be covert, where the tumours are not readily apparent, and very small making them challenging to image. It is clinically and biochemically difficult to distinguish between covert EAS and Cushing's disease. The first-line investigation in locating the source of ACTH production is computed tomography (CT). The aim of this pictorial review is to illustrate the likely covert sites and related imaging findings. We review the CT appearances of tumours resulting in covert EAS and the associated literature. The most common tumours were bronchial carcinoid tumours, which appear as small, well-defined, round or ovoid pulmonary lesions. Rarer causes included thymic carcinoids, gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Awareness of the imaging characteristics will aid identification of the source of ACTH production and allow potentially curative surgical resection. (orig.)

  6. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Haiqi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications.

  7. A new sensors-based covert channel on android.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Ismail, Mahamod; Nordin, Rosdiadee

    2014-01-01

    Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5-5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications.

  8. Covert Channel Pada Aliran Data Websocket untuk Komunikasi Messaging XMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Dwitya Pramudita

    2015-07-01

    Abstract Instant Messaging communication services provide a variety of communication features that can be used by the user, such as text messaging (text messages both online and offline. One of the standard protocol that supports this service is XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. XMPP communication using XML documents, making it vulnerable to passive attacks monitoring content of  communications. To overcome this drawback the solution is encrypted communications. The other solutions that try to offer in this research is the use of a covert channel to send hidden messages. In this research will create a browser based XMPP client application that is capable to deliver XMPP communication and also provide covert channel communication. XMPP communication can be built on a web-based application using WebSocket protocol. This protocol will exploit field masking-key to load the covert channel messages that is sent during the session XMPP communication takes place. From the test results, the client application is able to produce a covert channel communication with a data width of 3 bytes in each packet. The client application is also able to perform covert communication channel in a communication link with the condition of the probability of packet loss rate below 10%.   Keywords— WebSocket, XMPP, masking-key, Covert Channel, browser based application.

  9. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications. PMID:25295311

  10. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

  11. Covert Marketing: A Virtual Media Communication Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kautish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' suspicion towards traditional marketing techniques, led marketers to try the virtual media communication form called disguise advertising as other forms of messages. The examples include making advertisements resemble news items (Aditya 2001; Levine 1993; Richards 1992, the infomercials in the '90s that disguise advertising as TV programs (Levine 1993; Lacher and Rotfeld 1994, making celebrities use the products in their real lives or in films (Aditya2001, feeding media information using public relations (PR activities like brib- ing journalists with gifts and making TV stations use the footages from press releases (Gillin 2006. Because of the prevalence of virtual media, the marketing practices that conceal the real sources (marketers with disguised sources haveposed both ethical and policy concerns. This article proposed a new typology that covered the comprehensive scope of disguised marketing practices, discussed the deceptive nature of this marketing technique from the consumer behavioral view- points, and conducted a 2 x 3 experiment to test the hypothesized relationships.The results suggest that an implicit message, disguised source’s preference, is likely to be conveyed in covert marketing and thus results in high a deceptive tendency.

  12. Serial position curves in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  13. Ranking serials in oceanography: An analysis based on the Indian contributions and their citations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.; Maheswarappa, B.S.

    An analysis of serials preferred and cited in various communications by the Indian oceanographers during 1963 to 1992 is presented. A shift in preference of serials from general sciences to oceanography (interdisciplinary) and to core subject...

  14. Overt and covert attention to location-based reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Brónagh; Theeuwes, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Recent research on the impact of location-based reward on attentional orienting has indicated that reward factors play an influential role in spatial priority maps. The current study investigated whether and how reward associations based on spatial location translate from overt eye movements to covert attention. If reward associations can be tied to locations in space, and if overt and covert attention rely on similar overlapping neuronal populations, then both overt and covert attentional measures should display similar spatial-based reward learning. Our results suggest that location- and reward-based changes in one attentional domain do not lead to similar changes in the other. Specifically, although we found similar improvements at differentially rewarded locations during overt attentional learning, this translated to the least improvement at a highly rewarded location during covert attention. We interpret this as the result of an increased motivational link between the high reward location and the trained eye movement response acquired during learning, leading to a relative slowing during covert attention when the eyes remained fixated and the saccade response was suppressed. In a second experiment participants were not required to keep fixated during the covert attention task and we no longer observed relative slowing at the high reward location. Furthermore, the second experiment revealed no covert spatial priority of rewarded locations. We conclude that the transfer of location-based reward associations is intimately linked with the reward-modulated motor response employed during learning, and alternative attentional and task contexts may interfere with learned spatial priorities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  16. Neural foundations of overt and covert actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Kavroulakis, Eleftherios; Maris, Thomas; Papadaki, Efrosini; Boursianis, Themistoklis; Kalaitzakis, Giorgos; Savaki, Helen E

    2017-05-15

    We used fMRI to assess the human brain areas activated for execution, observation and 1st person motor imagery of a visually guided tracing task with the index finger. Voxel-level conjunction analysis revealed several cortical areas activated in common across all three motor conditions, namely, the upper limb representation of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, the dorsal and ventral premotor, the superior and inferior parietal cortices as well as the posterior part of the superior and middle temporal gyrus including the temporo-parietal junction (TPj) and the extrastriate body area (EBA). Functional connectivity analyses corroborated the notion that a common sensory-motor fronto-parieto-temporal cortical network is engaged for execution, observation, and imagination of the very same action. Taken together these findings are consistent with the more parsimonious account of motor cognition provided by the mental simulation theory rather than the recently revised mirror neuron view Action imagination and observation were each associated with several additional functional connections, which may serve the distinction between overt action and its covert counterparts, and the attribution of action to the correct agent. For example, the central position of the right middle and inferior frontal gyrus in functional connectivity during motor imagery may reflect the suppression of movements during mere imagination of action, and may contribute to the distinction between 'imagined' and 'real' action. Also, the central role of the right EBA in observation, assessed by functional connectivity analysis, may be related to the attribution of action to the 'external agent' as opposed to the 'self'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Encryption of covert information into multiple statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    A novel strategy to encrypt covert information (code) via unitary projections into the null spaces of ill-conditioned eigenstructures of multiple host statistical distributions, inferred from incomplete constraints, is presented. The host pdf's are inferred using the maximum entropy principle. The projection of the covert information is dependent upon the pdf's of the host statistical distributions. The security of the encryption/decryption strategy is based on the extreme instability of the encoding process. A self-consistent procedure to derive keys for both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography is presented. The advantages of using a multiple pdf model to achieve encryption of covert information are briefly highlighted. Numerical simulations exemplify the efficacy of the model

  18. Electrophysiological dynamics of covert and overt visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi

    Attention is a key neural function for choosing certain information to receive more processing than others. Attention is allocated either by directly looking at the target (overt) or without eye movement towards the target (covert). The current study was designed to extract relevant features...... by using steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) task. SSVEP task was presented to subjects at the same time that the electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded by the scalp electrodes. Subjects were instructed to respond to a certain stimulus by pressing a button. This way attention...... was measure in continuous manner. Results showed that the amplitude of SSVEP frequencies is higher in overt than covert attention. This indicates that by overt attention events are registered with larger power. However, exploring the harmonics of frequencies showed that covert attention generates larger 2nd...

  19. CFCC: A Covert Flows Confinement Mechanism for Virtual Machine Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ge; Jin, Hai; Zou, Deqing; Shi, Lei; Ohoussou, Alex K.

    Normally, virtualization technology is adopted to construct the infrastructure of cloud computing environment. Resources are managed and organized dynamically through virtual machine (VM) coalitions in accordance with the requirements of applications. Enforcing mandatory access control (MAC) on the VM coalitions will greatly improve the security of VM-based cloud computing. However, the existing MAC models lack the mechanism to confine the covert flows and are hard to eliminate the convert channels. In this paper, we propose a covert flows confinement mechanism for virtual machine coalitions (CFCC), which introduces dynamic conflicts of interest based on the activity history of VMs, each of which is attached with a label. The proposed mechanism can be used to confine the covert flows between VMs in different coalitions. We implement a prototype system, evaluate its performance, and show that our mechanism is practical.

  20. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  1. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  2. Classifying serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-08

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  3. An independent brain-computer interface using covert non-spatial visual selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Maye, Alexander; Gao, Xiaorong; Hong, Bo; Engel, Andreas K.; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a novel independent brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on covert non-spatial visual selective attention of two superimposed illusory surfaces is described. Perception of two superimposed surfaces was induced by two sets of dots with different colors rotating in opposite directions. The surfaces flickered at different frequencies and elicited distinguishable steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) over parietal and occipital areas of the brain. By selectively attending to one of the two surfaces, the SSVEP amplitude at the corresponding frequency was enhanced. An online BCI system utilizing the attentional modulation of SSVEP was implemented and a 3-day online training program with healthy subjects was carried out. The study was conducted with Chinese subjects at Tsinghua University, and German subjects at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) using identical stimulation software and equivalent technical setup. A general improvement of control accuracy with training was observed in 8 out of 18 subjects. An averaged online classification accuracy of 72.6 ± 16.1% was achieved on the last training day. The system renders SSVEP-based BCI paradigms possible for paralyzed patients with substantial head or ocular motor impairments by employing covert attention shifts instead of changing gaze direction.

  4. Bayesian accounts of covert selective attention: A tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Benjamin T

    2015-05-01

    Decision making and optimal observer models offer an important theoretical approach to the study of covert selective attention. While their probabilistic formulation allows quantitative comparison to human performance, the models can be complex and their insights are not always immediately apparent. Part 1 establishes the theoretical appeal of the Bayesian approach, and introduces the way in which probabilistic approaches can be applied to covert search paradigms. Part 2 presents novel formulations of Bayesian models of 4 important covert attention paradigms, illustrating optimal observer predictions over a range of experimental manipulations. Graphical model notation is used to present models in an accessible way and Supplementary Code is provided to help bridge the gap between model theory and practical implementation. Part 3 reviews a large body of empirical and modelling evidence showing that many experimental phenomena in the domain of covert selective attention are a set of by-products. These effects emerge as the result of observers conducting Bayesian inference with noisy sensory observations, prior expectations, and knowledge of the generative structure of the stimulus environment.

  5. Covert Conditioning: Case Studies in Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Geoffrey G.

    The self-management of thoughts and mental images was used in a series of empirical case studies to influence behavior changes. The target behaviors in the cases reported were smoking, overeating, fingernail biting, thinking self-depreciative thoughts, and responding assertively. Self-monitoring, covert positive reinforcement, covert…

  6. Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    In this paper, we evaluate available steganographic techniques for SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) that can be used for creating covert channels during signaling phase of VoIP (Voice over IP) call. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by introducing new techniques. We also estimate amount of data that can be transferred in signalling messages for typical IP telephony call.

  7. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  8. From Passive to Covert Security at Low Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Geisler, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2010-01-01

    . In this paper, we show how to compile a passively secure protocol for honest majority into one that is secure against covert attacks, again for honest majority and catches cheating with probability 1/4. The cost of the modified protocol is essentially twice that of the original plus an overhead that only...

  9. A Comparison of Three Covert Assertion Training Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twentyman, Craig T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of covert modification procedures in an assertion training program. All treatment groups were superior to the control in behavioral ratings of assertiveness during the posttest in those situations that had been employed previously in treatment; two were superior in those that had not been used, providing evidence of…

  10. Covert medication in psychiatric emergencies: is it ever ethically permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Erick K; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Covert administration of medications to patients, defined as the administration of medication to patients without their knowledge, is a practice surrounded by clinical, legal, ethics-related, and cultural controversy. Many psychiatrists would be likely to advocate that the practice of covert medication in emergency psychiatry is not clinically, ethically, or legally acceptable. This article explores whether there may be exceptions to this stance that would be ethical. We first review the standard of emergency psychiatric care. Although we could identify no published empirical studies of covert administration of medicine in emergency departments, we review the prevalence of this practice in other clinical settings. While the courts have not ruled with respect to covert medication, we discuss the evolving legal landscape of informed consent, competency, and the right to refuse treatment. We discuss dilemmas regarding the ethics involved in this practice, including the tensions among autonomy, beneficence, and duty to protect. We explore how differences between cultures regarding the value placed on individual versus family autonomy may affect perspectives with regard to this practice. We investigate how consumers view this practice and their treatment preferences during a psychiatric emergency. Finally, we discuss psychiatric advance directives and explore how these contracts may affect the debate over the practice.

  11. The Windows serial port programming handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of serial port communications. Serial port programming in ANSI C and Assembly languages for MS-DOS. Serial ports interface developed in VC++ 6.0. Serial port programming in Visual Basic. Serial port programming in LabVIEW. Serial port programming in MATLAB. Serial port programming in Smalltalk. Serial port programming in Java.

  12. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Tsan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.

  13. Serial interprocessor communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-01-01

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM

  14. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  15. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  16. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  17. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  18. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  19. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  20. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  1. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  2. Persistence, impacts and environmental drivers of covert infections in invertebrate hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Fontes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent covert infections of the myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, in primary invertebrate hosts (the freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana have been proposed to represent a reservoir for proliferative kidney disease in secondary fish hosts. However, we have limited understanding of how covert infections persist and vary in bryozoan populations over time and space and how they may impact these populations. In addition, previous studies have likely underestimated covert infection prevalence. To improve our understanding of the dynamics, impacts and implications of covert infections we employed a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay and undertook the first investigation of covert infections in the field over an annual period by sampling bryozoans every 45 days from three populations within each of three rivers. Results Covert infections persisted throughout the year and prevalence varied within and between rivers, but were often > 50%. Variation in temperature and water chemistry were linked with changes in prevalence in a manner consistent with the maintenance of covert infections during periods of low productivity and thus poor growth conditions for both bryozoans and T. bryosalmonae. The presence and increased severity of covert infections reduced host growth but only when bryozoans were also investing in the production of overwintering propagules (statoblasts. However, because statoblast production is transitory, this effect is unlikely to greatly impact the capacity of bryozoan populations to act as persistent sources of infections and hence potential disease outbreaks in farmed and wild fish populations. Conclusions We demonstrate that covert infections are widespread and persist over space and time in bryozoan populations. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study of covert infections in a field setting. Review of the results of this and previous studies enables us to identify

  3. The dependencies of fronto-parietal BOLD responses evoked by covert visual search suggest eye-centred coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, A; Dicke, P W; Karnath, H-O; Thier, P

    2013-04-01

    Visual scenes explored covertly are initially represented in a retinal frame of reference (FOR). On the other hand, 'later' stages of the cortical network allocating spatial attention most probably use non-retinal or non-eye-centred representations as they may ease the integration of different sensory modalities for the formation of supramodal representations of space. We tested if the cortical areas involved in shifting covert attention are based on eye-centred or non-eye-centred coding by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were scanned while detecting a target item (a regularly oriented 'L') amidst a set of distractors (rotated 'L's). The array was centred either 5° right or left of the fixation point, independent of eye-gaze orientation, the latter varied in three steps: straight relative to the head, 10° left or 10° right. A quantitative comparison of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses for the three eye-gaze orientations revealed stronger BOLD responses in the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the right frontal eye field (FEF) for search in the contralateral (i.e. left) eye-centred space, independent of whether the array was located in the right or left head-centred hemispace. The left IPS showed the reverse pattern, i.e. an activation by search in the right eye-centred hemispace. In other words, the IPS and the right FEF, members of the cortical network underlying covert search, operate in an eye-centred FOR. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Comparison of Individualized Covert Modeling, Self-Control Desensitization, and Study Skills Training for Alleviation of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gina; Johhson, Suzanne Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Individualized covert modeling and self-control desensitization substantially reduced self-reported test anxiety. However, the individualized covert modeling group was the only treatment group that showed significant improvement in academic performance. (Author)

  5. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Overt and Covert Conduct Problems: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Blacker, Deborah; Biederman, Joseph; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Buka, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Empirical evidence demonstrates that conduct disorder (CD) symptoms tend to cluster into covert and overt domains. We hypothesized that overt and covert CD symptoms may be distinct constructs with distinct risk factors. An important risk factor for CD is maternal smoking during pregnancy. We further investigated this association,…

  6. The Effect of Covert Modeling on Communication Apprehension, Communication Confidence, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimocks, Mittie J.; Bromley, Patricia L.; Parsons, Theron E.; Enright, Corinne S.; Gates, Elizabeth A.

    This study examined the effect of covert modeling on communication apprehension, public speaking anxiety, and communication competence. Students identified as highly communication apprehensive received covert modeling, a technique in which one first observes a model doing a behavior, then visualizes oneself performing the behavior and obtaining a…

  7. One-mode projection analysis and design of covert affiliation networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Within the field of national security and counterterrorism a great need exists to understand covert organizations. To better understand these cellular structures we model and analyze these cells as a collection of subsets of all participants in the covert organization, i.e., as hypergraphs or

  8. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  9. A Network Steganography Lab on Detecting TCP/IP Covert Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zseby, Tanja; Vázquez, Félix Iglesias; Bernhardt, Valentin; Frkat, Davor; Annessi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a network security laboratory to teach data analysis for detecting TCP/IP covert channels. The laboratory is mainly designed for students of electrical engineering, but is open to students of other technical disciplines with similar background. Covert channels provide a method for leaking data from protected systems, which is a…

  10. Covert Medications: Act of Compassion or Conspiracy of Silence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States gets older, more people suffer from dementia, which often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation and paranoia. This can lead patients to refuse medications, prompting consideration of covert administration (that is, concealing medication in food or drink). While many condemn this practice as paternalistic, deceptive, and potentially harmful, the end result of assuming the "moral high ground" can be increased suffering for patients and families. This article addresses common criticisms of covert medication and presents a detailed algorithm by which to determine whether the practice is ethically permissible in specific cases. It also explores why so little attention has been paid in the U.S. to this presumably common practice, and reviews professional statements from Europe that endorse the practice. Finally, it presents a compelling argument for the role of Ulysses clauses in advance care planning, not only for patients with psychiatric illness but also for those who may suffer from dementia, which is far more common. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of offset cues on saccade programming and covert attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T; Casteau, Soazig

    2018-02-01

    Salient peripheral events trigger fast, "exogenous" covert orienting. The influential premotor theory of attention argues that covert orienting of attention depends upon planned but unexecuted eye-movements. One problem with this theory is that salient peripheral events, such as offsets, appear to summon attention when used to measure covert attention (e.g., the Posner cueing task) but appear not to elicit oculomotor preparation in tasks that require overt orienting (e.g., the remote distractor paradigm). Here, we examined the effects of peripheral offsets on covert attention and saccade preparation. Experiment 1 suggested that transient offsets summoned attention in a manual detection task without triggering motor preparation planning in a saccadic localisation task, although there were a high proportion of saccadic capture errors on "no-target" trials, where a cue was presented but no target appeared. In Experiment 2, "no-target" trials were removed. Here, transient offsets produced both attentional facilitation and faster saccadic responses on valid cue trials. A third experiment showed that the permanent disappearance of an object also elicited attentional facilitation and faster saccadic reaction times. These experiments demonstrate that offsets trigger both saccade programming and covert attentional orienting, consistent with the idea that exogenous, covert orienting is tightly coupled with oculomotor activation. The finding that no-go trials attenuates oculomotor priming effects offers a way to reconcile the current findings with previous claims of a dissociation between covert attention and oculomotor control in paradigms that utilise a high proportion of catch trials.

  12. Freely chosen cadence during a covert manipulation of ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Geoffrey L; Cheung, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated relationships between changes in power output (PO) to torque (TOR) or freely chosen cadence (FCC) during thermal loading. Twenty participants cycled at a constant rating of perceived exertion while ambient temperature (Ta) was covertly manipulated at 20-min intervals of 20 °C, 35 °C, and 20 °C. The magnitude responses of PO, FCC and TOR were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, while the temporal correlations were analyzed using Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA). Increases in Ta caused significant thermal strain (p FCC remained unchanged (p = .51). ARIMA indicates that changes in PO were highly correlated to TOR (stationary r2 = .954, p = .04), while FCC was moderately correlated (stationary r2 = .717, p = .01) to PO. In conclusion, changes in PO are caused by a modulation in TOR, whereas FCC remains unchanged and therefore, unaffected by thermal stressors.

  13. Covert hepatic encephalopathy: not as minimal as you might think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2012-11-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive complication of acute and chronic liver disease. Symptoms are often overt (confusion, disorientation, ataxia, or coma) but can also be subtle (difficulty with cognitive abilities such as executive decision-making and psychomotor speed). There is consensus that HE is characterized as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the absence of brain disease, ranging from overt HE (OHE) to minimal HE (MHE). The West Haven Criteria are most often used to grade HE, with scores ranging from 0-4 (4 being coma). However, it is a challenge to diagnose patients with MHE or grade 1 HE; it might be practical to combine these entities and name them covert HE for clinical use. The severity of HE is associated with the stage of liver disease. Although the pathologic mechanisms of HE are not well understood, they are believed to involve increased levels of ammonia and inflammation, which lead to low-grade cerebral edema. A diagnosis of MHE requires dedicated psychometric tests and neurophysiological techniques rather than a simple clinical assessment. Although these tests can be difficult to perform in practice, they are cost effective and important; the disorder affects patients' quality of life, socioeconomic status, and driving ability and increases their risk for falls and the development of OHE. Patients with MHE are first managed by excluding other causes of neurocognitive dysfunction. Therapy with gut-specific agents might be effective. We review management strategies and important areas of research for MHE and covert HE. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  15. Covert Shifts of Attention Function as an Implicit Aid to Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.; Lleras, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Previous research shows that directed actions can unconsciously influence higher-order cognitive processing, helping learners to retain knowledge and guiding problem solvers to useful insights (e.g. Cook, S. W., Mitchell, Z., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2008). Gesturing makes learning last. "Cognition," 106, 1047-1058; Thomas, L. E., & Lleras, A. (2007).…

  16. Quick, sensitive serial NMR experiments with Radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    The Radon transform is a potentially powerful tool for processing the data from serial spectroscopic experiments. It makes it possible to decode the rate at which frequencies of spectral peaks shift under the effect of changing conditions, such as temperature, pH, or solvent. In this paper we show how it also improves speed and sensitivity, especially in multidimensional experiments. This is particularly important in the case of low-sensitivity techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy. As an example, we demonstrate how Radon transform processing allows serial measurements of 15 N-HSQC spectra of unlabelled peptides that would otherwise be infeasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Researching of Covert Timing Channels Based on HTTP Cache Headers in Web API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Nikolaevich Kolegov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown how covert timing channels based on HTTP cache headers can be implemented using different Web API of Google Drive, Dropbox and Facebook  Internet services.

  18. Covert Action: Cold War Dinosaur or "Tool" for the 21st Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonham, Gordon C

    1999-01-01

    .... During the height of the Cold War, while "Mission Impossible" and "Secret Agent" dominated television viewing, covert operations were frequently the instrument of choice to achieve foreign policy objectives...

  19. Union Listing via OCLC's Serials Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Terrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes library use of Conversion of Serials Project's (CONSER) online national machine-readable database for serials to create online union lists of serials via OCLC's Serial Control Subsystem. Problems in selection of appropriate, accurate, and authenticated records and prospects for the future are discussed. Twenty sources and sample records…

  20. Schweizer RU-38A Twin-Condor: covert surveillance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Michael J.; Schweizer, Paul H.

    1997-11-01

    The world order has changed and with it, governments are now faced with waging a new type of `ware.' Regional instability, drug trafficking, environmental issues, international terrorism, and illegal immigration are examples of escalating problems that cross international boundaries and threaten the security of nations. The first and most important element in coping with these illegal activities is the ability to detect and monitor events in a timely and secure fashion. Conventional means of gathering intelligence such as large airborne collection systems and satellites lack the flexibility, dwell times, and cost effectiveness to meet many of today's needs. There is a growing requirement for airborne platforms that can covertly perform surveillance missions during either day or night and in a cost effective manner. To meet this need, Schweizer Aircraft has recently developed the RU-38A twin-engine surveillance aircraft. This paper discusses the evolution and principle design concepts of this aircraft and how its unique performance enables the RU-38A to achieve new levels of surveillance capability.

  1. Combining overt and covert anti-counterfeiting technologies for securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Tsuyoshi

    2006-02-01

    The National Printing Bureau of Japan has been developing new anti-counterfeiting technologies as a banknote printer. Some of our technologies have already been effectively introduced into Japan's new banknote series. Anti-counterfeiting technologies can be applied not only to banknotes but also to other security documents depending on desired features. In this presentation, I will introduce three of our newly developed overt and covert security techniques, which are intended for document security and brand protection, as well as banknotes. "Metallic View" is mainly for offset printing. "Copy Check" (micro-structural lines involving luminescence) is for plate making technology. "ImageSwitch" is for a new security solution which has unlimited printing applications. All three techniques create "latent images" (some of which may be better known as "carrier screen images") that are useful in preventing counterfeiting. While each of the techniques is effective by itself, all are more effective when applied together. Combining these techniques could make all security documents harder to copy using IT scanners, and provide cost-effective anti-counterfeiting solutions for all security users.

  2. Heat strain evaluation of overt and covert body armour in a hot and humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Andrew J; Costello, Joseph T; Stewart, Ian B

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the thermophysiological effects of wearing lightweight non-military overt and covert personal body armour (PBA) in a hot and humid environment. Eight healthy males walked on a treadmill for 120 min at 22% of their heart rate reserve in a climate chamber simulating 31 °C (60%RH) wearing either no armour (control), overt or covert PBA in addition to a security guard uniform, in a randomised controlled crossover design. No significant difference between conditions at the end of each trial was observed in core temperature, heart rate or skin temperature (P > 0.05). Covert PBA produced a significantly greater amount of body mass change (-1.81 ± 0.44%) compared to control (-1.07 ± 0.38%, P = 0.009) and overt conditions (-1.27 ± 0.44%, P = 0.025). Although a greater change in body mass was observed after the covert PBA trial; based on the physiological outcome measures recorded, the heat strain encountered while wearing lightweight, non-military overt or covert PBA was negligible compared to no PBA. The wearing of bullet proof vests or body armour is a requirement of personnel engaged in a wide range of occupations including police, security, customs and even journalists in theatres of war. This randomised controlled crossover study is the first to examine the thermophysiological effects of wearing lightweight non-military overt and covert personal body armour (PBA) in a hot and humid environment. We conclude that the heat strain encountered while wearing both overt and covert lightweight, non-military PBA was negligible compared to no PBA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  4. Serial murder: An unusual stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Mandar R; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Farooqui, Jamebaseer M; Janagond, Anand B; Mishra, Pradeep K

    2017-12-01

    Serial murders attract attention from the media, mental health experts, academia, and the general public. We present a case of serial murders that took place in a limited area and which caused public anxiety and anguish in central India. All the victims were homeless beggars, who were bludgeoned to death (crush injury). Individual murders were initially investigated by different police stations; fortunately, since they sent all the bodies to a common autopsy centre, a forensic pathologist was able to link all the cases, the first person to do so. This emphasises the need for sharing information among police stations and autopsy centres.

  5. Pattern-Induced Covert Category Learning in Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2015-07-20

    Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain Training with Video Games in Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; Thacker, Leroy R; Fagan, Andrew; Gavis, Edith A; Lennon, Michael; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Wade, James B

    2017-02-01

    Despite the associated adverse outcomes, pharmacologic intervention for covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is not the standard of care. We hypothesized that a video game-based rehabilitation program would improve white matter integrity and brain connectivity in the visuospatial network on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resulting in improved cognitive function in CHE subjects on measures consistent with the cognitive skill set emphasized by the two video games (e.g., IQ Boost-visual working memory, and Aim and Fire Challenge-psychomotor speed), but also generalize to thinking skills beyond the focus of the cognitive training (Hopkins verbal learning test (HVLT)-verbal learning/memory) and improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The trial included three phases over 8 weeks; during the learning phase (cognitive tests administered twice over 2 weeks without intervening intervention), training phase (daily video game training for 4 weeks), and post-training phase (testing 2 weeks after the video game training ended). Thirty CHE patients completed all visits with significant daily achievement on the video games. In a subset of 13 subjects that underwent brain MRI, there was a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy, and increased radial diffusivity (suggesting axonal sprouting or increased cross-fiber formation) involving similar brain regions (i.e., corpus callosum, internal capsule, and sections of the corticospinal tract) and improvement in the visuospatial resting-state connectivity corresponding to the video game training domains. No significant corresponding improvement in HRQOL or HVLT performance was noted, but cognitive performance did transiently improve on cognitive tests similar to the video games during training. Although multimodal brain imaging changes suggest reductions in tract edema and improved neural network connectivity, this trial of video game brain training did not improve the HRQOL or produce lasting improvement in

  7. Brutality under cover of ambiguity: activating, perpetuating, and deactivating covert retributivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    Five studies tested four hypotheses on the drivers of punitive judgments. Study 1 showed that people imposed covertly retributivist physical punishments on extreme norm violators when they could plausibly deny that is what they were doing (attributional ambiguity). Studies 2 and 3 showed that covert retributivism could be suppressed by subtle accountability manipulations that cue people to the possibility that they might be under scrutiny. Studies 4 and 5 showed how covert retributivism can become self-sustaining by biasing the lessons people learn from experience. Covert retributivists did not scale back punitiveness in response to feedback that the justice system makes false-conviction errors but they did ramp up punitiveness in response to feedback that the system makes false-acquittal errors. Taken together, the results underscore the paradoxical nature of covert retributivism: It is easily activated by plausible deniability and persistent in the face of false-conviction feedback but also easily deactivated by minimalist forms of accountability. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring: Comparisons with overt monitoring and links with information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Skyler T

    2017-02-01

    This study compared Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring with the overt strategies of solicitation and control. We investigated these behaviors in terms of unique associations with adolescents' perceived privacy invasion and the information management behaviors of disclosure and secrecy. High school students (N = 455, 61.5% female; M age  = 17.39, SD = 0.83) from a predominantly rural province of Mainland China reported a high incidence of covert monitoring (60.40%). Covert monitoring predicted privacy invasion more strongly than solicitation or control. Solicitation positively predicted disclosure, while covert monitoring negatively predicted disclosure and positively predicted secrecy. Privacy invasion fully mediated links between covert monitoring and information management. These latter effects were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. Similar to Western adolescents, Chinese youth might apply selective resistance when parents violate their personal domain. The findings suggest linkage between some parental monitoring behaviors and disruptions in Chinese family communication. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L. Sundqvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated or overt (retrieved and articulated response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min and delayed (1 week cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing. A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked vs. random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  10. A novel brain-computer interface based on the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Treder, Matthias Sebastian; Schreuder, Martijn; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Most present-day visual brain computer interfaces (BCIs) suffer from the fact that they rely on eye movements, are slow-paced, or feature a small vocabulary. As a potential remedy, we explored a novel BCI paradigm consisting of a central rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of the stimuli. It has a large vocabulary and realizes a BCI system based on covert non-spatial selective visual attention. In an offline study, eight participants were presented sequences of rapid bursts of symbols. Two different speeds and two different color conditions were investigated. Robust early visual and P300 components were elicited time-locked to the presentation of the target. Offline classification revealed a mean accuracy of up to 90% for selecting the correct symbol out of 30 possibilities. The results suggest that RSVP-BCI is a promising new paradigm, also for patients with oculomotor impairments.

  11. Covert video monitoring in the assessment of medically unexplained symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Dustin P; Sim, Leslie A; Harrison, Tracy E; Bruce, Barbara K; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia

    2012-04-01

    Diagnosis of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) occurs after thorough evaluations have failed to identify a physiological cause for symptoms. However, families and providers may wonder if something has been missed, leading to reduced confidence in behavioral treatment. Confidence may be improved through the use of technology such as covert video monitoring to better assess functioning across settings. A 12-year-old male presented with progressive neurological decline, precipitated by chronic pain. After thorough evaluation and the failure of standard treatments (medical, rehabilitative, and psychological) covert video monitoring revealed that the patient demonstrated greater abilities when alone in his room. Negative reinforcement was used to initiate recovery, accompanied by positive reinforcement and a rehabilitative approach. Covert video monitoring assisted in three subsequent cases over the following 3 years. In certain complex cases, video monitoring can inform the assessment and treatment of MUS. Discussion includes ethical and practical considerations.

  12. Overt vs. covert speed cameras in combination with delayed vs. immediate feedback to the offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Hadas; Setter, Pe'erly; Norman, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Speeding is a major problem in road safety because it increases both the probability of accidents and the severity of injuries if an accident occurs. Speed cameras are one of the most common speed enforcement tools. Most of the speed cameras around the world are overt, but there is evidence that this can cause a "kangaroo effect" in driving patterns. One suggested alternative to prevent this kangaroo effect is the use of covert cameras. Another issue relevant to the effect of enforcement countermeasures on speeding is the timing of the fine. There is general agreement on the importance of the immediacy of the punishment, however, in the context of speed limit enforcement, implementing such immediate punishment is difficult. An immediate feedback that mediates the delay between the speed violation and getting a ticket is one possible solution. This study examines combinations of concealment and the timing of the fine in operating speed cameras in order to evaluate the most effective one in terms of enforcing speed limits. Using a driving simulator, the driving performance of the following four experimental groups was tested: (1) overt cameras with delayed feedback, (2) overt cameras with immediate feedback, (3) covert cameras with delayed feedback, and (4) covert cameras with immediate feedback. Each of the 58 participants drove in the same scenario on three different days. The results showed that both median speed and speed variance were higher with overt than with covert cameras. Moreover, implementing a covert camera system along with immediate feedback was more conducive to drivers maintaining steady speeds at the permitted levels from the very beginning. Finally, both 'overt cameras' groups exhibit a kangaroo effect throughout the entire experiment. It can be concluded that an implementation strategy consisting of covert speed cameras combined with immediate feedback to the offender is potentially an optimal way to motivate drivers to maintain speeds at the

  13. The mind-writing pupil : A human-computer interface based on decoding of covert attention through pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean Baptiste; Van Der Linden, Lotje; Van Der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright,

  14. Covertly active and progressing neurochemical abnormalities in suppressed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Jugé, Lauriane; Gates, Thomas; Tobia, Michael; Moffat, Kirsten; Brew, Bruce J; Rae, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether HIV-related brain injury is progressive in persons with suppressed HIV infection. Seventy-three HIV+ virally suppressed men and 35 HIV- men, screened for psychiatric and alcohol/drug use disorders, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) at baseline and after and 23 ± 5 months. 1 H-MRS included brain regions known to be vulnerable to HIV and aging: frontal white matter (FWM), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and caudate area (CA). Major brain metabolites such as creatine (Cr: marker of cellular energy), N -acetyl aspartate (NAA: marker of neuronal integrity), choline (marker of cellular membrane turnover), glutamate/glutamine (excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter), and myo -Inositol (mI: marker of neuroinflammation) were calculated with reference to water signal. Neurocognitive decline was corrected for practice effect and baseline HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) status. Across the study period, 44% had intact cognition, 42% stable HAND (including the single case that improved), 10% progressing HAND, and 4% incident HAND. When analyzing the neurochemical data per neurocognitive trajectories, we found decreasing PCC Cr in all subgroups compared with controls ( p < 0.002). In addition, relative to the HIV- group, stable HAND showed decreasing FWM Cr, incident HAND showed steep FWM Cr reduction, whereas progressing HAND had a sharply decreasing PCC NAA and reduced but stable CA NAA. When analyzing the neurochemical data at the group level (HIV+ vs HIV- groups), we found stable abnormal metabolite concentrations over the study period: decreased FWM and PCC Cr (both p < 0.001), decreased PCC NAA and CA NAA (both p < 0.05) and PCC mI increase ( p < 0.05). HIV duration and historical HAND had modest effects on metabolite changes. Our study reveals covertly active or progressing HIV-related brain injury in the majority of this virally suppressed cohort, reflecting ongoing

  15. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh

    2014-01-01

    The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...

  16. The proportion valid effect in covert orienting: strategic control or implicit learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Stolz, Jennifer A

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that the difference in performance between valid and invalid trials in the covert orienting paradigm (i.e., the cueing effect) increases as the proportion of valid trials increases. This proportion valid effect is widely assumed to reflect "strategic" control over the distribution of attention. In the present experiments we determine if this effect results from an explicit strategy or implicit learning by probing participant's awareness of the proportion of valid trials. Results support the idea that the proportion valid effect in the covert orienting paradigm reflects implicit learning not an explicit strategy.

  17. Using Serial and Discrete Digit Naming to Unravel Word Reading Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Protopapas, Athanassios; Georgiou, George K

    2018-01-01

    During reading acquisition, word recognition is assumed to undergo a developmental shift from slow serial/sublexical processing of letter strings to fast parallel processing of whole word forms. This shift has been proposed to be detected by examining the size of the relationship between serial- and discrete-trial versions of word reading and rapid naming tasks. Specifically, a strong association between serial naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed serially, whereas a strong association between discrete naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed in parallel as wholes. In this study, 429 Grade 1, 3, and 5 English-speaking Canadian children were tested on serial and discrete digit naming and word reading. Across grades, single word reading was more strongly associated with discrete naming than with serial naming of digits, indicating that short high-frequency words are processed as whole units early in the development of reading ability in English. In contrast, serial naming was not a unique predictor of single word reading across grades, suggesting that within-word sequential processing was not required for the successful recognition for this set of words. Factor mixture analysis revealed that our participants could be clustered into two classes, namely beginning and more advanced readers. Serial naming uniquely predicted single word reading only among the first class of readers, indicating that novice readers rely on a serial strategy to decode words. Yet, a considerable proportion of Grade 1 students were assigned to the second class, evidently being able to process short high-frequency words as unitized symbols. We consider these findings together with those from previous studies to challenge the hypothesis of a binary distinction between serial/sublexical and parallel/lexical processing in word reading. We argue instead that sequential processing in word reading operates on a continuum

  18. The Factors That Influence and Protect Against Power Imbalance in Covert Bullying Among Preadolescent Children at School: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen J; Burns, Sharyn K; Kendall, Garth E; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the perceptions of preadolescent children (ages 9-11) regarding factors that influence and protect against power imbalance associated with covert aggression and bullying are explored. In aggression research, the term covert has been typically used to describe relational, indirect, and social acts of aggression that are hidden. These behaviors contrast with overt physical and verbal aggression. Children have previously conveyed their belief that covert aggression is harmful because adults do not see it even though children, themselves, are aware. We used focus groups to explore children's understanding of covert aggression and to identify children's experience and perception of adult support in relation to bullying. Thematic analysis supported the definition of covert aggression as that which is intentionally hidden from adults. Friendship, social exclusion, and secret from teacher were identified as factors that influence power imbalance, while support from friends and adult support protected against power imbalance.

  19. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  20. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Alonso-Mori, Roberto [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schafer, Donald W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sellberg, Jonas [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); McQueen, Trevor A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zwart, Petrus H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glatzel, Pieter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zouni, Athina [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Messinger, Johannes [Umeå Universitet, Umeå (Sweden); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bogan, Michael J., E-mail: mbogan@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup −1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup −1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  1. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min −1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min −1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption

  2. Serial killer: il database mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano parente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multisided study of serial killers is partly made difficult by the current level of progress that has led these deviant people to evolve in relation to the aspects of shrewdness (concerning the staging and mobility. Despite the important work of some scholars who proposed important theories, all this shows that, concerning serial murders, it is still particularly frequent not to pay attention to links among homicides committed by the same person but in different parts of the world. It is therefore crucial to develop a worldwide database that allows all police forces to access information collected on crime scenes of murders which are particularly absurd and committed without any apparent reason. It will then be up to the profiler, through ad hoc and technologically advanced tools, to collect this information on the crime scene that would be made available to all police forces thanks to the worldwide database.

  3. Serial Austen. Mashingups with Zombies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Federici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jane Austen sells. She sells in all possible ways, her novels have been adapted for the cinema and the stage, they have been rewritten as comics and graphic novels. Jane austen is a cultural icon. The interest in her life is so strong that many biographies have been written in order to recover new facts and details. The places where she has lived and the places depicted in her novels have become tourist sites for literary pilgrims. Austen is a cross-over phenomenon, with regency costume balls recreated in her name and an endless proliferation of her works in all media. My essay will investigate Jane Austen and Seth Grahame-Smith’s Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009, a mash-up novel which has become a real cultural phenomenon of the last decade and will demonstrate how it can be considered a serial narrative. If as Henry Jenkins asserts, seriality implies the unfolding of a story over time through a process of “chunking” (that is creating meaningful parts of the same story and of “dispersal” (that is breaking the story into more parts and in more genres and media, mash-ups seems to do this.  Austen’s story remains as a “story hook” which pushes the reader to come back to different products for a continuation of the same story. So, if on the one hand, seriality occurs within the same text, the story-telling of Austen’s stories across genres and media is part of a seriality process.

  4. The Covert Use of the Global Special Operations Network and the Militarization of Covert Action in Political Warfare and the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    methods to deliver the message. MISO uses everything from digital media and social networks, to billboards and airdropped fliers, to word -of- mouth and...overt and covert diplomacy is also beginning. As the digital, social media age continues, the USG is unable to compete with non-state actors...were CIA assassination squads. There may be some truth to that as “in the words of Douglas Valentine, a CIA operations chief in the Northern

  5. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?

  6. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Sawada, T.; Kuriyama, Y.; Kinugawa, H.; Yamaguchi, T. (National Cardivascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  7. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Sawada, Tohru; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1981-01-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  8. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  9. College Adjustment Difficulties and the Overt and Covert Forms of Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikel, Kim A.; Avara, Renee Mowery; Hanson, Chad A.; Kater, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Overt narcissism correlated negatively with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among female, but not male, students. After controlling for self-esteem, overt narcissism correlated positively with depression among female students and with emotional distress and interpersonal difficulties among male students. Covert narcissism…

  10. A review of Covert Channels in TCP and HTTP protocols | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Covert channels are used by crackers who have breached an organisation's systems to download tools from outside, upload internal data to outside, create virtual network to outside machines and communicate to outside paths. They are also used by internal users who want to use forbidden protocols, who want to have ...

  11. Hidden cameras everything you need to know about covert recording, undercover cameras and secret filming

    CERN Document Server

    Plomin, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Providing authoritative information on the practicalities of using hidden cameras to expose abuse or wrongdoing, this book is vital reading for anyone who may use or encounter secret filming. It gives specific advice on using phones or covert cameras and unravels the complex legal and ethical issues that need to be considered.

  12. The Effects of Covert Audio Coaching on the Job Performance of Supported Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle; Brady, Michael P.; Scott, Jack; Dukes, Charles; Frain, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The importance of employment in society is unmistakable, but for many people sustained employment remains elusive. The unemployment rate for individuals with disabilities is staggering, and the consequences of being unemployed affects those individuals, their families, and society. The effects of performance feedback delivered via covert audio…

  13. A covert attention P300-based brain-computer interface: Geospell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Aricò, Pietro; Schettini, Francesca; Riccio, Angela; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio; Cincotti, Febo

    2012-01-01

    The Farwell and Donchin P300 speller interface is one of the most widely used brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms for writing text. Recent studies have shown that the recognition accuracy of the P300 speller decreases significantly when eye movement is impaired. This report introduces the GeoSpell interface (Geometric Speller), which implements a stimulation framework for a P300-based BCI that has been optimised for operation in covert visual attention. We compared the Geospell with the P300 speller interface under overt attention conditions with regard to effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. The performance of the GeoSpell interface in covert attention was comparable with that of the P300 speller in overt attention. As expected, the effectiveness of the spelling decreased with the new interface in covert attention. The NASA task load index (TLX) for workload assessment did not differ significantly between the two modalities. This study introduces and evaluates a gaze-independent, P300-based brain-computer interface, the efficacy and user satisfaction of which were comparable with those off the classical P300 speller. Despite a decrease in effectiveness due to the use of covert attention, the performance of the GeoSpell far exceeded the threshold of accuracy with regard to effective spelling.

  14. Reducing Covert Self-Injurious Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement through a Variable Momentary DRO Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Covert self-injurious behavior (i.e., behavior that occurs in the absence of other people) can be difficult to treat. Traditional treatments typically have involved sophisticated methods of observation and often have employed positive punishment procedures. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a variable momentary differential…

  15. (Covert attention and visual speller design in an ERP-based brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treder Matthias S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a visual oddball paradigm, attention to an event usually modulates the event-related potential (ERP. An ERP-based brain-computer interface (BCI exploits this neural mechanism for communication. Hitherto, it was unclear to what extent the accuracy of such a BCI requires eye movements (overt attention or whether it is also feasible for targets in the visual periphery (covert attention. Also unclear was how the visual design of the BCI can be improved to meet peculiarities of peripheral vision such as low spatial acuity and crowding. Method Healthy participants (N = 13 performed a copy-spelling task wherein they had to count target intensifications. EEG and eye movements were recorded concurrently. First, (covert attention was investigated by way of a target fixation condition and a central fixation condition. In the latter, participants had to fixate a dot in the center of the screen and allocate their attention to a target in the visual periphery. Second, the effect of visual speller layout was investigated by comparing the symbol Matrix to an ERP-based Hex-o-Spell, a two-levels speller consisting of six discs arranged on an invisible hexagon. Results We assessed counting errors, ERP amplitudes, and offline classification performance. There is an advantage (i.e., less errors, larger ERP amplitude modulation, better classification of overt attention over covert attention, and there is also an advantage of the Hex-o-Spell over the Matrix. Using overt attention, P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 components are enhanced by attention. Using covert attention, only N2 and P3 are enhanced for both spellers, and N1 and P2 are modulated when using the Hex-o-Spell but not when using the Matrix. Consequently, classifiers rely mainly on early evoked potentials in overt attention and on later cognitive components in covert attention. Conclusions Both overt and covert attention can be used to drive an ERP-based BCI, but performance is markedly lower

  16. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  17. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min−1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min−1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption. PMID:23090408

  18. SSVEP-modulation by covert and overt attention: Novel features for BCI in attention neuro-rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Kjaer, Troels W.

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study the effect of attention (covert and overt) on the signal detection and classification of steady-state visual-evoked potential (SSVEP) were investigated. Using the SSVEP-based paradigm, data were acquired from 4 subjects using 3 scalp electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes...... located on the visual area. Subjects were instructed to perform the attention task in which they attended covertly or overtly to either of the stimuli flickering with different frequencies (6, 7, 8 and 9Hz). We observed a decrease in signal power in covert compared to the overt attention. However...

  19. SMALL SERIAL AND SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN UNSTABLE DEMAND ENVIROUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsomaeva I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the methodological approach to production program of the enterprise serial engineering for the current period in the conditions of uncertainty of demand. Here are two problems with this. The first is connected with the formation of the production program of the next quarter, year. Objective could be to stochastic programming, but this task is difficult. Therefore, in this paper we proposed a simple solution. On the basis of statistical historical information about the deviation of actual sales data products from predicted by Monte Carlo generated a lot of production programs. Fixed worst key performance (sales, profit etc. The difference between the values of the planned target and the settlement defines stochastic reserve, to be established at the expense of additional innovations. The second problem is connected with the formation of the production program production in the planned month, taking into account the creation of stocks of production in the conditions when for a short period of time is difficult to build a pattern of change in the quantity demanded by month for serial production, as in some months of the year the products are not produced nor sold. To justify the level of inventories of finished products is information on deviations from the fact plan for past periods. Built function of frequency distribution of the values of deviations. This allows you to further build the methodology for determining the level of production (taking into account the reserves and sales of products that deliver maximum economic effect from the sales in the conditions of a random process of realization of production.

  20. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  1. Rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Jalbert, Annie

    2006-06-01

    It is well established that rote rehearsal plays a key role in serial memory for lists of verbal items. Although a great deal of research has informed us about the nature of verbal rehearsal, much less attention has been devoted to rehearsal in serial memory for visual-spatial information. By using the dot task--a visual-spatial analogue of the classical verbal serial recall task--with delayed recall, performance and eyetracking data were recorded in order to establish whether visual-spatial rehearsal could be evidenced by eye movement. The use of eye movement as a form of rehearsal is detectable (Experiment 1), and it seems to contribute to serial memory performance over and above rehearsal based on shifts of spatial attention (Experiments 1 and 2).

  2. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  3. A Novel Covert Agent for Stealthy Attacks on Industrial Control Systems Using Least Squares Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weize Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on stealthiness has become an important topic in the field of data integrity (DI attacks. To construct stealthy DI attacks, a common assumption in most related studies is that attackers have prior model knowledge of physical systems. In this paper, such assumption is relaxed and a covert agent is proposed based on the least squares support vector regression (LSSVR. By estimating a plant model from control and sensory data, the LSSVR-based covert agent can closely imitate the behavior of the physical plant. Then, the covert agent is used to construct a covert loop, which can keep the controller’s input and output both stealthy over a finite time window. Experiments have been carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Emotional responses to a romantic partner's imaginary rejection: the roles of attachment anxiety, covert narcissism, and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-02-01

    These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.

  5. Reassessment of the wing feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica suggests no robust evidence for the presence of elongated dorsal wing coverts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available Recently it was proposed that the primary feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica (HMN1880 were overlaid by long covert feathers, and that a multilayered feathered wing was a feature of early fossils with feathered forelimbs. The proposed long covert feathers of Archaeopteryx were previously interpreted as dorsally displaced remiges or a second set of impressions made by the wing. The following study shows that the qualitative arguments forwarded in support of the elongated covert hypothesis are neither robust nor supported quantitatively. The idea that the extant bird wing with its single layer of overlapping primaries evolved from an earlier multilayered heavily coveted feathered forelimb as seen in Anchiornis huxleyi is reasonable. At this juncture, however, it is premature to conclude unequivocally that the wing of Archaeopteryx consisted of primary feathers overlaid with elongated coverts.

  6. Word-serial Architectures for Filtering and Variable Rate Decimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Grayver

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new flexible architecture is proposed for word-serial filtering and variable rate decimation/interpolation. The architecture is targeted for low power applications requiring medium to low data rate and is ideally suited for implementation on either an ASIC or an FPGA. It combines the small size and low power of an ASIC with the programmability and flexibility of a DSP. An efficient memory addressing scheme eliminates the need for power hungry shift registers and allows full reconfiguration. The decimation ratio, filter length and filter coefficients can all be changed in real time. The architecture takes advantage of coefficient symmetries in linear phase filters and in polyphase components.

  7. Discovering what is hidden: The role of non-ritualized covert neutralizing strategies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloch, Amparo; Carrió, Carmen; Cabedo, Elena; García-Soriano, Gemma

    2015-12-01

    Neutralizing strategies are secondary to obsessions and an additional cause of distress and interference, but they have received little attention in theories and research, especially the non-ritualized covert strategies. This study focuses on the comparative impact of non-ritualized covert and compulsive-overt strategies in the course of OCD. Eighty-two OCD adult patients completed measures assessing distress, interference, appraisals and overt and covert neutralizing strategies to control obsessions. Thirty-eight patients who had completed cognitive therapy were assessed again after treatment. Only overt compulsions are associated with OCD severity. Nonetheless, considering the main symptom dimension, covert strategies are also associated with severity in patients with moral-based obsessions. Patients who used covert strategies more frequently, compared to those who use them less, reported more sadness, guilt, control importance, interference, and dysfunctional appraisals. Regarding the overt strategies, patients who used them more reported more anxiety and ascribed more personal meaning to their obsessions than the patients who used them less. After treatment, recovered patients decreased their use of both covert and overt strategies, while non-recovered patients did not. There was a higher rate of non-recovered patients among those who used more non-ritualized covert strategies before treatment. Emotions and appraisals were assessed with a single item. OCD symptom dimensions were only assessed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. In addition to studying overt compulsions, the impact of covert neutralizing strategies on the OCD course and severity warrants more in-depth study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  9. Relations of Proactive and Reactive Dimensions of Aggression to Overt and Covert Narcissism in Nonclinical Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Eisenberg, Nancy; Maffei, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgement of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression—a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism--is a heterogeneous construct. In the present study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age = 15.5 years, SD = 2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression). PMID:19918915

  10. Practical Covertly Secure MPC for Dishonest Majority – or: Breaking the SPDZ Limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Keller, Marcel; Larraia, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    for distributingBGV secret keys are likely to be of wider applicability than to the SPDZ protocol alone. We then construct both a covertly and actively secure preprocessing phase, both of which compare favourably with previous work in terms of efficiency and provable security. We also build a new online phase...... with SPDZ; and present several theoretical and practical improvements to the protocol. In detail, we start by designing and implementing a covertly secure key generation protocol for distributed BGV secret keys. In prior work this was assumed to be provided by a given setup functionality. Protocols......, which solves a major problem of the SPDZ protocol: namely prior to this work preprocessed data could be used for only one function evaluation and then had to be recomputed from scratch for the next evaluation, while our online phase can support reactive functionalities. This improvement comes mainly...

  11. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (study therefore aimed to examine the influence of age on the neural correlates of covert movements (CMs) in a real-time EEG neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the age of the potential end

  12. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  13. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  14. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  15. Female serial killing: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Völlm, Birgit; Graf, Marc; Dittmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  17. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  18. Adaptive attunement of selective covert attention to evolutionary-relevant emotional visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Gutiérrez-García, Aída; Capafons, Juan; Calvo, Manuel G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional-neutral images appeared peripherally-with perceptual stimulus differences controlled-while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emotional scenes selectively captured covert attention even when they were task-irrelevant, thus revealing involuntary, automatic processing. Sex of observers and specific emotional scene content (e.g., male-to-female-aggression, families and babies, etc.) interactively modulated covert attention, depending on adaptive priorities and goals for each sex, both for pleasant and unpleasant content. The attentional system exhibits domain-specific and sex-specific biases and attunements, probably rooted in evolutionary pressures to enhance reproductive and protective success. Emotional cues selectively capture covert attention based on their bio-social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual Harassment in Medical Schools: The Challenge of Covert Retaliation as a Barrier to Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Renee; Garcia, Paul; Johnson, Bonnie; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2018-05-22

    Although Title IX, the federal law prohibiting sexual harassment in educational institutions, was enacted in 1972, sexual harassment continues to be distressingly common in medical training. In addition, many women who experience sexual harassment do not report their experiences to authorities within the medical school.In this article, the authors review the literature on the prevalence of sexual harassment in medical schools since Title IX was enacted and on the cultural and legal changes that have occurred during that period that have affected behaviors. These changes include decreased tolerance for harassing behavior, increased legal responsibility assigned to institutions, and a significant increase in the number of female medical students, residents, and faculty. The authors then discuss persisting barriers to reporting sexual harassment, including fears of reprisals and retaliation, especially covert retaliation. They define covert retaliation as vindictive comments made by a person accused of sexual harassment about his or her accuser in a confidential setting, such as a grant review, award selection, or search committee.The authors concluding by highlighting institutional and organizational approaches to decreasing sexual harassment and overt retaliation, and they propose other approaches to decreasing covert retaliation. These initiatives include encouraging senior faculty members to intervene and file bystander complaints when they witness inappropriate comments or behaviors as well as group reporting when multiple women are harassed by the same person.

  20. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  1. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  2. Serial powering of pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Huegging, Fabian; Peric, Ivan; Runolfsson, O.; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub-micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In particular, it is shown that the potential risk of powering in series can be addressed and eliminated

  3. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  4. Building a digital forensic investigation technique for forensically sound analysis of covert channels in IPv6 and ICMPv6, using custom IDS signatures and firewall system logs

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Savio, Lourdes Gino

    2016-01-01

    Covert Channels are communication channels used for information transfer, and created by violating the security policies of a system (Latham, 1986, p. 80). Research in the field has shown that, like many communication channels, IPv4 and the TCP/IP protocol suite has features, functionality and options which could be exploited by cyber criminals to leak data or for anonymous communications, through covert channels. With the advent of IPv6, researchers are on the lookout for covert channels in ...

  5. The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Kathryn L.; Sørensen, Anders

    Serial entrepreneurs, who open more than one business, are found to have higher sales and higher productivity than novice entrepreneurs, who open one business. Using panel data on entrepreneurs and their firms from Denmark for 2001-2013, the serial entrepreneur has 67% higher sales than the novice......, but also opens firms that are larger in terms of the initial capital and labor, and thus is 39% more productive. There are subsets of firms that perform especially well – serial entrepreneurs that hold a portfolio of overlapping ongoing firms perform the best, as do those that open as limited liability...

  6. The American Serialization of Lord Jim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the discovery of the American serialization of Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim in New York’s Evening Telegram in 1903. This ‘lost’ serialization, it argues, invites a new perspective on Conrad’s early career by foregrounding the role of newspaper serialization and syndication in establishing his literary standing. After surveying the principal differences in the respective reading experiences of the periodical versus the book, it concludes by proposing that the prominence of women among Conrad’s first audiences requires us to reassess the basis for his success in North America and elsewhere.

  7. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  8. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  9. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  10. Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nechita

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  11. Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  12. Protocol for the design of an instrument to measure preadolescent children's self-report of covert aggression and bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834

  13. Covert leadership: notes on managing professionals. Knowledge workers respond to inspiration, not supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, H

    1998-01-01

    The orchestra conductor is a popular metaphor for managers today--up there on the podium in complete control. But that image may be misleading, says Henry Mintzberg, who recently spent a day with Bramwell Tovey, conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, in order to explore the metaphor. He found that Tovey does not operate like an absolute ruler but practices instead what Mintzberg calls covert leadership. Covert leadership means managing with a sense of nuances, constraints, and limitations. When a manager like Tovey guides an organization, he leads without seeming to, without his people being fully aware of all that he is doing. That's because in this world of professionals, a leader is not completely powerless--but neither does he have absolute control over others. As knowledge work grows in importance, the way an orchestra conductor really operates may serve as a good model for managers in a wide range of businesses. For example, Mintzberg found that Tovey does a lot more hands-on work than one might expect. More like a first-line supervisor than a hands-off executive, he takes direct and personal charge of what is getting done. In dealing with his musicians, his focus is on inspiring them, not empowering them. Like other professionals, the musicians don't need to be empowered--they're already secure in what they know and can do--but they do need to be infused with energy for the tasks at hand. This is the role of the covert leader: to act quietly and unobtrusively in order to exact not obedience but inspired performance.

  14. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A

    2013-12-14

    To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten. Median survival time of a chocolate. 191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, P<0.001), with a survival half life (time taken for 50% of the chocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%). From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.

  15. Proliferation Risks of Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production, and Breakout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Glaser, A.; Ross, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation risks from fusion associated with access to weapon-usable material can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risk from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if commercial fusion systems are designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards

  16. A Covert Disruptive Technology: Test and Development of the Corona Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Curtis

    2008-01-01

    The launching by the Soviet Union of the Sputnik satellite in 19457 was an impetuous to the United States. The Intercontinental ballistic Missile (ICBM) that launched the Earth's first satellite, could have been armed with a nuclear warhead, that could destroy an American city. The primary intelligence requirement that the US had was to determine the actual size of the Soviet missile program. To this end, a covert, high-risk photoreconnaissance satellite was developed. The code name of this program was "Corona." This article describes the trials and eventual successes of the Corona program.

  17. Covert Half Duplex Data Link Using Radar-Embedded Communications With Various Modulation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    for BPSK are shown in Figure 4.3 with 3 · 1010 samples per SNR. Using 106 MC trials, we show the SER curves for the differing estimator sizes (N = 0, 8...sent during each sample , 35 Figure 4.7. SER Performance of Modied 16QAM as a Function of the Size of the Estimator (N). Figure 4.8. The BPSK Simulink...Further, we explore a qualitative analysis of this communications method to measure its covertness using the signal’s complex plane. 14. SUBJECT

  18. The continuous reaction times method for diagnosing, grading, and monitoring minimal/covert hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Thiele, Maja; Kimer, N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Existing tests for minimal/covert hepatic encephalopathy (m/cHE) are time- and expertise consuming and primarily useable for research purposes. An easy-to-use, fast and reliable diagnostic and grading tool is needed. We here report on the background, experience, and ongoing research......-10) percentile) as a parameter of reaction time variability. The index is a measure of alertness stability and is used to assess attention and cognition deficits. The CRTindex identifies half of patients in a Danish cohort with chronic liver disease, as having m/cHE, a normal value safely precludes HE, it has...

  19. Narcissism and boredom revisited: an exploration of correlates of overt and covert narcissism among Dutch university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondag, Hessel J

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a study of the relationship between narcissism, overt and covert, and seven aspects of boredom, defined as listlessness, drawn out experience of time, depletion, lack of concentration, restlessness, experience seeking, and lack of interest. The survey was conducted using questionnaires administered to 32 men and 177 women. The mean age of male respondents was 30.9 yr. (SD = 11.9), that of female respondents 30.2 yr. (SD = 12.2). In general terms, covert narcissism was found to be positively, and overt narcissism negatively, associated with boredom. The results showed a more complex pattern than was found in previous research into the relationship between narcissism and boredom and suggest that overt and covert narcissism are at opposite ends of the adjustment continuum.

  20. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  1. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  2. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  3. Decisional enhancement and autonomy: public attitudes towards overt and covert nudges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidon Felsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous cognitive biases hinder optimal decision making. Recent calls to assist decision makers in mitigating these biases---via interventions commonly called ``nudges''---have been criticized as infringing upon individual autonomy. We tested the hypothesis that such ``decisional enhancement'' programs that target overt decision making---i.e., conscious, higher-order cognitive processes---would be more acceptable than similar programs that affect covert decision making---i.e., subconscious, lower-order processes. We presented respondents with vignettes in which they chose between an option that included a decisional enhancement program and a neutral option. In order to assess preferences for overt or covert decisional enhancement, we used the contrastive vignette technique in which different groups of respondents were presented with one of a pair of vignettes that targeted either conscious or subconscious processes. Other than the nature of the decisional enhancement, the vignettes were identical, allowing us to isolate the influence of the type of decisional enhancement on preferences. Overall, we found support for the hypothesis that people prefer conscious decisional enhancement. Further, respondents who perceived the influence of the program as more conscious than subconscious reported that their decisions under the program would be more ``authentic''. However, this relative favorability was somewhat contingent upon context. We discuss our results with respect to the implementation and ethics of decisional enhancement.

  4. Enhancing Competency in English: The Covert Approach a Complementary to the Overt Approach in Teaching Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Islam Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, there has been a decline in the competency of the English Language in Malaysian schools. Many parties among them the Ministry of Education, relevant NGOs, academicians and people have expressed concern over the matter. The Education Ministry through its transformational policy has taken several measures to overcome the matter. It is employing appropriate strategies to solve the problems. The focus is on learning and teaching strategies as well as the content of the language. There is no doubt that grammar is a very important component in acquiring the language in primary and secondary schools. The English teachers mostly use the communicative approach in teaching grammar. This is in line with the KBSR syllabus in mid 1980s which emphasized on the communicative method. Teachers’ training and materials such as textbooks cater for the covert method. However, some tend to ignore the structural approach which is equally effective and meaningful to increase the level of the students’ proficiency which was popular in the 1960s. The paper discusses on the two different approaches used – the covert and overt approaches – their strengths as well as weaknesses. Application of both approaches is also taken into consideration giving a better view of how grammar should be taught in schools.

  5. Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nueda, Maria José; Carbonell, José; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Conesa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:20525784

  6. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unequal Input Voltages Distribution Between the Serial Connected Halfbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Ovcarcik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a topology of DC-DC converter consisting in two serial connected half-bridges. Secondary circuit is realized like a conventional full-wave rectifier. The main advantage of this topology is the possibility of dividing the input voltage between the half-bridges. The converter is controlled using the phase-shift modulation, which allows a ZVSoperation mode. The voltage unbalance between the inputs causes an important problem of the presented topology. It is necessary to avoid it by the control algorithm, which is described in the text. The practical results show a zero voltage switching technique and the limits of the chosen topology and of the control.

  8. Converting serial networks to Ethernet communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2008-07-01

    Many oil and gas producers and pipeline companies find themselves in an awkward position. They have invested millions of dollars in legacy serial communications systems and in most cases, millions more in older SCADA remote terminal units and electronic flow meters. There is a desire throughout most of the industry to convert these systems to Ethernet. This presentation will explore how Ethernet protocol offers advantages over the older serial communications in terms of peer to peer communication, faster polling cycles, and the ability to poll multiple devices at the same time. (author)

  9. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  10. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  11. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J. W.; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention—a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function. PMID:27768747

  13. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte J W Connell

    Full Text Available Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.

  14. Navigating the Complexities at an LGTTQQI-Identified Charter School: An Ethnography of C/Overt Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe ethnographic research exploring the experiences of school stakeholders at a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQQI)-identified charter school. Participants evidenced use of an overt and covert narrative that appeared to reflect how they navigated the complexities at the…

  15. Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Caffeine Supplementation Affect Psychomotor Performance but Not Covert Visuo-Spatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.

  16. (C)overt attention and visual speller design in an ERP-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Matthias S; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-05-28

    In a visual oddball paradigm, attention to an event usually modulates the event-related potential (ERP). An ERP-based brain-computer interface (BCI) exploits this neural mechanism for communication. Hitherto, it was unclear to what extent the accuracy of such a BCI requires eye movements (overt attention) or whether it is also feasible for targets in the visual periphery (covert attention). Also unclear was how the visual design of the BCI can be improved to meet peculiarities of peripheral vision such as low spatial acuity and crowding. Healthy participants (N = 13) performed a copy-spelling task wherein they had to count target intensifications. EEG and eye movements were recorded concurrently. First, (c)overt attention was investigated by way of a target fixation condition and a central fixation condition. In the latter, participants had to fixate a dot in the center of the screen and allocate their attention to a target in the visual periphery. Second, the effect of visual speller layout was investigated by comparing the symbol Matrix to an ERP-based Hex-o-Spell, a two-levels speller consisting of six discs arranged on an invisible hexagon. We assessed counting errors, ERP amplitudes, and offline classification performance. There is an advantage (i.e., less errors, larger ERP amplitude modulation, better classification) of overt attention over covert attention, and there is also an advantage of the Hex-o-Spell over the Matrix. Using overt attention, P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 components are enhanced by attention. Using covert attention, only N2 and P3 are enhanced for both spellers, and N1 and P2 are modulated when using the Hex-o-Spell but not when using the Matrix. Consequently, classifiers rely mainly on early evoked potentials in overt attention and on later cognitive components in covert attention. Both overt and covert attention can be used to drive an ERP-based BCI, but performance is markedly lower for covert attention. The Hex-o-Spell outperforms the

  17. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  18. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  19. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... This a clinical study carried out to test the aesthetic outcome of serial injection of the cryo-preserved fat cells for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. Methods: Clinical ..... ucts, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript that might create a ... Adipose stem cells and regenerative medicine. 7th ed.

  20. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  1. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  2. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  3. Algorithm for covert convoy of a moving target using a group of autonomous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Igor; Shvets, Evgeny

    2018-04-01

    An important application of autonomous robot systems is to substitute human personnel in dangerous environments to reduce their involvement and subsequent risk on human lives. In this paper we solve the problem of covertly convoying a civilian in a dangerous area with a group of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) using social potential fields. The novelty of our work lies in the usage of UGVs as compared to the unmanned aerial vehicles typically employed for this task in the approaches described in literature. Additionally, in our paper we assume that the group of UGVs should simultaneously solve the problem of patrolling to detect intruders on the area. We develop a simulation system to test our algorithms, provide numerical results and give recommendations on how to tune the potentials governing robots' behaviour to prioritize between patrolling and convoying tasks.

  4. Determination of motive of serial invaders as a stage of serial murders investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov A.B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the existing classification of motives of serial murderers. The author provides the classification, which is based on the technique of extreme meanings offered by D.A. Leontyev.

  5. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  6. An Investigation of Selective College and University Libraries' Serial Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Elizabeth Gates; Teborek, Gay

    Data from a survey on serials arrangement procedures and policies at academic libraries was used by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Library in changing current serials policies. Ten libraries, four of which have similar serial holdings and user populations to URI, responded to a questionnaire. Information was obtained on classification versus…

  7. Sensing the Opaque : Seriality and the Aesthetics of Televisual Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.; Kelleter, F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work on TV seriality focuses on the deference of meaning through narrative extension. Contemporary seriality, it has been argued, exploits this expanding textuality to construct complicated narratives that tip the pleasures of seriality toward detecting the meaning of the plot's

  8. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage.

  9. Serial SPECT in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Machiko; Ushiku, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    We performed serial single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-Iodoamphetamine to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 15 children with partial epilepsy. SPECT showed focal changes in 14 cases. Ten cases had abnormalities in the initial SPECT and another four cases in the second test. The cases with normal rCBF in initial SPECT had been tested in an early phase after the onset, and then decreased rCBF were observed in the second SPECT. The cases with both abnormal rCBF in the initial SPECT and improved rCBF in the second SPECT showed good prognosis in clinico-electrophysiological evolutions. In cases with abnormal changes of rCBF in the second SPECT, clinical prognosis was found to be not so good. These findings suggest that serial SPECT may be used to follow the course of epilepsy. (author)

  10. [Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-10-01

    To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry) may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. Personality disorders, especially of the antisocial type, still represent a formidable challenge to forensic psychiatry today. Questions as yet unanswered include the best and most humane place for patients with this condition and the nature of a standardised treatment recommendation.

  11. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  12. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  13. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  14. From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy; Hensley, Christopher

    2003-02-01

    Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social learning theory, some of these studies present supporting evidence for a link between childhood animal cruelty and adult aggression toward humans. Based on five case studies of serial murderers, we contribute to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood cruelty toward animals and serial murder with the application of the graduation hypothesis.

  15. Lexical-Semantic Search Under Different Covert Verbal Fluency Tasks: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Verbal fluency is a measure of cognitive flexibility and word search strategies that is widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. Despite the wealth of research on identifying and characterizing distinct aspects of verbal fluency, the anatomic and functional substrates of retrieval-related search and post-retrieval control processes still have not been fully elucidated.Methods: Twenty-one native English-speaking, healthy, right-handed, adult volunteers (mean age = 31 years; range = 21–45 years; 9 F took part in a block-design functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study of free recall, covert word generation tasks when guided by phonemic (P, semantic-category (C, and context-based fill-in–the-blank sentence completion (S cues. General linear model (GLM, Independent Component Analysis (ICA, and psychophysiological interaction (PPI were used to further characterize the neural substrate of verbal fluency as a function of retrieval cue type.Results: Common localized activations across P, C, and S tasks occurred in the bilateral superior and left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA, and left insula. Differential task activations were centered in the occipital, temporal and parietal regions as well as the thalamus and cerebellum. The context-based fluency task, i.e., the S task, elicited higher differential brain activity in a lateralized frontal-temporal network typically engaged in complex language processing. P and C tasks elicited activation in limited pathways mainly within the left frontal regions. ICA and PPI results of the S task suggested that brain regions distributed across both hemispheres, extending beyond classical language areas, are recruited for lexical-semantic access and retrieval during sentence completion.Conclusion: Study results support the hypothesis of overlapping, as well as distinct, neural networks for covert word generation when

  16. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  17. Energy Information Data Base: serial titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Department of Energy Technical Information Center (TIC) is responsible for creating bibliographic data bases that are used in the announcement and retrieval of publications dealing with all phases of energy. The TIC interactive information processing system makes use of a number of computerized authorities so that consistency can be maintained and indexes can be produced. One such authority is the Energy Information Data Base: Serial Titles. This authority contains the full and abbreviated journal title, country of publication, CODEN, and certain codes. This revision replaces previous revisions of this document

  18. Serials collection management in recessionary times

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning, collaboration, continual stewardship, best practices, and re-engineering can provide librarians with a toolkit of innovative strategies that meets the worst of economic times with bold, persistent experimentation. This book covers the implications for libraries of a broad range of technological and economic challenges. These challenges include the fallout from the global economic crisis, the positioning of usage statistics, the advent of open access scholarship, database management, responding to budgetary constrictions and general access to serials. Taken as a whole, this

  19. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amici Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  20. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  1. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  2. Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    OpenAIRE

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo...

  3. Design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag's location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag's ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  4. Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces based on covert attention and feature attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M. S.; Schmidt, N. M.; Blankertz, B.

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence that conventional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event-related potentials cannot be operated efficiently when eye movements are not allowed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to develop a visual speller that does not require eye movements. Three different variants of a two-stage visual speller based on covert spatial attention and non-spatial feature attention (i.e. attention to colour and form) were tested in an online experiment with 13 healthy participants. All participants achieved highly accurate BCI control. They could select one out of thirty symbols (chance level 3.3%) with mean accuracies of 88%-97% for the different spellers. The best results were obtained for a speller that was operated using non-spatial feature attention only. These results show that, using feature attention, it is possible to realize high-accuracy, fast-paced visual spellers that have a large vocabulary and are independent of eye gaze.

  5. Predicting Individual Action Switching in Covert and Continuous Interactive Tasks Using the Fluid Events Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; D'Mello, Sidney K; Abbott, Robert G; Bixler, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    The Fluid Events Model is aimed at predicting changes in the actions people take on a moment-by-moment basis. In contrast with other research on action selection, this work does not investigate why some course of action was selected, but rather the likelihood of discontinuing the current course of action and selecting another in the near future. This is done using both task-based and experience-based factors. Prior work evaluated this model in the context of trial-by-trial, independent, interactive events, such as choosing how to copy a figure of a line drawing. In this paper, we extend this model to more covert event experiences, such as reading narratives, as well as to continuous interactive events, such as playing a video game. To this end, the model was applied to existing data sets of reading time and event segmentation for written and picture stories. It was also applied to existing data sets of performance in a strategy board game, an aerial combat game, and a first person shooter game in which a participant's current state was dependent on prior events. The results revealed that the model predicted behavior changes well, taking into account both the theoretically defined structure of the described events, as well as a person's prior experience. Thus, theories of event cognition can benefit from efforts that take into account not only how events in the world are structured, but also how people experience those events.

  6. Covert Sexual Signaling: Human Flirtation and Implications for other Social Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gersick

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to signaling theory and a large body of supporting evidence, males across many taxa produce courtship signals that honestly advertise their quality. The cost of producing or performing these signals maintains signal honesty, such that females are typically able to choose the best males by selecting those that produce the loudest, brightest, longest, or otherwise highest-intensity signals, using signal strength as a measure of quality. Set against this background, human flirting behavior, characterized by its frequent subtlety or covertness, is mysterious. Here we propose that the explanation for subtle and ambiguous signals in human courtship lies in socially imposed costs that (a vary with social context and (b are amplified by the unusual ways in which language makes all interactions potentially public. Flirting is a class of courtship signaling that conveys the signaler's intentions and desirability to the intended receiver while minimizing the costs that would accompany an overt courtship attempt. This proposal explains humans' taxonomically unusual courtship displays and generates a number of novel predictions for both humans and non-human social animals. Individuals who are courting should vary the intensity of their signals to suit the level of risk attached to the particular social configuration, and receivers may assess this flexible matching of signal to context as an indicator of the signaler's broader behavioral flexibility and social intelligence.

  7. Covert orienting in the split brain: Right hemisphere specialization for object-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-18

    The present paper takes as its starting point Phil Bryden's long-standing interest in human attention and the role it can play in laterality effects. Past split-brain research has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the left hemisphere [e.g., Egly, R., Rafal, R. D., Driver, J., & Starreveld, Y. (1994). Covert orienting in the split brain reveals hemispheric specialization for object-based attention. Psychological Science, 5(6), 380-382]. The task used to isolate object-based attention in that previous work, however, has been found wanting [Vecera, S. P. (1994). Grouped locations and object-based attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(3), 316-320]; and indeed, subsequent research with healthy participants using a different task has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the opposite right hemisphere (RH) [Valsangkar-Smyth, M. A., Donovan, C. L., Sinnett, S., Dawson, M. R., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Hemispheric performance in object-based attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(1), 84-91]. The present study tested the same split-brain as Egly, Rafal, et al. (1994) but used the object-based attention task introduced by Valsangkar-Smyth et al. (2004). The results confirm that object-based attention is lateralized to the RH. They also suggest that subcortical interhemispheric competition may occur and be dominated by the RH.

  8. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  9. Spatial serial order processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Park, Sohee; Clark, Gina; Yohanna, Daniel; Houk, James C

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine serial order processing deficits in 21 schizophrenia patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy controls. In a spatial serial order working memory task, one to four spatial targets were presented in a randomized sequence. Subjects were required to remember the locations and the order in which the targets were presented. Patients showed a marked deficit in ability to remember the sequences compared with controls. Increasing the number of targets within a sequence resulted in poorer memory performance for both control and schizophrenia subjects, but the effect was much more pronounced in the patients. Targets presented at the end of a long sequence were more vulnerable to memory error in schizophrenia patients. Performance deficits were not attributable to motor errors, but to errors in target choice. The results support the idea that the memory errors seen in schizophrenia patients may be due to saturating the working memory network at relatively low levels of memory load.

  10. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  11. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  13. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  14. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  15. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-01-01

    In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1) how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2) how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 epi...

  16. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  18. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  19. Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

    1993-01-01

    Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon.

  20. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  1. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  2. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  3. Estimating the location and spatial extent of a covert anthrax release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Legrand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly identifying the features of a covert release of an agent such as anthrax could help to inform the planning of public health mitigation strategies. Previous studies have sought to estimate the time and size of a bioterror attack based on the symptomatic onset dates of early cases. We extend the scope of these methods by proposing a method for characterizing the time, strength, and also the location of an aerosolized pathogen release. A back-calculation method is developed allowing the characterization of the release based on the data on the first few observed cases of the subsequent outbreak, meteorological data, population densities, and data on population travel patterns. We evaluate this method on small simulated anthrax outbreaks (about 25-35 cases and show that it could date and localize a release after a few cases have been observed, although misspecifications of the spore dispersion model, or the within-host dynamics model, on which the method relies can bias the estimates. Our method could also provide an estimate of the outbreak's geographical extent and, as a consequence, could help to identify populations at risk and, therefore, requiring prophylactic treatment. Our analysis demonstrates that while estimates based on the first ten or 15 observed cases were more accurate and less sensitive to model misspecifications than those based on five cases, overall mortality is minimized by targeting prophylactic treatment early on the basis of estimates made using data on the first five cases. The method we propose could provide early estimates of the time, strength, and location of an aerosolized anthrax release and the geographical extent of the subsequent outbreak. In addition, estimates of release features could be used to parameterize more detailed models allowing the simulation of control strategies and intervention logistics.

  4. Within a Stone's Throw: Proximal Geolocation of Internet Users via Covert Wireless Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Nathanael R [ORNL; Shue, Craig [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester; Taylor, Curtis [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester

    2013-01-01

    While Internet users may often believe they have anonymity online, a culmination of technologies and recent research may allow an adversary to precisely locate an online user s geophysical location. In many cases, such as peer-to-peer applications, an adversary can easily use a target s IP address to quickly obtain the general geographical location of the target. Recent research has scoped this general area to a 690m (0.43 mile) radius circle. In this work, we show how an adversary can exploit Internet communication for geophysical location by embedding covert signals in communication with a target on a remote wireless local area network. We evaluated the approach in two common real-world settings: a residential neighborhood and an apartment building. In the neighborhood case, we used a single-blind trial in which an observer located a target network to within three houses in less than 40 minutes. Directional antennas may have allowed even more precise geolocation. This approach had only a 0.38% false positive rate, despite 24,000 observed unrelated packets and many unrelated networks. This low rate allowed the observer to exclude false locations and continue searching for the target. Our results enable law enforcement or copyright holders to quickly locate online Internet users without requiring time-consuming subpoenas to Internet Service Providers. Other privacy use cases include rapidly locating individuals based on their online speech or interests. We hope to raise awareness of these issues and to spur discussion on privacy and geolocating techniques.

  5. Modulation of neuronal responses during covert search for visual feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buracas, Giedrius T; Albright, Thomas D

    2009-09-29

    While searching for an object in a visual scene, an observer's attentional focus and eye movements are often guided by information about object features and spatial locations. Both spatial and feature-specific attention are known to modulate neuronal responses in visual cortex, but little is known of the dynamics and interplay of these mechanisms as visual search progresses. To address this issue, we recorded from directionally selective cells in visual area MT of monkeys trained to covertly search for targets defined by a unique conjunction of color and motion features and to signal target detection with an eye movement to the putative target. Two patterns of response modulation were observed. One pattern consisted of enhanced responses to targets presented in the receptive field (RF). These modulations occurred at the end-stage of search and were more potent during correct target identification than during erroneous saccades to a distractor in RF, thus suggesting that this modulation is not a mere presaccadic enhancement. A second pattern of modulation was observed when RF stimuli were nontargets that shared a feature with the target. The latter effect was observed during early stages of search and is consistent with a global feature-specific mechanism. This effect often terminated before target identification, thus suggesting that it interacts with spatial attention. This modulation was exhibited not only for motion but also for color cue, although MT neurons are known to be insensitive to color. Such cue-invariant attentional effects may contribute to a feature binding mechanism acting across visual dimensions.

  6. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  7. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  8. Handbook of serial communications interfaces a comprehensive compendium of serial digital input/output (I/O) standards

    CERN Document Server

    Frenzel, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This book catalogs the most popular and commonly used serial-port interfaces and provides details on the specifications and the latest standards, enabling you to select an interface for a new design or verify that an interface is working correctly. Each chapter is based on a different interface and is written in an easy to follow, standard format. With this book you will learn: The most widely used serial interfacesHow to select the best serial interface for a specific application or designThe trade-offs between data rate and distance (length or range)The operation and benefits of serial

  9. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): a hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Risk Based Approach to Limit the Effects of Covert Channels for Internet Sensor Data Aggregators for Sensor Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecco, Camilo H.; Camp, L. Jean

    Effective defense against Internet threats requires data on global real time network status. Internet sensor networks provide such real time network data. However, an organization that participates in a sensor network risks providing a covert channel to attackers if that organization’s sensor can be identified. While there is benefit for every party when any individual participates in such sensor deployments, there are perverse incentives against individual participation. As a result, Internet sensor networks currently provide limited data. Ensuring anonymity of individual sensors can decrease the risk of participating in a sensor network without limiting data provision.

  11. Short- and long-term memory contributions to immediate serial recognition: evidence from serial position effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    A long-standing body of research supports the existence of separable short- and long-term memory systems, relying on phonological and semantic codes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to measure the contribution of long-term knowledge to short-term memory performance by looking for evidence of phonologically and semantically coded storage within a short-term recognition task, among developmental samples. Each experimental trial presented 4-item lists. In Experiment 1 typically developing children aged 5 to 6 years old showed evidence of phonologically coded storage across all 4 serial positions, but evidence of semantically coded storage at Serial Positions 1 and 2. In a further experiment, a group of individuals with Down syndrome was investigated as a test case that might be expected to use semantic coding to support short-term storage, but these participants showed no evidence of semantically coded storage and evidenced phonologically coded storage only at Serial Position 4, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have a verbal short-term memory capacity of 1 item. Our results suggest that previous evidence of semantic effects on "short-term memory performance" does not reflect semantic coding in short-term memory itself, and provide an experimental method for researchers wishing to take a relatively pure measure of verbal short-term memory capacity, in cases where rehearsal is unlikely.

  12. Utilization of serial resources in libraries of selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... security personnel for adequate monitoring of the serial materials, as well as the need for authors and stakeholders in education to donate more serial materials in order to enrich the collections in the library and enhance academic performance.

  13. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  14. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  15. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  16. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  17. Highlights in radiation measuring technique's - Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandler, M.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 offers an ''intelligent stand alone'' electronics for the radiation measuring technique's. First it is designed of being connected to a serial interface RS232 of a PC. With a RS485 serial interface on a PC, a network structure can be generated. It has all functional modules which are necessary for the measurement of detector signals. Hence it is possible to directly connect any detector for radiation measurement to a PC, laptop, or notebook. All variations can be operated without PC support too. It has a modular structure and consists of two blocks, the functional modules and the basic modules. The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 may be directly coupled to a detector, which therefore makes the realisation of an ''intelligent radiation detector'' with serial link RS232 or RS485. (orig.)

  18. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    of the person-specific effect, using information on individuals’ past histories in paid employment, confirm that serial entrepreneurs exhibit, on average, a larger person-specific effect than non-serial business owners. Moreover, ignoring serial entrepreneurs’ self-selection overestimates learning by doing......It remains a question whether serial entrepreneurs typically perform better than their novice counterparts owing to learning by doing effects or mostly because they are a selected sample of higher-than-average ability entrepreneurs. This paper tries to unravel these two effects by exploring a novel...... empirical strategy based on continuous time duration models with selection. We use a large longitudinal matched employer-employee dataset that allows us to identify about 220,000 individuals who have left their first entrepreneurial experience, out of which over 35,000 became serial entrepreneurs. We...

  19. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1 how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2 how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 episodes of the serial having been broadcast since 2006. They were analyzed by means of content analysis and qualitative descriptive techniques. Based on the findings, the conclusions are as follows. First, there is a violation or anachronism of characterization through the main character in the serial. Second, the dramatized moral values still contain conventional values although they are in different forms.

  20. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  1. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  2. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  3. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, S.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuru, Y.; Miwa, H.; Kondo, T.; Mori, H.; Mizuno, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Is human sentence parsing serial or parallel? Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Jens-Max; Bader, Markus; Meng, Michael; Bayer, Josef

    2003-01-01

    In this ERP study we investigate the processes that occur in syntactically ambiguous German sentences at the point of disambiguation. Whereas most psycholinguistic theories agree on the view that processing difficulties arise when parsing preferences are disconfirmed (so-called garden-path effects), important differences exist with respect to theoretical assumptions about the parser's recovery from a misparse. A key distinction can be made between parsers that compute all alternative syntactic structures in parallel (parallel parsers) and parsers that compute only a single preferred analysis (serial parsers). To distinguish empirically between parallel and serial parsing models, we compare ERP responses to garden-path sentences with ERP responses to truly ungrammatical sentences. Garden-path sentences contain a temporary and ultimately curable ungrammaticality, whereas truly ungrammatical sentences remain so permanently--a difference which gives rise to different predictions in the two classes of parsing architectures. At the disambiguating word, ERPs in both sentence types show negative shifts of similar onset latency, amplitude, and scalp distribution in an initial time window between 300 and 500 ms. In a following time window (500-700 ms), the negative shift to garden-path sentences disappears at right central parietal sites, while it continues in permanently ungrammatical sentences. These data are taken as evidence for a strictly serial parser. The absence of a difference in the early time window indicates that temporary and permanent ungrammaticalities trigger the same kind of parsing responses. Later differences can be related to successful reanalysis in garden-path but not in ungrammatical sentences. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  6. An Overt Chemical Protective Garment Reduces Thermal Strain Compared with a Covert Garment in Warm-Wet but Not Hot-Dry Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Maley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A commercial chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN protective covert garment has recently been developed with the aim of reducing thermal strain. A covert CBRN protective layer can be worn under other clothing, with equipment added for full chemical protection when needed. However, it is unknown whether the covert garment offers any alleviation to thermal strain during work compared with a traditional overt ensemble. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare thermal strain and work tolerance times during work in an overt and covert ensemble offering the same level of CBRN protection.Methods: Eleven male participants wore an overt (OVERT or covert (COVERT CBRN ensemble and walked (4 km·h−1, 1% grade for a maximum of 120 min in either a wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] of 21, 30, or 37°C (Neutral, WarmWet and HotDry, respectively. The trials were ceased if the participants' gastrointestinal temperature reached 39°C, heart rate reached 90% of maximum, walking time reached 120 min or due to self-termination.Results: All participants completed 120 min of walking in Neutral. Work tolerance time was greater in OVERT compared with COVERT in WarmWet (P < 0.001, 116.5[9.9] vs. 88.9[12.2] min, respectively, though this order was reversed in HotDry (P = 0.003, 37.3[5.3] vs. 48.4[4.6] min, respectively. The rate of change in mean body temperature and mean skin temperature was greater in COVERT (0.025[0.004] and 0.045[0.010]°C·min−1, respectively compared with OVERT (0.014[0.004] and 0.027[0.007]°C·min−1, respectively in WarmWet (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively. However, the rate of change in mean body temperature and mean skin temperature was greater in OVERT (0.068[0.010] and 0.170[0.026]°C·min−1, respectively compared with COVERT (0.059[0.004] and 0.120[0.017]°C·min−1, respectively in HotDry (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively. Thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and ratings of perceived

  7. PORNOGRAFI DALAM SERIAL ANIME ANAK (ANALISIS SEMIOTIKA DALAM SERIAL CRAYON SHIN CHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sangidun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayon Shin Chan, a Japanese two-dimension animation series broadcast in one of private Indonesian TVs, is categorized into child’s program since it is broadcast at child’s prime time, Sunday 08.30 a.m. In spite of its broadcast time, this series consist of symbols directed not for children, such as some acts that are not appropriate to be done by children, especially in Indonesia. Moreover, adult symbols of sex are also found in the program. For this reason it will be interesting to analyze it using semiotic analysis. Semiotics is the study of symbol and its meaning which its principle concept is that both signifier and signified consist of symbols and are related to denotation and connotation.   Crayon Shin Chan merupakan serial animasi dua dimensi yang tayang di salah satu stasiun televisi swasta di Indonesia. Ini merupakan produk animasi 2 dimensi yang diimpor dari Jepang. Di Indonesia, serial ini masuk dalam kategori acara anak. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari jam penayangannya yang merupakan waktu prime time bagi anak, yakni pada hari minggu pukul 08.30. Akan tetapi, pada serial ini banyak simbol-simbol yang mengarah pada tayangan yang bukan untuk anak-anak, yakni adeganadegan yang tidak pantas dilakukan oleh anak khususnya di Indonesia. Serta adanya pula simbol-simbol yang mengarah pada tayangan berbau dewasa. Tentu akan menarik jika tayangan ini diteliti menggunakan analisis semiotika. Semiotika sendiri merupakan kajian ilmu mengenai tanda dan makna. Yang pada prinsipnya, konsep penting seperti penanda (signifier dan petanda (signified sama-sama terdiri dari tanda dan terkait dengan denotasi dan konotasi.

  8. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda C P Morana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo quanto à viabilidade de tratamento dessa clientela forense. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o transtorno de personalidade anti-social é um diagnóstico médico, pode-se entender o termo "psicopatia", pertencente à esfera psiquiátrico-forense, como um "diagnóstico legal". Não se pode falar ainda de tratamento eficaz para os chamados "serial killers". CONCLUSÃO: Os transtornos de personalidade, especialmente o tipo anti-social, representam ainda hoje um verdadeiro desafio para a psiquiatria forense. O local mais adequado e justo para seus portadores, bem como recomendação homogênea e padronizada de tratamento são questões ainda não respondidas.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. METHOD: A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. RESULTS: While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders

  9. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  10. Serials cataloging at the turn of the century

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, James W

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the research topics and trends that have appeared over the last five years, Serials Cataloging at the Turn of the Century doesn't just tell you that there has been a lot of change--that the information environment is something of a chameleon, always beguiling and slipping out of grasp. Instead, it gives you the plain facts on the specific challenges serials catalogers have been facing and how they're meeting adversity head-on, ready to gain the advantage in the rumble with proliferating information and formats.Comprehensive, resource-packed, and easy-to-digest, Serials Catalogin

  11. The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue

    2015-12-01

    The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.

  12. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield......A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...

  13. Abutment region dosimetry for serial tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Mutic, Sasa; Dempsey, James F.; Markman, Jerry; Goddu, S. Murty; Purdy, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A commercial intensity modulated radiation therapy system (Corvus, NOMOS Corp.) is presently used in our clinic to generate optimized dose distributions delivered using a proprietary dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) (MIMiC) composed of 20 opposed leaf pairs. On our accelerator (Clinac 600C/D, Varian Associates, Inc.) each MIMiC leaf projects to either 1.00 x 0.84 or 1.00 x 1.70 cm 2 (depending on the treatment plan and termed 1 cm or 2 cm mode, respectively). The MIMiC is used to deliver serial (axial) tomotherapy treatment plans, in which the beam is delivered to a nearly cylindrical volume as the DMLC is rotated about the patient. For longer targets, the patient is moved (indexed) between treatments a distance corresponding to the projected leaf width. The treatment relies on precise indexing and a method was developed to measure the precision of indexing devices. A treatment planning study of the dosimetric effects of incorrect patient indexing and concluded that a dose heterogeneity of 10% mm -1 resulted. Because the results may be sensitive to the dose model accuracy, we conducted a measurement-based investigation of the consequences of incorrect indexing using our accelerator. Although the indexing provides an accurate field abutment along the isocenter, due to beam divergence, hot and cold spots will be produced below and above isocenter, respectively, when less than 300 deg. arcs were used. A preliminary study recently determined that for a 290 deg. rotation in 1 cm mode, 15% cold and 7% hot spots were delivered to 7 cm above and below isocenter, respectively. This study completes the earlier work by investigating the dose heterogeneity as a function of position relative to the axis of rotation, arc length, and leaf width. The influence of random daily patient positioning errors is also investigated. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using 8.0 cm diameter cylindrical target volumes within a homogeneous rectilinear film

  14. Serial rotatostereography - A new diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomo, Michinori; Nakanishi, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    In the previous study using cine, a cine film stereoprojector showed the adjacent two frames of cine film simultaneously, such as frames 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4, and so on, consecutively. Because some intracranial lesions require emergency surgery immediately after angiography, a real time display method of serial rotatostereography was necessary. In order to show the consecutive adjacent two frames of a video disc simultaneously, using the same method as with the cine stereoprojector, a video disc recorder (VDR) (VM-1000M) and two video memories (Image Σ) were required. This VDR has the ability of advancing, stopping, and reversing the display of memories. A control unit was manufactured in order to display these memories advancing and reversing continuously. As a result of this continuous semirotation stereo display, the anteroposterior projection was reversed, showing the posteroanterior view during ''reversing mode''. Thus a lead relay circuit was manufactured to prevent this phenomenon. Recording was done using a memory disc recorder (FOM 2200F), which has the ability of recording 10,000 frames per disc. Each frame can also be recorded on imaging film using O · X Multi Camera 400X. Finally, stereoscopic views of cerebral circulation, using a single injection of contrast media and rapid rotation of the gantry, were obtained using two cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) and a stereoviewer (Continuous Semi-rotation Classical Stereo Display Method). Stereoscopic views were also obtained using a single CRT, which displayed the images in a semirotating fashion similar to a oscillating fan head (Continuous Semi-rotation New Stereo Display Method). (J.P.N.)

  15. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  16. Opportunity recognition: delineating the process and motivators for serial entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity recognition is a fundamental research issue in entrepreneurship which this paper empirically investigates for serial entrepreneurs. Initially key definitions and boundary conditions of opportunity recognition are explored to elucidate the relevant motivators driving serial entrepreneurs. After operationalising the various concepts, data is collected by surveying serial entrepreneurs (n= 77 based on pre-determined selection criteria. Since the study’s objective is to build solid theory on these new phenomena, descriptive analysis on the empirical results is provided. To test the hypotheses inferential statistics employing parametric and non-parametric tests are used. The findings reveal that the opportunity recognition behaviours are manifest among serial entrepreneurs, with few significant differences on how many new, major businesses have been pursued, or whether they can be said to be successes.

  17. Attractive Serial Dependence in the Absence of an Explicit Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Park, Joonkoo

    2018-03-01

    Attractive serial dependence refers to an adaptive change in the representation of sensory information, whereby a current stimulus appears to be similar to a previous one. The nature of this phenomenon is controversial, however, as serial dependence could arise from biased perceptual representations or from biased traces of working memory representation at a decisional stage. Here, we demonstrated a neural signature of serial dependence in numerosity perception emerging early in the visual processing stream even in the absence of an explicit task. Furthermore, a psychophysical experiment revealed that numerosity perception is biased by a previously presented stimulus in an attractive way, not by repulsive adaptation. These results suggest that serial dependence is a perceptual phenomenon starting from early levels of visual processing and occurring independently from a decision process, which is consistent with the view that these biases smooth out noise from neural signals to establish perceptual continuity.

  18. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  19. BRAIN Journal - Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nechita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  20. Serials Management In Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serials Management In Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Kaduna Polytechnic And Yaba College of Technology Libraries. ... Samaru Journal of Information Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  1. Energy information data base. Serial titles, February 1978--June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This supplement contains changes and additions to TID-4579-R10 (the authority list for serial titles used by TIC), and is intended to be used with that publication. Supplements are cumulative until another revision is issued

  2. Fault tolerance based on serial communication of FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Fang Zongliang; Xu Quanzhou; Hu Jiewei; Ma Guizhen

    2012-01-01

    There maybe appear mistake in serial communication. This paper was described the intellectual detector of γ dose ratemeter communication with FPGA. The software of FPGA designed the code about fault tolerance, prevented mistake effectively. (authors)

  3. Using Behavior Sequence Analysis to Map Serial Killers' Life Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Golightly, Hayley; Shephard, Rebecca; Yaksic, Enzo; Reid, Sasha

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to provide a novel method for mapping the developmental sequences of serial killers' life histories. An in-depth biographical account of serial killers' lives, from birth through to conviction, was gained and analyzed using Behavior Sequence Analysis. The analyses highlight similarities in behavioral events across the serial killers' lives, indicating not only which risk factors occur, but the temporal order of these factors. Results focused on early childhood environment, indicating the role of parental abuse; behaviors and events surrounding criminal histories of serial killers, showing that many had previous convictions and were known to police for other crimes; behaviors surrounding their murders, highlighting differences in victim choice and modus operandi; and, finally, trial pleas and convictions. The present research, therefore, provides a novel approach to synthesizing large volumes of data on criminals and presenting results in accessible, understandable outcomes.

  4. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott Logan

    2015-01-01

    Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by th...

  5. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  6. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Logan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by the direct adoption and application of approaches to writing about performance that have been honed in regard to film. How, then, do we write about performance in television serials in ways that recognise and accommodate the form’s relationship to film, while at the same time appropriately acknowledging and responding to long-form television’s serial status? To examine the difficulties and opportunities of approaching performance in serial television this way, the article conducts close readings of various pieces of television studies writing on performance, by scholars such as Jason Mittell, Sue Turnbull, George Toles, and Steven Peacock. Their work brings into view film and television’s points of common relation, and the distinctive challenges, achievements, and rewards of appreciating the best television serials, and the performances in them.

  7. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  8. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  9. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. “It’s Always the Same, and It’s Always Different” Mythologisation and the Serial Killer in Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer.

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Serial killers are important in American horror because of their ability to exist between ‘myth’ and ‘reality’. The serial killer is one of the most important American myths, but it is one firmly rooted in real life: unlike Paul Bunyan or Superman, serial killers do exist. This essay examines the relationship between the ‘myth’ and the ‘reality’ of serial killers, and the complex relationship between the American public and the serial killer, using Henry: Portrait of a Serial K...

  11. Throughput increase of the covert communication channel organized by the stable steganography algorithm using spatial domain of the image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kostyrka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the organization of a covert communication channel a number of requirements are imposed on used steganography algorithms among which one of the main are: resistance to attacks against the built-in message, reliability of perception of formed steganography message, significant throughput of a steganography communication channel. Aim: The aim of this research is to modify the steganography method, developed by the author earlier, which will allow to increase the throughput of the corresponding covert communication channel when saving resistance to attacks against the built-in message and perception reliability of the created steganography message, inherent to developed method. Materials and Methods: Modifications of a steganography method that is steady against attacks against the built-in message which is carrying out the inclusion and decoding of the sent (additional information in spatial domain of the image allowing to increase the throughput of the organized communication channel are offered. Use of spatial domain of the image allows to avoid accumulation of an additional computational error during the inclusion/decoding of additional information due to “transitions” from spatial domain of the image to the area of conversion and back that positively affects the efficiency of decoding. Such methods are considered as attacks against the built-in message: imposing of different noise on a steganography message, filtering, lossy compression of a ste-ganography message where the JPEG and JPEG2000 formats with different quality coefficients for saving of a steganography message are used. Results: It is shown that algorithmic implementations of the offered methods modifications remain steady against the perturbing influences, including considerable, provide reliability of perception of the created steganography message, increase the throughput of the created steganography communication channel in comparison with the algorithm implementing

  12. Serial data correlator/code translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A system for analyzing asynchronous signals containing bits of information for ensuring the validity of said signals, by sampling each bit of information a plurality of times, and feeding the sampled pieces of bits of information into a sequence controlled is described. The sequence controller has a plurality of maps or programs through which the sampled pieces of bits are stepped so as to identify the particular bit of information and determine the validity and phase of the bit. The step in which the sequence controller is clocked is controlled by a storage register. A data decoder decodes the information fed out of the storage register and feeds such information to shift registers for storage.

  13. Operator performance on the night shift: phases 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, Dolores; Beere, Barnaby; Collier, Steve

    1999-04-01

    The objective of the project on operator performance on the night shift is to determine the effects of circadian rhythms on higher order cognitive processes. The project had two preliminary phases. Subjects were operators from the Halden Boiling Water Reactor, (Phase 1: 7 male operators and shift leaders, aged 26 to 35; Phase 2: 8 male operators and shift leaders, aged 26 to 53). The majority of the operators were the same for both studies. The preliminary work established that Norwegian operators' circadian rhythms fall within universal population norms and, thus, they are suitable subjects for such experiments. During Phase 1, two self-assessment instruments, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) and the Global Vigour and Affect Scale (GVA), were administered every hour on all three shifts at the reactor. During Phase 2, three tests from the Walter Reed Performance Assessment Battery were administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each of the three shifts at the reactor. The tests (Serial Add-Subtract, Two-Column Addition, and Logical Reasoning) were administered using a hand-held computer. Both phases were conducted during regular work shifts for one complete shift rota (six weeks). ANOVA with two repeated measures showed that self-reported sleepiness on the night shift, sleepiness with respect to hours into the shift, and the interaction between them all reached statistical significance at p<.001. Data analyses (ANOVA) from Phase 2 indicate that the main effect of SHIFTNO (morning, afternoon, evening) on response times was significant (p<.002); the interaction between SHIFTNO and TINSHIFT (hours into shift) was also significant (p<.009). None of the effects on correctness of response was significant (Phase 2). While correctness of response was not significant for routine cognitive measures, the significant, progressive slowing of response times on the night shift reinforces the concern for possible performance decrements on the night shift. Thus, it

  14. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  15. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  16. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  17. Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, W.J.; Moore, R.S.

    1991-05-01

    Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  19. Hemispatial neglect and serial order in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Sophie; Ranzini, Mariagrazia; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Slama, Hichem; Bonato, Mario; Tousch, Ann; Dewulf, Myrtille; Bier, Jean-Christophe; Gevers, Wim

    2018-01-09

    Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task). In line with this idea that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition, we found that neglect patients made significantly more errors in the order task than in the item task compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, this deficit seemed functionally related to neglect severity and was more frequently observed following right posterior brain damage. Interestingly, this specific impairment for serial order in verbal working memory was not lateralized. We advance the hypotheses of a potential contribution to the deficit of serial order in neglect patients of either or both (1) reduced spatial working memory capacity that enables to keep track of the spatial codes that provide memorized items with a positional context, (2) a spatial compression of these codes in the intact representational space. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Development of serial magnification angiography and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tsuneo; Matsubara, Kazuhito; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Mashita, Shinichi; Kaii, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    In order to apply serial magnification angiography to clinical examinations so easily, a serial cardioangiography apparatus was equipped with a tube having 0.1 mm focal spot and with DRX-431HD diode. A CAT-FK Type catheter bed (Toshiba) was used as a roentgenographic table and a PUCK film changer was used. Thus, serial magnification angiography can be easily used to clinical examinations, and can be set in a usual x-ray photographic studio. Serial magnification angiography was used to examine the cerebral vessels in 6 patients, vessels of the pulmonary circulation in 1 patient, bronchial arteries in 6 patients, the celiac artery in 18 patients, the superior mesenteric artery in 2 patients, inferior mesenteric artery in 2 patients, the renal artery in 2 patients, and the adrenal vein in 7 patients. Owing to this angiography, minute changes in the vessel in the lesion can be observed and fine neovascularity can be detected. Thus, serial magnification angiography makes diagnoses of vascular disorders easier. (Ichikawa, K.)

  1. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-07

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.

  2. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  3. Centrifugation assay for measuring adhesion of serially passaged bovine chondrocytes to polystyrene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David S; Hitchins, Victoria M; Vegella, Thomas J; Malinauskas, Richard A; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Fisher, John P; Frondoza, Carmelita G

    2012-07-01

    A major obstacle in chondrocyte-based therapy for cartilage repair is the limited availability of cells that maintain their original phenotype. Propagation of chondrocytes as monolayer cultures on polystyrene surfaces is used extensively for amplifying cell numbers. However, chondrocytes undergo a phenotypic shift when propagated in this manner and display characteristics of more adherent fibroblastic cells. Little information is available about the effect of this phenotypic shift on cellular adhesion properties. We evaluated changes in adhesion property as bovine chondrocytes were serially propagated up to five passages in monolayer culture using a centrifugation cell adhesion assay, which was based on counting of cells before and after being exposed to centrifugal dislodgement forces of 120 and 350 g. Chondrocytes proliferated well in a monolayer culture with doubling times of 2-3 days, but they appeared more fibroblastic and exhibited elongated cell morphology with continued passage. The centrifugation cell adhesion assay showed that chondrocytes became more adhesive with passage as the percentage of adherent cells after centrifugation increased and was not statistically different from the adhesion of the fibroblast cell line, L929, starting at passage 3. This increased adhesiveness correlated with a shift to a fibroblastic morphology and increased collagen I mRNA expression starting at passage 2. Our findings indicate that the centrifugation cell adhesion assay may serve as a reproducible tool to track alterations in chondrocyte phenotype during their extended propagation in culture.

  4. Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.

  5. Numerical discrepancy between serial and MPI parallel computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of 1D Burgers equation and 2D sloshing problem were carried out to study numerical discrepancy between serial and parallel computations. The numerical domain was decomposed into 2 and 4 subdomains for parallel computations with message passing interface. The numerical solution of Burgers equation disclosed that fully explicit boundary conditions used on subdomains of parallel computation was responsible for the numerical discrepancy of transient solution between serial and parallel computations. Two dimensional sloshing problems in a rectangular domain were solved using OpenFOAM. After a lapse of initial transient time sloshing patterns of water were significantly different in serial and parallel computations although the same numerical conditions were given. Based on the histograms of pressure measured at two points near the wall the statistical characteristics of numerical solution was not affected by the number of subdomains as much as the transient solution was dependent on the number of subdomains.

  6. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  7. Ultra-compact coherent receiver with serial interface for pluggable transceiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Fumito; Ohno, Tetsuichiro; Yamanaka, Shogo; Soma, Shunichi; Saida, Takashi; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Murata, Koichi

    2014-09-22

    An ultra-compact integrated coherent receiver with a volume of 1.3 cc using a quad-channel transimpedance amplifier (TIA)-IC chip with a serial peripheral interface (SPI) is demonstrated for the first time. The TIA with the SPI and photodiode (PD) bias circuits, a miniature dual polarization optical hybrid, an octal-PD and small optical coupling system enabled the realization of the compact receiver. Measured transmission performance with 32 Gbaud dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying signal is equivalent to that of the conventional multi-source agreement-based integrated coherent receiver with dual channel TIA-ICs. By comparing the bit-error rate (BER) performance with that under continuous SPI access, we also confirmed that there is no BER degradation caused by SPI interface access. Such an ultra-compact receiver is promising for realizing a new generation of pluggable transceivers.

  8. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  9. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  10. S3-1: The Serial Dependence of Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Whitney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In our moment-to-moment perceptual experience, visual scenes can change, but objects rarely spontaneously come into or out of existence. The visual system may therefore delicately balance the need to optimize sensitivity to image changes (e.g., by adapting to changes in color, orientation, object identity, etc with the desire to represent the temporal continuity of objects—the likelihood that objects perceived at this moment tend to exist in subsequent moments. One way that the visual system may promote such stability is through the introduction of serial dependence to visual perception: by biasing the current percept toward what was seen at previous moments, the brain could compensate for variability in visual input that might otherwise disrupt perceptual continuity. Here, in two sets of experiments, we tested for serial dependence in visual perception of orientation and facial expression. We found that on a given trial, a subject's perception of the orientation of a grating reflected not only the currently viewed stimulus, but also a systematic attraction toward the orientations of the previously viewed stimuli. We found the same serial dependence in the perception of facial expression. This perceptual attraction extended over several trials and seconds, and displayed clear tuning to the difference (in orientation or facial expression between the sequential stimuli. Furthermore, serial dependence in object perception was spatially specific and selective to the attended object within a scene. Several control experiments showed that the perceptual serial dependence we report cannot be explained by effects of priming, known hysteresis effects, visual short-term memory, or expectation. Our results reveal a systematic influence of recent visual experiences on perception at any given moment: visual percepts, even of unambiguous stimuli, are attracted toward what was previously seen. We propose that such serial dependence helps to maintain

  11. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  12. Synchronic Seriality: The Dissolving of Diegetic Borders Through Metalepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige M. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In dialogue with Gérard Genette’s literary concept of metalepsis to television, this paper considers instances of meta-textual actor/character portrayals in serial narratives to show that meta-narrative intrusion fosters a greater empathetic link between the spectator and character, whilst simultaneously inviting the viewer to appreciate the technique as an artifice-aware gesture. The fluidity of diegetic borders brought on by the conflation of performer/performance replicates Baudrillard’s simulacra, creating a synchronic form of seriality and transcending rigid genre classifications.

  13. Serial MRI studies using gadolinium DTPA in active multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Johnson, G.; Barnes, D.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a necessary early event in the pathogenesis of the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. To evaluate such an hypothesis in vivo would require: (1) serial imaging studies using a modality with high sensitivity for detecting plaques; (2) a contrast enhancing agent which demonstrates BBB impairment. A serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was undertaken of a group of MS patients using the contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA. As it has been suggested that T 1 and T 2 relaxation times are longer in acute than chronic MS lesions, these were also measured. 3 refs.; 1 figure

  14. IT-based Value Creation in Serial Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we integrate and model the findings on individual acquisitions from the extant literature, and extend that model to explain the effects of sequential acquisitions in a growth-by-acquisition strategy. This extended model, drawing on the Resource-Based Theory......The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...

  15. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures

  16. New flexible origination technology based on electron-beam lithography and its integration into security devices in combination with covert features based on DNA authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, John K.; Ryzi, Zbynek; Outwater, Chris S.

    2002-04-01

    Embossed diffractive optically variable devices are becoming increasingly familiar security items on plastic cards, banknotes, security documents and on branded goods and media to protect against counterfeit, protect copyright and to evidence tamper. Equally as this devices become both more widely available there is a pressing requirement for security technology upgrades to keep ahead of technology advances available to potential counterfeiters. This paper describes a new generation electron beam DOVID origination technology particularly suitable for high security applications. Covert marking of security devices is provided using the DNA matrix by creating and verifying unique DNA sequences. This integration of this into practical security features in combination with covert features based on DNA matrix authentication and other more straightforwardly authenticable features to provide multi- technology security solutions will be described.

  17. Peer Status in Boys With and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Predictions from Overt and Covert Antisocial Behavior, Social Isolation, and Authoritative Parenting Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P; Zupan, Brian A; Simmel, Cassandra; Nigg, Joel T; Melnick, Sharon

    1997-10-01

    Because of the centrality of peer relationship difficulties for children with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated behavioral (overt and covert antisocial activity), internalizing (self-reports and observed social isolation), and familial (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting beliefs) predictors of peer sociometric nominations among previously unfamiliar, ethnically diverse ADHD (N=73) and comparison (N=60) boys, aged 6-12 years. Authoritative maternal parenting beliefs and negatively weighted social isolation explained significant variance in positive peer regard; aggression, covert behavior, and authoritative parenting beliefs were the independent predictors of both negative peer status and peer social preference. We extended such predictions with statistical control of (1) child cognitive variables, (2) maternal psychopathology, and (3) ADHD boys, but authoritative parenting beliefs were stronger predictors in ADHD than in comparison youth. We discuss family-peer linkages regarding peer competence.

  18. "It is my business": A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Covert Contraceptive Use among Women in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Craig J; Grilo, Stephanie A; Song, Xiaoyu; Lutalo, Tom; Nakyanjo, Neema; Santelli, John S

    2018-03-04

    Covert contraceptive use (CCU) is the use of family planning without a partner's knowledge. This study sought to examine CCU prevalence among women living in Rakai, Uganda, predictors of CCU, and why women resort to CCU. We used data from women (15-49years) currently using contraceptives (oral contraceptives, Depo Provera, implants, intrauterine devices, and periodic abstinence) during Round 15 (2011-2013) of the Rakai Community Cohort Survey (n=2206). We utilized logistic regressions to analyze the association between self-reported CCU and current contraceptive method, sexual activity, experience of violence, and demographic data. We also used data from in-depth interviews (IDI) on HIV and reproductive health conducted in 2013-2016. CCU prevalence was 26%. In the multivariable model, being previously married (aOR=2.2 [1.7-2.9]), having no formal education (aOR=2.1 [1.1-3.9]), and experiencing physical violence (aOR=1.7 [1.3-2.2]) or having more than 1 sex partner (aOR=1.6 [1.2-2.2]) in the past 12months were CCU predictors. Advancing past primary school decreased the odds of CCU (aOR=0.7 [0.6-0.9]). HIV was positively associated with CCU in the unadjusted model, but not the adjusted. In the IDIs, women primarily resorted to CCU because of discordant fertility desires-coupled with financial insecurity, negative stereotypes towards contraceptives use, deteriorating health, and familial pressure to reproduce. One woman employed CCU because she feared being ostracized from her community. CCU is common amongst users of contraception and is used to hide family planning from partners and communities. Women that diverge from Uganda's cultural norms had higher odds of CCU. Clinicians and practitioners should be aware of CCU among their patients and should educate women on the wide variety of contraceptive methods to help them decide if their current covert method is best for their health and safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of method-related partner violence on covert pill use and pill discontinuation among women living in La Paz, El Alto and Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarraher, Donna R; Martin, Sandra L; Bailey, Patricia E

    2006-03-01

    Intimate partner violence is widespread worldwide. While assumed to impact women's ability to use contraceptive methods, few data are available to support this claim. In this study, eight focus group discussions were conducted to guide questionnaire development and to provide contextual information. Participants were women who were currently using the pill and women who had used the pill previously. In addition, 300 women were interviewed who initiated oral contraceptive pill use between December 1995 and April 1996. Participants were interviewed 3-6 months later to investigate the role intimate partner violence played in covert pill use and pill discontinuation. Special study procedures for asking women questions about violence were employed. Nineteen per cent of the women interviewed were using the pill covertly. The odds of covert pill use were four times higher in El Alto and La Paz than in Santa Cruz. Women who used the pill covertly were more likely to have experienced method-related partner violence (OR = 21.27) than women whose partners knew of their pill use. One-third of the women had discontinued pill use at the time of the interview. In the final multivariate analysis, having experienced side-effects (OR = 2.37) was a significant predictor of pill discontinuation and method-related partner violence was marginally predictive (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.0-3.66). While efforts are ongoing to incorporate men into family planning programmes, some male partners oppose, and in some situations violently oppose, contraceptive use. The needs of women with these types of partners must not be overlooked.

  20. Recommendations for CAMAC Serial Highway drivers and LAM Graders for the SCC-L2 Serial Crate Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The functional requirements of Drivers for the CAMAC Serial Highway defined in IEEE Standard 595-1976 are described. The description is independent of the implementation, and in particular no assumption is made about the boundary between hardware and software within the Driver. Topics covered are the user interface, the supporting system services required, demand handling, and a detailed discussion of the message analysis for various levels of error recovery. An appendix describes the recommended features of LAM Graders for use with the Serial Crate Controller Type L2 of IEEE Std 595-1976

  1. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  2. 'American Psycho': a double portrait of serial yuppie Patrick Bateman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Laine, T.

    2003-01-01

    Kooijman and Laine analyze Mary Harron's "American Psycho," a 2000 film adaptation of the 1980s satirical novel by Bret Easton Ellis in which Patrick Bateman, a narcissistic Wall Street young urban professional ("yuppie"), assumes an alternate identity as a serial killer. The authors examine the

  3. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  4. Serial Comparison Processes and Sex Differences in Clerical Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeres, Raymond L.

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 91 male and 91 female university students to assess sex differences in performance on speeded matching tests and theory on same-different judgments. Results are interpreted via the dual-process hypothesis of same-difference judgments with sex differences explained in terms of serial comparison processes rather…

  5. Serials Management by Microcomputer: The Potential of DBMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. Thomas; Burns, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes serials management at Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science library via a microcomputer, a file manager called PFS, and a relational database management system called dBase II. Check-in procedures, programing with dBase II, "static" and "active" databases, and claim procedures are discussed. Check-in forms are…

  6. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  7. Development of parallel/serial program analyzing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saichi; Takigawa, Yoshio; Kumakura, Toshimasa

    1999-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing 'KMtool', a parallel/serial program analyzing tool, in order to promote the parallelization of the science and engineering computation program. KMtool analyzes the performance of program written by FORTRAN77 and MPI, and it reduces the effort for parallelization. This paper describes development purpose, design, utilization and evaluation of KMtool. (author)

  8. Auditory distraction and serial memory: The avoidable and the ineluctable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan M Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the serial order processing of the visually presented items and the serial order coding that is the by-product of the streaming of the sound. However, recently emerging work shows that the distraction from a single sound (one deviating from a prevailing sequence results in attentional capture and is qualitatively distinct from that of a sequence in being restricted in its action to encoding, not to rehearsal of list members. Capture is also sensitive to the sensory task load, suggesting that it is subject to top-down control and therefore avoidable. These two forms of distraction-conflict of process and attentional capture-may be two consequences of auditory perceptual organization processes that serve to strike the optimal balance between attentional selectivity and distractability.

  9. Asymmetric binding in serial memory for verbal and spatial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerard, Katherine; Morey, Candice C.; Lagace, Sebastien; Tremblay, Sebastien

    As the number of studies showing that items can be retained as bound representations in memory increases, researchers are beginning to investigate how the different features are bound together. In the present study, we examined the relative importances of the verbal and spatial features in serial

  10. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  11. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, E.L.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  12. Serial assessment of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy with the computerized scintillation probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Horowitz, S.F.

    1982-01-01

    Cardiac function was serially monitored in 55 patients receiving adriamycin chemotherapy over 18 months with quantitative radionuclide assessment by both a nonimaging computerized scintillation probe and gamma camera-computer imaging. Interval ejection fraction change was comparable with both techniques and predicted incipient cardiotoxicity. Probe data revealed ejection fraction decline was antedated by decline left ventricular emptying and filling rates

  13. Using identification in entertainment-education drama serials to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used two entertainment-education drama serials which were designed using Albert Bandura's theoretical framework to communicate positive messages of women's rights to real life audiences in select communities. The study sought to find out if there was any significant relationship i.e. identification between TV ...

  14. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  15. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  16. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  17. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben A. Dilanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used.

  19. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  20. Serials use in a College of Agriculture Education Library | Adzobu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serials use in a College of Agriculture Education Library. J Adzobu, JA Opare. Abstract. No Abstract. Ghana Library Journal Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp. 81-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  1. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission.

  2. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  3. The Rise in Consumerism: The Year's Work in Serials, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonberger, Jana

    1991-01-01

    Examines major issues and trends in serials management represented in the literature published during 1990. Topics covered include the pricing crisis; publishing and scholarly communication; cancellation projects; technological developments and alternatives to print; claiming and replacement activities; acquisitions and collection development;…

  4. Moderation of Nicotine Effects on Covert Orienting of Attention Tasks by Poor Placebo Performance and Cue Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G.; Rzetelny, Adam; Rabinovich, Norka E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Rationale Given baseline-dependent effects of nicotine on other forms of attention, there is reason to believe that inconsistent findings for the effects of nicotine on attentional orienting may be partly due to individual differences in baseline (abstinence state) functioning. Individuals with low baseline attention may benefit more from nicotine replacement. Method The effects of nicotine as a function of baseline performance (bottom, middle, and top third of mean reaction times during placebo) were assessed in 52 habitual abstinent smokers (26 females/26 males) utilizing an arrow-cued covert orienting of attention task. Results Compared to a placebo patch, a 14 mg nicotine patch produced faster overall reaction times (RTs). In addition, individuals with slower RTs during the placebo condition benefitted more from nicotine on cued trials than did those who had shorter (faster) RTs during placebo. Nicotine also enhanced the validity effect (shorter RTs to validly vs. invalidly cued targets), but this nicotine benefit did not differ as a function of overall placebo-baseline performance. Conclusions These findings support the view that nicotine enhances cued spatial attentional orienting in individuals who have slower RTs during placebo (nicotine-free) conditions; however, baseline-dependent effects may not generalize to all aspects of spatial attention. These findings are consistent with findings indicating that nicotine’s effects vary as a function of task parameters rather than simple RT speeding or cognitive enhancement. PMID:27461547

  5. Negative induced mood influences word production: An event-related potentials study with a covert picture naming task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J A; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Albert, J; Santaniello, G; Pozo, M A; Capilla, A

    2017-01-27

    The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the effects of mood on phonological encoding processes involved in word generation. For this purpose, negative, positive and neutral affective states were induced in participants during three different recording sessions using short film clips. After the mood induction procedure, participants performed a covert picture naming task in which they searched letters. The negative compared to the neutral mood condition elicited more negative amplitudes in a component peaking around 290ms. Furthermore, results from source localization analyses suggested that this activity was potentially generated in the left prefrontal cortex. In contrast, no differences were found in the comparison between positive and neutral moods. Overall, current data suggest that processes involved in the retrieval of phonological information during speech generation are impaired when participants are in a negative mood. The mechanisms underlying these effects were discussed in relation to linguistic and attentional processes, as well as in terms of the use of heuristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstructing genealogies of serial samples under the assumption of a molecular clock using serial-sample UPGMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A; Rodrigo, A G

    2000-12-01

    Reconstruction of evolutionary relationships from noncontemporaneous molecular samples provides a new challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction methods. With recent biotechnological advances there has been an increase in molecular sequencing throughput, and the potential to obtain serial samples of sequences from populations, including rapidly evolving pathogens, is fast being realized. A new method called the serial-sample unweighted pair grouping method with arithmetic means (sUPGMA) is presented that reconstructs a genealogy or phylogeny of sequences sampled serially in time using a matrix of pairwise distances. The resulting tree depicts the terminal lineages of each sample ending at a different level consistent with the sample's temporal order. Since sUPGMA is a variant of UPGMA, it will perform best when sequences have evolved at a constant rate (i.e., according to a molecular clock). On simulated data, this new method performs better than standard cluster analysis under a variety of longitudinal sampling strategies. Serial-sample UPGMA is particularly useful for analysis of longitudinal samples of viruses and bacteria, as well as ancient DNA samples, with the minimal requirement that samples of sequences be ordered in time.

  7. Smart grid serialization comparison: Comparision of serialization for distributed control in the context of the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    within a given timeframe, especially in the context of the Internet of Things, using low-bandwidth data connections and constrained devices. The paper shows that there are better alternatives than XML & JAXB and gives guidance in choosing the most appropriate serialization format and library depending...

  8. Saccade-synchronized rapid attention shifts in macaque visual cortical area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tao; Treue, Stefan; Krishna, B Suresh

    2018-03-06

    While making saccadic eye-movements to scan a visual scene, humans and monkeys are able to keep track of relevant visual stimuli by maintaining spatial attention on them. This ability requires a shift of attentional modulation from the neuronal population representing the relevant stimulus pre-saccadically to the one representing it post-saccadically. For optimal performance, this trans-saccadic attention shift should be rapid and saccade-synchronized. Whether this is so is not known. We trained two rhesus monkeys to make saccades while maintaining covert attention at a fixed spatial location. We show that the trans-saccadic attention shift in cortical visual medial temporal (MT) area is well synchronized to saccades. Attentional modulation crosses over from the pre-saccadic to the post-saccadic neuronal representation by about 50 ms after a saccade. Taking response latency into account, the trans-saccadic attention shift is well timed to maintain spatial attention on relevant stimuli, so that they can be optimally tracked and processed across saccades.

  9. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  10. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  11. Sleep deprivation alters functioning within the neural network underlying the covert orienting of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Reid, Kathryn J; Davuluri, Vijay K; Small, Dana M; Parrish, Todd B; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Zee, Phyllis C; Gitelman, Darren R

    2008-06-27

    One function of spatial attention is to enable goal-directed interactions with the environment through the allocation of neural resources to motivationally relevant parts of space. Studies have shown that responses are enhanced when spatial attention is predictively biased towards locations where significant events are expected to occur. Previous studies suggest that the ability to bias attention predictively is related to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activation [Small, D.M., et al., 2003. The posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex mediate the anticipatory allocation of spatial attention. Neuroimage 18, 633-41]. Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs selective attention and reduces PCC activity [Thomas, M., et al., 2000. Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. J. Sleep Res. 9, 335-352]. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that SD would affect PCC function and alter the ability to predictively allocate spatial attention. Seven healthy, young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following normal rest and 34-36 h of SD while performing a task in which attention was shifted in response to peripheral targets preceded by spatially informative (valid), misleading (invalid), or uninformative (neutral) cues. When rested, but not when sleep-deprived, subjects responded more quickly to targets that followed valid cues than those after neutral or invalid cues. Brain activity during validly cued trials with a reaction time benefit was compared to activity in trials with no benefit. PCC activation was greater during trials with a reaction time benefit following normal rest. In contrast, following SD, reaction time benefits were associated with activation in the left intraparietal sulcus, a region associated with receptivity to stimuli at unexpected locations. These changes may render sleep-deprived individuals less able

  12. Serial Learning Process: Test of Chaining, Position, and Dual-Process Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurintano, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The chaining, position, and dual-process hypotheses of serial learning (SL) as well as serial recall, reordering, and relearning of paired-associate learning were examined to establish learning patterns. Results provide evidence for dual-process hypothesis. (DS)

  13. Gaze-independent BCI-spelling using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) speller is a communication device, which can be used by patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases to select symbols in a computer application. For patients unable to overtly fixate the target symbol, it is crucial to develop a speller independent of gaze shifts. In the present online study, we investigated rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) as a paradigm for mental typewriting. We investigated the RSVP speller in three conditions, regarding the Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) and the use of color features. A vocabulary of 30 symbols was presented one-by-one in a pseudo random sequence at the same location of display. All twelve participants were able to successfully operate the RSVP speller. The results show a mean online spelling rate of 1.43 symb/min and a mean symbol selection accuracy of 94.8% in the best condition. We conclude that the RSVP is a promising paradigm for BCI spelling and its performance is competitive with the fastest gaze-independent spellers in literature. The RSVP speller does not require gaze shifts towards different target locations and can be operated by non-spatial visual attention, therefore it can be considered as a valid paradigm in applications with patients for impaired oculo-motor control. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Serials Management, Access and Use on Publication Output of Lecturers in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, Rahmon O. Onaolapo; Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates serials management in university libraries, determines the extent to which serials are accessed and used and appraises the influence of availability, accessibility and use of serials on publications output of lecturers in federal universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire administration method was adopted to accumulate data for…

  15. A constrained rasch model of trace redintegration in serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodenrys, Steven; Miller, Leonie M

    2008-04-01

    The notion that verbal short-term memory tasks, such as serial recall, make use of information in long-term as well as in short-term memory is instantiated in many models of these tasks. Such models incorporate a process in which degraded traces retrieved from a short-term store are reconstructed, or redintegrated (Schweickert, 1993), through the use of information in long-term memory. This article presents a conceptual and mathematical model of this process based on a class of item-response theory models. It is demonstrated that this model provides a better fit to three sets of data than does the multinomial processing tree model of redintegration (Schweickert, 1993) and that a number of conceptual accounts of serial recall can be related to the parameters of the model.

  16. Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

    2001-09-01

    One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

  17. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  18. Serial network simplifies the design of multiple microcomputer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkes, D.

    1981-01-01

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in developing network communication schemes for carrying digital data between locally distributed computing stations. Many of these schemes have focused on distributed networking techniques for data processing applications. These applications suggest the use of a serial, multipoint bus, where a number of remote intelligent units act as slaves to a central or host computer. Each slave would be serially addressable from the host and would perform required operations upon being addressed by the host. Based on an MK3873 single-chip microcomputer, the SCU 20 is designed to be such a remote slave device. The capabilities of the SCU 20 and its use in systems applications are examined.

  19. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.

  1. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  2. Counterbalancing for serial order carryover effects in experimental condition orders

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Joseph L

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed for generating counterbalanced sequences for repeated-measures designs including those with multiple observations of each condition on one participant...

  3. A matter of emphasis: Linguistic stress habits modulate serial recall

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John C.; Macken, Bill; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    Models of short-term memory for sequential information rely on item-level, feature-based descriptions to account for errors in serial recall. Transposition errors within alternating similar/dissimilar letter sequences derive from interactions between overlapping features. However, in two experiments, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the sequence are what determine the fates of items, rather than the properties ascribed to the items themselves. Performance in alternating sequences i...

  4. Serial MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Hata, H.; Ohno, M. (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Yoshinaga, M.; Shiokawa, O. (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan). Stroke Care Unit)

    1991-08-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) imagings of two autopsied patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are presented. Both patients showed a dramatic progression of brain atrophy. The initial MR imagings were, however, interpreted as normal except for localized mild cortical atrophy in one patient. When a normal MR image is obtained in a demented middle-aged or aged patient, CJD may still need to be ruled out: follow up MR imaging may be useful. (orig.).

  5. Serial MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Hata, H.; Ohno, M.; Yoshinaga, M.; Shiokawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) imagings of two autopsied patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are presented. Both patients showed a dramatic progression of brain atrophy. The initial MR imagings were, however, interpreted as normal except for localized mild cortical atrophy in one patient. When a normal MR image is obtained in a demented middle-aged or aged patient, CJD may still need to be ruled out: follow up MR imaging may be useful. (orig.)

  6. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  8. Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiers, F.W.; Storch, H. von

    1993-01-01

    The comparison of means derived from samples of noisy data is a standard part of climatology. When the data are not serially correlated the appropriate statistical tool for this task is usually the conventional Student's t-test. However, data frequently are serially correlated in climatological applications with the result that the t-tests in its standard form is not applicable. The usual solution to this problem is to scale the t-statistic by a factor which depends upon the equivalent sample size n e . We show, by means of simulations, that the revised t-test is often conservative (the actual significance level is smaller than the specified significance level) when the equivalent sample size is known. However, in most practical cases the equivalent sample size is not known. Then the test becomes liberal (the actual significance level is greater than the specified significance level). This systematic error becomes small when the true equivalent sample size is large (greater than approximately 30). We re-examine the difficulties inherent in difference of means tests when there is serial dependence. We provide guidelines for the application of the 'usual' t-test and propose two alternative tests which substantially improve upon the 'usual' t-test when samples are small. (orig.)

  9. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  10. DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link

  11. A matter of emphasis: Linguistic stress habits modulate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Macken, Bill; Jones, Dylan M

    2015-04-01

    Models of short-term memory for sequential information rely on item-level, feature-based descriptions to account for errors in serial recall. Transposition errors within alternating similar/dissimilar letter sequences derive from interactions between overlapping features. However, in two experiments, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the sequence are what determine the fates of items, rather than the properties ascribed to the items themselves. Performance in alternating sequences is determined by the way that the sequences themselves induce particular prosodic rehearsal patterns, and not by the nature of the items per se. In a serial recall task, the shapes of the canonical "saw-tooth" serial position curves and transposition error probabilities at successive input-output distances were modulated by subvocal rehearsal strategies, despite all item-based parameters being held constant. We replicated this finding using nonalternating lists, thus demonstrating that transpositions are substantially influenced by prosodic features-such as stress-that emerge during subvocal rehearsal.

  12. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  13. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François

    2015-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  14. Evidence for spontaneous serial refreshing in verbal working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Langerock, Naomi; Cowan, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    Working memory (WM) keeps information temporarily accessible for ongoing cognition. One proposed mechanism to keep information active in WM is refreshing. This mechanism is assumed to operate by bringing memory items into the focus of attention, thereby serially refreshing the content of WM. We report two experiments in which we examine evidence for the spontaneous occurrence of serial refreshing in verbal WM. Participants had to remember series of red letters, while black probe letters were presented between these memory items, with each probe to be judged present in or absent from the list presented so far, as quickly as possible (i.e., the probe-span task). Response times to the probes were used to infer the status of the representations in WM and, in particular, to examine whether the content of the focus of attention changed over time, as would be expected if serial refreshing occurs spontaneously during inter-item pauses. In sharp contrast with this hypothesis, our results indicate that the last-presented memory item remained in the focus of attention during the inter-item pauses of the probe-span task. We discuss how these findings help to define the boundary conditions of spontaneous refreshing of verbal material in WM, and discuss implications for verbal WM maintenance and forgetting.

  15. Simple measuring rod method for the coaxiality of serial holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Tongyu; Wang, Zhong; Ji, Yuchen; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at the rapid coaxiality measurement of serial hole part with a small diameter, a coaxiality measuring rod for each layer hole with a single LDS (laser displacement sensor) is proposed. This method does not require the rotation angle information of the rod, and the coaxiality of serial holes can be calculated from the measured values of LDSs after randomly rotating the measuring rod several times. With the mathematical model of the coaxiality measuring rod, each factor affecting the accuracy of coaxiality measurement is analyzed by simulation, and the installation accuracy requirements of the measuring rod and LDSs are presented. In the tolerance of a certain installation error of the measuring rod, the relative center of the hole is calculated by setting the over-determined nonlinear equations of the fitting circles of the multi-layer holes. In experiment, coaxiality measurement accuracy is realized by a 16 μm precision LDS, and the validity of the measurement method is verified. The manufacture and measurement requirements of the coaxiality measuring rod are low, by changing the position of LDSs in the measuring rod, the serial holes with different sizes and numbers can be measured. The rapid coaxiality measurement of parts can be easily implemented in industrial sites.

  16. A network-based Macintosh serial host interface program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, J.

    1991-03-01

    A program has been written for the Apple Macintosh to replace conventional host RS232 terminals with customizable user interfaces. Serial port NuBus cards in the Macintosh allow many simultaneous sessions to be maintained. A powerful system is attained by connecting multiple Macintoshes on a network, each running this program. Each is then able to share incoming data from any of its serial ports with any other Macintosh, as well as accept data from any other Macintosh for output to any of its serial ports. The program has been used to eliminate multiple host terminals, modernize the user interface, and to centralize operation of a complex control system. Minimal changes to host software have been required. By making extensive use of Macintosh resources, the same executable code serves in a variety of roles. An object oriented C language with a class library made the development straightforward and easy to modify. This program is used to control a 2 MW neutral beam system on the DIII-D magnetic fusion tokamak. 7 figs

  17. The neural signature of emotional memories in serial crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Neural plasticity is the process whereby semantic information and emotional responses are stored in neural networks. It is hypothesized that the neural networks built over time to encode the sexual fantasies that motivate serial killers to act should display a unique, detectable activation pattern. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis posits that such networks comprise activation of brain sites that reflect four cognitive components: autobiographical memory, sexual arousal, aggression, and control over aggression. The neural sites performing these cognitive functions have been successfully identified by previous research. The key findings are reviewed to hypothesise the typical pattern of activity that serial killers should display. Through the integration of biological findings into one framework, the neural approach proposed in this paper is in stark contrast with the many theories accounting for serial killers that offer non-medical taxonomies. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis offers a new framework to understand and detect deviant individuals. The technical and legal issues are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flight feather attachment in rock pigeons (Columba livia): covert feathers and smooth muscle coordinate a morphing wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms for passively coordinating forelimb movements and flight feather abduction and adduction have been described separately from both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Skeletal coordination has been identified as a way for birds to simplify the neuromotor task of controlling flight stroke, but an understanding of the relationship between skeletal coordination and the coordination of the aerodynamic control surface (the flight feathers) has been slow to materialize. This break between the biomechanical and aerodynamic approaches - between skeletal kinematics and airfoil shape - has hindered the study of dynamic flight behaviors. Here I use dissection and histology to identify previously overlooked interconnections between musculoskeletal elements and flight feathers. Many of these structures are well-placed to directly link elements of the passive musculoskeletal coordination system with flight feather movements. Small bundles of smooth muscle form prominent connections between upper forearm coverts (deck feathers) and the ulna, as well as the majority of interconnections between major flight feathers of the hand. Abundant smooth muscle may play a role in efficient maintenance of folded wing posture, and may also provide an autonomically regulated means of tuning wing shape and aeroelastic behavior in flight. The pattern of muscular and ligamentous linkages of flight feathers to underlying muscle and bone may provide predictable passive guidance for the shape of the airfoil during flight stroke. The structures described here provide an anatomical touchstone for in vivo experimental tests of wing surface coordination in an extensively researched avian model species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  19. Resolving Visual Interference During Covert Spatial Orienting: Online Attentional Control Through Static Records of Prior Visual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awh, Edward; Sgarlata, Antoinette Marie; Kliestik, John

    2005-01-01

    Models of attentional control usually describe online shifts in control settings that accommodate changing task demands. The current studies suggest that online control over distractor exclusion--a core component of visual selection--can be accomplished without online shifts in top-down settings. Measurements of target discrimination accuracy…

  20. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...

  1. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  3. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  4. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  5. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. ... mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/shift-work/faq-20057991 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  6. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  7. Faktor Dan Penjadualan Shift Kerja

    OpenAIRE

    Maurits, Lientje Setyawati; Widodo, Imam Djati

    2008-01-01

    Work shift has negative effect in physical and mental health, work performance and job accident. Disturbance of circadian rhythms is indicated as source of the problems. This article explores some researches related to the impacts of work shift and establishes basic principles of work shift scheduling that considers human need and limitation.

  8. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  9. Validation of EncephalApp, Smartphone-Based Stroop Test, for the Diagnosis of Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Heuman, Douglas M; Sterling, Richard K; Sanyal, Arun J; Siddiqui, Muhammad; Matherly, Scott; Luketic, Velimir; Stravitz, R Todd; Fuchs, Michael; Thacker, Leroy R; Gilles, HoChong; White, Melanie B; Unser, Ariel; Hovermale, James; Gavis, Edith; Noble, Nicole A; Wade, James B

    2015-10-01

    Detection of covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is difficult, but point-of-care testing could increase rates of diagnosis. We aimed to validate the ability of the smartphone app EncephalApp, a streamlined version of Stroop App, to detect CHE. We evaluated face validity, test-retest reliability, and external validity. Patients with cirrhosis (n = 167; 38% with overt HE [OHE]; mean age, 55 years; mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, 12) and controls (n = 114) were each given a paper and pencil cognitive battery (standard) along with EncephalApp. EncephalApp has Off and On states; results measured were OffTime, OnTime, OffTime+OnTime, and number of runs required to complete 5 off and on runs. Thirty-six patients with cirrhosis underwent driving simulation tests, and EncephalApp results were correlated with results. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in a subgroup of patients. The test was performed before and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, and before and after correction for hyponatremia, to determine external validity. All patients with cirrhosis performed worse on paper and pencil and EncephalApp tests than controls. Patients with cirrhosis and OHE performed worse than those without OHE. Age-dependent EncephalApp cutoffs (younger or older than 45 years) were set. An OffTime+OnTime value of >190 seconds identified all patients with CHE with an area under the receiver operator characteristic value of 0.91; the area under the receiver operator characteristic value was 0.88 for diagnosis of CHE in those without OHE. EncephalApp times correlated with crashes and illegal turns in driving simulation tests. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass coefficient, 0.83) among 30 patients retested 1-3 months apart. OffTime+OnTime increased significantly (206 vs 255 seconds, P = .007) among 10 patients retested 33 ± 7 days after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. OffTime+OnTime decreased significantly (242 vs

  10. Diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierschmann, H; Henke, M; Knorr, J; Maier, L; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W; Heyn, C; Hansen, W

    2013-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot, defined electrostatically in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. We present the thermopower stability diagram for a temperature difference ΔT = (20 ± 10) mK across the device and find a maximum thermovoltage signal of several μV in the vicinity of the triple points. Along a constant energy axis in this regime, the data show a characteristic pattern which is in agreement with Mott's relation and can be well understood within a model of sequential transport. (paper)

  11. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 μs are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit

  12. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  13. Key Conditions for Successful Serial Entrepreneurship in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    As a serial entrepreneur in the medical device industry, the author embraces Snowdon's (2017) effort to create and stimulate dialogue among experts in health system innovation in an effort to define and support Canada's innovation agenda. In this paper, he outlines some of the attributes and skills that companies need to launch their products and scale their companies. He also identifies the main conditions of an innovation ecosystem that create the necessary infrastructure to enable and support highly successful companies while allowing them to accelerate their growth.

  14. Serial computed tomography findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenska, G.K.; Walter, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Serial CT investigations of 3 patients with histologically confirmed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease revealed persisting slight brain atrophy to progressive extreme atrophy corresponding to the absolute, not the individual duration of illness. No correlation was observed between CT findings and the patients condition or electroencephalographic results. In one case with a duration of about 16 months and a terminal brain weight of 750 g a massive bilateral, later unilateral subdural hygroma appeared which probably was caused by retraction of the brain showing an enormous atrophy. (orig.)

  15. Serial computed tomography findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenska, G.K.; Walter, G.F.

    1989-09-01

    Serial CT investigations of 3 patients with histologically confirmed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease revealed persisting slight brain atrophy to progressive extreme atrophy corresponding to the absolute, not the individual duration of illness. No correlation was observed between CT findings and the patients condition or electroencephalographic results. In one case with a duration of about 16 months and a terminal brain weight of 750 g a massive bilateral, later unilateral subdural hygroma appeared which probably was caused by retraction of the brain showing an enormous atrophy. (orig.).

  16. Serial radionuclide quantitative function studies for evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.C.; Hunter, J.L.; Lawton, M.B.; Berke, R.A.; Morton, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    A new method of assessing renal function following transplantation has been presented. The calculated rate of transfer to the kidney expressed as percent per minute, effective renal blood flow in milliliters per minute and the percentage of the dose in the urine at 20 minutes are calculated from data derived from a scintillation probe over the heart following a single injection of radiohippuran. These indices provide a means of interpreting serial determinations of renal function in states in which the more conventional parameters of renal function are not reliable. (U.S.)

  17. Freeform Optics: current challenges for future serial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, C.; Köhler, T.; Roth, E.

    2017-10-01

    One of the major developments in optics industry recently is the commercial manufacturing of freeform surfaces for optical mid- and high performance systems. The loss of limitation on rotational symmetry enables completely new optical design solutions - but causes completely new challenges for the manufacturer too. Adapting the serial production from radial-symmetric to freeform optics cannot be done just by the extension of machine capabilities and software for every process step. New solutions for conventional optics productions or completely new process chains are necessary.

  18. Long-distance configuration of FPGA based on serial communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Song Kezhu; Zhang Sifeng

    2010-01-01

    To solve FPGA configuration in some nuclear electronics, which works in radioactivity environment, the article introduces a way of long-distance configuration with PC and CPLD, based on serial communication. Taking CYCLONE series FPGA and EPCS configuration chip from ALTERA for example, and using the AS configuration mode, we described our design from the aspects of basic theory, hardware connection, software function and communication protocol. With this design, we could configure several FPGAs in the distance of 100 meters, or we could configure on FPGA in the distance of 150 meters. (authors)

  19. The essential guide to Serial ATA and SATA express

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, David A

    2014-01-01

    Used in laptop and desktop computers, low-end servers, and mobile devices, Serial ATA (Advance Technology Attachment), or SATA, is the pervasive disk storage technology in use today. SATA has also penetrated the enterprise computing environment by adding hardware components for fail-over, extending command processing capabilities, and increasing device performance and link speeds. If you work in a data center or manage your company's storage resources, you will likely encounter storage solutions that require SATA software or hardware.In this book, leading storage networking technologist David

  20. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING EFFICIENCY WITHIN SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of transition to the new post-industrial society, massproduction recently faced the most numerous difficulties. They are caused by turbulences in theexternal environment in which companies operate, manifested in particular by enhancing thedynamism of markets and by deep changes in the structure of consumers’ demands. In thiscontext, specialized literature records the concerns for increasing the efficiency and flexibilityof products, elements involving radical changes of management and manufacturingtechnologies methods. Given these issues, the paper approaches two separate ways to improvethe management of serial production: increasing economic efficiency by optimizing the size ofbatches and flexible production systems by implementing techniques to reduce the change-overtime.

  1. The shift in windpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  2. Implementation of Bluetooth serial port based profiles in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanglei; Qiu, Zhengding; Wang, Quanping; Gao, Qiang

    2001-10-01

    Bluetooth is a new short-range wireless communication technology developing rapidly in recent years. Bluetooth software architecture consists of stack and profiles. Serial Port Profile (SPP) is an underlying profile that emulates RS232 serial cable connections between two peer devices. Based on SPP, Dial-up Networking (DUN) Profile establishes PPP connection with remote dial-up server, Fax Profile realizes document facsimile function and LAN Access Profile (LAP) provides local area network access service. When it comes to their implementation in embedded systems, there are several challenges such as memory consumption, code efficiency, code reliability, and code portability onto different OS and hardware platforms to be attacked. In this paper, we propose integrated software architecture after discussing the great similarities shared among the three SPP based profiles. Then implementation of the architecture is given, in which OS-dependent and OS-independent parts are clearly separated. Profile interfaces with stack and OS are specified respectively so that the three profiles as a whole can be ported onto various software and hardware platforms easily. As a result, policy of transplanting our implementation onto different platforms is addressed at the end of the paper.

  3. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Valls, Laia; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis; Rovira, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  5. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Costa Gonzaga Saraiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.

  6. Forgetting in immediate serial recall: decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively. The models were fit to 2 experiments investigating the effect of filled delays between items at encoding or at recall. Short delays between items, filled with articulatory suppression, led to massive impairment of memory relative to a no-delay baseline. Extending the delays had little additional effect, suggesting that the passage of time alone does not cause forgetting. Adding a choice reaction task in the delay periods to block attention-based rehearsal did not change these results. The interference-based SOB fit the data best; the primacy model overpredicted the effect of lengthening delays, and SIMPLE was unable to explain the effect of delays at encoding. The authors conclude that purely temporal views of forgetting are inadequate. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  8. Serial sectioning methods for 3D investigations in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankel, Armin; Wagner, Julian; Poelt, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A variety of methods for the investigation and 3D representation of the inner structure of materials has been developed. In this paper, techniques based on slice and view using scanning microscopy for imaging are presented and compared. Three different methods of serial sectioning combined with either scanning electron or scanning ion microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM) were placed under scrutiny: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, which facilitates an ultramicrotome built into the chamber of a variable pressure scanning electron microscope; three-dimensional (3D) AFM, which combines an (cryo-) ultramicrotome with an atomic force microscope, and 3D FIB, which delivers results by slicing with a focused ion beam. These three methods complement one another in many respects, e.g., in the type of materials that can be investigated, the resolution that can be obtained and the information that can be extracted from 3D reconstructions. A detailed review is given about preparation, the slice and view process itself, and the limitations of the methods and possible artifacts. Applications for each technique are also provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Working memory capacity and controlled serial memory search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mızrak, Eda; Öztekin, Ilke

    2016-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and the dynamics of temporal order memory retrieval. High- and low-span participants (HSs, LSs) studied sequentially presented five-item lists, followed by two probes from the study list. Participants indicated the more recent probe. Overall, accuracy was higher for HSs compared to LSs. Crucially, in contrast to previous investigations that observed no impact of WMC on speed of access to item information in memory (e.g., Öztekin & McElree, 2010), recovery of temporal order memory was slower for LSs. While accessing an item's representation in memory can be direct, recovery of relational information such as temporal order information requires a more controlled serial memory search. Collectively, these data indicate that WMC effects are particularly prominent during high demands of cognitive control, such as serial search operations necessary to access temporal order information from memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved Software to Browse the Serial Medical Images for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koojoo; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong Seok; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-07-01

    The thousands of serial images used for medical pedagogy cannot be included in a printed book; they also cannot be efficiently handled by ordinary image viewer software. The purpose of this study was to provide browsing software to grasp serial medical images efficiently. The primary function of the newly programmed software was to select images using 3 types of interfaces: buttons or a horizontal scroll bar, a vertical scroll bar, and a checkbox. The secondary function was to show the names of the structures that had been outlined on the images. To confirm the functions of the software, 3 different types of image data of cadavers (sectioned and outlined images, volume models of the stomach, and photos of the dissected knees) were inputted. The browsing software was downloadable for free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) and available off-line. The data sets provided could be replaced by any developers for their educational achievements. We anticipate that the software will contribute to medical education by allowing users to browse a variety of images. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  11. Volume imaging NDE and serial sectioning of carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Issa; Schumacher, David; Sundar, Veeraraghavan; Donaldson, Steven; Creuz, Aline; Schneider, Rainer; Keller, Juergen; Browning, Charles; May, Daniel; Ras, Mohamad Abo; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials with very different mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The various forms of composite materials, due to their high material properties, are widely used as structural materials in the aviation, space, marine, automobile, and sports industries. However, some defects like voids, delamination, or inhomogeneous fiber distribution that form during the fabricating processes of composites can seriously affect the mechanical properties of the composite material. In this study, several imaging NDE techniques such as: thermography, high frequency eddy current, ultrasonic, x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, and high resolution x-ray CT were conducted to characterize the microstructure of carbon fiber composites. Then, a 3D analysis was implemented by the destructive technique of serial sectioning for the same sample tested by the NDE methods. To better analyze the results of this work and extract a clear volume image for all features and defects contained in the composite material, an intensive comparison was conducted among hundreds of 3D-NDE and multi serial sections' scan images showing the microstructure variation.

  12. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2018-03-01

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  13. In vivo serial sampling of epididymal sperm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Val, Gonzalo Moreno; Robledano, Patricia Muñoz

    2013-07-01

    This study was undertaken to refine the techniques of in vivo collection of sperm in the mouse. The principal objective was to offer a viable, safe and reliable method for serial collection of in vivo epididimary sperm through the direct puncture of the epididymis. Six C57Bl/6J males were subjected to the whole experiment. First we obtain a sperm sample of the right epididymis, and perform a vasectomy on the left side. This sample was used in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment while the males were individually housed for 10 days to let them recover from the surgery, and then their fertility was tested with natural matings until we obtained a litter of each one. After that, the animals were subjected another time to the same process (sampling, recover and natural mating). The results of these experiments were a fertilization average value of 56.7%, and that all the males had a litter in the first month after the natural matings. This study documented the feasibility of the epididimary puncture technique to in vivo serial sampling of sperm in the mouse.

  14. Serial Contradictions. The Italian Debate on Tv Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the academic debate on television seriality has become lively and often quite animated, in the US as well as in Italy. The traditional hierarchic relation between cinema and television is clearly represented by the form of the most recent tv drama, whose boundaries are more and more difficult to locate. The main questions at stake seem to be the so-called “cinematic television” (Mills, 2013; Jaramillo, 2013, the umbrella definition of “quality tv” (McCabe and Akass, 2007 and its relation with the broadest concept of “complex tv” (Mittell, 2009, 2015. The essay will take into consideration these oxymorons, which are deeply rooted in the Italian tv series debate, with the aim of considering both their risks and their opportunities. A great variety of texts are grouped under the “tv series” label, but they are very different as far as content, production values and audience reactions are concerned. The academic discourse, however, only recently has tried to identify the differences between longstanding mainstream shows (such as, for instance, Grey’s Anatomy or CSI and some more recent, and supposedly “cinematic” series like True Detective or Fargo. Together with the analysis of the oxymoric nature of recent television seriality, the essay will explore the need to historicising what is proving to be one of the most dense and fruitful domains of recent television studies.

  15. Forgiveness and Suicidal Behavior: Cynicism and Psychache as Serial Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Trever J; Webb, Jon R; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2018-02-17

    Research is burgeoning regarding the beneficial association of forgiveness with numerous health-related outcomes; however, its particular relationship to suicidal behavior has received relatively little attention. Both cynicism and psychache, or agonizing psychological pain, have displayed deleterious associations with suicidal behavior, but have rarely been incorporated into more comprehensive models of suicidal behavior. Consistent with the recent development of a theoretical model regarding the forgiveness-suicidal behavior association, the present study utilized an undergraduate sample of college students (N = 312) to test a mediation-based model of the cross-sectional association of forgiveness with suicidal behavior, as serially mediated by cynicism and psychache. Dispositional forgiveness of self and forgiveness of uncontrollable situations were each indirectly associated with less suicidal behavior via less psychache. Also, dispositional forgiveness of others was indirectly associated with less suicidal behavior via less cynicism and less psychache, in a serial fashion. The present results are consistent with the extent literature on the forgiveness-suicidal behavior association, cynicism, and psychache, and pending future studies, may be utilized to inform further treatment efforts for individuals at a high risk of attempting suicide.

  16. Evaluation of Esophageal Anastomotic Integrity With Serial Pleural Amylase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Helms, Gerald A; Mayfield, William R

    2018-01-01

    An anastomotic leak is the most devastating and potentially fatal complication after esophagectomy. Current detection methods can be inaccurate and place patients at risk of other complications. Analysis of pleural fluid for amylase may be more accurate and place patients at less of a risk for evaluating the integrity of an esophageal anastomosis. We retrospectively reviewed prospective data of 45 consecutive patients who underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy over an 18-month period and evaluated their anastomotic integrity with serial pleural amylase levels (PAL). There were 40 men (89%), and median age was 63 years (range, 35 to 79). Indication for esophagectomy was cancer in 38 patients (84%); 27 (71%) underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation. A barium swallow was performed in the first 25 patients at median postoperative day (POD) 5 (range, 5 to 10); the swallow was negative in 23 patients (93%). Serial PALs were obtained starting on POD 3 and stopped 1 day after toleration of clear liquids. The PALs in the no-leak patients were highest on POD 3 (median 42 IU/L; range, 20 to 102 IU/L) and decreased (median 15 IU/L; range, 8 to 34 IU/L) to the lowest levels 1 day after clear liquid toleration (p = 0.04). Two patients had a leak and had peak PALs of 227 IU/L and 630 IU/L, respectively; both leaks occurred on POD 4, 1 day before their scheduled swallow test. The last 20 patients underwent serial PALs only, without a planned swallow test or computed tomography scan for anastomotic integrity evaluation. One of these patients had a leak on POD 5 with a low PAL of 55 IU/L the day before the spike of more than 4,000 IU/L. Two of the leaks were treated with esophageal stent placement and intravenous antibiotics, and the remaining patient's leak resolved with intravenous antibiotics, no oral intake, and observation only. None of the leak patients required transthoracic esophageal repair or drainage of an empyema. There was 1 postoperative death (2%) secondary to aspiration

  17. Spatial accuracy of 3D reconstructed radioluminographs of serial tissue sections and resultant absorbed dose estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, I.A.; Flynn, A.A.; Pedley, R.B.; Green, A.J.; El-Emir, E.; Dearling, J.L.J.; Boxer, G.M.; Boden, R.; Begent, R.H.J. [Cancer Research UK Targeting and Imaging Group, Department of Oncology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-21

    Many agents using tumour-associated characteristics are deposited heterogeneously within tumour tissue. Consequently, tumour heterogeneity should be addressed when obtaining information on tumour biology or relating absorbed radiation dose to biological effect. We present a technique that enables radioluminographs of serial tumour sections to be reconstructed using automated computerized techniques, resulting in a three-dimensional map of the dose-rate distribution of a radiolabelled antibody. The purpose of this study is to assess the reconstruction accuracy. Furthermore, we estimate the potential error resulting from registration misalignment, for a range of beta-emitting radionuclides. We compare the actual dose-rate distribution with that obtained from the same activity distribution but with manually defined translational and rotational shifts. As expected, the error produced with the short-range {sup 14}C is much larger than that for the longer range {sup 90}Y; similarly values for the medium range {sup 131}I are between the two. Thus, the impact of registration inaccuracies is greater for short-range sources. (author)

  18. Serial-order short-term memory predicts vocabulary development: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or item information were administered to kindergarten children aged 4 and 5. At age 4, age 5, and from age 4 to age 5, serial-order STM capacities, but not item STM capacities, were specifically associated with vocabulary development. Moreover, the increase of serial-order STM capacity from age 4 to age 5 predicted the increase of vocabulary knowledge over the same time period. These results support a theoretical position that assumes an important role for serial-order STM capacities in vocabulary acquisition.

  19. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  20. Smart grid communication comparison: Distributed control middleware and serialization comparison for the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problems caused by intermittent renewable energy production, communication between Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and system operators is necessary. The communication middleware and serialization used for communication are essential to ensure delivery of the messages within...... communication middleware and serialization format/library, aided by the authors' earlier work, which investigates the performance and characteristics of communication middleware and serialization independently. Given the performance criteria of the paper, ZeroMQ, YAMI4, and ICE are the middleware that performs...

  1. The Organized/Disorganized Typology of Serial Murder: Myth or Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.; Alison, Laurence J.; Alison, Emily; Wentink, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    Despite weaknesses in the organized/disorganized classification of serial killers, it is drawn on for "offender profiles," theories of offending, and in murder trials. This dichotomy was therefore tested by the multidimensional scaling of the co-occurrence of 39 aspects of serial killings derived 100 murders committed by 100 U.S. serial killers. Results revealed no distinct subsets of offense characteristics reflecting the dichotomy. They showed a subset of organized features typical of most ...

  2. A comparison of serial order short-term memory effects across verbal and musical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Simon; Mengal, Pierre; Majerus, Steve

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the mechanisms involved in the short-term retention of serial order information may be shared across short-term memory (STM) domains such as verbal and visuospatial STM. Given the intrinsic sequential organization of musical material, the study of STM for musical information may be particularly informative about serial order retention processes and their domain-generality. The present experiment examined serial order STM for verbal and musical sequences in participants with no advanced musical expertise and experienced musicians. Serial order STM for verbal information was assessed via a serial order reconstruction task for digit sequences. In the musical domain, serial order STM was assessed using a novel melodic sequence reconstruction task maximizing the retention of tone order information. We observed that performance for the verbal and musical tasks was characterized by sequence length as well as primacy and recency effects. Serial order errors in both tasks were characterized by similar transposition gradients and ratios of fill-in:infill errors. These effects were observed for both participant groups, although the transposition gradients and ratios of fill-in:infill errors showed additional specificities for musician participants in the musical task. The data support domain-general serial order STM effects but also suggest the existence of additional domain-specific effects. Implications for models of serial order STM in verbal and musical domains are discussed.

  3. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  4. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  5. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  6. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  7. Serial ultrasonographic appearance of postpartum uterine involution in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A E; Concannon, P W

    1990-09-01

    Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were determined during the serial examinations of five beagle bitches. During postpartum Week 1, the uterine horns were tubular structures composed of multiple layers of various echogenicity and had multiple, discrete enlargements with hypoechoic centers at placental sites. Diameters ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 cm at placental site enlargements, and 0.5 to 1.4 cm between enlargements. Uterine involution appeared to be completed by 15 wk post partum. At 15 weeks the uterine horns of each dog were uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargements and had a reduced diameter of 0.3 to 0.6 cm. These ultrasonographic findings are similar to previously reported gross and light microscopic descriptions of canine uterine involution.

  8. The primacy model: a new model of immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M P; Norris, D

    1998-10-01

    A new model of immediate serial recall is presented: the primacy model. The primacy model stores order information by means of the assumption that the strength of activation of successive list items decreases across list position to form a primacy gradient. Ordered recall is supported by a repeated cycle of operations involving a noisy choice of the most active item followed by suppression of the chosen item. Word-length and list-length effects are attributed to a decay process that occurs both during input, when effective rehearsal is prevented, and during output. The phonological similarity effect is attributed to a second stage of processing at which phonological confusions occur. The primacy model produces accurate simulations of the effects of word length, list length, and phonological similarity.

  9. Analysis of XFEL serial diffraction data from individual crystalline fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wojtas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serial diffraction data collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source from crystalline amyloid fibrils delivered in a liquid jet show that the fibrils are well oriented in the jet. At low fibril concentrations, diffraction patterns are recorded from single fibrils; these patterns are weak and contain only a few reflections. Methods are developed for determining the orientation of patterns in reciprocal space and merging them in three dimensions. This allows the individual structure amplitudes to be calculated, thus overcoming the limitations of orientation and cylindrical averaging in conventional fibre diffraction analysis. The advantages of this technique should allow structural studies of fibrous systems in biology that are inaccessible using existing techniques.

  10. Modelling and Forecasting Stock Price Movements with Serially Dependent Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Yatigammana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction of price movements are analysed under an ordered probit framework, recognising the importance of accounting for discreteness in price changes. By extending the work of Hausman et al. (1972 and Yang and Parwada (2012,This paper focuses on improving the forecast performance of the model while infusing a more practical perspective by enhancing flexibility. This is achieved by extending the existing framework to generate short term multi period ahead forecasts for better decision making, whilst considering the serial dependence structure. This approach enhances the flexibility and adaptability of the model to future price changes, particularly targeting risk minimisation. Empirical evidence is provided, based on seven stocks listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX. The prediction success varies between 78 and 91 per cent for in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts for both the short term and long term.

  11. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  12. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  13. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  14. New method for designing serial resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    In current work is presented one comprehensive method for design of serial resonant energy converters. The method is based on new simplified approach in analysis of such kind power electronic devices. It is grounded on supposing resonant mode of operation when finding relation between input and output voltage regardless of other operational modes (when controlling frequency is below or above resonant frequency). This approach is named `quasiresonant method of analysis', because it is based on assuming that all operational modes are `sort of' resonant modes. An estimation of error was made because of the a.m. hypothesis and is compared to the classic analysis. The `quasiresonant method' of analysis gains two main advantages: speed and easiness in designing of presented power circuits. Hence it is very useful in practice and in teaching Power Electronics. Its applicability is proven with mathematic modelling and computer simulation.

  15. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cinema 4D Dalam Pipeline Produksi Serial Animasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyansah Ardiyansah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinema 4D is best known as software that is efficient in render time. This is very beneficial especially for those who engaged in animated projects with tight deadlines and require work time efficiency, such as serial project. In addition to time, in the animated series production pipeline also generally require various items of work that involves a lot of resources implemented in parallel. This is to avoid delays to the overall project progress whenever a work item suffers setback due to any reason. Cinema 4D as a tool, allowing a project carried out with the most efficient method in accordance with needs, and flexibility that is the appeal of Cinema 4D as well as strength in the context of the animated series production. 

  18. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskas, N.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Ioannidis, I.; Charitandi, A.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Radiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-05-01

    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be ''cortical laminar necrosis'', without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1 - 2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1 - 2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. (orig.)

  19. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  20. Serial cultivation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the serial cultivation of adult human hair follicle keratinocytes. Plucked scalp hair follicles, placed on bovine eye lens capsules as a growth substrate, give rise to quickly expanding colonies within a few days. After trypsinization, the cells are replated with irradiated 3T3 cells as 'feeders'. Using this combination of techniques the keratinocytes can be subcultured up to four times. In this way about 10(7) keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. Moreover, the technique enables cryogenic storage of the cells, allowing for instance, convenient transportation. Subcultured hair follicle keratinocytes can be plated on glass coverslips. This allows immunofluorescence studies. The keratin cytoskeletons visualized using an antiserum against human keratin.

  1. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimica, Velasco; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction

  2. Serialization and persistent objects turning data structures into efficient databases

    CERN Document Server

    Soukup, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the pressure for fast processing and efficient storage of large data with complex?relations increased beyond the capability of traditional databases. Typical examples include iPhone applications, computer aided design - both electrical and mechanical, biochemistry applications, and incremental compilers. Serialization, which is sometimes used in such situations is notoriously tedious and error prone.In this book, Jiri Soukup and Petr Macha?ek show in detail how to write programs which store their internal data automatically and transparently to disk. Together with special data structure libraries which treat relations among objects as first-class entities, and with a UML class-diagram generator, the core application code is much simplified. The benchmark chapter shows a typical example where persistent data is faster by the order of magnitude than with a traditional database, in both traversing and accessing the data.The authors explore and exploit advanced features of object-oriented languages in a...

  3. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  4. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Thongpibul, Kulvadee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders. An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36), the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed. Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive function were found to significantly mediate the relationship between depression and pain, while controlling for demographic variables. The total effect of depression on pain was significant. This model, with an additional three mediators, accounted for 15% of the explained variance in pain compared to 9% without mediators. For the alternative model, after controlling for the mediators, a nonsignificant total direct effect level of self-sacrificing was found, suggesting that the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was based only on an indirect effect and that perceived stress was found to be the strongest mediator. Serial mediation may help us to see how depression and pain are linked and what the fundamental mediators are in the chain. No significant, indirect effect of self-sacrificing on pain was observed, if perceived stress was not part of the depression and/or cognitive function mediational chain. The results shown here have implications for future research, both in terms of testing the model and in

  5. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  6. Statistical guidelines for detecting past population shifts using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Populations carry a genetic signal of their demographic past, providing an opportunity for investigating the processes that shaped their evolution. Our ability to infer population histories can be enhanced by including ancient DNA data. Using serial-coalescent simulations and a range of both...... quantitative and temporal sampling schemes, we test the power of ancient mitochondrial sequences and nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to detect past population bottlenecks. Within our simulated framework, mitochondrial sequences have only limited power to detect subtle bottlenecks and/or fast...... results provide useful guidelines for scaling sampling schemes and for optimizing our ability to infer past population dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that many ancient DNA studies may face power issues in detecting moderate demographic collapses and/or highly dynamic demographic shifts when...

  7. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  8. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  9. P3 amplitude attenuation secondary to increases in target-to-target interval (TTI) during spatial serial order recall: Implications for EEG models of working memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberger, William C; Axelrod, Jenna L; Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A; Hill, S Kristian

    2018-06-08

    Research suggests that increasing delays in stimulus read-out can trigger declines in serial order recall accuracy due to increases in cognitive demand imposed by the delay; however, the exact neural mechanisms associated with this decline are unclear. Changes in neural resource allocation present as the ideal target and can easily be monitored by examining changes in the amplitude of an ERP component known as the P3. Changes in P3 amplitude secondary to exogenous pacing of stimulus read-out via increased target-to-target intervals (TTI) during recall could reflect decreased neural resource allocation due to increased cognitive demand. This shift in resource allocation could result in working memory storage decay and the declines in serial order accuracy described by prior research. In order to examine this potential effect, participants were administered a spatial serial order processing task, with the recall series consisting of a series of correct ("match") or incorrect ("non-match" or "oddball") stimuli. Moreover, the recall series included either a brief (500ms) or extended (2000ms) delay between stimuli. Results were significant for the presence of a P3 response to non-match stimuli for both experimental conditions, and attenuation of P3 amplitude secondary to the increase in target-to-target interval (TTI). These findings suggest that extending the delay between target recognition could increase cognitive demand and trigger a decrease in neural resource allocation that results in a decay of working memory stores.

  10. A novel image toggle tool for comparison of serial mammograms: automatic density normalization and alignment-development of the tool and initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Wataru; Saida, Yukihisa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose is to develop a new image toggle tool with automatic density normalization (ADN) and automatic alignment (AA) for comparing serial digital mammograms (DMGs). We developed an ADN and AA process to compare the images of serial DMGs. In image density normalization, a linear interpolation was applied by taking two points of high- and low-brightness areas. The alignment was calculated by determining the point of the greatest correlation while shifting the alignment between the current and prior images. These processes were performed on a PC with a 3.20-GHz Xeon processor and 8 GB of main memory. We selected 12 suspected breast cancer patients who had undergone screening DMGs in the past. Automatic processing was retrospectively performed on these images. Two radiologists subjectively evaluated them. The process of the developed algorithm took approximately 1 s per image. In our preliminary experience, two images could not be aligned approximately. When they were aligned, image toggling allowed detection of differences between examinations easily. We developed a new tool to facilitate comparative reading of DMGs on a mammography viewing system. Using this tool for toggling comparisons might improve the interpretation efficiency of serial DMGs.

  11. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M., E-mail: andrericardopinheiro@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval; Guimarães, Leonam dos Santos, E-mail: leonam@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16{sup th} January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  12. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16 th January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  13. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  14. The effects of nidopallium caudolaterale inactivation on serial-order behaviour in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Melissa Jane; Clarkson, Andrew N; Gowing, Emma K; Scarf, Damian; Colombo, Mike

    2018-06-06

    Serial-order behaviour is the ability to complete a sequence of responses in a predetermined order to achieve a reward. In birds, serial-order behaviour is thought to be impaired by damage to the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In the current study, we examined the role of the NCL in serial-order behaviour by training pigeons on a 4-item serial-order task and a go/no-go discrimination task. Following training, pigeons were received infusions of 1μl of either tetrodotoxin (TTX) or saline. Saline infusions had no impact on serial-order behaviour whereas TTX infusions resulted in a significant decrease in performance. The serial-order impairments, however, were not the results of errors of any specific error at any specific list item. With respect to the go/no-go discrimination task, saline infusions also had no impact on performance whereas TTX infusions impaired pigeons' discrimination abilities. Given the impairments on the go/no-go discrimination task, which does not require processing of serial-order information, we tentatively conclude that damage to the NCL does not impair serial-order behaviour per se, but rather results in a more generalised impairment that may impact performance across a range of tasks.

  15. Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

  16. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  17. A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary institutions in Ogun State. ... Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science ... Serial resources are publications either in printed form or electronic format issued in successive parts usually having numerical or chronological designations and intended to be ...

  18. What's Your Money Worth? Materials Budgets and the Selection and Evaluation of Book and Serial Vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses budgets for library materials and how to select and evaluate book and serial vendors. Trends in automation, publishing, and economics that affect both libraries and vendors are discussed; and examples from the University of California at Berkeley that include serials service charges and approval plan discounts are presented. (six…

  19. 3D Topography of the Young Adult Anal Sphincter Complex Reconstructed from Undeformed Serial Anatomical Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yi; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Hagoort, Jaco; Shan, Jin-Lu; Tan, Li-Wen; Fang, Bin-Ji; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic-floor anatomy is usually studied by artifact-prone dissection or imaging, which requires prior anatomical knowledge. We used the serial-section approach to settle contentious issues and an interactive 3D-pdf to make the results widely accessible. 3D reconstructions of undeformed thin serial

  20. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Boem; Moon, Haeng Jin

    2001-01-01

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients

  1. A high speed serializer ASIC for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The current front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. This upgrade calls for an optical link system of 100 Gbps per front-end board (FEB). A high speed, low power, radiation tolerant serializer is the critical component in this system. In this paper, we present the design and test results of a single channel 16:1 serializer and the design of a double-channel 16:1 serializer. Both designs are based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The single channel serializer consists of a serializing unit, a PLL clock generator and a line driver implemented in current mode logic (CML). The serializing unit multiplexes 16 bit parallel LVDS data into 1-bit width serial CMOS data. The serializing unit is composed of a cascade of 2:1 multiplexing circuits based on static D-flip-fl...

  2. Subject-Verb Agreement in Children and Adults: Serial or Hierarchical Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Isabelle; Chanquoy, Lucile; Fayol, Michel; Louis-Sidney, Maryse

    2005-01-01

    Two processes, serial and hierarchical, are generally opposed to account for grammatical encoding in language production. In a developmental perspective, the question addressed here is whether the subject-verb agreement during writing is computed serially, once the words are linearly ordered in the sentence, or hierarchically, as soon as the…

  3. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  4. Race as Seriality: A Response to David Benatar and Zimitri Erasmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I draw on the Sarte's notion of "seriality" as theorized in his book "Dialectic of Reason" and as interpreted by Iris Marion Young. I argue that seriality can be used to escape the false essentialism and identity politics of race as a category for admissions to universities. A series is a social collective whose members are unified…

  5. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS

  6. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a

  7. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a novel serial-parallel dynamic simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Lian Dong; Yu, Jingjing [Parallel Robot and Mechatronic System Laboratory of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei (China)

    2016-11-15

    A serial-parallel dynamics simulator based on serial-parallel manipulator is proposed. According to the dynamics simulator motion requirement, the proposed serial-parallel dynamics simulator formed by 3-RRS (active revolute joint-revolute joint-spherical joint) and 3-SPR (Spherical joint-active prismatic joint-revolute joint) PMs adopts the outer and inner layout. By integrating the kinematics, constraint and coupling information of the 3-RRS and 3-SPR PMs into the serial-parallel manipulator, the inverse Jacobian matrix, velocity, and acceleration of the serial-parallel dynamics simulator are studied. Based on the principle of virtual work and the kinematics model, the inverse dynamic model is established. Finally, the workspace of the (3-RRS)+(3-SPR) dynamics simulator is constructed.

  8. Changing Series: Narrative Models and the Role of the Viewer in Contemporary Television Seriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Innocenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years television serial narratives have gone through some severe changes in the way they are organized from a narrative point of view, as well as in the way they are perceived by the audiences. Our article originates from the necessity of investigating the products of this new wave of serial production, with the purpose of focusing on narrative formulas and on the relationships that serial products establish with their users. Vast serialized narratives are not just texts anymore, they have become complex universes of meaning that last for long time and that have a strong influence on the audiences. The article aims to investigate serial narratives as usable objects, that are not just seen by the public, but that are part of a complex experience.

  9. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a novel serial-parallel dynamic simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Lian Dong; Yu, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    A serial-parallel dynamics simulator based on serial-parallel manipulator is proposed. According to the dynamics simulator motion requirement, the proposed serial-parallel dynamics simulator formed by 3-RRS (active revolute joint-revolute joint-spherical joint) and 3-SPR (Spherical joint-active prismatic joint-revolute joint) PMs adopts the outer and inner layout. By integrating the kinematics, constraint and coupling information of the 3-RRS and 3-SPR PMs into the serial-parallel manipulator, the inverse Jacobian matrix, velocity, and acceleration of the serial-parallel dynamics simulator are studied. Based on the principle of virtual work and the kinematics model, the inverse dynamic model is established. Finally, the workspace of the (3-RRS)+(3-SPR) dynamics simulator is constructed

  10. Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.

  11. Testing Cross-Sectional Correlation in Large Panel Data Models with Serial Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badi H. Baltagi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of testing cross-sectional correlation in large panel data models with serially-correlated errors. It finds that existing tests for cross-sectional correlation encounter size distortions with serial correlation in the errors. To control the size, this paper proposes a modification of Pesaran’s Cross-sectional Dependence (CD test to account for serial correlation of an unknown form in the error term. We derive the limiting distribution of this test as N , T → ∞ . The test is distribution free and allows for unknown forms of serial correlation in the errors. Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size and power for large panels when serial correlation in the errors is present.

  12. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  13. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,2 Putipong Bookkamana,3 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Sirina Satthapisit,5 Daochompu Nakawiro,6 Thanita Hiranyatheb,6 Kulvadee Thongpibul7 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, Kingdom of Thailand; 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand; 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen Regional Hospital, Khon Kaen, Kingdom of Thailand; 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Kingdom of Thailand; 7Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand Purpose: Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders.Participants and methods: An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36, the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed.Results: Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive

  14. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  15. Serial MR Spectroscopy Reveals a Direct Metabolic Effect of Cediranib in Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heisoog; Catana, Ciprian; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Jennings, D.; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is increasingly used in clinical studies of brain tumor to provide information about tissue metabolic profiles. In this study, we evaluated changes in the levels of metabolites predominant in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM), to characterize the response of rGBM to anti-angiogenic therapy. We examined thirty-one rGBM patients treated with daily doses of cediranib, acquiring serial chemical shift imaging data at specific time points during the treatment regimen. We defined spectra from three regions of interest (ROIs)—enhancing tumor (ET), peritumoral tissue (PT), and normal tissue on the contralateral side (cNT)—in post-contrast T1-weighted images, and normalized the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) in each ROI to the concentration of creatine in cNT (norCre). We analyzed the ratios of these normalized metabolites (i.e., NAA/Cho, NAA/norCre, and Cho/norCre) by averaging all patients and categorizing two different survival groups. Relative to pre-treatment values, NAA/Cho in ET was unchanged through day 28. However, after day 28, NAA/Cho significantly increased in relation to a significant increase in NAA/norCre and a decrease in Cho/norCre; interestingly, the observed trend was reversed after day 56, consistent with the clinical course of GBM recurrence. Notably, ROC analysis indicated that NAA/Cho in tumor shows a high prediction to 6-month overall survival. These metabolic changes in these rGBM patients strongly suggest a direct metabolic effect of cediranib, and might also reflect an anti-tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment during the first two months of treatment. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21507932

  16. Serial ammonia measurement in patients poisoned with glufosinate ammonium herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J M; Chun, B J

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether ammonia concentrations can predict delayed neurotoxicity development and neurotoxicity latency in glufosinate ammonium (GLA) herbicide-poisoned patients presenting with an alert mental state and stable hemodynamics. This retrospective observational case study included 26 patients divided into 2 groups: neurotoxicity during hospitalization (complicated group) and without neurotoxicity (noncomplicated group). Thirteen patients (50.0%) experienced neurotoxicity at 16 h post-ingestion. Although ammonia concentrations at presentation did not differ significantly between the two groups, the ammonia level in the complicated group increased significantly at the next measurement and remained significantly higher than that in the noncomplicated group until 48 h after ingestion. The peak ammonia concentration before neurotoxicity development was an independent predictor of neurotoxicity (odds ratio: 1.047, 95% confidence interval: 1.010-1.087, p value = 0.014), and the optimal cutoff value of peak ammonia concentration for predicting neurotoxicity was 101.5 μg/dL. The rate of ammonia increase was not associated with the time latency from ingestion to neurotoxicity development. This study showed that serial ammonia measurements in GLA-poisoned patients may identify those who are at high risk of developing neurotoxicity. However, as this study enrolled few patients, further qualified trials are required to confirm our results and to reveal the etiology of hyperammonemia and its causality in neurotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Phonological and semantic strategies in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Guillermo; Baddeley, Alan

    2008-05-01

    It has been suggested that certain theoretically important anomalous results in the area of verbal short-term memory could be attributable to differences in strategy. However there are relatively few studies that investigate strategy directly. We describe four experiments, each involving the immediate serial recall of word sequences under baseline control conditions, or preceded by instruction to use a phonological or semantic strategy. Two experiments varied phonological similarity at a presentation rate of one item every 1 or 2 seconds. Both the control and the phonologically instructed group showed clear effects of similarity at both presentation rates, whereas these were largely absent under semantic encoding conditions. Two further experiments manipulated word length at the same two rates. The phonologically instructed groups showed clear effects at both rates, the control group showed a clear effect at the rapid rate which diminished with the slower presentation, while the semantically instructed group showed a relatively weak effect at the rate of one item per second, and a significant reverse effect with slower presentation. The latter finding is interpreted in terms of fortuitous differences in inter-item rated associability between the two otherwise matched word pools, reinforcing our conclusion that the semantically instructed group were indeed encoding semantically. Implications for controlling strategy by instruction are discussed.

  18. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  19. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Loefstedt, B.; Zurfluh, E.

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

  20. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  1. Serial exercise gated radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG) in monitoring doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Lahoda, J.; Fox, L.

    1985-01-01

    The resting RVG (Radionuclide Ventriculograms) are demonstrated to be an effective monitor of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The exercise RVG has not been as well studied to see if it yields additional information or detects toxicity effects earlier. Sixteen patients receiving doxorubicin for chemotherapy had 2-6 serial exercise studies with intervals between studies of 1 month to 15 months. The patients exercised varying amounts with cardiac work indicated by their double products (HR x Sys. BP). Although all patients started with a normal resting LVEF (>50%), 5 of the 16 did not have a normal response (≥5% increase in LVEF) with initial exercise study. Of the 11 patients with an initially normal response to exercise, on at least one subsequent study, 3 had an abnormal response to exercise. On a later follow up study 1 of these 3 patients again had a normal response to exercise. Six of these 11 patients had had RVG evidence of cardiotoxicity. Four of these 6 patients had continually normal exercise responses, while 2 of these 5 patients had had an abnormal exercise response. An initial exercise RVG may be reasonable to detect unsuspected CAD in cancer victims. These patients are reported to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Follow up exercise RVGs do not contribute useful information, do not predict cardiotoxicity, and may be misleading

  2. Prophetic Visions, Quality Serials: Twin Peaks’ new mode of storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail L. Skoptsov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the April 1990 debut of Twin Peaks on ABC, the vision - a sequence of images that relates information of the narrative future or past – has become a staple of numerous network, basic cable and premium cable serials, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer (WB, Battlestar Galactica (SyFy and Game of Thrones (HBO. This paper argues that Peaks in effect had introduced a mode of storytelling called “visio-narrative,” which draws on ancient epic poetry by focusing on main characters that receive knowledge from enigmatic, god-like figures that control his world. Their visions disrupt linear storytelling, allowing a series to embrace the formal aspects of the medium and create the impression that its disparate episodes constitute a singular whole. This helps them qualify as ‘quality TV’, while disguising instances of authorial manipulation evident within the texts as products of divine internal causality.As a result, all narrative events, no matter how coincidental or inconsequential, become part of a grand design. Close examination of Twin Peaks and Carnivàle will demonstrate how the mode operates, why it is popular among modern storytellers and how it can elevate a show’s cultural status.

  3. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  4. Serial functional imaging poststroke reveals visual cortex reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodtmann, Amy; Puce, Aina; Darby, David; Donnan, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Visual cortical reorganization following injury remains poorly understood. The authors performed serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on patients with visual cortex infarction to evaluate early and late striate, ventral, and dorsal extrastriate cortical activation. Patients were studied with fMRI within 10 days and at 6 months. The authors used a high-level visual activation task designed to activate the ventral extrastriate cortex. These data were compared to those of age-appropriate healthy control participants. The results from 24 healthy control individuals (mean age 65.7 +/- SE 3.6 years, range 32-89) were compared to those from 5 stroke patients (mean age 73.8 +/- SE 7 years, range 49-86). Patients had infarcts involving the striate and ventral extrastriate cortex. Patient activation patterns were markedly different to controls. Bilateral striate and ventral extrastriate activation was reduced at both sessions, but dorsal extrastriate activated voxel counts remained comparable to controls. Conversely, mean percent magnetic resonance signal change increased in dorsal sites. These data provide strong evidence of bilateral poststroke functional depression of striate and ventral extrastriate cortices. Possible utilization or surrogacy of the dorsal visual system was demonstrated following stroke. This activity could provide a target for novel visual rehabilitation therapies.

  5. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 μ g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died. (author)

  6. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-02-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 ..mu.. g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died.

  7. Mediamorfosi del romanzo popolare: dal 'feuilleton' al serial TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Piga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1964, in Apocalittici e integrati Umberto Eco affermava che se l’errore degli apologeti della cultura di massa era di ritenere che la moltiplicazione dei prodotti dell’industria fosse di per sé buona, al contrario, “l’errore degli apocalittici-aristocratici” era di pensare che la cultura di massa fosse radicalmente cattiva proprio per la sua natura di “fatto industriale”, come se si potesse dare cultura al di fuori del condizionamento industriale. In una prospettiva che guarda all’evoluzione storica dei supporti mediali che accolgono e formano l’espressione dell’immaginazione, l’intento qui è di soffermarsi su un’analogia, da più parti riscontrata, tra le forme narrative del romanzo ottocentesco e alcune contemporanee serie televisive. Senza mirare a definire integralmente il rapporto tra le diverse sfere del letterario e del televisivo, lo scopo di questo contributo è  di riflettere sulle trasformazioni del romanzo popolare attraverso epoche e media, a partire dal romanzo ottocentesco Les Mystères de Paris (Eugène Sue e dal contemporaneo Serial TV Lost (J.J. Abrams, D. Lindelof, J. Lieber, C. Cuse.

  8. Serial analysis of gene expression in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Miao, Xuexia; Jin, Weirong; Couble, Pierre; Mita, Kasuei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenbin; Zhuang, Leijun; Shen, Yan; Keime, Celine; Gandrillon, Olivier; Brouilly, Patrick; Briolay, Jerome; Zhao, Guoping; Huang, Yongping

    2005-08-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the most economically important insects and serves as a model for Lepidoptera insects. We used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to derive profiles of expressed genes during the developmental life cycle of the silkworm and to create a reference for understanding silkworm metamorphosis. We generated four SAGE libraries, one from each of the four developmental stages of the silkworm. In total we obtained 257,964 SAGE tags, of which 39,485 were unique tags. Sorted by copy number, 14.1% of the unique tags were detected at a median to high level (five or more copies), 24.2% at lower levels (two to four copies), and 61.7% as single copies. Using a basic local alignment search tool on the EST database, 35% of the tags matched known silkworm expressed sequence tags. SAGE demonstrated that a number of the genes were up- or down-regulated during the four developmental phases of the egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Furthermore, we found that the generation of longer cDNA fragments from SAGE tags constituted the most efficient method of gene identification, which facilitated the analysis of a large number of unknown genes.

  9. A reappraisal of serial isotope bone scans in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donoghue, J M; Rogers, E; Grimes, H; McCarthy, P; Corcoran, M; Bredin, H; Given, H F [University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

    1993-08-01

    The authors have evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) as alternatives to conventional serial bone scanning in 129 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer over a period of 3 years. Although serum PSA did not reflect local tumour burden at presentation, it was significantly elevated in those with stage D disease (p < 0.01). 45 patients presented de novo with metastatic bone deposits and a further 18 patients developed metastases during the study. The sensitivity of PSA in detecting secondary deposits at presentation for levels in excess of 100 [mu]g/l was 93.75%, the positive predictive value 95.7% and the negative predictive value for levels less than 5 [mu]g/l was 90.6%. During the follow-up period sensitivity was 94.4%, the positive predictive value 100%, the negative predictive value 100%, with a median lead time of 3 months in predicting metastases in the 18 patients with progressive disease. (author).

  10. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsie E. Conrad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  11. Serial Myocardial Imaging after a Single Dose of Thallium-201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Kamata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy has been established for the detection of myocardial ischemia and viability, little is known regarding the myocardial thallium-201 kinetics during angioplasty. Herein, we report a 77-year old man with angina pectoris, in whom serial myocardial imaging after a single dose of thallium-201 was helpful in identifying not only the culprit lesion and myocardial viability, but also the dynamic changes in myocardial perfusion during angioplasty. Thallium-201 images after exercise showed a perfusion defect in the inferior wall, with a trivial redistribution 3 hours after the exercise and a marked improvement 24 hours later. Coronary angiography, performed 27 hours after exercise scintigraphy, showed severe stenosis in the right coronary artery. Guidewire crossing of the lesion interrupted the antegrade flow, which was restored after balloon dilation and stent implantation. Thallium-201 images, 2 hours after angioplasty (i.e., 30 hours after exercise, showed a decreased tracer uptake in the inferior wall, which improved the next day (i.e., 48 hours after exercise. Cardiac biomarkers were negative in the clinical course.

  12. Porting of a serial molecular dynamics code on MIMD platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, M. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). HPCN Project

    1999-07-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) code, utilized for the study of atomistic models of metallic systems has been parallelized for MIMD (multiple instructions multiple data) parallel platforms by means of the parallel virtual machine (PVM) message passing library. Since the parallelization implies modifications of the sequential algorithms, these are described from the point of view of the statistical mechanical theory. Furthermore, techniques and parallelization strategies utilized and the MD parallel code are described in detail. Benchmarks on several MIMD platforms (IBM SP1, SP2, Cray T3D, cluster of workstations) allow performances evaluation of the code versus the different characteristics of the parallel platforms. [Italian] Un codice seriale di dinamica molecolare (MD) utilizzato per lo studio di modelli atomici di materiali metallici e' stato parallelizzato per piattaforme parallele MIMD (multiple instructions multiple data) utilizzando librerie del parallel virtual machine (PVM). Poiche' l'operazione di parallelizzazione ha implicato la modifica degli algoritmi seriali del codice, questi vengono descritti ripercorrendo i concetti fondamentali della meccanica statistica. Inoltre sono presentate le tecniche e le strategie di parallelizzazione utilizzate descrivendo in dettaglio il codice parallelo di MD: Risultati di benchmark su diverse piattaforme MIMD (IBM SP1, SP2, Cray T3D, cluster of workstations) permettono di analizzare le performances del codice in funzione delle differenti caratteristiche delle piattaforme parallele.

  13. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression: Applications in Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuteja Renu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE is a powerful tool, which provides quantitative and comprehensive expression profile of genes in a given cell population. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The frequency of each SAGE tag in the cloned multimers directly reflects the transcript abundance. Therefore, SAGE results in an accurate picture of gene expression at both the qualitative and the quantitative levels. It does not require a hybridization probe for each transcript and allows new genes to be discovered. This technique has been applied widely in human studies and various SAGE tags/SAGE libraries have been generated from different cells/tissues such as dendritic cells, lung fibroblast cells, oocytes, thyroid tissue, B-cell lymphoma, cultured keratinocytes, muscles, brain tissues, sciatic nerve, cultured Schwann cells, cord blood-derived mast cells, retina, macula, retinal pigment epithelial cells, skin cells, and so forth. In this review we present the updated information on the applications of SAGE technology mainly to human studies.

  14. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  15. Realisation of serial powering of ATLAS pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, P; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, Ivan; Runólfsson, Ogmundur; Wermes, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    Modern hybrid pixel detectors as they will be used for the next generation of high energy collider experiments like LHC avail deep sub micron technology for the readout electronics. To operate chips in this technology low supply voltages of 2.0 V to 2.5 V and high currents to achieve the desired performance are needed. Due to the long and low mass supply cables this high current leads to a significant voltage drop so that voltage fluctuations at the chip result, when the supply current changes. Therefore the parallel connection of the readout electronics with the power supplies imposes severe constraints on a detector with respect to voltage fluctuations and cable mass. To bypass this problem a new concept of serially connecting modules in a supply chain was developed. The basic idea of the concept, the potential risk and ways to minimize these risks are presented. In addition, studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for a possible upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In p...

  16. Misinterpreting growth and treatment outcome from serial cephalographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, J; Baumrind, S; Efstratiadis, S S

    1998-11-01

    This communication addresses the issue of interpretation of serial cephalometric records. Angular measurements provide information that combines the vertical and sagittal components of a landmark's displacement. For example, a decrease in the SNA angle following orthodontic treatment with a headgear demonstrates maxillary retraction relative to nasion, an important assessment to depict a change closely related to the facial profile. Upon superimposition on the anterior cranial base, however, the vertical movement of point A may be the prevalent displacement, which would still account for the decrease in the SNA angle. The superposition allows the evaluation of the displacement in its vertical and sagittal components separately, relative to a structure that is relatively more stable than nasion. The superimposition enhanced the precision of the information regarding the actual displacement of the jaw. A patient's cephalometric records are presented, further demonstrating that the interpretation of changes during growth and treatment should be based not only on angular measurements, but also on regional superpositions. The frames of reference of both procedures are needed to fully understand the facial changes.

  17. Inequalities for scattering phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    A recently developed method, which was used to derive bounds on energy levels, is applied to continuous spectra and gives relations between scattering phase shifts of various angular momenta. (Author)

  18. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  19. Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2014-03-01

    From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domains and interpret them with reference to the principles of serial order and ancillary assumptions instantiated in contemporary computational theories of memory for serial order. We propose that functional similarities across domains buttress the notion that verbal, visual, and spatial sequences are planned and controlled by a competitive queuing (CQ) mechanism in which items are simultaneously active in parallel and the strongest item is chosen for output. Within the verbal short-term memory CQ system, evidence suggests that serial order is represented via a primacy gradient, position marking, response suppression, and cumulative matching. Evidence further indicates that output interference operates during recall and that item similarity effects manifest during both serial order encoding and retrieval. By contrast, the principles underlying the representation of serial order in the visual and spatial CQ systems are unclear, largely because the relevant studies have yet to be performed. In the spatial domain, there is some evidence for a primacy gradient and position marking, whereas in the visual domain there is no direct evidence for either of the principles of serial order. We conclude by proposing some directions for future research designed to bridge this and other theoretical gaps in the literature.

  20. Natural born killers?: the development of the sexually sadistic serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B R; Becker, J V

    1997-01-01

    Today's society seems enthralled with serial killers in the news and the media. Forensic psychiatrists often interview serial killers after they have been caught. There are retrospective studies and case reports of individuals who have committed sexually sadistic serial murders. However, there exists a dearth of case reports on adolescents who have expressed serious fantasies about becoming serial killer prior to actualizing their fantasy. This article presents nine clinical cases of 14- to 18-year-olds who have clinically significant fantasies of becoming a serial killer. Similarities exist in these adolescent cases when compared with retrospective studies and case reports of serial killers on the role of sexually sadistic fantasies and actual killings. Since it has been established that sexual paraphilias may develop at a young age, one can surmise that sadistic paraphilias may also develop in some adolescents. The question is posed, can we predict which of these adolescents may go on to actually become serial killers? This article focuses on how the sexually sadistic fantasy can eventually be acted out and possible motives for the act to be repeated multiple times. Finally, recommendations are made about assessing and treating a youngster who expresses violent sexually sadistic killing fantasies so that attempts can be made to interrupt the progression to actual killing.