Sulović, V; Pavlović, B
In the second half of the last century and under the influence of the European civilization, Serbia abandoned the conservative and patriarchal way of life and began to introduce a new, contemporary political, cultural and social spirit into the country. The development of these civilizing features was under the influence of young intelectuals who, as former scholarship holders of the Serbian government, were educated in many European countries. Among them, there was a group of physicians who returned to the country after having completed their education. They were carriers and holders of the contemporary medical science in Serbia and the neighbouring areas. On April 22, 1872 a group of 15 physicians founded the Serbian Medical Society with the intention to offer an organized medical help and care to the population. The first president was Dr. Aćim Medović and the first secretary Dr. Vladan Dordević. At the meeting held on May 15, 1872 the text of the Statute of the Society was accepted and immediately submitted for approval to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the letter addressed to the minister of internal affairs the following reasons were cited: "... The Belgrade physicians feeling a need for having the main office for their professional and scientific meetings, for which they will find the opportunity and the funds, and in spite of their hard medical labor which requires almost all their time, decided to establish the Serbian Medical Society because they wish to be in trend and follow-up the medical progress and exchange the latest medical information not only among them but also with other graduated doctors living in areas with the Serblan population as well as with all scientists who are willing to contribute to the development of medical science in Serbia...". In the first year of its existence the Serbian Medical Society had 9 regular members, 1 honorary member and 34 corresponding members from Serbia, Slavic and other foreign countries. On August 5
Despotović, Nebojsa; Milosević, Dragoslav P; Erceg, Predrag; Davidović, Mladen
Population aging is a feature of all countries in the world. According to statistics, the Republic of Serbia is one of the countries with the majority of the elderly. Taking this into account, are articles on the elderly well represented in domestic medical journals? The aim of the paper was to determine whether there was a sufficient number of articles on the elderly in domestic medical journals. The articles on the elderly were searched using search engines in domestic and foreign medical journals for the last 5 years compared with the number of articles on children in the same publications for the same period. In the Serbian Citation Index, 11 articles on the topic of the elderly, and 487 on children were registered. In Srpski arhivza celokupno lekarstvo, there was registered only one article on the topic of the elderly, and 30 on children. In Vojnosanitetskipregled, 2 articles on the elderly and 13 on children were registered (p articles on the elderly and 759 articles on children; in the JAMA, there were 63 articles on the elderly and 303 articles on children; and in The Lancet, in the last five years, 46 articles on the elderly and 148 articles on children were published. The themes of the elderly were rarely represented in Serbian medical journals.This has reduced the interest of physicians in medical problems of this growing population of patients and further sent them away from making standards in the diagnosis and treatment of the elderly.
Sulović, V; Pavlović, B
Serbian Medical Society was founded on April 22, 1872. Foundation initiators were physicians of the following nationalities: 5 Serbs, 3 Czechs, 2 Poles, 3 Germans, 1 Slovak and 1 Greek. Josip Pancić was one of its founders as well, and the first president of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Dr. Aćim Medović was elected its first President at the Inaugural Assembly, and Dr. Vladan Dordević its Secretary. Later, on October 17, 1874 Constitution of the Serbian Medical Society was passed and its was acknowledged by the Serbian Interior Minister. The first professional meeting was held on August 5, 1872, when they started the first medical journal named "Serbian Archives for All Physicians" ("Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo") that is being published regularly even today. At the proposal of SLD a Law on Medical Protection was passed (1881). This Law was translated into two European languages, German and French, and sent to be reconsidered by 400 towns throughout Europe. This Law included, beside the other things, the following: "...penny intended for health cannot be spent either by King, or by the Government or by any political party because it is intended for the health, tratement of the sick and doctors' salaries..." The first Congress of the Serbian physicians and scientists devoted to natural sciences was held in Belgrade from 5th to 7th of September, 1904, and it gahtered about 433 participants, among which over hundred were from abroad. In 1907 SLD organized in Belgrade "The First Scientific Conference of Yugoslav Doctors for Operating Surgery". Red Cross in Serbia was founded upon the initiative of SLD. The first initiative to establish the School of Medicine in Belgrade was given by SLD as well. Members of SLD proved their loyalty and devotion to their people, democracy and liberty during liberation wars in XIX and XX century by putting themselves in service of the sich and wrecked. Today, SLD realizes its professional activity through the work
Vujcic, Isidora; Pavlovic, Aleksandar; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra
Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Overall, 63.4% students supported medical cannabis legalization, and only 20.8% supported its legalization for recreational use. Students who previously used marijuana (p medical cannabis legalization compared with students who never used them. Support for marijuana recreational use was also related to prior marijuana (p cancer (90.4%) and chronic pain (74.2%) were correctly reported approved medical indications by more than half the students. Students who supported medical cannabis legalization showed better knowledge about indications, in contrast to opponents for legalization who showed better knowledge about side effects. Beliefs that using medical cannabis is safe and has health benefits were correlated with support for legalization, and previous marijuana and alcohol use, while beliefs that medical cannabis poses health risks correlated most strongly with previous marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance: The medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization were significantly correlated with previous use of marijuana and alcohol, knowledge about medical indications and side effects, and their beliefs regarding medical cannabis health benefits and risks.
The Serbian medical association was founded in Belgrade 125 years ago. At that time, Serbia was liberated from the Ottoman domination, and was one of some thirty existing independent states gaining international recognition in 1878. The physicians of the Serbian medical association have shared the fate of their people over the past 125 years. This is best illustrated by the fact that Serbia lost more than 1,000,000 people in World War I and that every third doctor in Serbia lost his life serving his people during the war. This was the highest expression of philanthropy, unsurpassed in the history of mankind. The period of time after the war, was the time of renewal and commemoration. In that time John Maynard Keynes, one of the most outstanding figures in the field of world economics, was on the Peace Conference in Paris, after the World War I, in charge of estimating war damages and the degree of destruction in the Allied countries, but without considering their losses in "human capital"-- the only exception he made for Serbia. In his book "The Economic Consequences of the Peace (published in 1920) he wrote: "The losses of Serbia, although from a human point of view her sufferings were the greatest of all, are not measured pecuniarily by great figures, on account of her low economic development." He quoted some extraordinary figures of the loss of life--"at above 1,000,000, or more than one-third of the population of Old Serbia." In the end he concludes: "Of all the Allies, Serbian sufferings and losses were proportionately the greatest, and after Serbian, the French. In these times, also, according to professor Hichmann (Geographical Statistical Atlas 1920) "it was found, when the nations counted their losses after the war, that Serb casualties amounted to 23% of her population as compared with 3.7% for Great Britain, 8.5% for France and 9.3% for Germany. No small nation can suffer a loss such as Serbia, drawn moreover entirely from its able-bodied manhood
The Serbian Medical Society was founded in Belgrade in 1872, 126 years ago. At that time, Serbia was liberated from the Ottoman domination, and was one of some thirty existing independent states gaining international recognition in 1878. In 1932 an old dream has been fulfilled--on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the existence and activity of the Serbian Medical Society--the home of Serbian Medical Society was opened. A 30-year-long period in which the building of the Home was one of the main preoccupations and a "guiding light" of Serbian doctors thus ended. Money from charitable funds was used, which caused certain benefactors to be praised as noted personalities. Medical practice in those days was in the state of choice. There were no means for adequate treatment of certain ailments, and therapy without realistic scientific base was given, often covered by fictitious reasons. This was especially true for tuberculosis and cancer. Under the pretext of the introduction of "new therapeutical approaches" into medical practice and treatment, diverse pharmaceutical formulas were introduced without knowledge of their real effect--injections of milk, drug containing animal embrional cells and special attention was paid to transplantation of the sexual glands. The injection of "camphor oil" (5 cc) was thus "recommended, harmless but useless". The treatment of tuberculosis, which domineered the pathology of population, was very chaotic. The greatest number of drugs for "successful cure" were to be found here. Most commotion was caused by the so-called Friedman's cure for tuberculosis which was rejected only after vigorous debates. Our drug "Joannin" on the basis of "the old tuberculine" was also represented in this confusion (and Koch himself was forced to recant it). This medicament was also hailed as "successful cure". The origin of serious scientific efforts, however, are to be found around newly formed journal "Medicinski pregled", which attracted new and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students' attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context. METHODS: The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency. RESULTS: Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8, and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort. Values for fit indices TLI (0.940 and CFI (0.961 were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051-0.078 was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach's alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender. CONCLUSION: Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students' attitudes towards statistics in the
Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Trajkovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Bukumiric, Zoran; Cirkovic, Andja; Milic, Natasa
Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students' attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS) in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context. The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency. Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8), and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort). Values for fit indices TLI (0.940) and CFI (0.961) were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051-0.078) was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach's alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender. Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students' attitudes towards statistics in the Serbian educational context.
Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among men worldwide. Despite its high incidence rate, the molecular basis of PCa onset and its progression remains little understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have greatly contributed to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with PCa risk. Several GWAS identified 8q24 as one of the most significant PCa-associated regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of SNP rs378854 at 8q24 with PCa risk in the Serbian population. The study population included 261 individuals diagnosed with PCa, 257 individuals diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and 106 healthy controls. Data quality analysis yielded results showing deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in groups of PCa patients and BPH patients as well as in the control group. There was no significant association between alleles and genotypes of the genetic variant rs378854 and PCa risk in the Serbian population. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173016
Gortan-Premk Darinka S.
Full Text Available There are three urgent tasks before the Serbian lexicographers: the vertical and horizontal defining of the contemporary Serbian language, the formation of the Serbian language corpus and the compilation of the standard descriptive dictionary: the first two tasks should be done by the Serbian linguists and by those dealing with corpora, whereas the third should be trusted to the Serbian lexicographers, both the present and the future ones. The Serbian lexicographers, the members of the Belgrade school of lexicography, who have compiled 20 volumes of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences Dictionary, six-volume Matica Srpska Dictionary, and single-volume Matica Srpska Dictionary, and outstanding Belgrade lexicologists will doubtless create a modern and reliable conception of such a dictionary, make precise working instructions based on contemporary linguistic and lexicological knowledge if the project is supported by the government. Hopefully, this extremely significant national undertaking will be completed in a few years.
On Tuesday 10 January, Serbian President Boris Tadić visited the Laboratory to sign the Agreement of granting the status of Associate Membership as the pre-stage to full Membership of CERN. Before the signing ceremony, the President, welcomed by Director-General Rolf Heuer at CERN’s Point 5, took the opportunity to visit CERN. After a general introduction, the President took advantage of the shutdown to visit the LHC’s underground caverns. Leading the President through their respective experiments were spokespersons Fabiola Gianotti (ATLAS) and Joe Incandela (CMS). After a morning of tours, President Tadić and Rolf Heuer signed the Agreement. Serbia’s status as an Associate Member as pre-stage to full Membership is expected to come into force following ratification by the Serbian Parliament. After a maximum period of five years, the CERN Council will decide on the admission of Serbia to full Membership. This new agreement continues Serbia&a...
Joković Danilo B.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.
Full Text Available A sustainable financial system relies on two pillars: the functional and healthy financial institutions, as well as the financially competent customers-investors-entrepreneurs. The responsibility for the implementation of training programs and preparation for the well-informed choice does not lie only with the natural persons and legal entities. This is a shared responsibility of different stakeholders: individuals, families, small and medium enterprises, public administration, the Ministry of Education, the financial services sector, employers and representatives of trade unions and consumer protection organizations as well as other civil society initiatives. A prime example of such an integrated approach towards the same goal is the European Platform for Financial Education, an initiative launched by the European Banking Federation, the European Banking Training Network and other institutions (professional associations, in February 2017 in Brussels as an incentive for the national level efforts in implementing the respective financial literacy programs. In this paper we analyzed the importance and role of the European Platform for Financial Education in the case of the Serbian banking sector through the activities of the Association of Serbian Banks. These activities will be implemented by the Association of Banks of Serbia continuously throughout the year, and after the celebration of the European Money Week on 27-31 March 2017.
Dragićević Rajna M.
Full Text Available At the turn of 21st century Serbian lexicology is under the influence of the Slavic (predominantly Russian and Anglo-Saxon semanticists. Different semantic theories are used in language analyses in Serbian papers. Since the 1970s componential analysis had been a leading theory, but as of the 1990s Serbian lexicology has come under the influence of cognitive linguistics. There are more and more interdisciplinary investigations where linguistics is interwoven with psychology, communicology, and sociology. Often, lexicology is interwoven with other linguistic disciplines, such as syntax, word formation, morphology, stylistics, etc. Recently, some semantic studies have been conducted from the pragmatic viewpoint. Depending on the object of the analysis and the theory chosen, different research methods are used, such as collocational, associative, and additionally, various types of syntactic and semantic approaches are taken. The focus of interest is semantics of words, and less frequent of morphemes or sentences. The future of Serbian lexicology lies in promoting an interdisciplinary approach, and its relation with other linguistic disciplines and other nonlinguistic sciences. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika
... Next Generation Data Sciences Challenges in Health and Biomedicine Fri November 3, 2017 The Medical Library Association ... Next Generation Data Science Challenges in Health and Biomedicine. MLA's comments and recommendations will help formulate strategic ...
Pajić, Sanja; Jurišić, Vladimir
The topic of this study are representations of lancet or phlebotome in frescoes and icons of Serbian medieval art. The very presence of this medical instrument in Serbian medieval art indicates its usage in Serbian medical practices of the time. Phlebotomy is one of the oldest forms of therapy, widely spread in medieval times. It is also mentioned in Serbian medical texts, such as Chilandar Medical CodexNo. 517 and Hodoch code, i.e. translations from Latin texts originating from Salerno-Montpellier school. Lancet or phlebotome is identified based on archaeological finds from the Roman period, while finds from the Middle Ages and especially from Byzantium have been scarce. Analyses of preserved frescoes and icons has shown that, in comparison to other medical instruments, lancet is indeed predominant in Serbian medieval art, and that it makes for over 80% of all the representations, while other instruments have been depicted to a far lesser degree. Examination of written records and art points to the conclusion that Serbian medieval medicine, both in theory and in practice, belonged entirely to European traditions of the period.
... the Payment Process Physician Payment Resource Center Reinventing Medical Practice Managing Your Practice CPT® (Current Procedural Terminology) Medicare & Medicaid Private Payer Reform Claims Processing & Practice ...
Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce
Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.
Full Text Available The panagiarion made out of rhinoceros horn from Vatopedi is one of the few vessels of that kind which originate from the Middle Ages. Its creation can be dated to the end of the 14th, or first half of the 15th century, at the time of very lively relations between this Athonite monastery and the Serbian despotate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu, registrovanom pod brojem
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanism of parallel debt in the Serbian financial law. While considering whether the mechanism of parallel debt exists under the Serbian law, the Anglo-Saxon mechanism of trust is represented. Hence it is explained why the mechanism of trust is not allowed under the Serbian law. Further on, the mechanism of parallel debt is introduced as well as a debate on permissibility of its cause in the Serbian law. Comparative legal arguments about this issue are also presented in this paper. In conclusion, the author suggests that on the basis of the conclusions drawn in this paper, the parallel debt mechanism is to be declared admissible if it is ever taken into consideration by the Serbian courts.
Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.
Obadović Mirjana M.
Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.
Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick
This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these Serbian epic folk poems contain many layers: historical, geographical, sociological, mythological and so on, with a strong foundation in traditional culture; thus, they provide an insight into geo-political situation of the time period, viewpoints, perspectives and experiences of other ethnic groups that Serbs have been into contact with. In particular, the relationship toward Greeks was marked with pronounced patriarchal attitude concerning others: we-others, ours-foreign, good-bad. In this sense, Greeks are portrayed as foreign, and as such, as a potential source of danger. On the other hand, Greeks are Christian Orthodox, which associates them with the category ours. In socio-economic sense, they were traders and wealthy, respected gentlemen. In epical-heroic profile, they were not considered as great heroes, but as "lousy army", and frequently, as unfaithful.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes a unique linguistic phenomenon characterizing Romania’s western border areas for almost a decade, in the 1980s: the acquisition of the Serbian language by Romanians in Timişoara under the communist regime, primarily through exposure to Yugoslav television programmes. It gives a necessarily sketchy overview of private life under communism, notably the situation in the Banat province, whose privileged position as a result of being closest to the West both geographically and culturally was reflected in the acceptance of pluralism and a critical attitude towards authoritarianism. Taking into account the literature on foreign language acquisition through exposure to television programmes, the study is based on a research involving Romanian natives of Timişoara who, although lacking any formal instruction in Serbian, intensively and regularly watched Yugoslav television programmes in the period in question, and on evaluating their competence and proficiency in Serbian, through language tests, narrative interviews in Romanian and free conversations in Serbian. The conclusion is that most respondents, despite the varying degree of proficiency in Serbian depending on their active use of the language before and after 1989, showed a strong pragmatic competence, which appears to contradict the author’s initial hypothesis.
Mitrović Milovan M.
This paper, represents a hypothetical consideration of the phenomenology of the Serbian national idea, within the traumatic circumstances of the breakup of the Yugoslav state at the end of the 20th century, when the Serbian national issue was reopened in an exceptionally unfavorable geopolitical context for the Serbian people. The author specifically analyzes the ideological and political factors behind the Serbian confusion with the theoretical framework of Agnes Heller's critical interpreta...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.
Koprivica Časlav D.
Full Text Available In this article, which is just an initial paper within a few-year-long research, we are trying to identify causes of the crisis which the Serbian state and the Serb people experience - not just in the last few years or decades, but, as we believe, already for centuries. The main problem is Serbs' long-lasting incapability to consolidate both: the national identity and a national state, which is caused by permanent instability of Serbian history, absence of an active attitude toward their own tradition and a lack of notion of self-virtue which dominate the Serbian national "character". There are two main difficulties of the present day Serbian crisis: the fact that our people and their state are not well-fitted to the contemporary world and its civilization, which is, as a matter fact, quite a permanent issue in modern history of the Serbs, as well as the loss of vitality, which in the past at least substituted the poor success in "socialization" in the world ruled by major nations. This dual shortcoming is a very unfavorable prerequisite for facing challenges which are doubtlessly expecting our, to say it with Plessner, "uncompleted nation".
Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law. With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems.
Anđelković Petar M.
Darwinism, disenfranchising the largest population, has created an entire class of poor, who are now struggling to realize their right to work, confirms the emptiness of neoliberal democracy. As a result of chrematistics in transit societis 'capitalism without capitalists' is created (Mladen Lazic in which the capital, grabed during social conflicts, mediated by political elites, by which the redistribution of accumulated social wealth ended up largely in private hands. If proved, and it is, that the current neo-liberal approach and form (paradigm does not give the expected, and so the required results, then the need to search for a new paradigm of development and more prominent. We need one another, a different view of society and especially its development, freed from the constraints and domination of the theory and methodology of the global powers imposed as the only desirable (required . So, we need a self-reflective approach to social issues especially in orthodox societies. It is a request that it turned to itself and see their potential and opportunities. This paper is an attempt to draw attention to the devastating consequences of chrematistics in the world, and especially in our society, but also to make an effort to search for the 'principle of hope' and point out the different possible directions of development of Serbian society. We are convinced that, as the basis of Western civilization with the neo-liberal development model is the social doctrine of Catholicism, Orthodox civilization, which can and should be the centerpiece and developer 'planetrly humanism' (Danilo Z. Marković (which in the present Russia partly realized, there should be the social doctrine of Orthodoxy at the basis of Orthodox ethics and domestic economics.
Vasić Aleksandar N.
Full Text Available The beginning of 2006 marked two decades since the death of Stana Djurić-Klajn, the first historian of Serbian musical literature. This is the exterior motive for presenting a summary of the state and results of up-to-date musicology research into Serbian musical criticism and essay writings during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century, alongside the many works dedicated to this branch of national musical history, recently published. In this way the reader is given a detailed background of these studies – mainly the authors' names, books, studies, articles, as well as the problems of this branch of Serbian musicology. The first research is associated with the early years of the XXth century, that is, to the work of bibliography. The pioneer of Serbian ethnomusicology, Vladimir R. Djordjević composed An Essay of the Serbian Musical Bibliography until 1914, noting selected XIXth century examples of Serbian literature on music. Bibliographic research was continued by various institutions and experts during the second half of the XXth century: in Zagreb (today Republic of Croatia; the Yugoslav Institute for Lexicography, Novi Sad (Matica srpska; and Belgrade (Institute for Literature and Art, Slobodan Turlakov, Ljubica Djordjević, Staniša Vojinović etc. In spite of the efforts of these institutions and individuals, a complete analytic bibliography of music in Serbian print of the last two centuries has unfortunately still not been made. The most important contributions to historical research, interpretation and validation of Serbian musical criticism and essay writings were given by Stana Djurić-Klajn, Dr Roksanda Pejović and Dr Slobodan Turlakov. Professor Stana Djurić-Klajn was the first Serbian musicologist to work in this field of Serbian music history. She wrote a significant number of studies and articles dedicated to Serbian musical writers and published their selected readings. Prof. Klajn is the author and editor of the
Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.
Gagić Snježana; Jovičić Ana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana
People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough,...
Zarković Vesna S.
Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, diplomatic activity of the Kingdom of Serbia was reinforced. It had especially come to the fore when in 1886 Stojan Novaković was appointed as the deputy in Constantinople. He, as an experienced diplomat, realized the significance of the national idea spreading, and worked actively to that end. After the signing of consular convention, and opening of Serbian consulates in Osman's Empire, conditions for the opening of larger number of schools were created for which the permissions from Turkish authorities were to be acquired. As the number of Serbian pupils increased, and the numbers of schools as well, the issue of books supply was raised, which was not easy at all in that time. Turkish government issued the permission in 1890 that books for Serbian schools should be printed in Constantinople. All books which were to be printed had to pass the censorship of the Educational Committee. Thanks to the reinforced Serbian diplomatic activity in spreading the national idea, some shifts were made, which led representatives of Serbs in Osman's Empire to the idea of opening bookstores. Almost in the same time, bookstores in Priština, Prizren, and Thessaloniki were opened. The bookstore in Thessaloniki bore the official title the Serbian bookstore, and managed to work and survive despite the propaganda of Bulgarian exarchists which tried to thwart its existence frequently by associating with Turkish authorities. The business activity report was filed to the Consulate, which regulated its activities through contracts and measures.
Šoškić Svetislav D.
Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.
Ia. V. Vishniakov
Full Text Available Using original documents from the Russian State Military Historical Archive, many of which are introduced for the first time, the author reveals details of creation and activities of the Serbian Volunteer Corps formed from captured soldiers and officers of the Austro-Hungarian army inOdessain the Summer 1916. The same autumn it received a baptism of fire in Dobruja fighting in the separate corps of the Russian army under the command of General Zayonchkovsky. The research interest in studying the activities of “national” and "international" military units within the Russian army is connected with the question of expediency and effectiveness of using such forces against those for whom they have not so long ago shed blood. The author, contrary to the popular opinion of Serbian historians, shows that the call to join the First Serbian division did not arouse mass enthusiasm among the prisoners of war both Serbs and representatives of other Yugoslav nations because of well-founded fears for their close relatives living in the Dual Monarchy and a fairly comfortable stay in the Russian captivity. At the same time, the author emphasizes that this military unit, commanded by officers of the Serbian regular army, was considered by the political leadership ofSerbiaas the basis of the future armed forces of the new state ofYugoslavia. The article shows that the events of the Russian Revolution of 1917 influenced the future fate of this military formation. Many of its soldiers later found themselves on different sides of the front in the Russian civil war. A special attention is payed to the interethnic conflict erupted in the corps between the Serbs on the one side and the Croats and Slovenes on the other. The author introduces a significant body of primary documents showing the nuances of relations in the corps between representatives of various Yugoslav nations. The article emphasizes that the relationship of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes within the
Full Text Available This paper discusses two Serbian science-fiction stories with a special emphasis on the motives in their narrative structure; the motive analysis is focused on those motives that represent a transposition of 'historical tradition' elements. The key words connecting images appearing in this context are: fear of losing (national identity and a strategy of resistance towards those, who presumably, want to 'take over' the identity. In this sense, a return to 'the historical tradition', in the analyzed texts, aims to reassess certain past models indicating at the same time those that have successfully served and endured as historical models in this discourse.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine corporate learning relationsbetween companies, and to investigate the possibility ofconverting of traditional corporate trainings and meetings to modernmeans of communication and education, with particular referenceto the application of online training and the videoconferencesystem in the process. In addition, the objective of this paperis to examine how well informed companies are about the technologyand its introduction into everyday business practice. Theresearch underlines the results of the analyses concerning thepractical aspect of videoconferences both in Serbian companiesand in foreign ones operating through branches in Serbia.
Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.
The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.
Full Text Available Recent methodology of sampling and establishing silt deposit concentration in Serbian rivers is associated to numerous deficiencies. Daily concentrations of this type of river deposit on the most of the hydrological gauges were obtained on the base of only one measurement, which takes into consideration the matter of representative ness of those samples. Taking the samples of deposit in one point on the profile is little bit problematic because of dispersion of the obtained results. Very important matter is the question of choice of the sampling location. This analyses of data may lead to serious spots in calculating total carried deposit. From the above mentioned reasons, we decided to take precise measurements of silt deposit concentration as well as to establish methodological spots of measurements. The results of these measurements are analyzed and presented in this paper.
Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko
The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA, local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Serbia and to determine the influence of the continuing education program, delivered over the 3-year observation period, on work habits of dental practitioners. This was the first comprehensive survey of this nature carried out in Serbia. Methods. The survey was conducted in two instances, a 4-month observation period each, from November 1, 2009 to March 1, 2010 and from November 1, 2012 to March 1, 2013. Internet Web Page Survey was posted on the official web site of the Serbian Association of Private Dentists. In the first survey, 569 completed questionnaires were subjected to analysis. In the next attempt (3 years later, the survey was launched again and 615 completed questionnaires were analyzed using the same criteria. The statistical analysis was carried out with simple descriptive statistics applying the χ2 test, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. The first survey included 569 dental practitioners, while 3 years later the number of them was 615. Analyzing the questionnaires revealed the number of 10 to 30 interventins on the root canal montly. The most commonly used irrigant solution was H2O2 in 2009, while in 2012 it was yet H2O2, but also NaOCl, chlorhexodine, and a little less EDTA. Conclusion. This study shows significant changes in the irrigation protocol applied in Serbian dental community. After 3 years of observation, NaOCl became widely accepted as the irrigant of choice, whereas H2O2 lost its popularity.
Remetić Slobodan N.
Full Text Available Although the beginnings of Serbian dialectology are related to the work of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, this linguistic discipline was academically established in the early 20th century, when Milan Rešetar and Aleksandar Belić appeared on the scene simultaneously. Owing to their exchange of opinions, the conceptions in classifying Serbian dialects evolved over the 1905-1910 period more noticeably than in the whole of earlier or later research. The 20th century is considered to be the golden age of Serbian dialectology, the primary academic preoccupation of the two greatest Serbian linguists of the last century: Aleksandar Belić and Pavle Ivić. Though certain milestones were hit in the mentioned period (many blank spots were removed from the dialectal maps; dozens of monographic descriptions were published on individual speech types; valuable initial results were achieved in the domain of urban dialectology; valuable studies were completed in the domain of dialectal lexicography and onomasticon, many questions were answered in Serbian historical dialectology, etc., as things turned out, serious and comprehensive tasks were transferred into the third millennium. In order to pass the final judgement on the relevant matters of the discipline, it is necessary to define the areals of some phonological features on the territory of Serbia and eastern Bosnia, details that earlier researchers have missed. The results of the study of the Serbian dialectal complex were predominantly published in the Serbian Dialectological Review (Srpski dijalektološki zbornik, a respectable journal established in 1905 in the Serbian Royal Academy after the publication of Aleksandar Belić’s seminal Dialects of Eastern and Southern Serbia. The paper emphasises the unequal degree of study of the Serbian dialectal mosaic, in which as a rule the area of the western republics of the former state „takes precedence,“ where the Serbian speeches did not have a priority
van der Veen, Willem; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Wouters, Hans; Bates, David W; Twisk, Jos W R; de Gier, Johan J; Taxis, Katja
Objective: To study the association of workarounds with medication administration errors using barcode-assisted medication administration (BCMA), and to determine the frequency and types of workarounds and medication administration errors. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study in
Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.
Ilić-Tasić, Slobodanka; Pantović, Mihailo; Jović, Nebojsa; Ravanić, Dragan; Obradović, Dejan; Sretenović, Srdjan; Pantović, Maja; Pantović, Vesna
Emperor John III Ducas Vatatzes (ruled from 1222-1254) and his son Theodore II Lascaris (ruled from 1254-1258) both suffered from epilepsy. On his journeys to Nicaea, St Sava visited emperors Theodore I Lascaris (ruled from 1204-1222) and John II Vatatzes, who richly rewarded him, which was probably of crucial importance for the foundation of hospitals in the Monastery of Hilandar and the Monastery of Studenica These hospitals had special departments for the treatment of patints with epilepsy. According to researches conducted up-to-date, these departments are considered to be the oldest institutions for epilepsy treatment. Monastery hospitals in the West served primarily as a shelter for the poor and patients with chronic incurable diseases. The development of Serbian monastery hospitals was a long process and it included institutions that lasted for a long time (for over two centuries) in which, among others, those affected by epilepsy were cured.
Full Text Available The author understands case as a relationship of syntactic dependence between a subordinated noun phrase and the governing syntactic construction (predicative expression and/or another noun phrase. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. The two relevant semantic parameters are /+/ -human / (or /+/ -animated/ and /+/ -localized/, i. e. - in other words - the so-called hierarchy of animateness and the spatial location of the objects that the corresponding noun phrases refer to. N and D are being characterized as /+ hum/, A and I as /-hum/ and L as belonging to another semantic paradigm is defined simply as /+ loc/. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a (semantic and syntactic category.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of consumer ethnocentrism on the intention to buy local products by Serbian consumers. Modern business trends and market changes are followed by new trends in consumer behaviour. Many changes in all segments of economy and society occurred in last few years in Republic of Serbia. Changes were especially influenced by: strong foreign competition, transition, change in values, economy and society liberalization, local culture, and as well by globalization and all other kinds of socioeconomic and psychological factors. The globalization of markets presents considerable challenges and opportunities for domestic and international marketers. All these have been influencing on people differentiation concerning ethnocentrism.
Trajanović Nikola N.
Full Text Available Introduction. Since inception of the alexithymia construct in 1970’s, there has been a continuous effort to improve both its theoretical postulates and the clinical utility through development, standardization and validation of assessment scales. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the Serbian translation of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 and to propose a new method of translation of scales with a property of temporal stability. Methods. The scale was expertly translated by bilingual medical professionals and a linguist, and given to a sample of bilingual participants from the general population who completed both the English and the Serbian version of the scale one week apart. Results. The findings showed that the Serbian version of the TAS-20 had a good internal consistency reliability regarding total scale (α=0.86, and acceptable reliability of the three factors (α=0.71-0.79. Conclusion. The analysis confirmed the validity and consistency of the Serbian translation of the scale, with observed weakness of the factorial structure consistent with studies in other languages. The results also showed that the method of utilizing a self-control bilingual subject is a useful alternative to the back-translation method, particularly in cases of linguistically and structurally sensitive scales, or in cases where a larger sample is not available. This method, dubbed as ‘forth-translation’, could be used to translate psychometric scales measuring properties which have temporal stability over the period of at least several weeks.
Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Duccio; Corkery, John
Over the last decade, the 'traditional' drug scene has been supplemented - but not replaced - by the emergence of a range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), which are either newly created or existing drugs, including medications, now being used in novel ways. By the end of 2014, in excess of 500 NPS had been reported by a large number of countries in the world. Most recent data show, however, that synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, and psychedelics/phenethylamines account for the largest number of NPS.The present chapter aims at providing an overview of the clinical and pharmacological issues relating to these most popular NPS categories. Given the vast range of medical and psychopathological issues associated with the molecules here described, it is crucial for health professionals to be aware of the effects and toxicity of NPS. A general overview of the acute management of NPS adverse events is provided as well, although further studies are required to identify a range of evidence-based, index molecule-focused, treatment strategies. The rapid pace of change in the NPS online market constitutes a major challenge to the provision of current and reliable scientific knowledge on these substances.
MA. Arben Salihu
Full Text Available For most of the last millennium, the Balkan region, has been associated with conflicts, wars and instability. Indeed, even today, the situation is very tense. Finding the causes of it, is imperative, but that still does not resolve the deep divisions that are ingrained. The aim of this study is to explore what the Western literature reveals about Balkan enmities, more specifically Albanian-Serbian hostilities throughout past centuries, by focusing at certain periods or events that had a great impact in historical context. The study focuses extensively on Kosovo myth, but also on other specific episodes of Albanian- Serbian interaction, namely Serbian Empire, 1389 Kosovo battle, the description event of Murat I death, and 1806 Serbian Revolution among others. One must bear in mind that Albanians and Serbs presented a united front in certain battles and fights (namely in 1389 and 1806, but later turned guns against each other, resulting in thousands unnecessary deaths. This occurred not because their respective citizens wanted so, but was largely incited through government myths and insincere propaganda. Taking exclusively the Western perspective in this context, whose exploration of events in the Balkans is pretty detailed, only enriches the quality of this study. This research concludes that the region should and must learn from past mistakes that living with myths, wars and propaganda leads to nowhere. The Balkan more than ever needs proactive and creative leaders that shift the minds of Balkan people towards elimination, or at least diminishing, of both physical and mental boundaries against each other.
Full Text Available Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in healthy subjects from Serbian population. Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 210 healthy subjects (105 women and 105 men. The presence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Results: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was 34.76% and it was increased compared to PAI-1 5G/5G genotype (19.05%. The most frequent was PAI-1 4G/5G genotype (46.19%. Allelic frequency for 4G allele was higher (0.58 compared to 5G allele (0.42. Conclusions: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population is similar to the neighboring populations. Results of this study represent the first data for Serbian population. This study could be useful for further research where the role of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant will be assessed in the pathogenesis of many diseases.
Chaubey, Santosh K; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Suthaharan, Emershia N; Tan, Yong M
Cross-border importation of traditional and prescription medications is common, and many of these drugs are not approved by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. Furthermore, counterfeit versions of prescription medications are also available (eg, weight-loss medications, anabolic steroids, and medications to enhance sexual performance). We describe a 54-year-old man with the first Australian case of severe hypoglycaemia induced by imported, laboratory-confirmed counterfeit Cialis. This serves to remind medical practitioners that counterfeit medication may be the cause of severe hypoglycaemia (or other unexplained illness).
Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera
Mar 6, 2017 ... tive of the study was to determine current antidiabetic medication adherence in ...... A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. .... Pascal IGU, Ofoedu JN, Uchenna NP, Nkwa AA, Uchamma GUE.
Full Text Available The subject of this paper relates to the determination of interdependent relationship of the key elements necessary for the positioning of brands in the banking market in Serbia. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the way in which managers of banks in Serbia perceived brand positioning of banks in which they work, and the value of the customer service offer - corporate clients. Research focuses on identifying and comparing the dependent relationships between the key elements of offers' brand positioning: brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty. For the purpose of the research presented in this paper on-line surveying techniques was applied. 49 responses were collected form banking managers responsible for corporate clients. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA.Acquired results indicate that there is a strong correlation between the observed elements: awareness of the brand-brand associations, brand association-perceived quality and perceived quality of brand-loyalty. Also, this paper provides an overview of the current position of the banking brands, as well as guidelines for improving the position of banking brands on the Serbian market.
Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian
The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.
Smirnov, A. [Research and Development Company ' Sosny' , Moscow (Russian Federation)
For now the removal of SNF from RA reactor site (PC NFS, Serbia) is the most time-consuming and technically complicated operation under RRRFR Program. The most efficient techniques and lessons learned from other projects of the RRRFR Program as well as new unique technical decisions were used. Two big challenges were resolved during implementation of Serbian Project: (1) preparation of damaged fuel located in the packages unsuitable for transport, taking into account insufficient infrastructure of RA reactor site and (2) removal of large amount of fuel in one multimodal shipment through several transit countries. The main attention was paid to safety justification of all activities. All approvals were obtained in Russia, Serbia and transit countries. Special canisters were designed for transportation of specific RA reactor fuel (of small dimensions, unidentifiable, damaged due to corrosion). The canister design was selected to be untight - it was the most expedient decision for that case from safety perspective. The technology and a set of equipment were designed for remote removal of the fuel from the existing package (aluminum barrels and reactor channels) and placing of the fuel into the new canisters. After fabrication and assembling of the equipment theoretical and practical training of the personnel was performed. Fuel repackaging took about 5 months. SNF was transported in TUK-19 and SKODA VPVR/M casks. The baskets of large capacity were designed and fabricated for SKODA VPVR/M casks. Special requirements to drying the packages and composition of gaseous medium inside were justified to ensure fire and explosion safety. Specialized ISO-containers and transfer equipment designed under Romanian Project were used together with TUK-19 casks. A forklift and mobile rail system were used to handle SKODA VPVR/M casks under conditions of low capacity of the cranes at the facility. Due to the tight schedule of RRRFR Program as well as geographical peculiarities of RA
Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Corcoran, Kate; Kaplan, Janice; Magouirk, Jeff; Rand, Debra C; Smith, Bernie Todd
This article presents some limited results from the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network survey conducted in 2002. Other uses of the data are also presented. After several years of development and testing, a Web-based survey opened for data input in December 2001. Three hundred eighty-five MLA members entered data on the size of their institutions and the activities of their libraries. The data from 344 hospital libraries were edited and selected for reporting in aggregate tables and on an interactive site in the Members-Only area of MLANET. The data represent a 16% to 23% return rate and have a 95% confidence level. Specific questions can be answered using the reports. The data can be used to review internal processes, perform outcomes benchmarking, retest a hypothesis, refute a previous survey findings, or develop library standards. The data can be used to compare to current surveys or look for trends by comparing the data to past surveys. The impact of this project on MLA will reach into areas of research and advocacy. The data will be useful in the everyday working of small health sciences libraries as well as provide concrete data on the current practices of health sciences libraries.
Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Corcoran, Kate; Kaplan, Janice; Magouirk, Jeff; Rand, Debra C.; Smith, Bernie Todd
Objective: This article presents some limited results from the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network survey conducted in 2002. Other uses of the data are also presented. Methods: After several years of development and testing, a Web-based survey opened for data input in December 2001. Three hundred eighty-five MLA members entered data on the size of their institutions and the activities of their libraries. The data from 344 hospital libraries were edited and selected for reporting in aggregate tables and on an interactive site in the Members-Only area of MLANET. The data represent a 16% to 23% return rate and have a 95% confidence level. Results: Specific questions can be answered using the reports. The data can be used to review internal processes, perform outcomes benchmarking, retest a hypothesis, refute a previous survey findings, or develop library standards. The data can be used to compare to current surveys or look for trends by comparing the data to past surveys. Conclusions: The impact of this project on MLA will reach into areas of research and advocacy. The data will be useful in the everyday working of small health sciences libraries as well as provide concrete data on the current practices of health sciences libraries. PMID:16636703
Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the content of 22 macro- and microelements in ten raw Serbian propolis samples which differ in geographical and botanical origin as well as in polluted agent contents by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES. The macroelements were more common and present Ca content was the highest while Na content the lowest. Among the studied essential trace elements Fe was the most common element. The levels of toxic elements (Pb, Cd, As and Hg were also analyzed, since they were possible environmental contaminants that could be transferred into propolis products for human consumption. As and Hg were not detected in any of the analyzed samples but a high level of Pb (2.0-9.7 mg/kg was detected and only selected portions of raw propolis could be used to produce natural medicines and dietary supplements for humans. Obtained results were statistically analyzed, and the examined samples showed a wide range of element content.
Sakač, Dejan; Sakač, Vladimir; Čabarkapa, Velibor; Bugarski, Vojislava
Doctor Jovan Andrejević Joles was one of the most educated Serbs of the 19th century, a medical doctor, scientist, journalist and translator. He was born in 1883 in Novi Sad. Even as a student of medicine he was active in scientific work, which resulted in a paper entiteled "The fine structure of the liver," later published in one of the most eminent medical journals in Europe. He completed the study of medicine in Vienna. He did not accept the position at the Medical Faculty in Vienna, and returned to Novi Sad, where he quickly gained an excellent reputation as a physician. He participated in the founding of the Serbian National Theatre in 1861, he was also one of the most active contributors of Matica Srpska, wrote many articles, critics and reviews, and was also regarded as the founder of aesthetic romanticism in Serbs. With Laza Kostić, he was the first among the Serbs to translate Shakespeare. At that time, when he was only 30 years old, he wrote about a brand-new art - photography. He lived in a harmonious marriage with Jelena - Ilka Bajić, who after Joles' death remarried to a captain of the Serbian army, and after his murder, became famous for the assassination attempt of King Milan Obrenović (recorded in history textbooks as the "Rebellion of Ilka"). Dr. Jovan Andrejevć died prematurely of tuberculosis, at that time an incurable disease, in 1864 in Novi Sad.
Full Text Available The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement. There were 4264 students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made average scale score of 468 points in the science, and with this achievement they are placed in the zone of the top of low international benchmarking level, very close to the point of intermediate benchmark. The average science achievement of the Serbian eighth graders is somewhat below the general international science achievement. The best results were achieved in the science content domain of "chemistry", and the lower results in the content domain of "environmental science". Across the defined science cognitive domains, it was confirmed that the Serbian students had achieved the best results in cognitive domain of "factual knowledge" and weaker results in "reasoning and analysis". The achieved results raise many questions about contents of the science curriculum in Serbia, its overall quality and basic characteristics of its implementation. These results can be eligibly used to improve the science curricula and teaching in Serbian primary school. .
Dhillon, Balbir S
.... Although the history of reliability engineering can be traced back to World War II, the application of reliability engineering concepts to medical devices is a fairly recent idea that goes back to the latter part of the 1960s when many publications on medical device reliability emerged. Today, a large number of books on general reliability have been...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the conceptual dynamicity of English compound lexemes and their Serbian equivalents as reflected in compound lexemes in traffic engineering. The morphological structure and semantics of compound lexemes are considered, as well as strategies for translating English metaphorical compound lexemes into Serbian. The analysis reveals that Serbian cannot cope with the dynamic nature of traffic engineering terminology in English, and that Anglicisms, synonyms of different polysemous terms and vague conceptual determinations are characteristic of Serbian terminological equivalents
Full Text Available In this article, the author analyses the development of law of the SFRJ and the contemporary Serbian Law since the 1980s up to date in selected areas of law, and examines how 'European' it has been throughout this period. In this context, the term 'European' is not to be understood in terms of harmonization with the acquis but rather as a pre-stage in this course which implies a general orientation towards continental European principles and openness towards other European states (in particular, concerning the legal provisions on foreign investment. The analysis has yielded the following conclusions: Under a 'socialist layer' (including, for example, the Constitution of SFRY, the Law on Associated Labour and some provisions of the Criminal Law such as Article 133, the law of the SFRJ in the 1980s was much more European than it is actually known in Western Europe. The examples may be found in the substantive provisions of the 1978 Law on Obligations and in the field of procedural law, particularly in the Law on Civil Procedure was tailored upon the model of the Austrian Civil Procedure Code (called the 'Klein'sche ZPO'. Moreover, in the field of constitutional and administrative judiciary, the SFRY was not only ahead of the other socialist countries but also ahead of a lot of other Western European countries. The opening towards other European states was also reflected in the legislation on foreign investment. In this context, it is worth noting that the SFRJ was the first socialist state which enacted such legislation as early as in 1967. By enacting the Law on the Social Capital and the Law on Enterprises, the SFRY began the transformation of its legal system in 1988, well before the fall of the Berlin wall and considerable earlier than the traditional socialist states. For these reasons, it is justified to say that the law of the SFRY and Serbia during the socialist time was (underneath the layer of socialist law already more European than a
Kostić Svetislav V.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.
Full Text Available In contemporary world globalization, along with many perplexities, increasingly takes on the universal/cosmopolitan character in spite of all geographical, national, racial, religious and alignment barriers. Information exchange, scientific achievements and technology are nowadays world process. Economy increasingly becomes global. Serbia and Serbian people have their own specific character, which is defined by three significant characteristics: sovereignty and territorial integrity, aspirations to social justice, the rule of people and democracy. The creators of global society should take into consideration these three important characteristics of Serbian people with which Serbian political elite is to familiarize them, for the sake of more rapid and complete process of integration of Serbs into global processes from both Serbia and its neighboring countries would benefit.
Full Text Available In order to consider this topic, it was first necessary to discuss certain problems of terminology and periodisation relating to musical modernism in general. It is already familiar the extent to which the terms "new music", "modernist", "contemporary" and "avant-garde" music have been used interchangeably, as synonyms. For this reason, it was first important to outline the period of musical modernism as almost generally accepted, which is regarded as an epoch comprising three different periods: (I period of early modernism (1890–1918, announced by a break with later romanticism and a turn towards French Impressionism, Austro-German Expressionism and Russian "folkloric Expressionism"; (II period of "classical modernism"(1919–1945 that witnessed a diffusion of neo-classicism and serialism; (III period of "high modernism" (1946–1972 characterized by highly experimental compositional techniques such as integral serialism and aleatoricism. In relation to this, avant-garde movements are seen as radically innovative and subversive tendencies within this modernist epoch, and while certain postmodernist ideas can be recognized as early as the 1950s, postmodernism as a movement hadn’t gained its full potency until the 1970s. Since then, it has assumed different forms of existence as well as having assimilated a continued form of ‘modernist project’. The second part of the article proposes a periodisation of Serbian musical modernism, which is divided into four stages. The first stage (1908–1945 was a period where elements of Impressionism and German expressionism were creatively introduced into the works of several leading composers (Petar Konjović, Stevan Hristić, Miloje Milojević, Josip Slavenski, Marko Tajčević. The second stage (1929–1945 was marked by a group of composers who studied in Prague and assimilated certain progressive compositional techniques such as free tonality, atonality dodecaphony, microtonality and athematicism
Gordić-Petković Vladislava S.
Full Text Available The paper sets out to explore the perspectives and strategies of virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel in order to illustrate radical changes in the concept of reality and writers' concern with the fidelity to experience. A new surge of the so-called digital realism emerges simultaneously with the increase of awareness that the line between our digital selves and our real-world selves has become blurred and difficult to explain, while new technologies are required to go beyond what our human senses can encompass and deliver. The fictional realism of the digital age will also commit itself to young or middle-aged individuals that passionately attempt to define their aims and objectives so that they could fit into a newly constructed and acquired concept of reality. This is the case with the protagonists in the novels by Ivančica Đerić, Tamara Jecić and Aleksandar Ilić, all of them questioning both their offline and online identities. Their everyday life in a postmillennial world includes many intersecting empirical and virtual realities: love, career and sex take place in a dimension which ignores geography and physical distance and ultimately alters the concepts of time and space, as well the concepts of privacy and intimacy. The paper intends to examine the ways new digital technologies contribute to representations of reality in the novels of both accomplished and aspiring authors whose novels deal with ways of life amid social networks. The novels we analyzed show that the distinction between the virtual and the real world narrows, as the narratives range from intimate confession in letters and journals to tweets, notes and statuses, introducing verbal and structural experimental practices which involve shifting points of view.
Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Objective: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Study design: Cross sectional survey. Results: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre ...
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the level of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the Serbian metal processing sector. This research uses data from the entire metal processing sector in Serbia (Sample: 20 large companies, 27 medium companies, and 247 small companies, overall with 33,057 workers. Data from the Serbian metal processing sector were compared to the relevant data from EU. In this paper, we present problems and steps for improvement of ICT in the Serbian metal processing industry. We will also present development of quality infrastructure necessary for support and improvement of Serbian ICT industry and improvement of ITC sectors in Serbian metal processing industry.
Full Text Available While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication.In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication.The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%, cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%, analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%, and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%. Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%, using excessive dosages (21.6%, and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy (30.3%. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication.Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.
Petrović Snežana M.
Full Text Available The paper offers an analysis of the cultural borrowing process of the Turkish word yoğurt ‘yogurt’ in Serbian. The study begins with the analysis of the Serbian lexical material from the 19th century, when the word jogurt was marked as an exclusively foreign word. The comparison with the present status of the meaning and usage of the word jogurt in contemporary Serbian, in which the word is part of the standard language, shows two different layers of the borrowing process: the Ottoman Turkish period and the Non-Turkish one. The most recent, Post-Ottoman borrowing layer is illustrated by the usage of jogurt as an element of a proverb that is a calque from the Turk. Sutten ağzı yanan yoğurdu (veya ayranı ufleyerek yer (veya icer “who gets burned by milk, blows into yogurt as well”. Aiming to present a complex process of this cultural borrowing, the data from Serbian is compared to the relevant data from other Balkan and European languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika i br. 178009: Lingvistička istraživanja savremenog srpskog književnog jezika i izrada Rečnika srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika SANU
Wang, Z W; Cai, H X
The library of Chinese Medical Association was founded in 1925. The source of books and periodicals in the library are mainly from purchasing and donation. The library provides services such as lending, exchanging books, translating and publishing the contents and abstracts of medical journals in Chinese and other languages. It has played an active and important role in promoting medical development in the period of Republic of China.
Papadakis, Maxine A; Hodgson, Carol S; Teherani, Arianne; Kohatsu, Neal D
To determine if medical students who demonstrate unprofessional behavior in medical school are more likely to have subsequent state board disciplinary action. A case-control study was conducted of all University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine graduates disciplined by the Medical Board of California from 1990-2000 (68). Control graduates (196) were matched by medical school graduation year and specialty choice. Predictor variables were male gender, undergraduate grade point average, Medical College Admission Test scores, medical school grades, National Board of Medical Examiner Part 1 scores, and negative excerpts describing unprofessional behavior from course evaluation forms, dean's letter of recommendation for residencies, and administrative correspondence. Negative excerpts were scored for severity (Good/Trace versus Concern/Problem/Extreme). The outcome variable was state board disciplinary action. The alumni graduated between 1943 and 1989. Ninety-five percent of the disciplinary actions were for deficiencies in professionalism. The prevalence of Concern/Problem/Extreme excerpts in the cases was 38% and 19% in controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that disciplined physicians were more likely to have Concern/Problem/Extreme excerpts in their medical school file (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.02; p =.02). The remaining variables were not associated with disciplinary action. Problematic behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board. Professionalism is an essential competency that must be demonstrated for a student to graduate from medical school.
Crowell, Debra L.
The American Nurse Association's (ANA) provisions outline the commitment expected of nurses to protect the community from harm. Medication administration coincides with patient safety as a compelling obligation in nursing practice. The study's purpose was to examine retention of medication safety knowledge among first year nursing students, after…
Jang, Sou Hyun
This study examined factors associated with first-generation Korean immigrants' medical tours to the homeland, which has emerged as a field of study in immigrant medical transnationalism and immigrant healthcare behaviors. This paper reports survey data from 507 Korean immigrants and indepth interviews with 120 Korean immigrants in the New York-New Jersey area. About one-fourth of survey respondents have visited their home country for medical care since their migration to the US. Of those with relatives in Korea, 29% have experienced at least one medical tour, compared to only 9.2% of those without relatives in Korea. Having frequent contacts with relatives in the home country was positively associated with the number of medical tour visits. Except for social transnational ties, other types of transnational ties with the home country were marginally related to Korean immigrants' medical tourism. Surprisingly, their health insurance status itself, which is assumed to be important, was not statistically associated with medical tourism. Although this study has the limitation of analyzing a convenience sample, it contributes to the literature on immigrant transnationalism and immigrant healthcare behaviors by using a mixed-methods approach to focus on one ethnic group's medical transnationalism.
Arokiasamy, J.; Ball, M.; Barnett, D.; Bearman, M.; Bemmel van, J.; Douglas, J.; Fisher, P.; Garrie, R.; Gatewood, L.; Goossen, W.; Grant, A.; Hales, J.; Hasman, A.; Haux, R.; Hovenga, E.; Johns, M.; Knaup, P.; Leven, F. J.; Lorenzi, N.; Murray, P.; Neame, R.; Protti, D.; Power, M.; Richard, J.; Schuster, E.; Swinkels, W.; Yang, J.; Zelmer, L.; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 40, č. 5 (2001), s. 267-277 ISSN 0026-1270 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : health informatics * medical informatics * education * recommendations * International Medical Informatics Association * IMIA Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.254, year: 2001
Full Text Available Amol D Dhamane,1 Phil Schwab,2 Sari Hopson,2 Chad Moretz,2 Srinivas Annavarapu,2 Kate Burslem,1 Andrew Renda,3 Shuchita Kaila1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ridgefield, CT, 2Comprehensive Health Insights Inc, Louisville, 3Humana Inc, Louisville, KY, USA Background: Patients with COPD often have multiple comorbidities requiring use of multiple medications, and adherence rates for maintenance COPD (mCOPD medications are already known to be suboptimal. Presence of comorbidities in COPD patients, and use of medications used to treat those comorbidities (non-COPD medications, may have an adverse impact on adherence to mCOPD medications. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between non-adherence to mCOPD medications and non-COPD medications in COPD patients. Methods: COPD patients were identified using a large administrative claims database. Selected patients were 40–89 years old and continuously enrolled for 12 months prior to and 24 months after the first identified COPD diagnosis (index date during January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. Patients were required to have ≥1 prescription for a mCOPD medication within 365 days of the index date and ≥1 prescription for one of 12 non-COPD medication classes within ±30 days of the first COPD prescription. Adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC] was measured during 365 days following the first COPD prescription. The association between non-adherence (PDC <0.8 to mCOPD and non-adherence to non-COPD medications was determined using logistic regression, controlling for baseline patient characteristics. Results: A total of 14,117 patients, with a mean age of 69.9 years, met study criteria. Of these, 40.9% were males and 79.2% were non-adherent to mCOPD medications with a mean PDC of 0.47. Non-adherence to mCOPD medications was associated with non-adherence to 10 of 12 non-COPD medication classes (odds ratio 1.38–1
Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Tajima, Seiki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education and is related to academic outcomes in medical students. In this study, the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic academic motivation were examined in medical students. The study group consisted of 119 Year 2 medical students at Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed questionnaires dealing with intrinsic academic motivation (the Intrinsic Motivation Scale toward Learning) and personality (the Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]). On simple regression analyses, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness, co-operativeness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. On multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. The temperament dimension of persistence and the character dimensions of self-directedness and self-transcendence are associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.
Toroser, Dikran; DeTora, Lisa; Cairns, Angela; Juneja, Renu; Georgieva, Anna; Weigel, Al; Pepitone, Kim
To review guidance from professional medical associations to physicians on the Sunshine Act, with a focus on industry support for medical publications. Using 'Sunshine Act' as a search term, we searched PubMed (dates February 2013 to November 2014) and the 'grey literature' using Google and Google Scholar. Online information was extracted from websites of pre-identified professional medical associations. Some professional medical associations have published peer-reviewed recommendations, position statements or general advice on their websites and in journals around the Sunshine Act. Associations also provided broad online educational resources for physicians. There was universal agreement between peer-reviewed publications, including guidelines, for the need for full transparency and disclosure of industry support. Surveys by some professional associations showed variance in opinion on the forecasted impact of the Sunshine Act on physician-industry relationships. There was scarce information specifically related to reporting requirements for industry-supported medical publications. There is a shortage of information for physicians from professional associations regarding the Sunshine Act and support for medical publications. Due to the lack of clear guidance regarding support for publications, there are presently varying interpretations of the Sunshine Act. The literature debates the potential impact of the Sunshine Act and expresses some concerns that physician-enabled innovation in drug development may be hindered.
Full Text Available The development and implementation of any policy require the creation of preconditions for ensuring the independence of such a policy. In order to provide such preconditions, it is necessary to build up an institutional framework and regulate the key principles of development and implementation of an appropriate policy. the macroprudential policy is no exception, either. The macroprudential policy is a new policy area, which aims to identify, analyze and counter risks to the financial system as a whole, as opposed to traditional microprudential regulation and supervision, whose focus is exclusively on the risks of individual institutions. In many countries, the processes of appropriate legislation and building an institutional framework are ongoing. The article is focused on a comparative analysis of the Serbian and the Ukrainian approaches to macroprudential policymaking. The differences and the similarities between the Ukrainian and the Serbian macroprudential policymaking models are generalized.
Đorđević Radomir D.
Full Text Available The period of our new historiography is mostly burdened by a political discourse of a new establishment, with which the so called period of "brotherhood and unity" began in the former Yugoslavia. In that period of time, but also after the fall of socialism in 1998, fascination with Yugoslavism is still present in the Serbian history. There are almost no textbooks or monographs in which a dogmatic way of thinking is critically reviewed as incomprehensible in our historical science. This is especially related to the problem of Albanian ethnogenesis and their presence in the Balkans. By adopting this imposed opinion that the Albanians are a native population, our historians directly made an immense damage to the Serbian people.
Piper Predrag J.
Full Text Available Social femininatives, such as Serbian pevačica, učiteljica, upravnica, available in all Slavic languages, have in recent decades become a subject of language policy based on political correctness in the field of gender relations. As part of this language policy, the requirement is put forward of creating feminine neologisms in respect of each masculine noun, designating a profession or social status. The use of the ideological and political criteria in order to change the grammatical structure of the language is typical of more or less all modern Slavic literary languages. A common feature of such language policy is their communicative and grammatical groundlessness. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika
Full Text Available Miloje M. Vasić, "the first academically educated archaeologist in Serbia", has a strange destiny in the Serbian archaeology. On the one hand, he has been elevated to the post of the "founding father" of the discipline, with almost semidivine status and iconic importance, while on the other hand, his works have been largely unread and neglected. This paradoxical split is the consequence of the fact that Vasić has been postulated as the universal benchmark of the archaeological practice in Serbia, regardless of his interpretation of the past on the grounds of the archaeological record – the essence of archaeology. Strangely, the life and work of Vasić have not been the subject of much writing, apart from several obituaries, two short appropriate texts (Srejović, Cermanović, and rare articles in catalogues and collections dedicated to the research of Vinča (Garašanin, Srejović, Tasić, Nikolić and Vuković. The critical analysis of his whole interpretive constellation, with "The Ionian colony Vinča" being its brightest star, was limited before the World War II to the rare attempts to rectify the chronology and identify the Neolithic of the Danube valley (Fewkes, Grbić, Holste. After the war, by the middle of the 20th century, the interpretation of Vasić has been put to severe criticism of his students (Garašanin, Milojčić, Benac, which led to the significant paradigm shift, the recognition of the importance of the Balkan Neolithic, and the establishment of the culture-historical approach in the Serbian archaeology. However, from this moment on, the reception of Vasić in the Serbian archaeology has taken a strange route: Vasić as a person gains in importance, but his works are neglected, though referred to, but almost in a cultic fashion, without reading or interpreting them. Rare is a paper on the Neolithic of the Central Balkans that does not call upon the name of Vasić and his four- volume "Vinča", in which Neolithic is not
Full Text Available An open issue in the sentiment classification of texts written in Serbian is the effect of different forms of morphological normalization and the usefulness of leveraging large amounts of unlabeled texts. In this paper, we assess the impact of lemmatizers and stemmers for Serbian on classifiers trained and evaluated on the Serbian Movie Review Dataset. We also consider the effectiveness of using word embeddings, generated from a large unlabeled corpus, as classification features.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate Serbian benchmark spot curves using the Svensson parametric model. The main challenges that we tackle are: sparse data, different currency denominations of short and longer term maturities, and infrequent transactions in the short-term market segment vs daily traded medium and long-term market segment. We find that the model is flexible enough to account for most of the data variability. The model parameters are interpreted in economic terms.
Full Text Available Intersectoral partnership is a means of strategic management that incorporates economical, social and environmental developmental aims. The Serbian tourist industry is characterized by numerous small and average-sized enterprises with limited resources for research, development, marketing and other investments. That requires addressing other subjects (stakeholders. By establishing partnership networks and clusters, stakeholders acquire necessary means and get opportunities for the development and improvement of competition of tourist products and destinations.
Biljana Kilibarda; Srmena Krstev; Nadezda Nikolic; Nevena Sovic; Nada Kosic Bibic
Introduction To analyze the attitudes of Serbian adults related to e-cigarettes and provide a basis for the development of targeted interventions. Material and Methods Data were obtained through a survey among the adult population of Serbia conducted via face to face interviewing on a nationally representative sample of 1041 citizens of Serbia 18+ years old. Results Smoking prevalence was calculated at 39.2% (40% male, 39% female). Prevalence of ever use e-cigarettes was 11% ...
Full Text Available Subject of this paper is consideration of use of traditional motives in Serbian science-fiction literature in relation with socio-cultural milieu of Serbia from late 80s until now. The author tries to point out ways of usage and construction of some traditional and mythological patterns in certain literature works. This genre of literary production is perceived as a popular culture phenomenon - with this premise, the paper intents to analyze communication process between text and audiences.
Kostić Svetislav V.
This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention ...
Full Text Available The paper includes a short introduction and four excerpts from the Old Serbian Alexander Romance translated into Polish by Maciej Falski. Tekst zawiera krótką prezentację zagadnienia filiacji Opowieści o Aleksandrze w bałkańskiej przestrzeni kulturowej oraz przekład fragmentów tzw. Serbskiej Aleksandreidy na język polski.
In Byzantine painting, starting from the XIII and particularly during the XIV century, there was a visible return to models from the period of Antiquity. The influences of ancient, ostensibly, Hellenistic heritage were reflected in the shapes, in the content of the compositions, as well as in the drawing, modellation and colours. In the art that came into being in the course of the XIII century, in the endowments of the Serbian donors numerous elements emerged that had existed in ancient art....
Full Text Available Octoechos is not merely a musical manual in everyday use during the service in Orthodox Church, but also a comprehensive anthology of church poetry. It contains poetical works of great Byzantine poets, such as John of Damascus, Joseph the Hymnographer, Andrew of Crete. The use of Octoechos during the service is strictly regulated by Typicon. After accepting the Orthodox rite, the Slavs were acquainted with Octoechos which has undoubtedly made a great impression on the attentive audiences present at the service. Octoechos has also influenced the work of medieval Serbian hymnographers all of whom were, as it is well known, pious men. The influence of the poetics typical of hymns of the Octoechos has already been present in the Akoluthia to St. Simeon written by St. Sava. In the hymnographical work of Theodosius this influence is even more present, especially in his Canons on the eight modes (echoi that follow the pattern of the supplicatory canons of the Octoechos. Ephraim, who was the Serbian patriarch in two turns (1375-1379, 1389-1392, wrote his church hymns and prayers following those of the Octoechos. Ephraim composed his stichera dedicated to Christ and Theotokos following the regular change of tones of the Octoechos. The spirit of Octoechos has also marked the work of the last Serbian anonymous hymnographers who wrote Akoluthia to the Translation of the holy relics of Saint Apostle Luke to Serbia and the Paraklisis to St. Luke (mid 15th century.
Full Text Available Inconsistent development policy and traditionally inherited poverty, lack of adequate institutional support and the impact of the transition of Serbian economy are affected the deepening of the parameters of underdeveloped areas in Serbia (South Serbia and Stari Ras and appear of new underdeveloped area (Borski basen. These areas have very low competitiveness and represent bottleneck in the overall competitiveness of Serbian economy. Low Serbian competitiveness caused by many problems (corruption, ineffective legal system and weak protection of contracts, political instability and others, where undeveloped areas represent a special dimension of this problem, with their specific problems, current from almost every social standpoint. This paper explains the specific factors that are the largest source of uncompetitiveness underdeveloped areas, analyzing economic, demographic and socio-political factors, as well as infrastructure, unemployment and education. Results showed that these indicators of competitiveness in underdeveloped areas have far less values than the same indicators in other areas in Serbia. The major causes of low competitiveness of underdeveloped areas (except common with the Republic of Serbia are: low employment, low economic activity, low productivity, low investments, poor educational and demographic structure, underdeveloped infrastructure and socio-political uncertainty. At the end, the paper presents the measures and incentives which increase competitiveness of underdeveloped areas.
Dilparić Branislava M.
Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.
Casas, Rachel S; Xuan, Ziming; Jackson, Angela H; Stanfield, Lorraine E; Harvey, Nanette C; Chen, Daniel C
Empathy is a crucial skill for medical students that can be difficult to evaluate. We examined if self-reported empathy in medical students was associated with clinical competence. This study combined cross-sectional data from four consecutive years of medical students (N=590) from the Boston University School of Medicine. We used regression analysis to evaluate if self-reported empathy (Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE)) predicted scores in clinical clerkships, United States Medical Licensing Examinations, and OBJECTIVE: Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). We separately analyzed overall and OSCE communication scores based on interpersonal skills reported by standardized patients. We controlled for age, gender, debt, and specialty affinity. JSPE scores of medical students were positively associated with OSCE communication scores, and remained significant when controlling for demographics. We found that JSPE score was also predictive of overall OSCE scores, but this relationship was confounded by gender and age. JSPE scores were associated with performance in the Pediatrics clerkship, but not other clerkships or standardized tests. JSPE scores were positively associated with OSCE communication scores in medical students. This study supports that self-reported empathy may predict OSCE performance, but further research is needed to examine differences by gender and age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ratković Jelena R.
Full Text Available This work shows in what ways the colour name yellow is associated with extra-linguistic reality in the English language. In Serbian translations, we can see many similarities, but also the absolute impossibility of finding either formal or partial correspondents considering metaphorical phraseologisms, or pure idioms, such as for example, those in which this colour is associated with jealousy (He wears yellow stockings or cowardice (He's yellow. The most similar comparisons are those with the sunshine and gold, but there are those that, when translated into Serbian, sound strange, such as yellow as marigold or yellow as a crow's foot. Similarly, it would be strange to use this colour name describing a face (or a whole person looking unhealthy, where in Serbian we use comparison 'yellow as wax'. Metonymically, the colour transfers and labels the whole group of people who supposedly have such a colour, as can be seen from examples high yellow, yellow peril, yellow line. In the Serbian language, people from Asia are also sometimes called the 'yellow', and in Serbian, as well as in the English language, this term has derogatory meaning, but the English language is a bit richer in these phraseologisms, perhaps because people from this continent started to settle in the territory of English-speaking countries earlier than in our country. In the English language, people are qualified by the phraseologisms yellow admiral and yellow dog as well, and those are also pure idioms: it is only possible to translate them into the Serbian language by semantic correspondents - nickname for those who were promoted from captain to admiral and smuggler of alcoholic beverages (or, in another sememe 'the one who is in opposition to the Union of merchants or trade unions'. Common to both languages is the use of this colour name for descriptions of old things (or people, as can be seen from the phraseologisms 'the sere and yellow leaf', 'the paper yellowed with age' and
Katon, Wayne; Lin, Elizabeth H B; Kroenke, Kurt
Primary care patients with anxiety and depression often describe multiple physical symptoms, but no systematic review has studied the effect of anxiety and depressive comorbidity in patients with chronic medical illnesses. MEDLINE databases were searched from 1966 through 2006 using the combined search terms diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), asthma, COPD, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with depression, anxiety and symptoms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies with >100 patients were included as were all randomized controlled trials that measure the impact of improving anxiety and depressive symptoms on medical symptom outcomes. Thirty-one studies involving 16,922 patients met our inclusion criteria. Patients with chronic medical illness and comorbid depression or anxiety compared to those with chronic medical illness alone reported significantly higher numbers of medical symptoms when controlling for severity of medical disorder. Across the four categories of common medical disorders examined (diabetes, pulmonary disease, heart disease, arthritis), somatic symptoms were at least as strongly associated with depression and anxiety as were objective physiologic measures. Two treatment studies also showed that improvement in depression outcome was associated with decreased somatic symptoms without improvement in physiologic measures. Accurate diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and in optimizing the management of somatic symptom burden.
Full Text Available For most of its history of undergraduate medical English instruction at Belgrade University, translation was a major part of teaching and assessment. Educational reforms in the early 21st century resulted in a shift towards content-based instruction with the focus on reading comprehension and less translation. The paper analyses the new role of translation in the reformed Serbian curriculum. A brief history of Medical English instruction is outlined. The role of lexicon and the level of discourse within the teaching of English translation in the Serbian curriculum are explored. Some suggestions for the improvement of medical English translation in the Serbian curriculum are offered. It has been shown that translation is a valuable skill to be mastered. Translation exercises allow instructors to recognize language-related comprehension problems. Furthermore, teaching translation is important in that future medical professionals are able to recognize different medical genres and structural differences between English and Serbian.
Domingues,Renan Barros; Domingues,Simone Aires
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between headache and alcohol consumption among medical students. 480 medical students were submitted to a questionnaire about headaches and drinking alcohol. Headache was assessed by ID-Migraine and functional disability was evaluated with MIDAS. The evaluation of alcohol consumption was assessed with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). There was significantly lower proportion of students with drinking problem among stude...
Vasić Aleksandar N.
Full Text Available One of the most excellent periodicals in the history of Serbian literature Serbian Literary Magazine (1901-1914, 1920-1941, also played an exceptionally important part in the history of Serbian music criticism and essay literature. During the period of 35 years, SLM had released nearly 800 articles about music. Majority of that number belongs to the music criticism, but there are also studies and essays about music ethno musicological treatises, polemics, obituary notices, as well as many ample and diverse notes. SLM was published during the time when Serbian society, culture and art were influenced by strong challenges of Europeanization and modernization. Therefore, one of the most complicated questions that music writers of this magazine were confronted with was the question of avant-garde music evaluation. Relation of critics and essay writers to the avant-garde was ambiguous. On one side, SLM's authors accepted modern art in principle, but, on the other side, they questioned that acceptance when facing even a bit radical music composition. This ambivalence as a whole marked the work of Dr Miloje Milojević, the leading music writer of SLM. It is not the same with other critics and essayists Kosta Manojlović was more tolerant, and Dragutin Čolić and Stanislav Vinaver were true protectors of the most avant-garde aspirations in music. First of all SLM was a literary magazine. In the light of that fact it has to be pointed out that very early, way back in 1912, critics wrote about Arnold Schoenberg, and that until the end of existence of this magazine the readers were regularly informed about all important avant-garde styles and composers of European, Serbian and Yugoslav music. The fact that Schoenberg Stravinsky, Honegger or Josip Slavenski mostly were not accepted by critics and essayists, expresses the basic aesthetic position of this magazine. Namely, SLM remained loyal to the moderate wing of modern music, music that had not rejected
Đukić Petar M.
Full Text Available There are numerous dilemmas related to the meaning of common terms associated with modern economic sectors, and especially the ones concerning industry. Chemical industry is a typical example of a term which changes rapidly and qualitatively, exactly with the pace of changing of the very technology based on knowledge, procedure, processes, raw materials, energy, as well as on the products themselves and on the way of their use. Numerous difficulties caused by huge changes in global market, by transition of command economies towards market system, as well as by the latest global economic-financial crisis, have brought the chemical industry in modern Serbia to an unenviable position. We cannot generally claim that chemical industry is collapsing, but the recovery of the whole chemical industry, as well as of the industry in general, necessitates many favourable presumptions from the environment, as well as strategic, systemic and operative measures, of the state within the so-called industry policy, as well as of the very companies which deal with chemical industry. The re-industrialization strategy, adopted officially during the first crisis blow, but to the full extent only during the prolonged crisis period in Serbia (2009-2013 should not be based on direct state incentives, but above all on the institutional infrastructure and business environment improvement which will lead to the investments in technological reconstruction and re-organization of the entire sector. However, chemical industry cannot be observed as a chance for economic growth per se, nor it can lead to higher employment rate in such a short period of time, but above all to productive use of profession, or of growth potential based on knowledge factor. This is why a proper evolution and prosperity of the Serbian chemical industry can be comprehended, not only through contribution of one separate sector, but as complementary and useful technologies within many other industries
Jovananović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srdjan; Zagradjanin, Danica; Milovanović, Nebojša; Puzović, Dragana
This paper describes the life and work of Dr. Atanasije Puljo (1878-1944). He was a volunteer in the Balkan wars, an active participant in the First World War; he was the first who noted the importance of team-work of a dentist and a surgeon in the care of jaw and facial injuries. He established primacy in this field, as he came up with this brilliant idea three years before other colleagues. His method of treatment of the upper jaw neglected fractures, called the Balkan method, was recognized worldwide. Dr. Puljo is the pioneer of dental radiology in Serbia, founder of the Odontology Clinic of the Medical Faculty and main supporter of the establishment of the School of Dentistry. Merits of Dr. Atanasije Puljo, medical practitioner with a broad knowledge in different fields, remain within the academic institution that was founded by this pioneer of dentistry in Serbia.
Iqbal, A.; Intikhab, K.; Saeed, K.
Objective: To find out major non-medial factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients. Design: An observational study conducted on adult cancer patients. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center Lahore Pakistan from January 1999. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-four newly-diagnosed adult cancer patients were interviewed by the clinical psychologist and data was collected regarding non-medical causal factors, patients age, gender family support system, general home atmosphere and marital status. Collected data was analyzed by utilizing. SPSS for windows version 10.0. Results: Of the 224 patients 142 (63.4%) reported non-medical factors causing psychological distress and 82 (36.6%) reported that medical sources are the most distressing. Ten most common non-medical sources of developing psychological disorders were identified. It was observed that family support system and general home atmosphere were significantly associated with the development of psychological disorders whereas the other variables such as age, gender and marital status had no significant relationship with the non Medical factors. Conclusion: It was concluded that non-medical factors causing psychological problems are significant in cancer patients. The results suggest that we should identify these factors and target psychosocial intervention for those patients most at risk. (author)
Godwin, Kyler M; Wasserman, Joan; Ostwald, Sharon K
This study aimed to capture direct costs of outpatient rehabilitative stroke care and medications for a 1-year period after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outpatient rehabilitative services and medication costs for 1 year, during the time period of 2001 to 2005, were calculated for 54 first-time stroke survivors. Costs for services were based on Medicare reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates and average wholesale price were used to estimate medication costs. Of the 54 stroke survivors, 40 (74.1%) were categorized as independent, 12 (22.2%) had modified dependence, and 2 (3.7%) were dependent at the time of discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Average cost for outpatient stroke rehabilitation services and medications the first year post inpatient rehabilitation discharge was $17,081. The corresponding average yearly cost of medication was $5,392, while the average cost of yearly rehabilitation service utilization was $11,689. Cost attributed to medication remained relatively constant throughout the groups. Outpatient rehabilitation service utilization constituted a large portion of cost within each group: 69.7% (dependent), 72.5% (modified dependence), and 66.7% (independent). Stroke survivors continue to incur significant costs associated with their stroke for the first 12 months following discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Changing public policies affect the cost and availability of care. This study provides a snapshot of outpatient medication and therapy costs prior to the enactment of major changes in federal legislation and serves as a baseline for future studies.
O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit; Hartvigsen, Jan
Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised. This review aimed to systematically and critically review studies dealing with factors found to be associated with dropping out of medical school. A systematic critical literature review of the international peer-reviewed research literature on medical education was performed. A primary search was conducted and subsequently supplemented with ancestry and descendancy searches. The population of interest was medical students and the outcome was dropout. Abstract/title screening and quality assessment were performed by two independent researchers. Studies were assessed on six domains of quality: study participation; study attrition; predictor measurement; measurement of and accounting for confounders; outcome measurement, and analysis. Only studies that accounted for confounding were included in the final analysis. Of 625 studies found, 48 were quality-assessed and 13 of these were eventually included based on their fulfilment of our quality-related criteria. A range of entry qualifications seemed to be associated with greater chances of a student dropping out (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65-4.00). Struggling academically in medical school may be strongly associated with dropout. By contrast, no specific pattern of demographic variables was particularly important in relation to dropout. The effects of socio-economic, psychological and educational variables on dropout were not well investigated. More research into causal models and theory testing, which considers the effects of education, organisation and institution, is necessary if we are to learn more about how we can actively prevent medical student withdrawal. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…
Jovanovic, Veljko; Zuljevic, Dragan
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS). The research was carried out on a sample of 408 high school students (250 females, 158 males), with the mean age 16.6. The Serbian version of the MSLSS has demonstrated good psychometric…
Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic. A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, pparents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (pproblems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (pstudents. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha products.
Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP
Дарія Володимирівна Девлиш
Full Text Available The article focuses its attention on the concepts "gender", "gender stereotype" and linguistic picture of the world. The lexicon of the Serbian language was researched through the prism of the analysis of synonymic rows which are used to represent character traits of men and women. In the structure of these concepts the following terms were pointed out: external characteristics, physical characteristics, internal characteristics, intellectual characteristics. Within the framework of the microcomponent “internal characteristics” two different negative features of both genders were analyzed: indecisive man, rude man; talkative woman, angry woman.
Zeger, Scott L.; Kolars, Joseph C.
BACKGROUND Knowledge acquisition is a goal of residency and is measurable by in-training exams. Little is known about factors associated with medical knowledge acquisition. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of learning habits on medical knowledge acquisition. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS Cohort study of all 195 residents who took the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) 421 times over 4 years while enrolled in the Internal Medicine Residency, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MEASUREMENTS Score (percent questions correct) on the IM-ITE adjusted for variables known or hypothesized to be associated with score using a random effects model. RESULTS When adjusting for demographic, training, and prior achievement variables, yearly advancement within residency was associated with an IM-ITE score increase of 5.1% per year (95%CI 4.1%, 6.2%; p international medical school graduation, −3.4% (95%CI −6.5%, −0.36%; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS Conference attendance and self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource had statistically and educationally significant independent associations with knowledge acquisition that were comparable to the benefit of a year in residency training. PMID:17468889
Spormann R, Camila; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Bastías V, Nancy; Bustamante D, Carolina; Ibáñez G, Pilar
Self-directed learning is a skill that must be taught and evaluated in future physicians. To analyze the association between self-directed learning, self-esteem, self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment among medical students. The self-directed learning, Rosemberg self-esteem, general self- efficacy, time management and Utrecht work engagement scales were applied to 297 first year medical students. A multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between self-efficacy, time management and academic commitment with self-directed learning. Self-esteem and satisfaction with studies did not enter in the model. self-esteem, academic commitment and a good time management were associated with self-directed learning in these students.
Putnik, Katarina; Houkes, Inge
Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well.
It has been pointed out that currently, Iwaki City faces an insufficiency of doctors working at hospitals, compared with before. Such an insufficiency became more remarkable after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, as about 30,000 people relocated to Iwaki City from the evacuation areas. In this regard, the Iwaki Medical Association conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the problems of medical cooperation and utilize the data to improve medical cooperation within hospitals and clinics. A total of 159 doctors answered the questionnaires: 64% were community physicians, 36% were doctors working at hospitals, and 42% were physicians. About 60% of the doctors were satisfied with the present medical cooperation. Home health care was performed by 25% of the doctors working at hospitals and 45% of the community physicians. Approximately 80% of the doctors felt the need for additional physicians to perform home health care, although more than half of the doctors answered that they do not perform it. Various problems exist in the context of medical cooperation, but many doctors still hope for its improvement, according to the answers in the questionnaires. Efforts have to be exerted further in order to enhance medical cooperation among the health care team. (author)
It has been pointed out that currently, Iwaki City faces an insufficiency of doctors working at hospitals, compared with before. Such an insufficiency became more remarkable after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, as about 30,000 people relocated to Iwaki City from the evacuation areas. In this regard, the Iwaki Medical Association conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the problems of medical cooperation and utilize the data to improve medical cooperation within hospitals and clinics. A total of 159 doctors answered the questionnaires: 64% were community physicians, 36% were doctors working at hospitals, and 42% were physicians. About 60% of the doctors were satisfied with the present medical cooperation. Home health care was performed by 25% of the doctors working at hospitals and 45% of the community physicians. Approximately 80% of the doctors felt the need for additional physicians to perform home health care, although more than half of the doctors answered that they do not perform it. Various problems exist in the context of medical cooperation, but many doctors still hope for its improvement, according to the answers in the questionnaires. Efforts have to be exerted further in order to enhance medical cooperation among the health care team.
Pinzón-Amado, Alexander; Guerrero, Sonia; Moreno, Katherine; Landínez, Carolina; Pinzón, Julie
It is well documented that physicians have higher rates of suicide than the general population. This risk tends to increase even from the beginning of undergraduate training in medicine. There are few studies evaluating the frequency of suicidal behaviors in undergraduate medical students, particularly in Latin America. To determine the lifetime prevalence and the variables associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a sample of medical students from the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. An analytical cross-sectional observational study was conducted to determine the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a non-random sample of medical students enrolled in three medical schools in Bucaramanga. A self-administered questionnaire was voluntarily and anonymously answered by the participants. Validated versions of the CES-D and CAGE scales were used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated in order to adjust the estimates of variables associated with the outcome «suicidal ideation in life». The study sample consisted of 963 medical students, of which 57% (n=549) of the participants were women. The average age was 20.3 years (SD=2.3 years). Having had at least one episode of serious suicidal ideation in their lifetime was reported by 15.7% (n=149) of the students, with 5% (n=47) of the students reported having made at least one suicide attempt. Having taken antidepressants during their medical training was reported by 13.9% (n=131) of the students. The variables associated with the presence of suicidal ideation in the logistic regression model were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR: 6.9, 95% CI; 4.54-10.4), history of illicit psychoactive substance use (OR 2.8, 95% CI; 1.6-4.8), and perception of poor academic performance over the past year (OR: 2.2, 95% CI; 1.4-3.6). The logistic regression model correctly classified
Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (Harvard Vanguard) decided to develop a Shared Medical Appointment (SMA) program in 2007 for a variety of reasons. The program has launched 86 SMAs in 17 specialties at 12 sites and has exceeded 13 000 patient visits. Currently, the practice offers 54 SMAs and is believed to be the largest program in the country. This article provides an overview regarding staffing, space and equipment, project planning, promotional materials, training programs, workflow development, and the use of quality improvement (ie, LEAN) tools used to monitor the work to be completed and the metrics to date.
Jajić Igor M.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence in maize samples originating from two harvest seasons in Serbia. The key differences between harvest seasons were weather conditions, specifically the humidity. The samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection, after clean-up on SPE columns. In samples from 2014, DON was found in 82 (100.0% samples with the average content of 2.517 mg/kg (ranged from 0.368 to 11.343 mg/kg. Two samples exceeded maximum level permitted by EU regulations. However, analyzing larger number of samples (163 from 2015 harvest season, DON was present in 51 (31.3% samples in significantly lower concentrations (average of 0.662 mg/kg, ranged from 0.106 to 2.628 mg/kg. None of the samples from 2015 exceeded maximum level permitted by EU regulations. The data on DON presence in Serbian maize were in relation to the different weather conditions that prevailed during the two harvest seasons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172042
Planojević, Nina; Zivojinović, Dragica
Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be - it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor. Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative's consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors' position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative's consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone's health, including a minor in which those are conducted - this is an acceptable (secondary) motive of participation in the research. Expression of humanity on other's behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors' participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model.
Jovanović Vladimir V.
Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.
Vidaković Mirna M.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of weasel claims in advertisements in English and Serbian. Weasel claims represent a form of covert communication and are characterized by the use of deliberately vague and misleading language. In the advertising discourse, this linguistic device helps advertisers to deal with sensitive issues, overcome consumers' distrust and thus influence their behavior. The research has been conducted on a corpus of 100 advertisements that belong to various categories, such as cars, cleaning products, cosmetics, drinks, food, etc., published in printed magazines and online sources from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of the analysis is to identify manifestations of weasel claims in the corpus, establish similarities and differences regarding their use in the given languages, and show how they influence the interpretation of the advertising message and create consumer behavioral patterns. Descriptive and contrastive analyses have been employed in the research. The study also draws on Grice's Cooperative Principle. The results will show that this deceptive tool is widespread in both languages and that its use in the advertising discourse in Serbian requires further research.
The Association of Canadian Medical Colleges has evolved over the 50 years of its existence in ways that could not have been anticipated by its founders who, none the less, would approve of the mature adult their infant has become. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Canada are now on a firmer and more rational base than would have been possible without the guidance and direction provided by a national body capable of resisting regional and sectarian pressures. Credit for this achievement must go to those who were responsible for the creation of the secretariat in the early 1960s. The vision of Wendell Macleod, the first chief executive officer, led to the development of the association's strong research arm, and his charm and wisdom created a smoothly operating and loyal staff. The record of the organization is a tribute to its staff and to the wisdom and foresight of its Council of Deans and Board of Directors. PMID:8477373
Mogaka, John J O; Mupara, Lucia; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M
Global disparities in medical technologies, laws, economic inequities, and social-cultural differences drive medical tourism (MT), the practice of travelling to consume healthcare that is either too delayed, unavailable, unaffordable or legally proscribed at home. Africa is simultaneously a source and destination for MT. MT however, presents a new and challenging health ethics frontier, being largely unregulated and characterized by policy contradictions, minority discrimination and conflict of interest among role-players. This article assesses the level of knowledge of MT and its associated ethical issues in Africa; it also identifies critical research gaps on the subject in the region. Exploratory design guided by Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework was used. Key search terms and prior determined exclusion/inclusion criteria were used to identify relevant literature sources. Fifty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Distributive justice, healthcare resource allocation, experimental treatments and organ transplant were the most common ethical issues of medical tourism in Africa. The dearth of robust engagement of MT and healthcare ethics, as identified through this review, calls for more rigorous research on this subject. Although the bulk of the medical tourism industry is driven by global legal disparities based on ethical considerations, little attention has been given to this subject.
Kunanitthaworn, Natchaya; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Paiboonsithiwong, Salilthip; Songtrijuck, Natchaphon; Kuntawong, Pimolpun; Wedding, Danny
This study identified and investigated the relationship between demographics, mental health problems, positive personality traits and perceived social support and motivation in medical education (MME) among first year medical students. One hundred-thirty eight first year medical students completed the Academic Motivation Scale, Outcome Inventory, Strength Based Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Path analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the variables of interest and each type of motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation. The mean age of the sample was 18.86 ± 0.74 and 60% of the subjects were female. Path analysis showed that extrinsic motivation was positively associated with being female, personal choice for studying medicine, and grade point average at high school. Intrinsic motivation was correlated with perceived family support, personal choice for studying medicine and the positive attribute of determination. Amotivation was related to being male, personal choice, and depression. While both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were correlated, they were uncorrelated with amotivation. All variables accounted for 18, 13, and 45% of variance of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, respectively. Each type of motivation has different but related predictors. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can be promoted, whereas amotivation represents an exclusive issue, one related more to depression, that needs to be reduced to not interfere with academic achievement and quality of life of medical students.
Mogaka, John J. O.; Mupara, Lucia; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M
ABSTRACT Global disparities in medical technologies, laws, economic inequities, and social–cultural differences drive medical tourism (MT), the practice of travelling to consume healthcare that is either too delayed, unavailable, unaffordable or legally proscribed at home. Africa is simultaneously a source and destination for MT. MT however, presents a new and challenging health ethics frontier, being largely unregulated and characterized by policy contradictions, minority discrimination and conflict of interest among role-players. This article assesses the level of knowledge of MT and its associated ethical issues in Africa; it also identifies critical research gaps on the subject in the region. Exploratory design guided by Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) framework was used. Key search terms and prior determined exclusion/inclusion criteria were used to identify relevant literature sources. Fifty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Distributive justice, healthcare resource allocation, experimental treatments and organ transplant were the most common ethical issues of medical tourism in Africa. The dearth of robust engagement of MT and healthcare ethics, as identified through this review, calls for more rigorous research on this subject. Although the bulk of the medical tourism industry is driven by global legal disparities based on ethical considerations, little attention has been given to this subject. PMID:28740618
Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A
The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.
Full Text Available The main purpose of introducing the PPBES to the Serbian Ministry of Defense and the Serbian Armed Forces is to provide a rational management of resources and to maintain and build capacity of the Ministry and the Serbian Armed Forces in order to achieve their goals, objectives and missions.Expected results of implementation of the PPBES are reflected in increasing the efficiency and rationalization of the defense planning to a higher level, ensuring compatibility with defense planning and budgeting system of the state and developing a foundation for the effective management of defense resources.
Ghada A. Bin Saif
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the association between psychological stress and skin symptoms among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2015. Electronic survey consists of Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ and Self-Reported Skin Complaints Questionnaire were distributed to all 1435 undergraduate students at College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Final analysis was performed on data from 529 (36.9% students. Students were divided into three groups: least stressed students, n=135, PSQ index less than 0.39; highly stressed students, n=136, PSQ index greater than 0.61; and moderately stressed students, n=258. Older age, female gender, during exam weeks, and fourth and fifth years of medical school (all p less than 0.01 were associated with the highest perceived stress levels. When compared to least stressed students, highly stressed students suffered from more oily, waxy patches or flakes on scalp (p≤0.0001, dry/sore rash (p≤0.0001, warts (p≤0.0001, pimples (p≤0.0001, itchy skin (p≤0.0001, hands itchy rash (p≤0.0001, hair loss (p≤0.0001, pull-out own hair (p=0.008, scaly skin (p=0.012, troublesome sweating (p=0.016, nails biting (p=0.028, and other rashes on face (p= 0.028. Conclusion: Various common skin conditions could appear in context of psychological stress among medical students.
Enoch, Lindsey; Chibnall, John T; Schindler, Debra L; Slavin, Stuart J
Given the trend among medical students away from primary care medicine and toward specialties that allow for more controllable lifestyles, the identification of factors associated with specialty choice is important. Burnout is one such factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between burnout and residency specialty choice in terms of provision for a less versus more controllable lifestyle (e.g. internal medicine versus dermatology) and a lower versus higher income (e.g. paediatrics versus anaesthesiology). A survey was sent to 165 Year 4 medical students who had entered the residency matching system. Students answered questions about specialty choice, motivating factors (lifestyle, patient care and prestige) and perceptions of medicine as a profession. They completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services (MBI), which defines burnout in relation to emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). Burnout and other variables were tested for associations with specialty lifestyle controllability and income. A response rate of 88% (n = 145) was achieved. Experiences of MBI-EE, MBI-DP and MBI-PA burnout were reported by 42 (29%), 26 (18%) and 30 (21%) students, respectively. Specialties with less controllable lifestyles were chosen by 87 (60%) students and lower-income specialties by 81 (56%). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) indicated that the choice of a specialty with a more controllable lifestyle was associated with higher MBI-EE burnout (OR = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.96), as well as stronger lifestyle- and prestige-related motivation, and weaker patient care-related motivation. The choice of a higher-income specialty was associated with lower MBI-PA burnout (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.98), weaker lifestyle- and patient care-related motivation, and stronger prestige-related motivation. Specialty choices regarding lifestyle controllability and income were associated with the amount and type of
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the... ethical issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, including ethical... issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, including ethical...
Unplanned readmissions of medical hospital patients have been increasing in recent years. We examined the frequency and associates of emergency medical readmissions to Galway University Hospitals (GUH).
Jay R. Hoffman
Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes
Full Text Available Anne WS Rutjes,1 Marcello Di Nisio2,31Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Department of Medical, Oral, and Biotechnological Sciences, University G D'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 3Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsWe read with interest the article by Ruiz-Montero et al, in which the authors used a before-and-after study design to examine changes in body composition (fat mass and lean body mass related to an aerobic-Pilates program in elderly Serbian women.1 The authors concluded that "a combined program of aerobic and Pilates, carried out under the supervision of an instructor, at least twice a week, produces health benefits in functionally independent women over the age of 60". This conclusion is overly optimistic and not supported by the evidence provided. View original paper by Ruiz-Montero and colleagues.
Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK
Dimitrijevic, Milan S.
The book is written paralelly in Serbian and English. The presence of works of Serbian astronomers and works in astronomical journals published by other Serbian scientists, in Science Citation Index within the period from 1945 up to the end of 2000, has been analyzed. Also is presented the list of 38 papers which had some influence on the development of astronomy in the twentieth century. A review of the development of astronomy in Serbia in the last century is given as well. Particular attention is payed to the Astronomical Observatory, the principal astronomical institution in Serbia, where it is one of the oldest scientific organizations and the only autonomous astronomical institute. Its past development forms an important part of the history of science and culture in these regions. In the book is also considered and the history of the university teaching of astronomy in Serbia after the second world war. First of all the development of the Chair of Astronomy at the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade, but also the teaching of astronomy at University in Novi Sad, Ni and Kragujevac is discussed. In addition to professional Astronomy, well developed in Serbia is also the amateur Astronomy. In the review is first of all included the largest and the oldest organization of amateur-astronomers in Serbia, founded in 1934. Besides, here are the Astronomical Society "Novi Sad", ADNOS and Research Station "Petnica". In Valjevo, within the framework of the Society of researchers "Vladimir Mandic - Manda", there is active also the Astronomical Group. In Kragujevac, on the roof of the Institute of Physics of the Faculty of Sciences, there is the "Belerofont" Observatory. In Ni, at the close of the sixties and the start of the seventies, there was operating a branch of the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Bokovic", while at the Faculty of Philosophy there existed in the period 1976-1980 the "Astro-Geophysical Society". In the year 1996 there was founded Astronomical Society
Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower
Wallace, Marc; McMullen, Thomas D.; Corcoran, Kate
Objective: The objective is to provide information on basic issues in library management identified by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) seventh triennial salary survey. Methods: The survey was a Web-based questionnaire. A nonrandom sample of persons was obtained by posting messages to MLA's membership and to the MEDLIB-L email discussion list. Employed MLA members and nonmembers employed in medical library settings filled out a Web-based form designed using common gateway interface (CGI) programming. Results: Six hundred forty-five usable responses were analyzed by the Hay Group and presented in the MLA publication, Hay Group/MLA 2001 Compensation and Benefits Survey. Results from the 2001 survey in this article focus on pay and job satisfaction. Salary survey results since 1983 were analyzed to review trends in seniority, diversity, and pay equity. Conclusions: Given the age progression of respondents from 1983 to 2001, it is clear that succession planning is a core issue for medical libraries. Although efforts to create more diversity in medical libraries in member organizations have started to yield results, pay for white respondents has increased at a higher rate than for other racial categories. The authors found that the pay-for-performance system in the organizations of approximately two-thirds of the respondents is suboptimized and that most of the reasons medical librarians cite for leaving their organization can be addressed and potentially changed by management. Results from the eighth salary survey, slated to be conducted in the fall of 2004, will further track these trends and issues. PMID:15494762
Vojvodić Dojčil P.
Polish are unable to distinguish real from eventual conditionality because they, unlike the Serbian language, do not have formal (grammatical means for delimitation between different types of hypothetical modality. In other words, the perfective present in the Serbian language, which in conditional sentences formally coincides with the Northern Slavic perfective future (which is the same as analytical, imperfective, future, used in those languages in both the main and the subordinate clauses of the conditional sentences, can never signify real conditionality, but only an eventual one. In addition to this, the Serbian language in order to express eventual conditionality in subordinate clauses uses future II (exact as well. Therefore, based on a short contrastive analysis of the material, it can be concluded that the inventory of resources used to express these types of modal hypothetical relationships is much richer in the Serbian language than it is in Russian or Polish. In relation to this, it is pointed out that the abovementioned specific features of the compared languages represent a typological boundary between the Southern Slavic and Northern Slavic languages. Likewise, the paper analyzes in a detailed manner complex concessive sentences with an emphasis on their semantic interpretation. This interpretation implies primarily ascertaining the basic components of the semantic invariant of the concession category, as well as an explanation of the principle of “unfulfilled expectations”, i.e. an implicit cause which enables the subject to unexpectedly overcome or fail to overcome an obstacle, which is precisely what concessive relationships are built on. In this regard, it can be noted that concessive relationships are closely associated with categories of evidentiality and epistemic modality, which is, in principle, the result of a mandatory, although, as a rule, formally inexplicit presence (participation of the addresser (speaker in the organization of given
Full Text Available Background Many studies indicate that one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease and disability around the world is Tobacco use. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults of colleges are often targeted of marketing by the tobacco industry. The aim of this study was to assess the relative frequency of tobacco use and associated factors in medical students. Methods This cross-sectional study has done among medical students in 2014 - 2015. Totally, 284 students from 4 levels (basic, extern, intern and residents were selected by random sampling from each category. We used a checklist for collecting demographic information that was distributed among participants by a trained interviewer. SPSS-11.5 software was used for data analysis andsignificance level was considered < 0.05. Results Among 284 medical students, 17 (6% smoked cigarette and 3 (1.05% used illicit substance. All of the users were male, 15 (88% of which were single. 1 (1.4 % of the basic level students, 6 (6.9 % of the externs, 9 (14.8 % of the Interns and 1(1.6 % of the residents used cigarette but the differences among these groups were not significant (P = 0.36. Generally, 13 (76.5% of the users resided in dormitory and the others lived in parental home, which shows a significant difference among these groups (P = 0.01.The logistic regression indicated stage level was positively associated with cigarette use (P < 0.007. Conclusions In this study, we evaluated how several environmental factors may influence illicit substance and tobacco use. We found an association between living in a dormitory and smoking cigarette, so it is an important factor to be considered in program planning for new students who entered into this environment.
Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradation such as furrows, gullies, landslides, or debris from rock weathering. The consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition. Planning and designing activities, with the application of technical and biotechnical erosion control structures, through the concept of restoration, are necessary measures in the protection of ski areas.
Full Text Available The author proceeds from the opinion of E. Gellner that nationalism creates nations, and not vice versa. In South-East Europe homogeneity has been brought about through a traditional model, wherein archetypes and psychological matrices, especially those based on hajduk (bandit myths, proved to be persistent during the 20th century, even in its closing decades. As the historical framework in his analysis, the author uses the concept of Illyricum, and not of the Balkans. The later term was invented only at the beginning of the 20th century and it does not have any historical, cultural or geographic validity. In research on the problem of nationalism and nations in South-East Europe it is possible to apply an ethnopsychological approach, in which Freudian theories can be of great help. In order to understand archetypes that still survive in the area of ancient Illyricum, one must analyse three historical models that were formed during the long centuries in this region: 1 the Croatian-Pannonian feudal model as well as the Mediterranean one in the West, 2 the patriarchal model in the mid-areas, 3 the Serbian “despotic” model in the East. In regard to patriarchal society, the author recognises in its ideology (national songs, myths etc. the Kraljević Marko syndrome (with projections, paranoia and narcism as its symptoms. The author emphasises that the parental super-ego is transferred to children, and so becomes the upholding factor of tradition and values. Mediaeval Serbia, in which Church and State were linked, had a different social development from European society. “Oriental despotism” as a dominant type can be seen in Serbian history from the Nemanjić period, through the Ottoman epoch to the modern Serbian state. During the Ottoman period, a homogeneous national culture prevailed, which was deeply marked by the Dinaric heritage. Stimulating paranoia and projects in the population, the modern state, assisted by the Church, threatened
Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot version of a more comprehensive study on Greek loanwords in Serbian vernaculars which will deal with their identification, distribution, periodisation, and adaptation. The materials excerpted from the presently existing dialectal dictionaries will be compared with the data from three classical sources on the topic: VASMER, POPOVIĆ 1953-1955, and SKOK. In this phase our goal was to find out whether there is any point in proceeding with the study of Greek loanwords in Serbian, after the results that have been reached by the three abovementioned authors. Our choice for the pilot analysis is Rečnik srpskih govora Vojvodine (RSGV because of its size, representativeness and actuality: it is the largest single dictionary (ten volumes comprising over 2,000 pages, it has covered the vastests continual territory (at the same time most distant from the line of contact with Greek, and also beyond the borders of the Balkan linguistic unity, it falls in the number of the most up-to-date ones (published in the period 2001 to 2011. The paper offers not just a linear inventory of Grecisms from RSGV, but a classification of types of divergencies from the standard body of Grecisms. It features primarily novelties - be they represented by new words (ponomarh ‘cleric’, mironisati ‘to pray in the church’, parasnik ‘unruly person’, by new semantics (buklijaš ‘horse ridden by the man who carries buklija’, Grk ‘shopkeeper’, katarka ‘long pole onto which knife for cutting the fishing-net is poised’, kolaba ‘structure for drying meat in the attic’, kondir ‘bucket for cattle; mode of cutting wine’, krevet ‘laundry; chair; the lower layer of sheaves in a stook’, liman ‘underwater source’, mira ‘extract produced by cooking large amounts of fish in little water, used as an additon to fish-stew’, paripa ‘horse farm’, by new formation (krevetnjača ‘a solid piece of wood fencing a straw
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the accuracy of the prediction of Zmijewski model in Serbia on the eligible sample. At the same time, the paper identifies model's strengths, weaknesses and limitations of its possible application. Bearing in mind that the economic environment in Serbia is not similar to the United States at the time the model was developed, Zmijewski model is surprisingly accurate in the case of Serbian companies. The accuracy was slightly weaker than the model results in the U.S. in its original form, but much better than the results model gave in the U.S. in the period 1988-1991, and 1992-1999. Model gave also better results in Serbia comparing those in Croatia, even in Croatia model was adjusted.
Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of a 9 month experience in implementing lean manufacturing tools in two Serbian food companies. Both companies have certified quality and food safety management systems and are food exporters. One of them is a big producer with more than 1000 employees with a three shift serial production while the other is a small producer with one shift and batch oriented production. Results showed that six tools were chosen by both companies - Total productive maintenance, Poka yoke, batch reduction, layout improvement, standardization of work and visual management. The big company implemented also cellular and flow, Jidoka, quick changeovers and 5S. None of the companies expressed interest at implementing Just-In-Time, Kanban, Self-inspection and Value stream mapping at this stage of the project.
Full Text Available The term ′moderated modernism′ has been current for quite some time in Serbian music historiography, but there have been only a few attempts to define it. I shall try to define the term, introduce some of its key concepts and features and demonstrate its applicability. Although moderated modernism was an international phenomenon which had divergent manifestations in various periods before and after the Second World War throughout Europe, my aim is to focus on the period between the decline of Socialist Realism and the ascent of post-modernism (roughly 1950 to 1980 in socialist Serbia, and to discuss the discourses and ideologies surrounding moderated modernism then and there.
Full Text Available The analysis of IT market in Serbia indicates an increase in exports of IT services. Consequently, the need for experts with competitive skills in modern information and communication technologies rises. International priorities related to the application of IT in business and science until the year 2020 include: e-education, cloud computing, mobile technologies, internet of things, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, social media, virtual reality, and big data. Designing environment for providing IT services in these fields can be an opportunity for the development of Serbian economy, because it does not require high infrastructural investments, only investments in education. This paper gives a proposal for leveraging higher education and lifelong learning in Serbia, with respect to the demands of the IT market.
Full Text Available The concept of perceived value is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for authors and researchers in the field of services marketing. Perceived value represents a multi-dimensional concept that consists of a number of components. In the conducted study, four key components were analyzed: emotional value, social value, functional value and monetary value. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of four identified components of value on customer satisfaction, as well as to test impact of customer satisfaction, corporate social responsibility and corporate reputation on behavioural intentions among Serbian mobile operator customers. Research originates from the assumption that to establish long-term relationships with customers, apart from generating customer satisfaction, issues like customer perception of corporate reputation and corporate responsibility are also of great significance.
Full Text Available Variability patterns and biodiversity components of chasmophytic forests of Ostrya carpinifolia in westSerbian ravine habitats were analyzed in this article. Investigations were performed in four gorges along Gornja Trešnjica, Gradac, Ljutina and Lim rivers. Chasmophytic hop hornbeam forests occur on steep slopes (25° to 50° at elevations ranging from 260 m to 1200 m, on all aspects. These forests grow on screes, rocky clifs, colluvial gravel, on shallow soils on dolomites, limestone and serpentine. Canonical correspondence analysis indicates that moisture, light and temperature gradients are the main factors affecting diversification of investigated forests. The greatest alpha diversity was detected in Brodarevo and Gostun gorges, along the Lim River.
Full Text Available This paper deals with network competition and provides empirical analysis of market concentration, network and call externalities, access pricing, price discrimination and switching costs in Serbian mobile phone telecommunications market. It is shown that network externalities governed the expansion of this market until 2008. Upon entry of VIP incumbents didn't engage in predatory behaviour towards entrant aiming to benefit from locked- in users. The policy of mobile phone number portability reduced on-net prices and substantially increased consumer's surplus. In contrast to some previous research, this policy was pro-competitive in Serbia. We have also determined that users of the network with the largest market share benefit the most from call externalities. Finally, one network does not price discriminate between outgoing and incoming roaming calls, which implies that users of this network have higher level pecuniary externalities in roaming compared to users of price discriminating networks.
Full Text Available Efficient current assets management should provide optimum level of company’s net current assets as interrelation between current assets and short-term liabilities. The companies whose short-term liabilities are not proportionate to cashable current assets face the problem of insolvency and all negative consequences caused by insolvency. Rate of return to total assets measures how good is the management’s use of the company property for the purpose of creating operating profit, regardless of the fact how these assets are financed. Serbian economy is burdened by insolvency and significant indebtedness under unfavorable loan terms, so adequate attention has to be dedicated to the matters of the structure of operating property and its financing in order to improve competitiveness and efficiency of business.
Full Text Available Although they were considered the ideologists of Yugoslav identity before the First World War, the members of Young Bosnia were not united regarding this issue. This is illustrated by the attitudes of the two main ideologists of the movement Vladimir Gaćinović and Dimitrije Mitrinović. Contrary to Mitrinović, who was one of the most eager promoters of the idea of the unity of the South Slavs, Gaćinović was distrustful of this idea. He understood it as the 'pouring Croatian water in Serbian wine'. Both of them had a big number of followers in students' revolutionary organizations, and these Serb-Croat and Yugoslav organizations were responsible for the Assassination at Sarajevo.
Jain, Mamta K
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection frequently has been associated with elevated liver enzyme levels. Determining the cause of elevated liver enzyme levels in patients who have HIV is difficult because ART usually consists of three different drugs, patients may be taking additional hepatotoxic medications and patients who have HIV often suffer from other liver diseases. Several agents, however, are recognized as having noteworthy and specific patterns of toxicity. This article reviews the different HIV drug classes, incidence of elevated liver enzyme values by class and by individual drug, risk factors, specific toxicities, and possible mechanisms of injury.
Hullmann, Stephanie E; Brumley, Lauren D; Schwartz, Lisa A
The current study examined adherence to medication regimens among adolescents with cancer by applying the Pediatric Self-Management Model. Adolescents and their parents reported on adherence to medication, reasons for nonadherence, and patient-, family-, and community-level psychosocial variables. Adolescent- and parent-reported adherence were significantly correlated, with about half of the sample reporting perfect adherence. The majority reported "just forgot" as the most common reason for missed medication. Patient-, family-, and community-level variables were examined as predictors of adherence. With regard to individual factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported a greater proportion of future-orientated goals and spent fewer days in outpatient clinic visits. For family factors, adolescents who endorsed perfect adherence reported greater social support from their family and were more likely to have a second caregiver who they perceived as overprotective. The community-level variable (social support from friends) tested did not emerge as a predictor of adherence. The results of this study provide direction for intervention efforts to target adolescent goals and family support in order to increase adolescent adherence to cancer treatment regimens. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.
Zečević Snežana M.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of translational eqivalents as well as of the composition of the entries in bilingual English-Serbian dictionaries. It is initially assumed that there are different microstructure and macrostructure of the dictionaries of different volume and purpose, likewise the correspondence of translational equivalents of their entries. The analysis conducted for the requirements of this paper included six randomly chosen lexemes of the English language taken from three bilingual dictionaries that were contrasted with their equivalent lexemes presented in the monolingual English dictionary which was later used for checking. The results of the analysis presented less meaning of the lexemes in Colloquial and Universal English-Serbian Dictionary while the utmost variety of semantic dimensions was noted in Encyclopedic English-Serbian Dictionary which by its quality and organization presents an inexhaustible source of information necessary for translating texts from English to Serbian language.
Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.
Full Text Available The seals which carry the symbols of the First Serbian Uprising appeared quite early, only a few months after its breakout. The seals with the Uprising symbols have a distinct West-European heraldic form. According to their main symbols, these seals belong to either the monogram or the coat-of-arms type. In this paper, the seals of Vozd Karadjordje Proviteljstvujušči Sovjet [Rulling Council], Mladen Milanović, Stojan Čupić Voivode Marko Katić, as well as of Luka Lazarević have been analysed. The central symbols of their seals are a reflection of the then Serbian society (the Serbian lands, the Serbian army, war and justness.
Cheung, Ka-Chun; van der Veen, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L; Wensing, Michel; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; de Smet, Peter A G M
Information technology (IT) plays a pivotal role in improving patient safety, but can also cause new problems for patient safety. This study analyzed the nature and consequences of a large sample of IT-related medication incidents, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. The medication incidents submitted to the Dutch central medication incidents registration (CMR) reporting system were analyzed from the perspective of the healthcare professional with the Magrabi classification. During classification new terms were added, if necessary. The principal source of the IT-related problem, nature of error. Additional measures: consequences of incidents, IT systems, phases of the medication process. From March 2010 to February 2011 the CMR received 4161 incidents: 1643 (39.5%) from community pharmacies and 2518 (60.5%) from hospitals. Eventually one of six incidents (16.1%, n=668) were related to IT; in community pharmacies more incidents (21.5%, n=351) were related to IT than in hospitals (12.6%, n=317). In community pharmacies 41.0% (n=150) of the incidents were about choosing the wrong medicine. Most of the erroneous exchanges were associated with confusion of medicine names and poor design of screens. In hospitals 55.3% (n=187) of incidents concerned human-machine interaction-related input during the use of computerized prescriber order entry. These use problems were also a major problem in pharmacy information systems outside the hospital. A large sample of incidents shows that many of the incidents are related to IT, both in community pharmacies and hospitals. The interaction between human and machine plays a pivotal role in IT incidents in both settings.
Stojanova, Violeta; Petrov, Gose; Sijakova-Ivanova, Tena
This paper presents the lithostratography of the eocene sedimentary series in the Serbian Macedonian massif on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Sediments of Eocene age in the Serbian Macedonian massif are represented in the Delchevo, Deve Bair and Strumi ca basin, with the orientation of NW-SE to S-J. With lithostratigraphic studies of eocene sediments in the basins in SMM, 3 superposition lithostratigraphic units (lithozones) were isolated:...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of systematic associations in drug prescription that lead to the establishment of patterns of polypharmacy, and the clinical interpretation of the associations found in each pattern. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on information obtained from electronic medical records and the primary care pharmacy database in 2008. An exploratory factor analysis of drug dispensing information regarding 79,089 adult patients was performed to identify the patterns of polypharmacy. The analysis was stratified by age and sex. RESULTS: Seven patterns of polypharmacy were identified, which may be classified depending on the type of disease they are intended to treat: cardiovascular, depression-anxiety, acute respiratory infection (ARI, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, rhinitis-asthma, pain, and menopause. Some of these patterns revealed a clear clinical consistency and included drugs that are prescribed together for the same clinical indication (i.e., ARI and COPD patterns. Other patterns were more complex but also clinically consistent: in the cardiovascular pattern, drugs for the treatment of known risk factors-such as hypertension or dyslipidemia-were combined with other medications for the treatment of diabetes or established cardiovascular pathology (e.g., antiplatelet agents. Almost all of the patterns included drugs for preventing or treating potential side effects of other drugs in the same pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the existence of non-random associations in drug prescription, resulting in patterns of polypharmacy that are sound from the pharmacological and clinical viewpoints and that exist in a significant proportion of the population. This finding necessitates future longitudinal studies to confirm some of the proposed causal associations. The information discovered would further the development and/or adaptation of clinical
Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to identify the origin of differences between Serbian (N=166 and Roma children (N=169 of primary school age in achievement on Modified Rosenzweig Test, used as a measure of social intelligence (Roma children had lower results than Serbian children. Results show that these differences can be partly explained with extreme inviolable socio-economic and cultural status of Roma children. Social intelligence test's scores are significantly correlated with socio-economic and cultural status; this correlation is more apparent in Roma than in Serbian sample. Differences between Serbian and Roma children become less apparent when we control the influence of socio-economic and cultural status. Parent's educational level is recognized as the most important indicator of socio-economic and cultural status. Another way to identify the origin of differences was directed to investigation of adequacy of used test as a measure of social intelligence of Roma children. Our assumption that some items make whole test unfair for Roma children is not confirmed. However, results concerning the relation between experience with particular social situations and success in particular test items, and results concerning the different structures of implicite understanding of social intelligence by Serbian and Roma parents, point out that test key favors responses that Serbian people accept as optimal in task situation, while the responses according to Roma implicite understanding of social intelligence are less valued.
Antonijević Radovan M.
Full Text Available This paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia, in the fields of mathematics achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the mathematics curriculum context of their achievement. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders have made average scale score of 477 points, and with this achievement they are placed in the zone of intermediate international benchmarking level. The average mathematics achievement of the Serbian eighth graders is somewhat above the average international mathematics achievement. The best result was achieved in the content domain of "algebra", and the lower result in the content domains of "measurement" and "data". In the defined cognitive domains the Serbian students have achieved the best results in "solving routine problems" and "knowing facts and procedures", and the weaker result in "reasoning". Statistically significant difference was found in the mathematics achievement between girls and boys in the Serbian TIMSS 2003 sample, so the girls’ average scale score was 480 points and the same value for the boys was 473 points. The achieved results raise many questions about the contents of mathematics curriculum in Serbia, its quality and basic characteristics of its implementation. These results can be eligibly used to improve the mathematics curriculum and teaching in Serbian primary school.
Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the reliability and validity of the Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue, an instrument designed to comprehensively assess emotional intelligence conceived as a constellation of emotionrelated self-perceptions. Study participants were 254 adults, who completed the Serbian TEIQue, NEO-FFI, MSCEIT, EQ-short, and RSPWB. The results indicate that the adapted TEIQue is a psychometrically sound assessment tool: internal consistencies were mostly acceptable at facet, generally good at factor, and excellent at whole-scale level; the fourfactor structure was confirmed by means of CFA; convergent-discriminant validity was established through meaningful associations with related constructs, indicating that trait EI is closely aligned with affect and self-efficacy related constructs from the realm of personality (i.e., E, N, C, and Empathy, but shows only moderate overlap with ability EI; finally, incremental validity was demonstrated in the prediction of psychological wellbeing, over and above the Big Five. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018
Part of a wider examination into football during the collapse of Eastern European Communism between 1989 and 1991, this article studies the interplay between Serbian football and politics during the period of Yugoslavia's demise. Research utilizing interviews with individuals directly involved in the Serbian game, in conjunction with contemporary Yugoslav media sources, indicates that football played an important proactive role in the revival of Serbian nationalism. At the same time the Yugos...
Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac; Milojko Kovacevic; Dusko Kosutic; Milan Loncar; Dajana Veljkovic
Complete test of publication follows. The optimization of image quality vs. patient dose ins an important task in medical imaging. Maximal validity of optimization has to be based on clinical images. Simultaneous measurement of patient dose levels and image quality assessment is used to investigate possibilities for dose reduction and maintain image quality. The survey was conducted in a local hospital performing more than 60000 images annually and representing typical Serbian practice. For four most frequent diagnostic procedures (seven projections) patient exposure was measured using kerma area product meter. Image quality was assessed by experienced radiologists using 'European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images'. Following examination types were included into the survey: chest PA, chest LAT, pelvis AP, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT and LSJ, skull PA and skull LAT. Comparing actual radiographic technique with recommended technique in European Guidelines, modification of practice was proposed and implemented and image quality was re-assessed. At least 10 adult patients were followed for each projection, before and after corrective actions. Large dose saving without compromising diagnostic information were found for some examination types, showing that this simple method is very efficient dose reduction tool in conventional diagnostic radiology. Also, need for staff training and difficulties related to practical implementation of optimization methods in Serbia were discussed.
Kusturica, Milica Paut; Tomić, Zdenko; Bukumirić, Zoran; Horvat, Olga; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir; Sabo, Ana
Worldwide data indicate that antibiotics are frequently used inappropriately. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of storage and wastage of antibacterial agents in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The study was performed in 8 months period (December 2011-July 2012) in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The households were randomly selected from the telephone directory. The interviewer performed the survey visiting each household. The total number of antibacterial agents in the 383 surveyed households was 318, constituting 7.3% of the total stored medications. From 383 families included in the study antibiotics were found in 178 (46.5%). In 13 (7.3%) families were found more than one pack of the same antibiotics. The median number of antibacterial agents per household was 1 (range 1-5). The most common antibacterial agents that were not in current use were cephalexin (22.1%) and amoxicillin (16.6%), followed by doxycycline (11.4%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (11.4%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (9.2%). The percentage of expired antibacterial agents was 20.8%, while 85.2% were not currently in use. Antibacterial agents were commonly encountered in Serbian households, and a relatively large percentage was wasted. Informational and educational activities aimed at improving the public knowledge about antimicrobials play the leading role in reducing imprudent use of antibiotics. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
Vasić Aleksandar N.
Full Text Available It is worth noting that the important journal of the history of Serbian literature and music, the Serbian Literary Magazine (1901 - 1914, 1920 1941, became more Yugoslav-oriented within a relatively short period following its inception. From its early beginning to 1906, the Magazine’s musical critics did not actively express its Yugoslav ideology. But from 1907 there was an increase of interest in both the music and the musicians from Croatia and Slovenia. In 1911 the Croatian Opera spent almost two weeks in Belgrade performing; the composer and musicologist, Miloje Milojević began to develop the idea of union with Slavs from the South in a critical analysis he rendered of their performance. Until the end of the first/old series, SLM highlighted a noticeable number of texts about Croatians and Slovenians: critical reviews of Croatian musical books, concerts of Slovenian artists in Belgrade, score editions of Slovenian music performances of instrument soloists from Zagreb in Belgrade - as well as notes about the musical work of Croatian Academy (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb. Echoes of rare tours of Serbian musicians in South Slavs cultural centers did not go unheard, either. In the older series of the journal, lasting and two-fold relations had already begun to lean towards Yugoslav ideology. From one side, even before World War I, Yugoslav ideology in the Magazine was accepted as a program objective of Serbian political and cultural elite. On the other, the journal does not appear to have negotiated any of its aesthetic criterion when estimating musical events that came from Zagreb and Ljubljana to Belgrade - at least not "in the name of Yugoslav ideology". In later series of SLM, the Yugoslav platform was being represented as official ideological statehood of newly created Kingdoms of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (1918, i.e., the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929. At that time, the Magazine had occasional literary cooperation from
Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Fernandes, Maria Eneida Porto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso
To analyze the prevalence and associated factors regarding the use of medicines by self-medication in Brazil. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using data from the PNAUM (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), collected between September 2013 and February 2014 by interviews at the homes of the respondents. All people who reported using any medicines not prescribed by a doctor or dentist were classified as self-medication practitioners. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (Poisson regression) and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated in order to investigate the factors associated with the use of self-medication by medicines. The independent variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions and access to and use of health services. In addition, the most commonly consumed medicines by self-medication were individually identified. The self-medication prevalence in Brazil was 16.1% (95%CI 15.0-17.5), with it being highest in the Northeast region (23.8%; 95%CI 21.6-26.2). Following the adjusted analysis, self-medication was observed to be associated with females, inhabitants from the North, Northeast and Midwest regions and individuals that have had one, or two or more chronic diseases. Analgesics and muscle relaxants were the therapeutic groups most used for self-medication, with dipyrone being the most consumed medicines. In general, most of the medicines used for self-medication were classified as non-prescriptive (65.5%). Self-medication is common practice in Brazil and mainly involves the use of non-prescription medicines; therefore, the users of such should be made aware of the possible risks. Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à utilização de medicamentos por automedicação no Brasil. Este estudo transversal de base populacional foi realizado com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de medicamentos (PNAUM
Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon
Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed
Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others
Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.
Full Text Available Contractual liability is an important topic of the ongoing reform of the effective Serbian Law on Obligations (2007-2009, which aims to harmonize the national legislation in this field with the laws of the European Union. In this paper the author analyzes the evolution of the traditional European civil codes (the German BGB, French Code civil, the Austrian ABGB the Swiss OR and the Hungarian Civil Code, with due attention to the doctrine and jurisprudence, taking into account the proposed reforms of the effective Serbian Law on Obligations concerning issues of contractual liability, such as the legal consequences of nonperformance, misperformance, default, etc. The author is of the opinion that the notion of the breach of contract doesn't cover all the cases in which contractual liability arises, although it embraces nonperformance, misperformance and default. The notion of contractual liability, namely, covers not only the cases of breach of contract, but the infringement of public policy, good morals and mandatory rules, which all lead to the nullity of the contract. In cases of voidable contracts (that is in case of defects of contractual will, such as mistake, deceit and duress it is questionable whether the scope of contractual liability should be extended to mistake, which is a case of nonconscious discrepancy between contractual will and its expression. It is undisputable that contractual liability arises in case of deceit and duress, to the burden of the party acting in bad faith. The rescission of contract entails a separate complex of legal issues, since it may be justified by the other party's breach of the contract. It can also be onesided, two-sided or by a mutual agreement. Furthermore, specific rules apply to rescission of contract due to changed circumstances. In case of termination of a contract by mutual agreement, the parties usually agree on the extent of liability, that is on the extent of indemnification. Contractual
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analyses of suicide risk factors enable to undertake appropriate preventive measures within the Suicide Prevention Program in Military Environment, which was fully applied in 2003 in the Serbian Army Forces. The aim of our study was to identify the most important suicide risk factors in soldiers within the period from 1998 to 2007. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The control group was matched with adapted soldiers by socio-demographic factors. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Comparison of groups of soldiers was done by the t-test and Pearson's χ2-test. Results. A total of 35 soldiers aged 22-49 years (21.76 ± 1.76 years on average committed suicide within the period 1999-2007, the 2/3 within, and 1/3 out of a military compound. More than one half soldiers committed suicide after transferring to a different post. Soldiers who committed suicide had come from uncompleted, dysfunctional families (p < 0.05. In comparison with the adapted soldiers, in premilitary period they had more interpersonal problems with their comrades (p < 0.001 and problems with law (p < 0.05. During military service, alcohol consumption was less presented; they used to have fewer separation problems (p < 0.05 and to be rarely awarded (p < 0.001 in comparison with the adapted soldiers. A soldier who committed suicide was emotionally and socially immature persons. The commonest motives for suicide were: decreased capacity of adaptation to military service, actual psychic disturbance, emotional interruption, fear of environment judgment, actual family problems, but in the one fifth, motive stayed unrecognized. Conclusion. Suicide risk factors in soldiers are primary in their immature personality organization, its relation with family and military environment factors which, in coexistence with actual life accidents, result in suicide as a consequence. A
Cvjetkovic, Smiljana J; Jeremic, Vida Lj; Tiosavljevic, Danijela V
Since vaccination coverage in Serbia has been decreasing and health professionals have been identified as the most important factor in making decisions about immunization, vaccination knowledge and attitudes of students, especially medical students, are of particular interest. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on three groups of 509 Belgrade University students (medical, law and engineering students). The data were collected using an on-line questionnaire posted to student groups and included the Vaccine Knowledge Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Vaccination Scale. This survey also included questions about demographic characteristics and perceived negative experiences. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. There was a significant difference in the Vaccine Knowledge score (F=40.48, pstudents. Medical students (N=251, Mean=4.47, SD=1.71) had significantly higher mean knowledge scores than did law (N=128, Mean=2.80, SD=1.56) or engineering students (N=130, Mean=3.98, SD=1.81). Compared with the law (Mean=49.77, SD=10.23) and engineering students (Mean=57.62, SD=12.21), medical students (Mean=59.52, SD=9.62) also had significantly higher attitude scores (F=37.56, pstudents toward immunization. However, some knowledge gaps were identified. Multivariate analysis showed that those who had better vaccine knowledge, those who studies medicine, those who attended at university for more years, and those who do not know someone who had a negative experience with vaccines were more likely to have positive attitudes toward vaccination. Considering the growing vaccination hesitance in the general population, this is an important result that indicates that medical students are possible important participants in future public health campaigns. A strong association between vaccine knowledge and attitudes implies recommendations to introduce a specialized vaccination curriculum at both the undergraduate and graduate levels of medical study. Copyright © 2017 The
O'Neill, Lotte; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit
Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised.......Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised....
Liese, B; Mundt, K A; Dell, L D; Nagy, L; Demure, B
Preliminary investigations of whether 10,884 staff and consultants of the World Bank experience disease due to work related travel. Medical insurance claims filed by 4738 travellers during 1993 were compared with claims of non-travellers. Specific diagnoses obtained from claims were analysed overall (one or more v no missions) and by frequency of international mission (1, 2-3, or > or = 4). Standardised rate of claims ratios (SSRs) for each diagnostic category were obtained by dividing the age adjusted rate of claims for travellers by the age adjusted rate of claims for non-travellers, and were calculated for men and women travellers separately. Overall, rates of insurance claims were 80% higher for men and 18% higher for women travellers than their non-travelling counterparts. Several associations with frequency of travel were found. SRRs for infectious disease were 1.28, 1.54, and 1.97 among men who had completed one, two or three, and four or more missions, and 1.16, 1.28, and 1.61, respectively, among women. The greatest excess related to travel was found for psychological disorders. For men SRRs were 2.11, 3.13, and 3.06 and for women, SRRs were 1.47, 1.96, and 2.59. International business travel may pose health risks beyond exposure to infectious diseases. Because travellers file medical claims at a greater rate than non-travellers, and for many categories of disease, the rate of claims increases with frequency of travel. The reasons for higher rates of claims among travellers are not well understood. Additional research on psychosocial factors, health practices, time zones crossed, and temporal relation between travel and onset of disease is planned.
Milovanovic Dragana Dragas
Full Text Available Carbamazepine exhibits significant inter-individual variability in its efficacy and safety, which leads to unpredictable therapy outcomes for the majority of patients. Although its complex biotransformation depends on CYP3A5 activity, evidence of association between carbamazepine treatment outcomes and CYP3A5 functional variations remains inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of two of the functionally important CYP3A5 variants *2 and *3 as well as their effects on carbamazepine dose requirements, plasma concentrations and clearance in a Serbian population. The study involved 40 paediatric epileptic patients on steady-state carbamazepine treatment. Genotyping was conducted using the PCR-RFLP method, and carbamazepine plasma concentrations were determined using the HPLC method. CYP3A5*2 and *3 polymorphisms were found at frequencies of 0.0% and 97.5%, respectively, which corresponds well to previously published data for Caucasians. No differences in CYP3A5*3 allele frequencies were detected among epileptic patients in comparison to healthy volunteers within similar ethnic populations (p>0.08, indicating that CYP3A5 polymorphism does not represent a risk factor for epilepsy development. There was an observed tendency towards lower dosage requirements (mean±SD: 15.06±4.45 mg/kg vs. 18.74±5.55 mg/kg; p=0.26, higher plasma concentrations (mean±SD: 0.45±0.13 mg/kg vs. 0.38±0.03 mg/kg; p=0.47 and lower clearance (mean±SD: 0.14±0.05 mg/kg vs. 0.15±0.01 mg/kg; p=0.79 of carbamazepine in homozygous carriers of CYP3A5*3/*3 compared to heterozygous CYP3A5*1A/*3 Serbians. Because these genotype groups did not differ significantly in terms of their carbamazepine pharmacokinetics parameters, the proposed effects of CYP3A5*3 on carbamazepine metabolism could not be confirmed.
Purenović-Ivanović, Tijana; Popović, Ružena
Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies.
Dmitrić, Tanja; Veselinović, Mila; Mitrović, Slobodan M
Articulation is the result of speech organs and it means clean, clear and distinct pronunciation of voices in words. A prospective study included 24 children between 5 and 15 years of age, of both sexes. All children were monolingual, Serbian being their native language. The quality of articulation was tested with Triage articulation test. Neither omission nor distortion of plosives was observed in any of them, whereas substitution of plosives occurred in 12% of patients. Omission of affricates was not observed in any of the subjects, but substitution and distortion occurred in 29%, and 76% of subjects, respectively. Omission of fricatives was found in 29% subjects, substitution in 52%, and distortion in 82% of subjects. Omission and distortion of nasals was not recorded in any of the subjects, and substitution occurred in 6% of children. Omission of laterals was observed in 6%, substitution in 46% and distortion in 52% of subjects with articulation disorders. Discussion and Articulation disorders were observed not only in children diagnosed with dyslalia but in those with dysphasia and stuttering as well. Children with speech disorders articulate vowels best, then nasals and plosives. Articulation of fricatives and laterals was found to be most severely deviated, including all three disorders, i.e. substitution, omission and distortion. Spasms of speech muscles and vegetative reactions were also observed in this study, but only in children with stuttering.
Full Text Available The continuous development of the penal system in Serbia is reflected in significant changes within the criminal legislative solutions. The most important legal document of the medieval Serbia, 'Dušan's Code' was characterized by harsh corporal and death punishments taken from the Byzantine law. During the Ottoman period 'Dušan's Code' was no longer in use, and with the beginning of the First Serbian Uprising, the adoption of individual legislations began. The Criminal Code of the Principality of Serbia, adopted in 1860, introduced a novelty of major and minor penalties, including, most importantly, several types of detention. The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was adopted in 1929 and it predicted different types of sanctions other than fines. The main feature of the Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was permanent abolition of the corporal punishment. After the Second World War, the newly formed government adopted new criminal codes and new forms of punishment, which remained unchanged from the Novel in 1959 up until the dissolution of the SFRY. Contemporary criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by the abolition of the death penalty, seizure of property and the introduction of new penalties, which should, instead of short prison sentences, serve as an alternative. Throughout its statehood, from the Middle Ages up until today, Serbia has always had a continuity of the penal system development parallel with its development, primarily in Europe.
Full Text Available Global economic crisis has, following financial crisis, hit real sector, and as after effect, large number, mostly developed countries in the world are in recession. Serbian industry is also influenced by global economic crisis. Outer debt is significantly and constantly increasing since beginning of transition process. Main cause to it is rather large disproportion between import and export. Trends in structure of outer debt indicate on notable decrease of national debt on account to private one, during whole transition period. On short term there is no significant risk for country on account of outer debt, but for long term elimination of this risk, it is necessary to considerably increase total export. Former policies should be linked to unconventional employment initiatives, as for new labour, as for redundant ones from restructuring economy branches. State has prominent role in transition process, by helping market exhibit its functions through physical and institutional infrastructure, as well trough public sector, removing most of the market obstacles, and stimulating technical-technological development and education.
Full Text Available In this paper the author uses a comparative analysis in order to show the discontinuity in the process of the industrial development of the Serbian society, as well as to point out the fact that the almost same problems have not been mastered throughout the whole process of industrialization. Besides the historical data, the data of the empirical research are used. The goal of the empirical research was to determine the real and the possible degree and intensity of the influence of the structural social changes to the organizing of industrial work. The research had been done from 2011 to 2013 using the multiple case study method, and it included six organizations from different sectors of industry. By comparison of different phases of the industrial development in Serbia the author concludes the continuity of the following problems: accumulation of capital, technical and technological underdevelopment and dependence, raw materials dependence, and the deficit of the competent work force (especially managers. The biggest and the basic problem, which encompasses all four problems mentioned above, has been the absence of the strategy of the industrial development throughout the whole process of this development.
Full Text Available Frontier markets, such as Serbia, which are at the early stages of development, are characterized by very low level of solvency, absence of corporate management rules and reports to the public, insufficiently developed regulations, as well as significant participation of foreign portfolio investors in the exchange. Those are usually foreign investment funds specialized in risky investments at such markets; they apply the principle of geographic portfolio diversification in their investment policy. At the Belgrade Stock Exchange, foreign investors have been present at the stock market since 2002 and they participated in high volumes in stock buying during the stock market growth in the period from 2002 to 2007, whereas during the crisis at the Serbian capital market from 2008 to 2010 there was a significant increase in foreign investors' participation on the selling side and a withdrawal from the Belgrade Stock Exchange. Such behavior of foreign investors was initially prompted by local factors, but was intensified by the global financial crisis and will be analyzed in this paper.
Baćović Vukašin K.
Full Text Available The poetry about Kosovo is a poetry about the Fenix Bird and torture. Because of its esthetic worthiness it is included in the greatest poetry accomplishments of Serbian people and the human kind in general. The Death of the Mother of Jugović is the poem in which spirit trolds the central position. The nature of this mother is characterized by two most supreme human feelings: patriotism and maternity. The poem accumulates pain reaching enormous power of personal, family and collective misery. Love of the mother of Jugović is always fresh because it rises from the never ending spring of a mother's soul. Only great poets such as: Sofocles in Antigona, Aesylus in Prometheus Bound, Shakespeare in Hamlet, Njegoš in The Mountain Wreath and some particular poets of the Bible created similar poetic branches. The cult of the mother of Jugović needs to be breaded new generations may reach new cognitions and new worlds.
Full Text Available This paper addresses two major research questions: which techniques firms in Serbia use for project evaluation, and how the Serbian companies calculate their cost of capital. The authors have created the questionnaire and the sample consisting of 65 companies that responded to the enquiry (out of 392 during the year 2015. The results showed that payback criterion is the most dominant capital budgeting technique used by firms in Serbia. Further, the results revealed that large firms as well as multinational firms are more inclined to use discounted cash flow capital budgeting techniques and other sophisticated techniques. Finally, the authors have concluded that the CAPM is not the dominant method for calculating cost of capital by the companies from the sample analyzing the overall sample. Consequently, skilled human capital, the adequate knowledge and developed procedures may contribute to accepting capital budgeting techniques such as discounted cash flow analysis and other sophisticated techniques by larger portion of the companies in Serbia. Finally, existence of perfect financial market is a necessary precondition for implementing all these contemporary financial concepts and its development has to be posed as one of the priorities in the years to come.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish whether the SSST, a Serbian language scrambled sentences instrument, is a reliable measure of depressive cognitive bias, and whether it captures the suppression tendency as participants exert the additional cognitive effort of memorizing a six-digit number while completing the task. The sample consisted of 1071 students, randomly assigned into two groups. They completed the SSST divided into two blocks of 28 sentences, together with additional cognitive task during either the first or second block, and after that a number of instruments to establish validity of the SSST. The test was shown to be a reliable instrument of depressive cognitive bias. As a measure of suppression the SSST performed partly as expected, only when load was applied in the second half of the test, and fatigue and cognitive effort enhanced suppression. The advantages of the test versus self-description measures were discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179006: Hereditary, environmental, and psychological factors of mental health
Full Text Available In this work, we explored cognitive status of suffix allomorphy of the masculine nouns in instrumental singular in Serbian language (eg. mišom-mišem; pužom-pužem. Allomorphy represents distinct variations in form of the morpheme which does not influence it’s function and meaning (cf. Lyons, 1968. Despite it’s frequent appearance in speech and language production, it has rarely been a subject of psycholinguistic explorations. First goal of this research was to determine whether the cognitive processing of allomorphic nouns has it’s specificities and second goal was to create the base for making and testing hypothesis regarding morphological and/or phonological factors that influence suffix alternation in forming of instrumental singular of masculine nouns. We conducted visual lexical decision experiment and applied a questionnaire created for the needs of investigating allomorphy in language production. Results showed that at least two processes influence cognitive processing of masculine nouns in instrumental singular: (a certain morpho-phonological restrictions that influence appearance of the suffix-em, and (b allomorphy - variations in suffix in instrumental singular. In addition, the findings indicate that allomorphy could be the consequence of the tendency to use more frequent suffix (-om, that eases the processing, and blocks the influence of the morpho-phonological restrictions.
Omić, S; Brkić, V K Spasojevic; Golubović, T A; Brkić, A D; Klarin, M M
There are recent studies using new industrial workers' anthropometric data in different countries, but for Serbia such data are not available. This study is the first anthropometric study of Serbian metal industry workers in the country, whose labor force is increasingly employed both on local and international markets. The metal industry is one of Serbia's most important economic sectors. To this end, we collected the basic static anthropometric dimensions of 122 industrial workers and used principal components analysis (PCA) to obtain multivariate anthropometric models. To confirm the results, the dimensions of an additional 50 workers were collected. The PCA methodology was also compared with the percentile method. Comparing both data samples, we found that 96% of the participants are within the tolerance ellipsoid. According to this study, multivariate modeling covers a larger extent of the intended population proportion compared to percentiles. The results of this research are useful for the designers of metal industry workstations. This information can be used in dimensioning the workplace, thus increasing job satisfaction, reducing the risk of injuries and fatalities, and consequently increasing productivity and safety.
Full Text Available Two studies, both originating from a larger psycholexical study in Serbian language, are presented here. Two questionnaires, Lexi and PL have been constructed in the psycholexical study. The questionnaires differ by the formulation of their respective items: while the items of the Lexi contain adjectives, the items of the PL are in the form of statements. The first study presented in this paper examines the latent structure of the Lexi questionnaire, while the second one deals with the latent structure of the PL. In both studies, principal component analysis was applied, and the number of components to be retained in the analysis was determined according to the Scree criterion. Also, Promax rotation was applied in both studies. Seven components which were extracted in the first study have been interpreted as Negative Valence, Negative Emotionality, Aggressiveness, Conscientiousness, Positive Emotionality, Positive Valence and Openness to Experience. The content of these dimensions is obviously similar to the dimensions of Tellegen and Waller’s Big Seven model. In the second study, five components were extracted, and interpreted as Sociability, Anxiety, Aggressiveness, Activity and Impulsivity. The content of the dimensions extracted in the second study corresponds with the dimensions of Marvin Zuckerman’s Alternative Five - Factor Model.
Supic, Zorica Terzic; Bjegovic, Vesna; Marinkovic, Jelena; Milicevic, Milena Santric; Vasic, Vladimir
The purpose of this study was to analyze the improvement of managerial skills of hospitals' top managers after a specific management training programme, and to explore possible predictors and relations. The study was conducted during the years 2006 and 2007 with cohort of 107 managers from 20 Serbian general hospitals. The managers self-assessed the improvement in their managerial skills before and after the training programme. After the training programme, all managers' skills had improved. The biggest improvement was in the following skills: organizing daily activities, motivating and guiding others, supervising the work of others, group discussion, and situation analysis. The least improved were: applying creative techniques, working well with peers, professional self-development, written communication, and operational planning. Identified predictors of improvement were: shorter years of managerial experience, type of manager, type of profession, and recognizing the importance of the managerial skills in oral communication, evidence-based decision making, and supervising the work of others. Specific training programme related to strategic management can increase managerial competencies, which are an important source of competitive advantage for organizations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lending interest rates (IR in the Serbian market are generally viewed as high. In accordance with the official NBS (National bank of Serbia data for 2010: lending (IR was 10.4% p.a., deposit IR was 4.2% p.a., and spread was 6.3% p.a. At the same time, IR on cross-border loans was 3.7% p.a. It means that the use of cross-border loans was a better solution for companies which were in position to take them. The indicator of IR spread in Serbia got worse and came down to 106th position (it used to be ranked 90th in 2009; WEF. If we analyse the structure of IR spread, we can notice that there is room for decreasing the level of active IR in the area of country risk premium and funding spread. Pearson Correlation shows that IR has strong relation with return on assets and volume of collected deposits i.e. profit margin per product.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Methods Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. Results No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. Conclusions To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well.
Full Text Available Its huge area of cultivated lands (about 5 million hectares makes Serbia stand out against other states of the Balkan region. Food products are still one of the most important components of Serbian export. From 1 March 2012, when Serbia was granted the candidate status to the European Union, making ready to effectively competite with the Member States of the EU, which offer very similar products, became a chance of survival for Serbia’s agricultural and –food industry sector . A chance to increase the absorbency of the internal market creates an increasing culinary awareness in the Serbian society; despite the economic crisis, the Serbians are looking for new, previously unknown tastes or new taglines for tastes already known in Serbian cuisine. The real challenge for Serbian agriculture is the promotion of culinary tourism, which involves exhibiting the ability to compete with other Balkan countries by depicting a more diverse range of attractions. Promotion of the regional products is done by events typical for culinary tourism – festivals, culinary competitions, culinary tourist routes, as well as reconstructions of medieval cuisine. In the realities of Serbia, culinary tourism opens the opportunities for sustainable development of the periphery areas and, at the same time, makes it possible to retain old customs and traditions.
Full Text Available Hanneke E Zwikker,1,2 Sandra van Dulmen,3–5 Alfons A den Broeder,1,2 Bart J van den Bemt,1,2,6 Cornelia H van den Ende1,2 1Department of Rheumatology, 2Department of Pharmacy, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4NIVEL (Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 5Department of Health Science, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Drammen, Norway; 6Department of Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Background: This is the first cross-sectional study that aims to examine associations between beliefs about medication and non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, taking potential psychological confounders into account.Methods: Eligible patients (diagnosed with RA for ≥1 year or ≥18 years, using greater than or equal to one disease-modifying antirheumatic drug were included by their rheumatologist during regular outpatient visits between September 2009 and September 2010. Included patients received questionnaires. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was used to measure the perceived need to take medication (necessity beliefs, the concerns about taking medication (concern beliefs, general medication beliefs, and attitudes toward taking medication. Medication non-adherence (no/yes was measured using the Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR. Associations between beliefs and non-adherence, and the influence of demographical, clinical, and psychological factors (symptoms of anxiety/depression, illness cognitions, self-efficacy were assessed using logistic regression.Results: A total of 580 of the 820 eligible patients willing to participate were included in the analyses (68% female, mean age 63 years, 30% non-adherent to their medication. Weaker necessity beliefs (OR [odds ratio]: 0.8, 95% CI
Giridhara R. Babu
Full Text Available BackgroundThe increasing recognition of antenatal depression is an emerging area of concern in developing countries. We conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of antenatal mental distress and its relation with sociodemographic factors, obstetric factors, and physiological wellbeing in pregnant women attending public health facilities in Bengaluru, South India.MethodsNested within a cohort study, we assessed the mental status in 823 pregnant women in two public referral hospitals. Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10 scale was used to assess maternal depression. We collected information related to social-demographic characteristics and recent medical complaints. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios were calculated using SPSS version 20.ResultsResults show that 8.7% of the women exhibited symptoms of antenatal depression. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as respondent occupation, husband education, husband’s occupation, total family income showed significance. First time pregnancy, anemia, and high blood pressure were also associated with mental distress.ConclusionOur study has demonstrated feasibility of screening for mental health problems in public hospitals. Early detection of mental distress during pregnancy is crucial as it has a direct impact on the fetus. The public health facilities in low- and middle-income countries such as India should consider piloting and scaling up screening services for mental health conditions for pregnant women.
Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Corcoran, Kate; Kaplan, Janice; Magouirk, Jeff; Rand, Debra C.; Smith, Bernie Todd
Objective: This article explores the development and implementation of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network from the initial idea and test survey, to the implementation of a national survey in 2002, to the establishment of a continuing program in 2004. Started as a program for hospital libraries, it has expanded to include other nonacademic health sciences libraries. Methods: The activities and timelines of MLA's Benchmarking Network task forces and editorial board from 1998 to 2004 are described. Results: The Benchmarking Network task forces successfully developed an extensive questionnaire with parameters of size and measures of library activity and published a report of the data collected by September 2002. The data were available to all MLA members in the form of aggregate tables. Utilization of Web-based technologies proved feasible for data intake and interactive display. A companion article analyzes and presents some of the data. MLA has continued to develop the Benchmarking Network with the completion of a second survey in 2004. Conclusions: The Benchmarking Network has provided many small libraries with comparative data to present to their administrators. It is a challenge for the future to convince all MLA members to participate in this valuable program. PMID:16636702
Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Corcoran, Kate; Kaplan, Janice; Magouirk, Jeff; Rand, Debra C; Smith, Bernie Todd
This article explores the development and implementation of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network from the initial idea and test survey, to the implementation of a national survey in 2002, to the establishment of a continuing program in 2004. Started as a program for hospital libraries, it has expanded to include other nonacademic health sciences libraries. The activities and timelines of MLA's Benchmarking Network task forces and editorial board from 1998 to 2004 are described. The Benchmarking Network task forces successfully developed an extensive questionnaire with parameters of size and measures of library activity and published a report of the data collected by September 2002. The data were available to all MLA members in the form of aggregate tables. Utilization of Web-based technologies proved feasible for data intake and interactive display. A companion article analyzes and presents some of the data. MLA has continued to develop the Benchmarking Network with the completion of a second survey in 2004. The Benchmarking Network has provided many small libraries with comparative data to present to their administrators. It is a challenge for the future to convince all MLA members to participate in this valuable program.
Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Nikolić, D.; Janković, S.; Vranić, D.; Milijašević, M.; Babić-Milijašević, J.
This study aimed to provide information on levels of Mn and Se in four different pork cuts (loin, neck, hind leg and shoulder) commercially available on the Serbian market, with a view to providing information on dietary intakes of metals associated with the consumption of these meat cuts. In total, for 50 pork cuts, the levels of Mn and Se were determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The following ranges of Mn and Se were found (mg kg-1) in loin 0.055-0.130 and 0.074-0.365, in neck 0.014-0.365 and 0.045-0.196, in hind leg 0.032-0.099 and 0.066-0.123, in shoulder 0.012-0.290 and 0.027-0.515, respectively. The highest mean levels were obtained for Mn (0.124 mg kg-1) in shoulder and for Se (0.209 mg kg-1) in loin. The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of essential elements through consumption of 114.1 g mammalian meat/person/day was below 1% of Adequate Intake (AI) for Mn and between 18.9% and 43.2% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Se.
Vlajić-Popović Jasna B.
Full Text Available After an introductory overview of previous achievements in the field, abroad and at home, during the 19th and 20th centuries, this paper deals with the present state of Serbian etymology (i.e. etymology of the Serbian language among the Serbs which, for several decades now, has been closely related to the Etymological Department of the Serbian Language Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Following an explanation of elements of the etymological analysis, we offer a comparison of the methodologies applied in compiling the two dictionaries presently under development at the Department, a thesaurus-type Etimološki rečnik srpskoga jezika (ERSJ - Etymological Dictionary of the Serbian Language and the concise Priručni etimološki rečnik srpskoga jezika (PERSJ - Concise Etymological Dictionary of the Serbian Language. Finally, we present a preliminary projection of the future development of Serbian etymology with a suggested agenda. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika
Full Text Available This article focuses on Serbian composer Jovana Backović and her band/project Arhai, founded in Belgrade in 1998. The central argument is that Arhai made a transition from being regarded a part of the Serbian ethno music scene (which flourished during the 1990s and 2000s to becoming a part of the global world music scene, after Jovana Backović moved from her native Serbia to the United Kingdom to pursue an international career. This move did not imply a fundamental change of her musical style, but a change of cultural context and market conditions that, in turn, affected her cultural identity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges
Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.
Bazić Jovan R.
Full Text Available The paper presents considerations of the research on the Serbian political tradition in the work of Slobodan Jovanović (1869-1958, a famous Serbian lawyer, historian, writer and politician, who had a very important role in the development of the Serbian political thought. His work is extensive and varied, but in essence, it relates to the whole of political life in Serbia in the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Almost all the elements that make up the Serbian political tradition can be observed in his work. All these elements are contained in the discussion of political institutions in the 19th century Serbia, the rule of the Obrenović dynasty, political parties and party leaders, political ideas and movements in Serbia and Yugoslavia, extreme political behavior and Serbian national character. Jovanović found the origins of Serbian political tradition in the epic poetry and the Kosovo myth, as well as in the poetry of Njegoš. This was a decisive factor in the formation of general ideas about the Serbs as a freedom-loving, heroic and justice-loving people. At the same time, this is where the origins of the idea of Serbs as a disunited nation can be found. Jovanović paid the greatest attention to issues concerning the content of Serbian political tradition, namely: constitutional system, political institutions, parliamentary life, inter-party struggles, political events, the role of the individual in politics and culture, authoritarianism and political violence. He pointed to the political ideas that were coming from the West and which were accepted with mistrust by the patriarchal Serbian society. He appreciated the role of political parties in the democratization of political life, but he also warned of the dangers that threatened national unity: party favouritism and intolerance. In the analyses of the Serbian national character, Jovanović was of the opinion that the Serbs are predominantly a
Gillette, Chris; Blalock, Susan J; Rao, Jaya K; Williams, Dennis; Loughlin, Ceila E; Sleath, Betsy
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the extent to which general pediatric providers discuss risks associated with asthma control medications with families, and (2) examine factors that are associated with risk discussions. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of audio taped medical visits involving 35 pediatric providers and 248 children with asthma with their caregivers. Transcripts of the visits were coded for discussions about asthma medication risks. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Providers discussed asthma control medication risks during 23% of visits. Risks were more likely to be discussed when the visit was longer and when the provider prescribed a new asthma control medication. When providers discussed asthma control medication risks, they were most likely to ask the family general questions and make general statements. Across all of the visits, caregivers asked a total of 16 questions and made a total of 20 statements about risks associated with asthma medications; children asked a total of 3 questions and made two statements about risks associated with asthma control medications. Providers discussed risks associated with asthma control medications in less than one-quarter of medical visits. Providers should involve families in discussions about risks associated with medications during every visit to assess potential barriers to medication adherence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available In this study Ferdinand and Komlosi analyze the use of Hungarian and Serbian in the city of Szabadka/Subotica, which is located in the Serbian region of Northern Vajdaság/Vojvodina. A mostly Hungarian speaking city for centuries, Szabadka/Subotica suffered the strong pro-Serbian language policy implemented by the Yugoslavian government from the end of the First World War until the dismantlement of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, which gave Hungarian and other local minority languages a second chance to survive. Nowadays, Szabadka/Subotica is home to two main language groups, southern Slavic languages such a Serbian and Croatian (over sixty per cent and Hungarian (thirty three per cent. Although Ferdinand and Komlosi employed official figures from the Serbian censuses to determine the size of each group, the situation of each language was mapped through empirical observation of language use in informal conversations, in official signage, and in permanent as well as temporary commercial signage. The results show that the role of Serbian (mostly written in Latin script is dominant in almost all spheres of public life and as a lingua franca among various groups. Nevertheless, Hungarian maintains a strong presence in the city, especially in the center and in its northwestern districts. In this paper, Ferdinand and Komlosi aim to contribute to a better general understanding of group dynamics in bilingual settings and, specifically, to provide a clearer view of the language situation in one of the Hungarian-speaking regions lost by the historic Kingdom of Hungary after World War I.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. This study was an effort to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF in the last two decades. Methods. All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots ´ age and experience, causes of ejection, aeronautical parameters, the condition of aircraft control and types of injuries. For ease of comparison the U.S. Air Force Safety Regulation was used to define of major injuries: hospitalization for 5 days or more, loss of consciousness for over 5 min, bone fracture, joint dislocation, injury to any internal organ, any third-degree burn, or second-degree burn over 5% of the body surface area. Results. There were 52 ejections (51 pilots and 1 mechanic on 44 airplanes. The ejected persons were from 22 to 46 years, average 32 years. Major injuries were present in 25.49% cases. Of all the ejected pilots 9.61% had fractures of thoracic spine, 11.53% fractures of legs, 3.48% fractures of arms. Of all major injuries, fractures of thoracic spine were 38.46%. None of the pilots had experienced ejection previously. Conclusion. Our results suggest to obligatory take preventive measures: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan must be included in the standard pilot selection procedure and procedure after ejection. Physical conditioning of pilots has to be improved. Training on ejection trainer has to be accomplished, too.
Full Text Available The presence of toxic cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems in the territory of the Republic of Serbia was surveyed over a period of several decades. Increasing attention is being paid to some negative consequences that may be caused by these microorganisms. Information from available literary sources regarding the distribution and frequency of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a period of 130 years, together with the effects on humans and wildlife in aquatic ecosystems, were gathered and incorporated into a Serbian Cyanobacterial Database created for the CYANOCOST Action. This database encompasses information on 65 aquatic ecosystems, including rivers, lakes, ponds, canals, irrigation reservoirs, reservoirs used for drinking water supply and reservoirs used for other purposes. Cyanobacterial blooms were found in almost 80% of the investigated aquatic ecosystems. The analysis of the research showed the presence of more than 70 species, including blooms of 24 species from 13 genera. Five species of cyanobacteria: Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Planktothrix agardhii, Microcystis flos-aquae and Planktothrix rubescens frequently formed blooms in the investigated waterbodies and cyanotoxins were also detected in some of them, which had certain negative effects. Here, we present an overview of data contained in the Serbian Cyanobacterial Database, concerning cyanobacterial distribution, cyanotoxin production and associated biological effects in different types of water bodies from the Republic of Serbia. Also, recent important and major cases of cyanobacterial blooming in reservoirs used for drinking water supply: at Vrutci and Ćelije, the Aleksandrovac irrigation reservoir, the Ponjavica River and Lake Palić, including systematic research on the Lake Ludoš and few fishponds are further described. It can be concluded that cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are omnipresent in different water bodies throughout the Republic of Serbia
Full Text Available The first part of this paper is dedicated to the definition of the agreement to exchange (permutatio and emphasizes the difference, made by Roman lawyers, between exchange (barter and sale (emptio-venditio. The second part analyses Byzantine legal sources that mention this old contract, while the third part is dedicated to Serbian legal documents. In Serbian legal documents the exchange was mentioned as the agreement between a monarch and a monastery or a natural person (individual, concerning donations that were given to the Church.
"Serbian" Cultural Events in Buda and Pest between 1860 and 1867 Miklós Tömöry (Erasmus Mundus Master "TEMA" - Budapest-Prague-Paris) Abstract Key terms: nationalism, Serbian history, Habsburg Empire, Buda and Pest, urban cultural milieus Situated at the very heart of the Habsburg-ruled Hungarian Kingdom, the twin cities of Buda and Pest played an important role as centres of modern Hungarian (Magyar) and Slavic national movements as well in the course of the nineteenth century. Public and se...
Full Text Available Author uses example of the last presidential elections in Montenegro trying to analyze several factors of transition at the Balkans. The overview of the elections' process shows that international community is the key factor in preventing democratic changes in this small state. The main reason for this attitude is geopolitical rearrangement of the Balkans intended toward oppression and cleaning of Serbian factor in former Yugoslav republics. Finally, author shows that crucial factor of this chain in making of new constellation is business and Serbian political elite, whose behavior displays absolute lack of national consciousness, responsibility and solidarity.
In this paper we made a critical review of textbook Messages 1 with emphasis on English-Serbian glossary. Since this textbook is intended for pupils of 5th grade, we examined its appropriateness for this age group. In addition, we did lexical and semantic analysis of a glossary that is incorporated in the textbook. Messages 1 is extraordinarily designed textbook. It is alsko uitable for pupils of 5th grade whose first language is not English. In terms of the English-Serbian glossary, there is...
Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of concrete actions and legitimations, and also of the elements of the action- and legitimation basis of the Serbian communists’ political moblization conducted during the first phase of the so-called Antibureaucratic Revolution, which began in April 1987 with Slobodan Miloševi R’s speech in Kosovo Polje, and came to an end with the intra-party showdown at the Eighth Session of the Serbian Communist Party’s Central Committee in September of the same year. The paper also provides a reconstruction of the political context in which the mobilization was conducted.
Razdobudko-Čović Larisa I.
Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of two Serbian translations of V. Nabokov's memoirs, that is the translation of the novel 'Drugie berega' ('The Other Shores' published in Russian as an authorized translation from the original English version 'Conclusive Evidence', and the translation of Nabokov's authorized translation from Russian to English entitled 'Speak, Memory'. Creolization of three models of culture in translation from the two originals - Russian and English - Is presented. Specific features of the two Serbian translations are analyzed, and a survey of characteristic mistakes caused by some specific characteristics of the source language is given. Also, Nabokov's very original approach to translation which is quite interpretative is highlighted.
McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
Hawrylak, Peter J; Schimke, Nakeisha; Hale, John; Papa, Mauricio
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a form of wireless communication that is used to identify assets and people. RFID has significant benefits to the medical environment. However, serious security threats are present in RFID systems that must be addressed in a medical environment. Of particular interest are threats to patient privacy and safety based on interception of messages, interruption of communication, modification of data, and fabrication of messages and devices. This paper presents an overview of these security threats present in RFID systems in a medical environment and provides guidance on potential solutions to these threats. This paper provides a roadmap for researchers and implementers to address the security issues facing RFID in the medical space.
Hospital environmental factors have a significant relationship with discharge against medical advice. A similar study ..... contractors, and by reinforcing the infection control committee this will .... Sources: Field survey, 2015. The results in Table ...
Shrestha, Sundar S; Zhang, Ping; Thompson, Theodore J; Gregg, Edward W; Albright, Ann; Imperatore, Giuseppina
Information on diabetes-related excess medical expenditures for youth is important to understand the magnitude of financial burden and to plan the health care resources needed for managing diabetes. However, diabetes-related excess medical expenditures for youth covered by Medicaid program have not been investigated recently. To estimate excess diabetes-related medical expenditures among youth aged below 20 years enrolled in Medicaid programs in the United States. We analyzed data from 2008 to 2012 MarketScan multistate Medicaid database for 6502 youths with diagnosed diabetes and 6502 propensity score matched youths without diabetes, enrolled in fee-for-service payment plans. We stratified analysis by Medicaid eligibility criteria (poverty or disability). We used 2-part regression models to estimate diabetes-related excess medical expenditures, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of claims, depression status, asthma status, and interaction terms. For poverty-based Medicaid enrollees, estimated annual diabetes-related total medical expenditure was $9046 per person [$3681 (no diabetes) vs. $12,727 (diabetes); PMedicaid enrollees, the estimated annual diabetes-related total medical expenditure was $9944 per person ($14,149 vs. $24,093; PMedicaid programs are substantial, which is larger among those with disabilities than without disabilities. Identifying cost-effective ways of managing diabetes in this vulnerable segment of the youth population is needed.
Milutinović, Dragana; Lovrić, Robert; Simin, Dragana
There is an implicit expectation for medical sciences students to work together effectively as members of health-care team, and interprofessional education is therefore widely accepted. Students' attitudes, which are affected by various factors, have been recognized as the most important predictors of successful implementation of interprofessional education with the aim of developing collaborative practice. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale has often been used in studies to measure these perspectives. To describe the psychometric properties of the Serbian cross-culturally adapted version of the original Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale, to assess the attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards interprofessional education and to evaluate whether a professional group and student characteristics have influence on attitudes towards collaborative practice and shared learning. A descriptive/analytical and comparative cross-sectional study. Faculty of Medicine in Serbia. Nursing and medical students after completed first clinical rotations (n = 257). The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale for assessing attitudes among students towards interprofessional learning, Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students for assessing professional identity in nursing students, Professional Nursing Image Survey for assessing attitudes of medical students towards the nursing profession, as well as a socio-demographic questionnaire were the instruments used in this research study. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Exploratory factor analysis on 19 items revealed two-factors accounting for 51.1% of the total variance with the internal reliability α = 0.90. The mean total score of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale was 73.5 (SD = 11.5) indicating that students are ready for interprofessional learning. Nursing students, female students; students in their first
Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Peace Conference. In the first stage, until 1878, the vassal state of Serbia had been introducing necessary political, economic and institutional preconditions for the rise of banking that led to the creation of the first organized credits and banks. At the end of this stage, there were two types of proper banks: state banks and privately-owned banks. Since the authorities of the vassal state of Serbia played a key role in preparing institutional framework for the banking operations and in organizing the first credit facilities, it could be argued that Serbian banking arose in the 19th century as a result of both state-backed and growthinduced processes.
In 2015, National Medical Association of China, now being called the Chinese Medical Association, celebrates its centennial and Boji Hospital in Guangzhou ( also known as Canton Hospital, or the Canton Pok Tsai Hospital, and now Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University ) marks its 180th anniversary. Three major historical events establish the role of Boji Hospital in the founding and development of the National Medical Association of China during the last 100 years, viz.: ①hosting and participating in the establishment of the Medical Missionary Association of China and its official journal: the China Medical Missionary Journal; ②holding the 11th scientific sessions of the National Medical Association of China; ③nominating Dr. Wu Lien-teh as a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1935 by William Warder Cadbury, the president of Boji Hospital.
Teunissen, R.; Bos, J.; Pot, H.; Pluim, M.; Kramers, C.
PURPOSE: The clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with errors related to medication administration time were studied. METHODS: In this explorative study, 66 medication administration rounds were studied on two wards (surgery and neurology) of a hospital. Data on medication errors were
Grimes, Tamasine C
AIMS: Movement into or out of hospital is a vulnerable period for medication safety. Reconciling the medication a patient is using before admission with the medication prescribed on discharge, and documenting any changes (medication reconciliation) is recommended to improve safety. The aims of the study were to investigate the factors contributing to medication reconciliation on discharge, and identify the prevalence of non-reconciliation. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional, observational survey using consecutive discharges from purposively selected services in two acute public hospitals in Ireland. Medication reconciliation, potential for harm and unplanned re-admission were investigated. RESULTS: Medication non-reconciliation was identified in 50% of 1245 inpatient episodes, involving 16% of 9569 medications. The majority of non-reconciled episodes had potential to result in moderate (63%) or severe (2%) harm. Handwritten rather than computerized discharges (adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.11, 2.99), increasing number of medications (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.21, 1.31) or chronic illness (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.33, 3.24) were associated with non-reconciliation. Omission of endocrine, central nervous system and nutrition and blood drugs was more likely on discharge, whilst omission on admission and throughout inpatient care, without documentation, was more likely for obstetric, gynaecology and urinary tract (OGU) or respiratory drugs. Documentation in the discharge communication that medication was intentionally stopped during inpatient care was less likely for cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and OGU drugs. Errors involving the dose were most likely for respiratory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings inform strategies to facilitate medication reconciliation on discharge from acute hospital care.
Grierson, Lawrence E M; Mercuri, Mathew; Brailovsky, Carlos; Cole, Gary; Abrahams, Caroline; Archibald, Douglas; Bandiera, Glen; Phillips, Susan P; Stirrett, Glenna; Walton, J Mark; Wong, Eric; Schabort, Inge
The failure rate on certification examinations of The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) is significantly higher for international medical graduates than for Canadian medical school graduates. The purpose of the current study was to generate evidence that supports or refutes the validity of hypotheses proposed to explain the lower success rates. We conducted retrospective analyses of admissions and certification data to determine the factors associated with success of international medical graduate residents on the certification examinations. International medical graduates who entered an Ontario residency program between 2005 and 2012 and had written a certification examination by the time of the analysis (2015) were included in the study. Data available at the time of admission for each resident, including demographic characteristics, previous experiences and previous professional experiences, were collected from each of the 6 Ontario medical schools and matched with certification examination results provided by The CFPC and the RCPSC. We developed logistic regression models to determine the association of each factor with success on the examinations. Data for 900 residents were analyzed. The models revealed resident age to be strongly associated with performance across all examinations. Fluency in English, female sex and the Human Development Index value associated with the country of medical school training had differential associations across the examinations. The findings should contribute to an improved understanding of certification success by international medical graduates, help residency programs identify at-risk residents and underpin the development of specific educational and remedial interventions. In considering the results, it should be kept in mind that some variables are not amenable to changes in selection criteria. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.
Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter W; French, Fiona H; Needham, Gillian
Little is known about the relationship between the career preferences of medical students and the medical schools at which they are enrolled. Our aim was to explore this relationship early in students' medical training. Year 1 (2009-2010) medical students at the five Scottish medical schools were invited to take part in a career preference questionnaire survey. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 87.9% (883/1005). No significant differences were found among medical schools with regard to first-choice specialty. Surgery (22.5%), medicine (19.0%), general practice (17.6%) and paediatrics (16.1%) were the top career choices. Work-life balance, perceived aptitude and skills, intellectual satisfaction, and amount of patient contact were rated as the most important job-related factors by most respondents. Few differences were found among schools in terms of the impact of job-related factors on future career preferences. Students for whom the work-life balance was extremely important (odds ratio [OR]=0.6) were less likely to prefer surgery. Students for whom the work-life balance (OR=2.2) and continuity of care (OR=2.1) were extremely important were more likely to prefer general practice. Students' early career preferences were similar across the five medical schools. These preferences result from the interplay among demographic factors and the perceived characteristics of the various specialties. Maintaining a satisfactory work-life balance is very important to tomorrow's doctors, and the data hint that this may be breaking down some of the traditional gender differences in specialty choice. Longitudinal work is required to explore whether students' career preferences change as they progress through medical school and training. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
In 1970 the medical associations of South Africa and Rhodesia (now, Zimbabwe) were expelled from the Commonwealth Medical Association. The latter had been set up, as the British Medical Commonwealth Medical Conference, in the late 1940s by the British Medical Association (BMA). These expulsions, and the events leading up to them, are the central focus of this article. The BMA's original intention was to establish an organisation bringing together the medical associations of the constituent parts of the expanding Commonwealth. Among the new body's preoccupations was the relationship between the medical profession and the state in the associations' respective countries. It thus has to be seen as primarily a medico-political organisation rather than one concerned with medicine per se. Although, there were also tensions from the outset regarding the membership of the Southern African medical associations. Such stresses notwithstanding, these two organisations remained in the BMA-sponsored body even after South Africa and Rhodesia had left the Commonwealth. This was not, however, a situation which could outlast the growing number of African associations which joined in the wake of decolonisation; and hardening attitudes towards apartheid. The article therefore considers: why the BMA set up this Commonwealth body in the first place and what it hoped to achieve; the history of the problems associated with South African and Rhodesian membership; and how their associations came to be expelled.
Full Text Available Almost a million people from Middle East and North Africa have passed through the territory of Serbia on their way to Western Europe during 2015 and 2016. Although Serbia has predominantly been a transit country for migrants, this recent passage of a large number of people, as well as a longer retention of some migrants, opened up a number of questions on capacities for emergent acceptance but also on long term integration of this population. The paper examines the characteristics of citizens’ attitudes towards the migrant population with the intention of determining which perspective - security, humanitarian or integrative - is being distinguished as a dominant one? Under the security perspective, it is understood that migrants pose a potential risk for the security of domestic population. The humanitarian perspective refers to a belief that migrants need to be provided with necessary assistance on their way to destination countries. The third, integrative perspective represents the “most open” attitude towards migrants and implies that it is necessary to provide the opportunity for more permanent integration of the migrant population. In addition to that, the paper examines the existence of statistically significant variations in the degree of acceptance of the attitudes measuring mentioned perspectives in terms of socio-demographic and socio-cultural factors. The analysis is based on the data collected through the survey conducted in the spring of 2016 on a representative sample of Serbian citizens (without Kosovo that numbered 998 respondents. Findings show that the humanitarian perspective is the most prevalent in the population, which is in line with the transitional character of migration. Ethnic distance is the most influential factor in shaping attitudes towards migrants. This finding indicates that attitudes toward migrants are more the result of the socio-psychological factors than the micro-structural factors or the demographic
Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Arandjic, Danijela; Kosutic, Dushko
The aim of this work is to assess level of radiation dose to patients in interventional cardiology procedures in three large Serbian hospitals and to investigate possibility for setting of trigger levels if dose quantities exceed certain levels. Three dedicated interventional cardiology laboratories were included in the survey. Information on annual workload was estimated based on number of coronary angiography (CA) procedures and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Patients doses were assessed in terms of air kerma area product (PKA) and air kerma in international reference point (KIRP). Results were compared with internationally proposed Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) and similar surveys results. Average total annual number of procedures was 820, 1100 and 2500 in three hospitals, respectively, while total number of dose measurements was 337. All three centers reported PKA values higher than 100 Gy·cm 2 and even values above 200 Gy·cm 2 , corresponding to 42% and 16% of all measurements. Measured KIRP value higher than 5 Gy was reported in one center, indicating that skin doses associated possibility of skin injuries were observed. PKA mean hospital values for CA ranged from 33 to 78 Gy·cm 2 and for PCI from 73 to 113 Gy·cm 2 , while associated vales for KIRP were: 0.45-1.2 Gy and 1.1-1.8 Gy, respectively. Comparison of obtained results with international DRL indicated that significant number of procedures is not optimally performed as in some centers more than a half of patients receive doses above DRL. The presented results are valuable input for dose optimization strategies and increased awareness related to importance of dose management. With respect to high dose values, risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions, dose management methods were proposed. (Author)
Jun 15, 1974 ... be extended to all full-time medical practitioners em- ployed by the Provincial Administrations. No to Part-time Practice. At this same meeting of the Executive Committee the question of part-time practice within the precincts of a closed hospital was again fully discussed, and a resolution was passed.
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine Serbian primary teachers' job satisfaction as well as the differences in job satisfaction between male and female teachers. The participants were 362 teachers from 57 primary schools in Serbia. Nine dimensions of job satisfaction (Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Contingent Rewards, Operating Procedures, Co-Workers, Nature of Work, Communication were measured. The results indicate that from the dimensions of job satisfaction, Serbian primary teachers are most satisfied with the Nature of work, Communication and Supervision, while the major sources of Serbian primary teachers' job dissatisfaction are Fringe benefits, Pay and Operating procedures. When it comes to the gender difference in job satisfaction, T-test analysis shows slightly higher satisfaction among female teachers, while statistically significant difference exists only in two dimensions: Supervision and Nature of work. Serbian policy makers in the field of education as well as school administrators should pay close attention to teachers' job satisfaction and its improvement considering that it is an essential to the continuing growth of school effectiveness.
Full Text Available Academic writing for international readership is almost always done in English, which in turn, may bring about certain difficulties to non- English academics who are not accustomed to English academic writing norms. Therefore, some linguistic researches, conducted in order to find out the differences between the English academic style and those of non-English ones, are aimed at making non-English academics aware of cross-cultural differences in writing styles and help them modify their own writing style to the requirements of the English academic norms. Thus, in order to help Serbian academics publish internationally, we have initiated a small-scale research by comparing academic re search articles written by English and Serbian academics: thirty from humanities (sociology, psychology and philosophy and thirty from hard sciences (chemistry, geology and environmental pollution. The research presented in the paper focuses the two most important discourse areas in academic articles written by English and Serbian writers: 1. Discourse organization, and 2.Th e choice of rhetoric strategies. The obtained results have pr oven that the two groups of writers display different preferences in their writing styles (which will be presented numerically and on the basis of this fact certain suggestions have been offered, concerning the form that Serbian academic articles should have in order to be published for the international discourse community.
Full Text Available In this paper, parts of the memoir literary works from the second half of the nineteenth century are presented as important sources for the research of Serbian traditional church chant. The testimonies on church music from diaries, memoirs and autobiographical notes by famous Serbian writers, statesmen and politicians, namely Jovan Subotić, Jakov Ignjatović, Milan Savić, Milica Stojadinović Srpkinja, Todor Stefanović Vilovski, Vladimir Jovanović and Kosta Hristić, were analyzed. Those writings bring to light a time when church chant was appreciated as an important part of the spiritual, folk heritage and had an important role in everyday culture of Serbian people both in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Principality and Kingdom of Serbia. The authors wrote about musical skills of chanters from clerical, church circles and about the practice of chanting among school teachers. They also described different kinds of musical performances of church chant among laymen and children. These sources testify to writers’ general and musical education and experiences, to their environment and its relation to the aesthetics of spiritual folk tradition. This paper also analyzes sources in the context of the history and theory of literature, having in mind the authors’ commentary techniques and narrative style. Those issues are discussed in relation to the poetics of romanticism, Biedermeier and realism in Serbian literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi
Starovic, Mirjana; Samardzic, Tanja; Agic, Zeljko
The paper documents the procedure of building a new Universal Dependencies (UDv2) treebank for Serbian starting from an existing Croatian UDv1 treebank and taking into account the other Slavic UD annotation guidelines. We describe the automatic and manual annotation procedures, discuss the annota...
Full Text Available This paper deals with ethnomusicological research methodologies, the application of ethnomusicological knowledge outside academic institutions and ideologies which have contributed to ethnomusicological discourses in Serbia. Furthermore, state policy on ethnomusicology and folk music is analyzed. The recent institutionalisation of applied ethnomusicology, i.e. direct ethnomusicological engagement in society, which represents a turning point in the development of ethnomusicology, is particularly emphasized. The difference between contemporary applied ethnomusicology and ethnomusicology is in direct engagement: goals are changed, new strategies of (field- work are introduced, folk music as a political tool is adopted, neutrality of research positions is destabilized, resulting in the emergence of the greatest problem of the discipline - ethics. Applied ethnomusicology in Serbia is especially interesting not only because of local cultural characteristics, but also because of the specific position of Serbian ethnomusicology in the scientific world map. The activities of the Serbian Ethnomusiclogical Society are analyzed as a representative example of successful public engagement. The projects of the Society are classified according to the type of animation (cultural and scientific. The promotion of Serbian folk music, folk music of national minorities and bagpipe-playing revitalization fall into the first category, whereas the second one comprises scientific round tables and the projects dealing with the preservation of Serbian folk music heritage.
Full Text Available The organic production in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo has a great potential based on the extensive production mostly in hilly-mountainous areas with rich and convenient environment for the organic production of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, honey etc., but it still keeps developing. The enclave can realise a high income, and thereby also an economic basis for the sustainable development of multifunctional agricultural holdings in Serbian enclaves, by the production and sale of organic products on local markets. In this paper, the authors study the consumers’ attitudes on purchase and consumption of organic food in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo. Empirical research was carried out on a spatial sample of 300 respondents, by a personal communication technique using the questionnaire as an instrument of research method. Areas of research are towns: Northern Kosovska Mitrovica, Leposavic, Zubin Potok and Gracanica. Goal of the research is to discover the preferences, motives, attitudes and interests of consumers for buying the organic products, based on a defined survey to recognise the basic features of supply and the demand of organic agricultural and food products. After analysing the conducted survey, we have discovered that the organic food market in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo has not been sufficiently developed; it is necessary to expand the range of organic agriculture products and a constant supply is required, better marketing, and better information and education of consumers in order to raise supply to a higher level.
Dimitrijević-Savić Jovana V.
Full Text Available Although it has long been an under-researched topic in the field of applied linguistics, morphological knowledge is nowadays regarded as a key component of vocabulary acquisition. The past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of studies of both L1 and L2 learning contexts which shed light on various issues, ranging from morphological processing to receptive/productive knowledge of derivational and inflectional morphology. However, investigations into the acquisition of English morphology by Serbian EFL learners have, to our knowledge, been scarce. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to explore the productive derivational knowledge of upper-intermediate Serbian EFL learners by means of three different instruments: a test focusing on the knowledge of the four main word family members (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, a test of cognate and non-cognate derivatives employing six cognate English-Serbian suffixes (-ous/-oz(an, -ize/-izovati, -ation/-acija -ism/-iz(am, -ist/-ist(a, -ity/-itet and a contextualized word-formation skill test. A combination of a qualitative and quantitative approach to data analysis has revealed the difficulties Serbian EFL learners have been experiencing in their morphology/vocabulary classes and it has enabled us to identify common mistakes and weak spots. Our results have pedagogical implications and could be put to use in curriculum design and methodology.
Đekić Đorđe N.
Full Text Available By the 10th century Serbian law recognized the following ways of dispute resolution: revenge and appeasement, and it may be indirectly proved that there was a system of compensation. As punishments, there was banishment into exile, blinding and a death sentence. Since revenge, appeasement and compensation system appear in the pre-state period, while the death penalty has its roots in the blood feud, that indicates they are all of local origin. A question remains about the origin of banishment and blinding a fallen ruler, that is, a rival to the throne. In the first half of the 9th century the Byzantine Empire managed to reinstate its power over the Adriatic Sea, to impose itself over the Serbian states, to Christianise them and to legalise ruling families in the Serbian lands. Suffice to say that in 869 the Serbian states fight wars on the Byzantine side. Origin of influences on the ways of the punishment we seek in Byzantium, or better still, in its legal practice. It has been found that Byzantium used to send their conquered rivals to the throne into exile, punishing them by blinding them, so we draw a conclusion that in the matter of punishment, i.e. in the customary law, it exercised its influence on Serbia.
Full Text Available This paper presents selected results of research on intangible capital in Serbian firms. The results are part of a broader research project, based on a survey of a sample of Serbian firms. The focus of the project is the various forms of intangible capital, and in this paper we analyse whether and to what degree firms build up their brand capital and increase marketing competencies, and what kind of external relationships they experience. The results provide the first insight into the development of the marketing resources of Serbian firms and show that this element of intangibles is gradually improving but still is at a low level. We find significant differences in the use of marketing resources between firms in regard to their size, international market experience, and ownership type. A more significant development of brand capital, external relationships, and marketing innovations and competencies is found in larger firms, firms with considerable international business experience compared to firms primarily oriented to the domestic market, and in foreign-owned firms. After identifying the strengths and weaknesses of marketing practices in Serbian enterprises we suggest some measures for overcoming the analyzed constraints in order to improve firms’ market positioning, especially in foreign markets.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179062
In 1970 the medical associations of South Africa and Rhodesia (now, Zimbabwe) were expelled from the Commonwealth Medical Association. The latter had been set up, as the British Medical Commonwealth Medical Conference, in the late 1940s by the British Medical Association (BMA). These expulsions, and the events leading up to them, are the central focus of this article. The BMA’s original intention was to establish an organisation bringing together the medical associations of the constituent parts of the expanding Commonwealth. Among the new body’s preoccupations was the relationship between the medical profession and the state in the associations’ respective countries. It thus has to be seen as primarily a medico-political organisation rather than one concerned with medicine per se. Although, there were also tensions from the outset regarding the membership of the Southern African medical associations. Such stresses notwithstanding, these two organisations remained in the BMA-sponsored body even after South Africa and Rhodesia had left the Commonwealth. This was not, however, a situation which could outlast the growing number of African associations which joined in the wake of decolonisation; and hardening attitudes towards apartheid. The article therefore considers: why the BMA set up this Commonwealth body in the first place and what it hoped to achieve; the history of the problems associated with South African and Rhodesian membership; and how their associations came to be expelled. PMID:28901869
Full text: As part of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Decommissioning (VIND) Programme, the Serbian government and the IAEA recently signed an $8.63 million (EUR 5.46 million) framework agreement with the European Commission to help fund activities related to decommissioning of the aging Cold War-era nuclear reactor. The European donation is the largest in the project's history, and the infusion of funds is vital to complete a crucial stage of the decommissioning programme. 'Thanks to the impressive contribution by the European Commission, we're one step closer to completing this important and complex project,' said John J. Kelly, the IAEA's Special Programme Manager for VIND. 'With radioactive waste, disused sources, and leaking spent fuel that's almost 45 years old, the Vinca site presents huge radiological challenges.' The task at Vinca is a mammoth undertaking, and the work is split into three major projects. In the first and most expensive project, old Soviet fuel, some of which is high-enriched uranium (HEU) that could be converted to weapons-grade material, must be safely repackaged and then prepared and repatriated to Russia for reprocessing. Once completed, the VIND spent fuel shipment will comprise the largest shipment of spent research reactor fuel in the European theatre, and extra shipping casks have already been built for the project through funding received from the USA. In the second VIND project, thousands of containers of unprocessed radioactive waste and disused sealed radioactive sources must be removed from old, degraded storage buildings, conditioned and packaged for safe, secure storage, and placed into new storage facilities, The new storage facilities are currently under construction and should be ready later this year. The third VIND project focuses on decommissioning of the research reactor. The reactor's draft decommissioning plan is almost finished, and plans are in place to begin some decommissioning and dismantlement activities in 2009
Full Text Available In Byzantine painting, starting from the XIII and particularly during the XIV century, there was a visible return to models from the period of Antiquity. The influences of ancient, ostensibly, Hellenistic heritage were reflected in the shapes, in the content of the compositions, as well as in the drawing, modellation and colours. In the art that came into being in the course of the XIII century, in the endowments of the Serbian donors numerous elements emerged that had existed in ancient art. In the frescoes in the Church of the Mother of God in Studenica, the endowment of Stefan Nemanja and his sons, we see personifications, symbols, the introduction of details, and space acquiring depth, features that were later to come to full expression, especially from the middle of the XIII century. The few preserved frescoes dating from the XIII century in the Church of the Resurrection in the Žiča monastery, the endowment of Stefan the First Crowned, his son Radoslav and his brother Sava, are an iconographic continuation of the trends in the art one encounters in Studenica. The frescoes in the Church of Christ's Ascension in Mileševa, the endowment of King Vladislav, with their subtly fashioned figures and carefully modelled faces, as well as refined colouring, signal a return to the Hellenistic models. The painting in the Church of Dormition of the Virgin in the Morača monastery, the endowment of Prince Stefan, nephew of king Stefan, with its well-proportioned, firmly modelled figures, landscapes and architecture deepening the space, reminds one of the Sopoćani frescoes. In the fresco painting of the Holy Apostles in Peć, the endowment of Archbishop Sava which owed its outcome to the efforts of Archbishop Arsenije I, the images are very vivid, and the painted architecture is depicted in an abbreviated form, using different kinds of perspective. The painting in the Church of the Holy Trinity in Sopoćani, the endowment of king Uroš I, represents
Full Text Available While the first two chapters of Doucas's historical work present a meagre outline of world history - a sketch which becomes a little more detailed from 1261 on, when the narration reaches the history of the Turks and their conquests in Asia Minor - the third chapter deals with the well-known battle of Kosovo, which took place in 1389. From that point on, the Byzantine historian gives much important information on Serbia, as well as on the Ottoman advances in the Balkans, and thus embarks upon his central theme - the rise of the Turks and the decline of Byzantium. Doucas considers the battle of Kosovo a key event in the subjugation of the Balkan peoples by the Turks, and he shows that after the battle of Kosovo the Serbs were the first to suffer that fate. At the beginning, Doucas says that after the death of Orhan, the ruler (o archgos of the Turks, his son and successor Murad conquered the Thracian towns, Adrianople and the whole Thessaly, so that he mastered almost all the lands of the Byzantines, and finally reached the Triballi (Triballous. He devastated many of their towns and villages sending the enslaved population beyond Chersonesus, until Lazar, son of King Stefan of Serbia (Serbias, who ruled (kraleyōn in Serbia at that time decided to oppose him with all the might he could muster. The Serbs were often called Triballi by Byzantine authors. For the fourteenth century writers Pachymeres, Gregoras, Metochites and Kantakouzenos the Serbs were Triballi. However, Pachymeres and Gregoras refer to the rulers of the Triballi as the rulers of Serbia. Fifteenth century writers, primarily Chalcondyles and Critobulos, use only that name. It seems, nevertheless, that Doucas makes a distinction between the Triballi and the Serbs. As it is known, the conquest of the Serbian lands by the Turks began after the battle on the river Marica in 1371. By 1387. the Turks had mastered Serres(1388 Bitola and Štip (1385, Sofia (1385, Niš (1386 and several
Dilparić Branislava M.
Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surrounding buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representatives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Dental anxiety leads to avoidance of dental treatment and could lead to impaired oral health. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the Serbian version of Children’s Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS and the relations between dental anxiety and oral health status in a sample of Serbian schoolchildren. Methods. The CFSS-DS scale was translated into Serbian and administered to 231 (12-year old patients of the Pediatric Dental Department, Public Health Center Čukarica, Belgrade. The number of healthy, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT score in children was determined by a clinical exam. Results. The average CFSS-DS score was 26.47 ± 10.33. The girls reported higher anxiety than the boys (p < 0.05. Most common fears were drilling, choking, going to the hospital and anesthesia. Lower CFSS-DS scores were recorded in children with all healthy teeth (p < 0.05. Children with higher CFSS-DS scores mostly visit the dentist due to pain or parental insistence, and those with lower anxiety scores more often visited dentist due to regular check-ups or non-invasive treatments (p < 0.01. A high value of the Cronbach's coefficient of internal consistency (α = 0.88 was found in the entire scale. Conclusion. The Serbian version of CFSS-DS questionnaire is reliable and valid psychometric instrument for evaluation of dental fear in Serbian children. Dental anxiety negatively affects dental attendance and oral health of the examined schoolchildren.
Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme
, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, IPA, and CINAHLs databases were searched from origin until July 2013 for studies reporting ADRs for beta2-receptor agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists and combination products in children from birth to age 17. Information on ADR reporting rates......Background Respiratory medications are frequently prescribed for use in children. Several studies have reported information on the safety of asthma medications in clinical studies in adults, but information about safety in children is scarce. Objective To review published clinical trials......, age and gender, type and seriousness of ADRs, design, setting, observation period, type of assessors, and funding sources was extracted from the articles. Results Literature searches resulted in 162 potential relevant articles. However only 12 of these studies were included in this review...
Miner, Patricia Johnson; Alexander, Jeffrey; Ewing, Helen; Gerace, Laina
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between adherence to prescribed antiepileptic medication in a convenience sample of caregivers (n = 100) of children diagnosed with epilepsy, ages 2-14 years, and caregivers' beliefs about the medication. Using the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire and Medication Adherence Report Scale, caregivers were questioned about beliefs of necessity and concerns associated with medication adherence. Using bivariate linear regression, no significant correlation was found between necessity for antiepileptic drug treatment or caregiver's concerns and medication adherence. Nevertheless, although only 28% of the respondents reported complete adherence, the majority of caregivers perceived their child's medication was necessary to maintain good health. Educational aspects and social desirability in this setting may have contributed to the discordance between adherence and caregivers' beliefs.
Stepansky, Mona A; Roache, Caitlin R; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Schultz, Karen
The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to explore the transfer of responsibility of medical tasks from parent to child during the transition to adolescence, and (2) to examine the associations between family functioning and medical adherence in youth with spina bifida. Seventy families of children with spina bifida participated in this study. Data were collected during family interaction sessions by using questionnaires completed by mothers, fathers, youth, teachers and health professionals. Findings suggest that responsibility for medical regimens transfers gradually from parent to child over time. Additionally, family conflict and cohesion were correlated with medical adherence. Finally, family conflict over medical issues was related to a decrease in medical adherence over time. Results suggest that as youth take more responsibility over their medical regimens, family conflict regarding medical issues becomes a contributor to their adherence behaviors. Interventions that target family conflict may facilitate adherence behaviors.
Jang, Sou Hyun
Applying Andersen's health care utilization model, this paper shows the prevalence of immigrants' medical and dental tourism and associated factors. An analysis of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey data shows that about 17% of immigrants received medical care in a foreign country, whereas about one-third obtained dental care outside the United States. Latino immigrants have a higher prevalence of both types of tourism than their Asian counterparts. Race, level of education, and health insured status are commonly associated with medical and dental tourism. The findings contribute to the scarce literature on immigrants' health care utilization and medical and dental tourism.
Yusoff, Muhamad S B
The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21) was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail) were traced by using their student identity code (ID) through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. A total of 194 (98.0%) of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.
Olapade-Olaopa, E O; Sewankambo, N; Iputo, J E; Rugarabamu, P; Amlak, A H; Mipando, M; Monekosso G L
BACKGROUND - Globally, human resources for health are being optimized to address the increasing health burden and concomitant increased demands on health professionals. These demands are even more exacting in Sub-SaharanAfrica considering the shortage of health care workers, especially physicians. The noteworthy efforts at deploying task-shifting to address this situation not-withstanding, the situation also signals the need to re-define the objectives of medical instruction to ensure effective and contemporary medical practice in a mostly physician-led health workforce across the sub-continent. In this regard, medical and dental graduates must be educated to perform certain minimum essential professional duties competently. Essential Professional Duties are locally relevant professional activities of international standard that represent identifiable outcomes against which the effectiveness of physicians in a specific community can be measured to ensure social accountability. PROCEDURE AND PRODUCT - The Association of Medical Schools of Africa has developed the 'Essential Professional Duties for sub-Saharan medical and dental graduates' to ensure these physicians provide safe and effective contemporary medical/dental practice on the sub-continent. The duties have been grouped into those required for basic patient care, basic administrative skills, basic emergency care, communication, inter-professional relationships, self-directed learning and social responsibilities. Their relevance and suitability have been evaluated prior to their adoption by the Association. CONCLUSION; These Essential Physician Duties have been developed to serve as targets for health professionals training instruments and thus give direction to health system strategies. It is hoped that they will be adopted by medical and dental schools across sub-,. Saharan Africa.
Jember, Abebaw; Hailu, Mignote; Messele, Anteneh; Demeke, Tesfaye; Hassen, Mohammed
A medication error (ME) is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm. Voluntary reporting has a principal role in appreciating the extent and impact of medication errors. Thus, exploration of the proportion of medication error reporting and associated factors among nurses is important to inform service providers and program implementers so as to improve the quality of the healthcare services. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 nurses from March 6 to May 10, 2015. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected using structured self-administered questionnaire which was adopted from studies conducted in Australia and Jordan. A pilot study was carried out to validate the questionnaire before data collection for this study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with the proportion of medication error reporting among nurses. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. The proportion of medication error reporting among nurses was found to be 57.4%. Regression analysis showed that sex, marital status, having made a medication error and medication error experience were significantly associated with medication error reporting. The proportion of medication error reporting among nurses in this study was found to be higher than other studies.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Self medication is an important concern for health authorities at global level. This study was aimed to find the prevalence of self medication for allopathic drugs and associated factors among households of urban community. This study was also aimed at assessing the attitude of respondents who had experienced self-medication. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in field practice area attached to a medical institution in urban Puducherry. A total of 352 subjects from 124 households were selected by random sampling. With pretested interview schedule, information regarding self-medication use in the past three months and associated sociodemographic factors, purpose, source of drug procurement, attitude toward self-medication use were collected. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was found to be 11.9%. Males, age >40 years and involving in moderate level activity of occupation, were found to be significantly associated with higher self-medication usage (P < 0.05. Fever (31%, headache (19%, and abdominal pain (16.7% are most common illnesses where self-medication is being used. Telling the symptoms to pharmacist (38.1% was the commonest method adopted to procure drugs by the users. Majority of the self-medication users expressed that self-medication is harmless (66.6% and they are going to use (90% and advice others also (73.8% to use self-medication drugs. Conclusion: Self-medication is an important health issue in this area. Health education of the public and regulation of pharmacies may help in limiting the self-medication practices.
Mosconi, P; Colombo, C; Guella, F; Pierotti, B; Vimercati, F
In the framework of PartecipaSalute--an Italian research project aimed to involve lay people, patients' associations and scientific-medical representatives on the health debate --we carried out a survey with the Italian Federation of Medical Societies. The aims of the survey were to know medical societies attitude vs. patients involvement in research activities and healthcare setting and to find out possible projects conducted in partnership with patients associations. A web-questionnaire with 17 closed questions, and three open questions has been prepared on the basis of some experiences published on the literature and through the collaboration of members of the Italian Federation of Medical Societies. A total of 205 medical societies has been contacted by e-mail with a cover letter explaining the aims of the survey. At the end 74 medical societies completed the survey. Medical societies participating to the survey varied widely in terms of years of activity, number of members, and geographical distribution. Remarkably, 36 medical societies respondent organized collaborative initiatives with patients/consumers associations during the last three years. Among these, the most frequent were the preparation of written material for patients, organization of conferences or workshops, and health awareness campaigns. Moreover, 6 medical societies published documents on patients' rights but patients or their associations were involved in only 2 of these initiatives. Advantages and disadvantages reported by medical societies answering are also presented and discussed. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first survey on the value of patients' involvement conducted together with medical societies in Italy, and the results point the way to stronger collaboration in future between patients' associations and medical societies.
Cardarelli, Roberto; Licciardone, John C
There has been an increase in research evaluating factors associated with disciplinary action of physicians by state medical boards. However, factors related to the severity of disciplinary action are lacking. By investigating these factors while controlling for the type of violation, the authors sought to determine whether physician characteristics influenced the process of disciplinary action by state medical boards. Physicians disciplined by the Texas Medical Board between January 1, 1989, and December 31, 1998, were included in this case-controlled study (N=1129). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with license revocation, the most severe disciplinary action, compared with all other forms of disciplinary action combined. Anesthesiologists (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.05-5.74), general practitioners (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.01-3.19), and psychiatrists (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.41-5.13), as well as those with multiple disciplinary actions (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.29-2.83) were most susceptible to license revocation. The more years a disciplined physician was in practice, the greater risk he or she had of license revocation (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.07). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of license revocation for physicians are: primary medical specialty, number of years in practice, and a history of multiple disciplinary actions.
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to show the similarity between the Serbian and Greek Post-Byzantine chanting traditions, especially those which relate to the scale organization of modes. Three teachers and reformers from Constantinople, Chrisantos, Gregorios and Chourmousios, established a fairly firm theoretical system for the first time during the long history of church chant. One of the main results of their reform, beside changes relating to neums, was the assignment of strict sizes to the intervals in the natural tonal system. There are three kinds of natural scales: diatonic, chromatic and encharmonic. They all have their place in the Greek Anastasimatarion chant book, whose first edition was prepared by Petar Peloponesios, and later edited by Ionnes Protopsaltes. The first, first plagal and forth plagal modes are diatonic in each of their melos, with very few exceptions; the second and second plagal are soft and hard chromatic, while the third and varis are encharmonic. It is important to note that the Greek chanter is very conscious of the scale foundation of the melody, so he begins to chant the apechima foremost, the intonation formula that comprehends all indisposed details to enter the adequate mode, i. e. melos. One mode could use one sort of scale for all groups of melodies - melos. However, in some modes there are different melos, whose scale organisation is not equal at all. That means that it is not proper to equate mode with scale, but rather to look for the specific scale's shape through the melodies that belong to the melos. The absence of formal Serbian church music theory and, especially, the very conservative way in which church melodies are learnt by ear and by heart, has caused significant gaps, which preclude an adequate approach to the essentional principals of Serbian chant. Over the years many Serbian chanters and musicians have noted down church melodies, especially those from the Octoechos, in F or in G, with the key
Abdelaziz, Ammar M Y; Alotaibi, Khalid T; Alhurayyis, Jarah H; Alqahtani, Turky A; Alghamlas, Aamer M; Algahtani, Haifa M; Jahrami, Haitham A
To examine the association between depression and physical symptoms among medical students in Bahrain. The present study employed a cross-sectional design. A total of 160 students were recruited, 41.3% were male and 58.8% female, using a convenience sampling approach. Participants completed the validated Patients Health Questionnaires (PHQs) in which they provided information about demographics, physical symptoms, and depression. Results were considered significant if p medical students in Bahrain. Medical educators should take such symptoms seriously among medical students as it may have serious consequences on the mental health of medical students. In practice, adequate awareness initiatives should be organized and provided for medical students to help them overcome their challenges they face. Additionally, incorporating screening self-screening strategies in the medical curriculum can be beneficial for early detections of mental health problems. The Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
Janssens, Rien; van Delden, Johannes J M; Widdershoven, Guy A M
The main premise of the Royal Dutch Medical Association's (RDMA) guideline on palliative sedation is that palliative sedation, contrary to euthanasia, is normal medical practice. Although we do not deny the ethical distinctions between euthanasia and palliative sedation, we will critically analyse the guideline's argumentation strategy with which euthanasia is demarcated from palliative sedation. First, we will analyse the guideline's main premise, which entails that palliative sedation is normal medical treatment. After this, we will critically discuss three crucial propositions of the guideline that are used to support this premise: (1) the patient's life expectancy should not exceed 2 weeks; (2) the aim of the physician should be to relieve suffering and (3) expert consultation is optional. We will conclude that, if inherent problematic aspects of palliative sedation are taken seriously, palliative sedation is less normal than it is now depicted in the guideline.
Andritsou, Fotini; Benetou, Vassiliki; Michail, Koralia A.; Pantazis, Nikolaos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D.
The increasing trend of administering nonprescribed medicines in children is a significant public health issue. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of medication without a prescription (MWP), including both nonprescribed medication (NPM) and prescription-only medication (POM), and identify associated factors, among preschoolers in Athens, Greece. A predesigned questionnaire was distributed to parents from May through June 2011. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis ...
Brandstetter, Susanne; Finger, Tamara; Fischer, Wiebke; Brandl, Magdalena; Böhmer, Merle; Pfeifer, Michael; Apfelbacher, Christian
Adherence to medication is crucial for achieving treatment control in chronic obstructive lung diseases. This study refers to the “necessity-concerns framework” and examines the associations between beliefs about medicines and self-reported medication adherence in people with chronic obstructive lung disease. 402 patients (196 with asthma, 206 with COPD) participated in the study and completed a questionnaire comprising the “Beliefs about Medicines-Questionnaire” (BMQ) and the “Medication Adh...
Yugantara Ramesh Kadam
Full Text Available Context: It has been hypothesized that diagonal earlobe crease (DELC, “Frank's sign” is indicative of coronary artery disease (CAD and/or diabetes mellitus (DM. Several studies have confirmed an association between DELC and cardiac morbidity, mortality, and hypertension (HTN. However, some studies have not found any significant association. Aims: This study aims to find out the prevalence of DELC and its association with CAD, DM, and HTN. Settings and Design: Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Subjects and Methods: Study participants: Adults from 18 to 60 years age. Inclusion criteria: willing to participate in the study Exclusion criteria: Wearing heavy ear rings and excessive normal generalized wrinkling of the skin. Sample size: Sample size 6310, determined after a pilot study revealing DELC in 1.5%. Sampling technique: Two-stage cluster sampling. Duration of study: 6 months. Study tools: Predesigned, pilot tested pro forma. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 22 software. Prevalence and percentages were calculated, and Chi-square test was applied. Results: Out of 6638 participants, 179 had DELC. The prevalence of bilateral DELC was 2.7%. The prevalence was significantly high among males (4.13% and in the 51–60 years age group (5.29%. The prevalence of Grade 3 DELC was high and 91% of young adults had Grade 3 DELC. There were 408 (6.15% participants who gave a history of CAD, 827 (12.46% of DM, and 670 (10.09% HTN. Significantly high association observed between DELC and CAD, DM, and HTN. CAD, DM, and HTN were significantly associated with Grade 3. Conclusions: The prevalence of bilateral DELC was 2.7% and is significantly associated with CAD, DM, and HTN.
Gu, Linni; Wu, Shaomin; Zhao, Shuliang; Zhou, Huixuan; Zhang, Shengfa; Gao, Min; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Weijun; Tian, Donghua
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily increasing in China. When diabetes is uncontrolled, it generates dire consequences for health and well-being. Numerous studies have shown that health outcomes were associated with social support and medication adherence. Previous study confirmed that social support was associated with medication adherence in patients with heart failure, HIV diseases, and first-episode psychosis. However, the relationship between social support and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is remains unclear. This study aims to examine whether social support is associated with medication adherence in patients with T2DM. This study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (PLA). In Beijing, a systematic random sample of 412 patients with T2DM over 18 years was recruited at baseline, and demographic characteristics, clinical data and their assessment of social support were collected from medical records and self-reported questionnaires. 330 of these patients completed a self-report measure of medication adherence at the sixth month after baseline data collection. Regression analysis showed that social support presented a positive effect on medication adherence, additionally, support utilization and the subscale of social support exhibited a significantly strong influence on medication adherence in patients with T2DM. Although medication adherence was influenced by multiple factors, this finding confirmed that social support must be recognized as a core element in interventions aimed at improving in the management of patients with T2DM.
Muhamad S. B. Yusoff
Full Text Available Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21 was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail were traced by using their student identity code (ID through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. Results: A total of 194 (98.0% of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P <0.05. Those who experienced moderate to high stress were at 2.43 times higher risk for failing the examination than those who experienced normal to mild stress. Conclusion: Medical students whofailed in the final examination had higher psychological distress than those who passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.
Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Christensen, René dePont
specificity and dose-response patterns. FINDINGS: 22,125 drug-cancer pairs underwent evaluation in the first phase. Of 4561 initial signals (i.e., drug-cancer associations), 3541 (78%) failed to meet requirements for dose-response patterns and specificity, leaving 1020 eligible signals. Of these, 510 signals...
Full Text Available The study is aimed at providing empirical basis for the adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates’ Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs for Serbian language, a parent report instrument for the language development assessment. Two sources of data were used in order to provide the basis for selection of items and evaluation of their linguistic, cultural and developmental validity: a. Serbian Corpus of Early Child Language (SCECL, and b. focus groups with experts and parents/caregivers. Exploration of the frequency of words/forms in Serbian child language and the qualitative analysis of focus groups discussions provided criteria for selection/adjustment of items in the course of inventory adaptation. The results also revealed that parents are naturally more focused on semantic and communicational aspects of utterances, and insufficiently aware of formal properties of their children’s production. The paper presents significant changes and modifications of the instrument in the course of its adaptation for Serbian, which is a step closer to the final aim - providing a standardized instrument for the assessment of language development in Serbian. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON179033, Grant no. ON179034 and Grant no. III47008
Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Mizuno, Kei; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among medical students and researchers consider it to be related to poor academic outcomes. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine whether stress and coping strategies were associated with fatigue in medical students. The study group consisted of 73 second-year healthy students attending the Osaka…
Alexeeff, Stacey E.; Yau, Vincent; Qian, Yinge; Davignon, Meghan; Lynch, Frances; Crawford, Phillip; Davis, Robert; Croen, Lisa A.
This study examines medical conditions diagnosed prior to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a matched case control design with 3911 ASD cases and 38,609 controls, we found that 38 out of 79 medical conditions were associated with increased ASD risk. Developmental delay, mental health, and neurology conditions had the strongest…
Connor, Jennifer J
Centralized exchanges of scientific materials existed by the late nineteenth century, but they did not include medical publications. North American medical leaders therefore formed an association of institutions to run their own exchange: the Medical Library Association (MLA). After providing background to the exchange concept and the importance of institutional members for MLA, this article examines archival MLA correspondence to consider the role of its Exchange in the association's professional development before the 1950s. MLA's membership policy admitted only libraries open to the medical profession with a large number of volumes. But the correspondence of the MLA Executive Committee reveals that the committee constantly adjusted the definition of library membership: personal, public, sectarian, commercial, allied science, and the then-termed "colored" medical school libraries all were denied membership. Study of these decisions, using commercial and sectarian libraries as a focus, uncovers the primary justification for membership exclusions: a goal of operating a scientific exchange. Also, it shows that in this way, MLA shadowed policies and actions of the American Medical Association. Finally, the study suggests that the medical profession enforced its policies of exclusion through MLA, despite a proclaimed altruistic sharing of medical literature.
Connor, Jennifer J
Objective: Centralized exchanges of scientific materials existed by the late nineteenth century, but they did not include medical publications. North American medical leaders therefore formed an association of institutions to run their own exchange: the Medical Library Association (MLA). After providing background to the exchange concept and the importance of institutional members for MLA, this article examines archival MLA correspondence to consider the role of its Exchange in the association's professional development before the 1950s. Results: MLA's membership policy admitted only libraries open to the medical profession with a large number of volumes. But the correspondence of the MLA Executive Committee reveals that the committee constantly adjusted the definition of library membership: personal, public, sectarian, commercial, allied science, and the then-termed “colored” medical school libraries all were denied membership. Conclusion: Study of these decisions, using commercial and sectarian libraries as a focus, uncovers the primary justification for membership exclusions: a goal of operating a scientific exchange. Also, it shows that in this way, MLA shadowed policies and actions of the American Medical Association. Finally, the study suggests that the medical profession enforced its policies of exclusion through MLA, despite a proclaimed altruistic sharing of medical literature. PMID:21464849
Mott, David A; Martin, Beth; Breslow, Robert; Michaels, Barb; Kirchner, Jeff; Mahoney, Jane; Margolis, Amanda
The use of fall risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) by older adults is one factor associated with falling, and FRID use is common among older adults. A targeted medication therapy management intervention focused on FRID use that included prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications, along with follow-up telephone calls was designed. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine preliminary effects of a medication therapy management (MTM) intervention focused on FRIDs provided by a community pharmacist to older adults. Randomized, controlled trial. One community pharmacy. Eighty older adults who completed a fall prevention workshop. The main outcome measures were the rate of discontinuing FRIDs, the proportion of older adults falling, and the number of falls. A secondary outcome was the acceptance rate of medication recommendations by patients and prescribers. Thirty-eight older adults received the targeted MTM intervention. Of the 31 older adults using a FRID, a larger proportion in the intervention group had FRID use modified relative to controls (77% and 28%, respectively; P FRID use among older adults was effective in modifying FRID use. This result supports the preliminary conclusion that community pharmacists can play an important role in modifying FRID use among older adults. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Psihogios, Alexandra M; Holmbeck, Grayson N
This study investigated mother-child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother-child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time.
... Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents MLA ... From You We want your feedback on the magazine and ideas for future issues, as well as ...
Full Text Available The Medical Library Association (MLA held its 117th annual meeting in Seattle, Washington, May 26–31, 2017, at the Washington State Convention Center. The meeting theme was “Dream, Dare, Do.”
Suppli, Nis P; Deltour, Isabelle; Damkjaer, Lars H
We evaluated factors associated with use of antidepressant medication subsequent to a diagnosis of breast cancer. We also evaluated the effect of participation in a cancer rehabilitation program on use of antidepressants....
Full Text Available The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies.
Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel
Professional medical associations (PMAs) play a crucial role in providing accredited continuing medical education (CME) to physicians. Funding from the pharmaceutical industry may lead to biases in CME. This study examines publicly available policies on CME, adopted by Canadian PMAs as of December 2015. Policies were evaluated using an original scoring tool comprising 21 items, two questions about PMAs' general and CME funding from industry, and three enforcement measures. We assessed 236 policies adopted by Canadian PMAs (range, 0 to 32). Medical associations received summative scores that ranged from 0% to 49.2% of the total possible points (maximum score = 63). Twenty-seven associations received an overall score of 0%. The highest mean scores were achieved in the areas of industry involvement in planning CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), presence of a review process for topics of CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), content review for balanced information (mean: 1.1/3), and responsibility of distribution of funds (mean: 1.0/3). The lowest mean scores were achieved in the areas of awards (mean: 0.0/3), industry personnel, representatives, and employees (mean: 0.1/3), distribution of industry-funded educational materials at CME activities (mean: 0.1/3), and distinction between marketing and educational materials (mean: 0.1/3). These results suggest that Canadian PMAs' publicly available policies on industry involvement in CME are generally weak or non-existent; therefore, the accredited CME that is provided to Canadian physicians may be viewed as open to bias. We encourage all Canadian medical associations to strengthen their policies to avoid the potential for industry influence in CME.
Song, Yang; Shi, Meng
Empathy promotes positive physician-patient communication and is associated with improved patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. It has been suggested that personality traits should be taken into consideration in programs designed to enhance empathy in medical education due to the association found between personality and empathy among medical students. However, the associations between empathy and big five personality traits in medical education are still underrepresented in the existing literature and relevant studies have not been conducted among medical students in China, where tensions in the physician-patient relationship have been reported as outstanding problems in the context of China's current medical reform. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the associations between empathy and big five personality traits among Chinese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical university in Northeast China in June 2016. Self-reported questionnaires including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) and demographic characteristics were distributed. A total of 530 clinical medical students became our final subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of big five personality traits on empathy. Results of this study showed that big five personality traits accounted for 19.4%, 18.1%, 30.2% of the variance in three dimensions of empathy, namely, perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress, respectively. Specifically, agreeableness had a strong positive association with empathic concern (β = 0.477, Ppersonal distress (β = 0.526, Ppersonal distress (β = -0.160, Pbig five personality traits were important predictors of self-reported measures of both cognitive and affective empathy among Chinese medical students. Therefore, individualized intervention strategies based on personality traits could be integrated into programs to
Mills, Michael D.
The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed
Mills, Michael D., E-mail: email@example.com
The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.
Loayza H.,Maria Paz; Ponte,Talles S.; Carvalho,Clarissa G.; Pedrotti,Michell R.; Nunes,Paula V.; Souza,Camila M.; Zanette,Camila B.; Voltolini,Sara; Chaves,Marcia L. F.
Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years). The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder...
Schofferman, Jerome A; Eskay-Auerbach, Marjorie L; Sawyer, Laura S; Herring, Stanley A; Arnold, Paul M; Muehlbauer, Eric J
Recently the financial relationships between industry and professional medical associations have come under increased scrutiny because of the concern that industry ties may create real or perceived conflicts of interest. Professional medical associations pursue public advocacy as well as promote medical education, develop clinical practice guidelines, fund research, and regulate professional conduct. Therefore, the conflicts of interest of a professional medical association and its leadership can have more far-reaching effects on patient care than those of an individual physician. Few if any professional medical associations have reported their experience with implementing strict divestment and disclosure policies, and among the policies that have been issued, there is little uniformity. We describe the experience of the North American Spine Society (NASS) in implementing comprehensive conflicts of interest policies. A special feature article. We discuss financial conflicts of interest as they apply to professional medical associations rather than to individual physicians. We describe the current policies of disclosure and divestment adopted by the NASS and how these policies have evolved, been refined, and have had no detrimental impact on membership, attendance at annual meetings, finances, or leadership recruitment. No funding was received for this work. The authors report no potential conflict-of-interest-associated biases in the text. The NASS has shown that a professional medical association can manage its financial relationships with industry in a manner that minimizes influence and bias. The NASS experience can provide a template for other professional medical associations to help manage their own possible conflicts of interest issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Past research has looked at how the media frames human trafficking, but has seldom included analysis of visual representations. To bridge this gap, this paper scrutinises stereotypical representations of persons trafficked into the sex industry in photographs published in Serbian online media from 2011 to 2014. To uncover characteristics of dominant tropes in this sample, a method of semiotic analysis is applied. The analysis argues that images are dominated by portrayals of trafficked persons that fit into one of two frames: powerless victim or unworthy prostitute. Male figures are rarely presented in these photographs, but when present, they are shown to hurt or control the women depicted alongside them. Chains, padlocks, barcodes, whip marks, and other symbols associated with slavery are present to a lesser extent. However, they testify to the tendency to link human trafficking to slavery and to use the moral potential of the anti-slavery rhetoric. Photographs are too easily seen as authentic, factual transcripts of reality. This paper suggests that these images tell us more about societal fear of insecurity, ideas about gender, erotic obsessions and morality than about human trafficking itself. It also argues that the meaning of trafficking is shaped by the deeply embedded codes of patriarchy and hidden misogyny present in Serbian society.
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of the research dealing with the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR and its connections with competitiveness. The authors deal with competitiveness of enterprises, as well as activities that promote socially responsible business in Serbia. Special attention is given to the review and analysis of research results of Serbian undergraduate business students' attitudes on CSR and competitiveness. In a five-year- period the research included over 3,300 examinees. The population was built on students from universities and business schools located in total 22 cities and municipalities in Serbia. The research was conducted using questionnaire. Among other, the research has shown that a number of examinees were not informed of the CSR. Students experience the Serbian economy as uncompetitive and have identified several factors that are lacking in the development of competitiveness.
Tomasevic, Igor; Dodevska, Margarita; Simić, Milan; Raicevic, Smiljana; Matovic, Violeta; Djekic, Ilija
In total 7351 meat preparations and fresh processed meat products were analysed from 555 different Serbian meat producers over a 10-year period, 4.5 years before and 5.5 years after mandatory Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that HACCP has contributed to a better alignment of practices with the legal provisions. The share of non-compliant samples dropped from 18.6% before HACCP to 8.3% after its mandatory implementation. Average sulphite concentrations for all categories of meat preparations and fresh processed meat products decreased by 43%, declining from 33.6 to 19.3 mg kg -1 . Typical misuse and frequent abuse of sulphites was independent of a season. Application of HACCP principles in the Serbian meat industry raised awareness about the misuse of sulphites and contributed to a better control, minimising exposure to sulphites.
Full Text Available In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews with Serbian managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs were conducted to identify their main work-related challenges and the extent to which formal higher business education has helped them to overcome these challenges. Serbian SME managers find the main challenges to be related to HR- and marketing-related issues, followed by country-specific problems, such as dealing with bureaucracy, difficulties in obtaining financial resources, and coping with delayed payments. They see considerable deficits in the current system of higher business education, specifically referring to a lack of practice-oriented teaching methods and insufficient cooperation between the universities and the business sector.
Full Text Available This article delves into the work of a researcher group based around the Center for Theoretical Archaeology in Belgrade (2007 – present and the path they have taken to establish a foundation for further archaeological development within Serbia. This process illuminates the conceptual tools Fleck originally formulated - thought collectives, thought style, proto-ideas – which have played a significant role in the deconstruction of the concept of scientific fact and in the historicization / socialization of the theory of knowledge. For the Serbian archaeological community, one of the most fiendish aspects has been the ever present correlation between the field and the construction of a national identity - an especially painful theme for the postwar Balkans whose borders are still imprecisely defined. Hence, this work pays special attention to long held beliefs of ethnicity, ethnogenesis and continuity, emanating from outdated racial anthropology, but unfortunately still held as fact in Serbian archaeology.
Full Text Available Bearing in mind that every element of the linguistic system can be subordinated to the communicative function of language, the authors of this paper seek to provide a contrastive structural and semantic analysis of a particular lexico-semantic group of somatic idioms or phraseologisms (phraseological units containing the names of bodily organs found in the Modern Greek and Serbian languages. This brief analysis, based on a corpus gathered from dictionaries and translated books, is a pioneer work in its field either in Greek or in Serbian literature on phraseology. Since somatic phraseologisms diverge in their structure and semantic features, the authors attempt to find parallels between the two languages in their use of concrete concept forms, with the ultimate aim of explaining and expressing their metaphorical abstract meanings. This entails focusing on a selection of somatic phraseologisms which belong to separate phraseological inventories of the two languages.
Spirić, D.; Nikolić, D.; Ćirić, J.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Janković, V.; Teodorović, V.
Allergens in food are a great health risk, because of the ratio of severity of problems compared to small amounts of ingested allergen. Since 2014, Serbian producers and importers of food have been obliged to declare allergens from the list of Codex Alimentarius on the product packaging. Surveillance of different meat, diary, and cereal product took place in 2016, with aim of checking if the Serbian regulatory requirements for labelling of allergens in food are being fulfilled. Out of 68 different meat products, 20 were not labelled for allergens. Thirty-six labels of various dairy products were examined revealing that allergen information was included on 27 of them. Only one of eight examined cereal products did not have allergen labelling.
Full Text Available My starting point is the yet unexplored supposition that Lalić’s realistic writing about the reality contains also a real ethnological and anthropological reference, first of all comments on the Serbian ethnology of the first half of the 20th century, its traditional paradigm, and strategy of ethnographic writing. My second supposition is that the deeper structure of Lalić’s historical novels is “inscribed” by the genre of ethnography which, together with other text types and stylistic means, contributes to the virtuoso construction of great narratives about the Montenegrin life world in historical perspective. Finally, an analysis of Lalić’s discourse reveals that despite the Marxist inspired criticism of ethnology as part of the Serbian national science, the discipline was an inevitable point of reference in the narrative construction of Montenegrin identity.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medicine is one of the most stressful fields of education because of its highly demanding professional and academic requirements. Psychological stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in medical students.Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry in Lahore (CMH LMC, Pakistan. Students enrolled in all yearly courses for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS degree were included. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1 demographics (2 a table listing 34 potential stressors, (3 the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14, and (4 the Pittsburgh Quality of Sleep Index (PSQI. Logistic regression was run to identify associations between group of stressors, gender, year of study, student’s background, stress and quality of sleep.Results. Total response rate was 93.9% (263/280 respondents returned the questionnaire. The mean (SD PSS-14 score was 30 (6.97. Logistic regression analysis showed that cases of high-level stress were associated with year of study and academic-related stressors only. Univariate analysis identified 157 cases with high stress levels (59.7%. The mean (SD PSQI score was 8.1 (3.12. According to PSQI score, 203/263 respondents (77% were poor sleepers. Logistic regression showed that mean PSS-14 score was a significant predictor of PSQI score (OR 1.99, P < 0.05.Conclusion. We found a very high prevalence of academic stress and poor sleep quality among medical students. Many medical students reported using sedatives more than once a week. Academic stressors contributed significantly to stress and sleep disorders in medical students.
Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Yaari, Aviv; Feldhamer, Elan; Balicer, Ran; Goldfracht, Margalit
This study analyzed the role of patient and physician characteristics associated with the purchase of antidepressant or antianxiety medications in Israel, a country that has a universal health care system. A national sample of 30,000 primary care patients over the age of 22 was randomly drawn from the registry of the largest health care fund in Israel. Data concerning medication purchase between January and December 2006 were extracted. Physician and patient characteristics were merged with Israel's unique identification number. Multilevel analysis was conducted to identify patient- and physician-level predictors of medication purchase. Overall, 19% (N = 4,762) of the sample purchased antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Individuals with greater general medical and psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to purchase antidepressant or antianxiety medications. Older adults, women, those of higher socioeconomic status, and immigrants (with the exception of Jews born in Asia or Africa) were also more likely to purchase medications. Arabs and Jews born in Asia and Africa were less likely to purchase medications even after all other variables were accounted for. Physician characteristics were minimally associated with the purchase of medications. The findings demonstrate that despite universal health care access, there were variations by population groups. Educational efforts should target patients as well as physicians.
Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin; Bae, Hwa-Ok
This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout.
Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen
The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.
Baturan Luka O.
This paper is application of cost-benefit analysis on a pre-emptive rights, which is established by the Serbian Law on Property Restitution and Compensation. The basic hypothesis is that this law institute disturbs efficiency of resource allocation, and decreases social welfare. There are a few better and more efficient institutes which can be used for gaining of goods in public ownership. To prove this hypothesis, we used neo-institutional economy method and normative method. In the first pa...
Full Text Available Instruction in Serbian language and literature serves to prepare and in a certain way enable the students to follow other school subjects, which points to its special relevance for total education. Unfortunately, research results indicate that students’ knowledge in this field is not entirely satisfactory. One of the reasons maybe the fact that this knowledge is not sufficiently used in practice, which can have an unfavourable impact on students’ response to more and more complex demands set by the education system of the 21st century. Additionally, the problem can also be related to the fact that dogmatic-reproductive and reproductive-explicative methodical approaches are still used in the classes of Serbian language and literature, while less attention is paid to creative work, cooperative learning and students’ initiative, the competences that should be developed first and foremost during the initial education. This paper aims at pointing to the methods and procedures that contribute to the encouragement of initiative, cooperation and creativity in primary school students in the instruction in Serbian language and literature. Among other tings, we point out to the innovation of the drama method as an integral approach to teaching contents, which serves to adopt more quality knowledge via focused role-playing activities and drama techniques, primarily in the field of literature, and enables the durability and quality of the aesthetic perception and the reception of literature. It is also pointed to the fact that instruction that includes creative work, initiative and cooperative relations enhances student competences not only in knowledge and skills in Serbian language and literature, but also at the level of emotional and social relations between students. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije i br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative
Full Text Available In this research we investigate the relevance of phonological parameters in acquisition of Serbian language. Implementation of British Test of Phonological Screeing (TOPhS, van der Lely and Harris, 1999 has revealed that phonological complexity (syllabic and metrical structure influences accuracy in non-word repetition task and could be used in assessment of phonological development of typically developing children, as well as of children with Grammatical Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI (van der Lely and Harris, 1999; Gallon, Harris & van der Lely, 2007. Having in mind phonological properties of Serbian language (Zec, 2000, 2007, we hypothesized that several parameters can be used in assessment of phonological development in Serbian: a. onset (consonants cluster at the beginning of syllable; b. rime (consonant at the end of syllable. c. word of three syllables, and d. placement of stressed syllable in a word. Combination of these parameters gave us a list of 96 pseudo words of different levels of complexity. Participants were 14 adults and 30 children from kindergarten divided into three age groups (3, 4 and 5 years. Task for the participants was to loudly repeat every pseudo-word, and their reproduction was recorded. Transcription of their answers and coding of errors allowed us to analyze impact of different parameters on accuracy of phonological reproduction in children of different ages. The results indicate that the ability for reproduction of Serbian phonological properties develops in early preschool period. The most difficult is cluster of consonants at the beginning of syllable, and consonant at the end of syllable. These two parameters are even more difficult for reproduction in three-syllable words or in words that have more then one parameter marked. Placement of stress in a word is acquired even before 3 years. In other words, the results have shown that investigated features could be good indicators in assessment of early
This article analyzes the existing contribution of the Serbian diaspora to the development at home country, and features of its major effects as a partner in the process of economic development. No doubt, the spiritus movens of the contemporary and future economic and social progress is and will be the economy of ideas and creativity. The key factors of this new economy are education, research and innovation. To achieve competitiveness in an increasingly gl...
Full Text Available Tbis paper discusses the project of full on-line delivery of an introductory Serbo-Croatian (Bosniac, Croatian, Serbian course at the Arizona State University Critical Languages Institute. The issue of tailoring technology to meet diversified needs of a wide range of learners (from heritage speakers of the three Serbo-Croatian speaking ethnic communities to professional non-heritage learners is in the center of the discussion.
Full Text Available Early translations of the Apocalypse of Anastasia into Old Church Slavonic appear in several versions incorporated into miscellanies of the zbornik (collection type. These texts belong to various genres of religious prose and are usually assembled in apocryphal collections about journeys to the other world. The earliest known Serbian version of the Apocalypse of Anastasia is the fourteenth-century manuscript dated to about 1380 (MS 29. The present paper gives an analysis of this narrative.
Yeh, James S; Austad, Kirsten E; Franklin, Jessica M; Chimonas, Susan; Campbell, Eric G; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus
James S Yeh
Full Text Available Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale. Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63. Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04 and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95 than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly
Muzafar, Yumna; Khan, Hibbah H; Ashraf, Huma; Hussain, Waqas; Sajid, Hifsa; Tahir, Marium; Rehman, Abdul; Sohail, Aleena; Waqas, Ahmed; Ahmad, Waqas
Burnout is a widely known phenomenon. It is defined as a state of prolonged physical and psychological exhaustion and is experienced virtually by every medical student due to the highly demanding nature of medical education. This study probes into the prevalence and psychosocial determinants of burnout in Pakistani medical students. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design and convenience (non-probability) sampling technique were employed in undergraduate medical students from years 1-5. A total of 777 medical students from two medical colleges were included in the study from May-August, 2014. An English version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and a series of demographic questions, intermixed with questions from other topics, were included in the questionnaire. Data was analysed by using SPSS ver.21. The majority of students were females and enrolled in the third year of MBBS. Of the medical students involved, 30.6% were found to have high/very high levels of burnout (Kristenson's burnout scoring). Although 38.7% of students said that they did not feel burned out after reading the definition of burnout given in the questionnaire, 35.9% out of these students actually had high levels of burnout according to CBI. According to the multiple regression analysis, burnout in medical students was significantly associated with age, gender, doctor parents, no help or no supportive resources (e.g., from colleagues), lack of time off, lack of belief in what you do, fear of big consequences of failure, family responsibilities, and uncertain future. Perception of teachers lacking leadership skills and doing too much study with little balance was associated with low burnout scores. There is a high prevalence of burnout in Pakistani medical students. The present study identifies several factors associated with burnout in Pakistani medical students. Although these factors are a part of daily life of medical students, their identification should prompt the use of
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to examine the prevalence and predictors associated with self-medication, and related consequences in Wuhan, China. Methods: Two-hundred-sixty residents were interviewed from randomly selected four districts of Wuhan, China. A modified version of Anderson’s health behavioral model was used in the survey to collect information of self-medication behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to measure correlates of the prevalence of self-medication. Results: Nearly half of the respondents would select self-medication, and 39.1% would see a doctor if they felt sick. The most common self-medicated illnesses were cold and cough, cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal disease. The main reasons for self-medication were that the illness was not severe (enough to see the doctor (45%; the patient did not think that the trouble of seeing a doctor was worth the effort (23%; the patient had no time to see the doctor (12%, and the patient did not want to pay high medical costs (15%. Logistic regression results suggested that respondents tended to select self-medication if the illness was minor or short-term (less than seven days. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that more strict regulation on over-the-counter medicines may be required to reduce health risks related to self-medication. Targeted health education on the risks of self-medication should be considered.
Freeland, Kathryn N; Thompson, Amy N; Zhao, Yumin; Leal, Julie E; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P
Studies have shown that approximately one third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older will experience a fall each year. Many studies indicate that use of multiple medications may put patients at an increased risk of falling, but few studies have been conducted to correlate the number of medications with the risk of falls. To determine the medications most frequently used in patients aged 65 years or older who have experienced a fall within the past year, with particular attention to type or number of medications most commonly associated with multiple falls or a fall with injury. We conducted a chart review in an outpatient internal medicine clinic over a 13-month period. A total of 118 patients 65 years of age or older who were taking 4 or more medications and had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months were included. Data relating to sex, age, race, diagnoses, medications, and number and type of falls were obtained during the chart review. The primary end point of the study was number and type of medications most commonly used in patients experiencing a fall. A total of 116 patients were examined for trends in fall risk. A logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated significant fall risk with the addition of medications, with patients experiencing a 14% increase in fall risk with the addition of each medication beyond a 4-medication regimen (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.27; p = 0.027). The addition of medications is associated with a significant increase in risk of falls in elderly patients, regardless of drug class. Further studies are needed to assess the possible increased risk of falls with increasing number of medications.
Full Text Available Leonid (1867-1937 and Rimma (1877-1959 Brailowsky brought to Belgrade National theatre (together with other Russian emigrated stage and costume designers the spirit of the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva, making décor and costumes for 18 performances during the period of 1921-1924. Les romanesques by Edmond Rostand, Le malade imaginaire by Molière, Shakespeare's Richard III, Merchant of Venice and King Lear and two Serbian dramas, Offenbach's Hoffmann's Tales, Faust by Gounod, Smetana's Bartered Bride, Bizet's Carmen Onegin and Queen of Spades by Tchaikovsky, Massenet's Manon, The Tsar's Bride by Rimsky-Korsakov, The Wedding of Miloš by Petar Konjović, the Serbian opera composer, two ballets, Sheherazade and Nutcracker. The artists, husband and wife, were praised for their modernization of the Belgrade scene, for their vivid realization of sets and costumes, for their novelties, especially in Serbian historical dramas by Branislav Nušić and Milutin Bojić, and Shakespeare as well. In operas and ballets they were also respected in some extent, but the pictorial, sometimes independent value of their scenic work, although inspired by music, arouse opposing questions among the musical critics, who could not accept their too bright colors which once conquered Paris in the scenic interpretation of Leon Bakst or Nikolai Roerich. To avoid resistance of Belgrade critics the couple decided to leave Yugoslav capital for Italy where they continued successfully their artistic career.
Bataković Dušan T.
Full Text Available The Serbian uprising of 1804-13, initially a peasant rebellion against abuses of power by local janissaries, turned into a national and social revolution from 1806. During its second phase (late 1806 - early 1807, Serbian insurgents openly proclaimed their demand for independence. Encouraged by their military achievements, the insurgent leaders began to seek wider Balkan support for their struggle against Ottoman domination. Although its political claims were a mixture of modern national and romantic historic rights, the uprising gave hope to all Balkan Christians that the Ottoman defeat was an achievable goal. For the Balkan nations it was a French Revolution adapted to local conditions: the principle of popular sovereignty was opposed to the principle of legitimism; a new peasant-dominated society was created in which, due to the lack of the aristocracy and well-established middle classes, agrarian egalitarianism was combined with the rising aspirations of a modern nation. Its long-term effects on the political and social landscape of the whole region justified the assessment of the eminent German historian Leopold von Ranke who described the uprising, by analogy with the French example, as the Serbian Revolution.
Full Text Available A logo is most commonly observed as an emblem with intent to be widely recognized as a permanent symbol, or an icon, additionally permitting correlative meanings within a designative context. In the particular example of the Glossary of Serbian culture logo the opportunities of elements of design (coded iconic message, non-coded iconic message and linguistic message have been analyzed with intention to ascertain communication with future users of the Index conveying the desired message not only about specificities of Serbian culture but also its complexity and unifying nature with the global culture. A logo is observed as a multi-parametric code transcending form a concept of artistic design to a “rhetoric figure” in context of presentation and promotion of Serbian culture. While the art of designing, as a discipline, has the objective of artistic modulation, as well as an aesthetic effect, it also, in this case, represents the form of the governmental strategy in communication with others and formation of the cultural identity of its citizens.
Full Text Available Between the two World Wars, in Belgrade and Serbia, seven musical journals were published: “Musical Gazette” (1922, “Music” (1928-1929, “Herald of the Musical Society Stanković” (1928-1934, 1938-1941; renamed to “Musical Herald” in january 1931, “Sound” (1932-1936, “Journal of The South Slav Choral Union” (1935-1936, 1938, “Slavic Music” (1939-1941 and “Music Review” (1940. The influence of marxism can be observed in “Musical Herald” (in the series from 1938, “Sound” and “Slavic Music”. A Marxist influence is obvious through indications of determinism. Namely, some writers (Dragutin Čolić observed elements of musical art and its history as (indirect consequences of sociopolitical and economic processes. Still, journals published articles of domestic and foreign authors who interpreted the relation between music, society and economy in a much more moderate and subtle manner (D.Cvetko, A.Schering. Editors and associates of these journals also had proscriptive ambitions - they recommended and even determined regulations for composers about what kind of music to write according to social goals and needs. According to tendencies in Marxism, there was a follow up of musical work in the Soviet Union. Editors tried not to be one-sided. There were writings about the USSR by left orientated associates as much as emigrants from that country, and articles of Soviet authors were translated. Also, there were critical tones about musical development in the first country of socialism. Serbian musical periodicals recognized the enormous threat from fascism. Also, there were articles about influence of Nazi ideology and dictatorship on musical prospects in Germany. Since Germany annexed Sudetenland in 1938, “Musical Herald” expressed support to musicians and people of that friendly country by devoting the October and November 1938 issue to Czechoslovak music, along with an appropriate introduction by the editor
Stroupe, K T; Murray, M D; Stump, T E; Callahan, C M
The amount of medication dispensed to older adults for the treatment of chronic disease must be balanced carefully. Insufficient medication supplies lead to inadequate treatment of chronic disease, whereas excessive supplies represent wasted resources and the potential for toxicity. We used an electronic medical record system to determine the distribution of medications supplied to older urban adults and to examine the correlations of these distributions with healthcare costs and use. A cross-sectional study using data acquired over 3 years (1994-1996). A tax-supported urban public healthcare system consisting of a 300-bed hospital, an emergency department, and a network of community-based ambulatory care centers. Patients were >60 years of age and had at least one prescription refill and at least two ambulatory visits or one hospitalization during the 3-year period. Focusing on 12 major categories of drugs used to treat chronic diseases, we determined the amounts and direct costs of these medications dispensed to older adult patients. Amounts of medications that were needed by patients to medicate themselves adequately were compared with the medication supply actually dispensed considering all sources of care (primary, emergency, and inpatient). We calculated the excess drug costs attributable to oversupply of medication (>120% of the amount needed) and the drug cost reduction caused by undersupply of medication (120% of the supply needed. The total direct cost of targeted medications for 3 years was $1.96 million or, on average, $654,000 annually. During the 3-year period, patients receiving >120% of their needed medications had excess direct medication costs of $279,084 or $144 per patient, whereas patients receiving <80% of drugs needed had reduced medication costs of $423,438 or $634 per patient. Multivariable analyses revealed that both under- and over-supplies of medication were associated with a greater likelihood of emergency department visits and hospital
Hicks, Kristen K; Murano, Peter S
The purpose of this research study was to determine whether a 1-hour online continuing medical education (CME) course focused on nutrition for type 2 diabetes would result in a gain in nutrition knowledge by practicing physicians. A practicing physician and dietitian collaborated to develop an online CME course (both webinar and self-study versions) on type 2 diabetes. This 1-hour accredited course was launched through the state-level medical association's education library, available to all physicians. Physicians (n=43) registered for the course, and of those, 31 completed the course in its entirety. A gain in knowledge was found when comparing pre- versus post-test scores related to the online nutrition CME ( P Online CME courses launched via state-level medical associations offer convenient continuing education to assist practicing physicians in addressing patient nutrition and lifestyle concerns related to chronic disease. The present diabetes CME one-credit course allowed physicians to develop basic nutrition care concepts on this topic to assist patients in a better way.
Full Text Available Hyperglycemia during chemotherapy occurs in approximately 10% to 30% of patients. Glucocorticoids and L-asparaginase are well known to cause acute hyperglycemia during chemotherapy. Long-term hyperglycemia is also frequently observed, especially in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with L-asparaginase-based regimens and total body irradiation. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia often develops because of increased insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretion, and exaggerated hepatic glucose output. Screening strategies for this condition include random glucose testing, hemoglobin A1c testing, oral glucose loading, and fasting plasma glucose screens. The management of hyperglycemia starts with insulin or sulfonylurea, depending on the type, dose, and delivery of the glucocorticoid formulation. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors are associated with a high incidence of hyperglycemia, ranging from 13% to 50%. Immunotherapy, such as anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1 antibody treatment, induces hyperglycemia with a prevalence of 0.1%. The proposed mechanism of immunotherapy-induced hyperglycemia is an autoimmune process (insulitis. Withdrawal of the PD-1 inhibitor is the primary treatment for severe hyperglycemia. The efficacy of glucocorticoid therapy is not fully established and the decision to resume PD-1 inhibitor therapy depends on the severity of the hyperglycemia. Diabetic patients should achieve optimized glycemic control before initiating treatment, and glucose levels should be monitored periodically in patients initiating mTOR inhibitor or PD-1 inhibitor therapy. With regard to hyperglycemia caused by anti-cancer therapy, frequent monitoring and proper management are important for promoting the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy and improving patients' quality of life.
Cook, Alyssa F; Arora, Vineet M; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D
Medical student mistreatment has been recognized for decades and is known to adversely impact students personally and professionally. Similarly, burnout has been shown to negatively impact students. This study assesses the prevalence of student mistreatment across multiple medical schools and characterizes the association between mistreatment and burnout. In 2011, the authors surveyed a nation ally representative sample of third-year medical students. Students reported the frequency of experiencing mistreatment by attending faculty and residents since the beginning of their clinical rotations. Burnout was measured using a validated two-item version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Of 960 potential respondents from 24 different medical schools, 605 (63%) completed the survey, but 41 were excluded because they were not currently in their third year of medical school. Of the eligible students, the majority reported experiencing at least one incident of mistreatment by faculty (64% [361/562]) and by residents (76% [426/562]). A minority of students reported experiencing recurrent mistreatment, defined as occurring "several" or "numerous" times: 10% [59/562] by faculty and 13% [71/562] by residents. Recurrent mistreatment (compared with no or infrequent mistreatment) was associated with high burnout: 57% versus 33% (P student mistreatment remains prevalent. Recurrent mistreatment by faculty and residents is associated with medical student burnout. Although further investigation is needed to assess causality, these data provide impetus for medical schools to address student mistreatment to mitigate its adverse consequences.
Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen
Death anxiety (DA) is related to awareness of the reality of dying and death and can be negatively related to a person's psychological health. Physicians' DA also may influence their care for patients approaching death. Doctors face death in a professional context for the first time at medical school, but knowledge about DA among medical students is limited. This study examined medical students' DA in relation to: 1) its severity, gender differences, and trajectory during medical education and 2) its associations with students' attitudes toward palliative care and their psychological health. Four cohorts of core science and four cohorts of clinical students at the University of Cambridge Medical School took part in a questionnaire survey with longitudinal follow-up. Students who provided data on the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were included in the analysis (n = 790). Medical students' DA was moderate, with no gender differences and remained very stable over time. High DA was associated with higher depression and anxiety levels and greater concerns about the personal impact of providing palliative care. The associations between high DA and lower psychological health and negative attitudes toward palliative care are concerning. It is important to address DA during medical education to enhance student's psychological health and the quality of their future palliative care provision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sapra, Mamta; Vahia, Ipsit V; Reyes, Pia N; Ramirez, Paul; Cohen, Carl I
There are limited data examining subjective influences on medication adherence among older persons with schizophrenia. The subjective reasons for adherence to antipsychotic medication and associated clinical and psychosocial factors in this population are examined. The sample consisted of 198 community dwelling persons aged >or=55 who developed schizophrenia before age 45. Using the Rating of Medication Influences Scale (ROMI), a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded three subscales: Medication Affinity and Prevention, Influence of Others, and Impact of Authority. These subscales were dichotomized into high and low based on a median split. We also created an ordinal High Adherence measure based on the summed scores of each person's three dichotomized ROMI subscales. A modified Health Belief Model was used to examine the association between 18 predictor variables and the ROMI subscales and the adherence scale. The mean subscale rankings were Medication Affinity and Prevention > Impact of Authority > Influence of Others. In logistic regression, lower education, more side effects, higher depression scores, and more mental health services were associated with higher scores on Influence of Others subscale. More side effects and more entitlements were associated with higher scores on the Medication Affinity and Prevention subscale. The Impact of Authority subscale had no significant associations. More side effects and higher depression scores were associated with higher scores on High Adherence measure. We identified a three-dimensional model for explaining the subjective reasons for medication adherence in older persons with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that cognitive approaches and use of authority figures may be useful for promoting adherence in older adults. Independent variables associated with these subscales may provide guidance for improving adherence in this population.
All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.
Full Text Available This paper is the result of a three-month monitoring of Serbian television commercials which aimed to study the way elderly people are represented in the media. Elderly people appear in only six commercials, more often as a functional part of a series than as protagonists. Yet in spite of the small number of commercials in which they appear, it is easy to identify the stereotypes which are translated from a social paradigm into the sphere of the media. The stereotypes on which commercials are based belong for the most part to the corpus of negative stereotypes of elderly people as hopelessly behind the times, feeble, lonely, irritating, cantankerous, etc. Some positive stereotypes are also evident, but they are mostly limited to a perception of elderly people as kindly givers of useful advice. It is interesting to note that the "cantankerous people next door" are as a rule anonymous elderly people, as are those "lost in time and space", who are mostly elderly women. In contrast, those who let their careers and images be associated with a certain product, in order to pass on their great experience and knowledge, are as a rule famous persons. Just as it is possible to make a distinction between commercials depending on whether or not the products advertised are targeted at the elderly – which they rarely are – and whether elderly people appear in leading or supporting roles, in order to make viewers laugh or annoy them, so it is possible to distinguish between the "real-life principle", which involves the translation of the society’s dominant attitudes into commercials, and "commercial reality", which either makes old age invisible or "masks" it so that it is pleasant to the eye. The reason that old people are absent from television commercials or are mostly represented in a negative light is to be found in the low purchasing power of this age group, but also in the fact that advertising in Serbia developed practically overnight, and
Peck, Kelly R; Roland, Malcolm M; Smitherman, Todd A
Although risk factors for medication-overuse headache have been identified within the general population, most studies have neglected clinical samples. The present study examined the relative and combined associations of these factors with medication-overuse headache in a sample of US adults seeking treatment for primary headache disorders. Treatment-seeking headache patients provided data on demographics, headache variables, psychiatric variables, use of headache medications, and use of other prescription medications and substances. A classification tree selection strategy was utilized within this cross-sectional study to differentiate between those with and without medication-overuse headache, and a final multivariable model assessed their combined utility. Forty-three of 164 participants (26.2%) met diagnostic criteria for medication-overuse headache. Relative to non-medication-overuse headache participants, participants with medication-overuse headache reported greater headache-related disability (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.18), escape and avoidance responses indicative of fear of pain (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.15), and use of combination medications for headache (odds ratio = 3.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.51-6.36). The final multivariable model differentiated well between the 2 groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = .78; 95% confidence interval = .71-.86). Items that assess headache-related disability, use of combination medications, and fear of pain help identify patients who are currently overusing acute headache medications and may serve as indicators of treatment progress. Future studies should apply similar analytic approaches longitudinally to identify headache sufferers at risk for medication-overuse headache prior to headache progression. © 2018 American Headache Society.
Goodman, Craig; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Silver, Henry
A lack of insight into illness and negative attitudes towards medication are common among individuals with schizophrenia and impact clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards medication and cognitive function in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-five male forensic inpatients who were suffering from chronic schizophrenia participated in the study. A drug attitude inventory was used to evaluate the attitudes of the patients towards medication. Neuropsychological function was assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Patients with positive attitudes towards medication performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on tests of verbal working memory (digit span forwards and backwards), inhibition and set shifting (Penn Inhibition test), delayed object memory and overall mental status (Mini Mental State Examination). There were no differences in age, education, hospitalizations or clinical symptoms between the groups. Our findings support an association between negative attitudes towards medication and poor cognitive performance, particularly of working memory.
Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R
Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.
Herbert Aldersmith spent his entire working life, from the age of 23 years until his retirement at 65 years, as Resident Medical Officer to Christ's Hospital School. It was a crucial period in the school's history, from the overdue reforms of the late Victorian era to its historic move from the City of London to Sussex in 1902. He became an acknowledged authority on ringworm and also published extensively on the other great interest of his life, the British-Israel Society. He was the prime mover in founding the first-ever professional association of school doctors in 1884.
Mahroon, Zaid A; Borgan, Saif M; Kamel, Charlotte; Maddison, Wendy; Royston, Maeve; Donnellan, Claire
Medical training can be a stressful experience and may negatively impact mental health for some students. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among medical students in one international medical university in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to determine associations between these symptoms, the students' characteristics, and their satisfaction with life. This is a cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire, distributed to 350 enrolled medical students. We used Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to measure global cognitive judgments of one's life satisfaction. Sociodemographic details including social background and academic information were also documented. Forty percent (n = 124) of the participants had depressive symptoms, of which 18.9% (n = 58) met the criteria for mild, 13% (n = 40) for moderate, and 8.5% (n = 26) for severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with Arab ethnicity (χ 2 = 5.66, p = .017), female gender (χ 2 = 3.97, p = .046), relationship with peers (p Anxiety symptoms were present in 51% (n = 158) of students. Anxiety symptoms were associated with female gender (χ 2 = 11.35, p anxiety symptoms among medical students was high. Medical universities in the Middle East may need to allocate more resources into monitoring and early detection of medical student distress. Medical education providers are encouraged to provide adequate pastoral and psychological support for medical students, including culturally appropriate self-care programs within the curriculum.
Sachin C. Deorukhkar
Full Text Available Health care associated infections (HCAIs add incrementally to the morbidity, mortality, and cost expected of the patient’s underlying diseases alone. Approximately, about half all cases of HCAIs are associated with medical devices. As Candida medical device-associated infection is highly drug resistant and can lead to serious life-threatening complications, there is a need of continuous surveillance of these infections to initiate preventive and corrective measures. The present study was conducted at a rural tertiary care hospital of India with an aim to evaluate the rate of medical device-associated Candida infections. Three commonly encountered medical device-associated infections (MDAI, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, intravascular catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, were targeted. The overall rate of MDAI in our hospital was 2.1 per 1000 device days. The rate of Candida related CA-UTI and CR-BSI was noted as 1.0 and 0.3, respectively. Untiring efforts taken by team members of Hospital Acquired Infection Control Committee along with maintenance of meticulous hygiene of the hospital and wards may explain the low MDAI rates in our institute. The present surveillance helped us for systematic generation of institutional data regarding MDAI with special reference to role of Candida spp.
Mirghani, Hyder Osman; Mohammed, Osama Salih; Almurtadha, Yahia Mohamed; Ahmed, Moneir Siddig
Background There is increasing awareness about the association of sleep quality and academic achievement among university students. However, the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance has not been examined in Sudan; this study assessed the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance among Sudanese medical students. Methods A case?control study was conducted among 165 male and female medical students at two Sudanese universities. Excellent (A) and pass (C) ...
Winker, M A; Flanagin, A; Chi-Lum, B; White, J; Andrews, K; Kennett, R L; DeAngelis, C D; Musacchio, R A
Access to medical information via the Internet has the potential to speed the transformation of the patient-physician relationship from that of physician authority ministering advice and treatment to that of shared decision making between patient and physician. However, barriers impeding this transformation include wide variations in quality of content on the Web, potential for commercial interests to influence online content, and uncertain preservation of personal privacy. To address these issues, the American Medical Association (AMA) has developed principles to guide development and posting of Web site content, govern acquisition and posting of online advertising and sponsorship, ensure site visitors' and patients' rights to privacy and confidentiality, and provide effective and secure means of e-commerce. While these guidelines were developed for the AMA Web sites and visitors to these sites, they also may be useful to other providers and users of medical information on the Web. These principles have been developed with the understanding that they will require frequent revision to keep pace with evolving technology and practices on the Internet. The AMA encourages review and feedback from readers, Web site visitors, policymakers, and all others interested in providing reliable quality information via the Web.
Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical treatment for radiation accident casualties are considered for different types of radiation accident: whole-body or partial irradiation, external or internal contamination and small or large numbers of cases. The problems posed are ones of competence, urgency and capacity; on the diagnostic side there is the problem of evaluating the exposure or contamination and assessing the resultant damage, while on the treatment side the questions of first aid, conventional treatment and specialized treatment have to be considered. The solutions envisaged involve organization at the local and national levels and planning of medical treatment by skilled, multidisciplinary medical teams. (author)
Grimes, Tamasine C
Movement into or out of hospital is a vulnerable period for medication safety. Reconciling the medication a patient is using before admission with the medication prescribed on discharge, and documenting any changes (medication reconciliation) is recommended to improve safety. The aims of the study were to investigate the factors contributing to medication reconciliation on discharge, and identify the prevalence of non-reconciliation.
Brandstetter, Susanne; Finger, Tamara; Fischer, Wiebke; Brandl, Magdalena; Böhmer, Merle; Pfeifer, Michael; Apfelbacher, Christian
Adherence to medication is crucial for achieving treatment control in chronic obstructive lung diseases. This study refers to the "necessity-concerns framework" and examines the associations between beliefs about medicines and self-reported medication adherence in people with chronic obstructive lung disease. 402 patients (196 with asthma, 206 with COPD) participated in the study and completed a questionnaire comprising the "Beliefs about Medicines-Questionnaire" (BMQ) and the "Medication Adherence Report Scale" (MARS). Multivariable logistic regression analyses with the BMQ-subscales as explanatory and the dichotomized MARS-score as dependent variable were computed for the asthma and the COPD sample, respectively, and adjusted for potentially confounding variables. 19% of asthma patients and 34% of COPD patients were completely adherent to their prescribed medication. While specific beliefs about the necessity of medicines were positively associated with medication adherence both in patients with asthma and with COPD, general beliefs about harm and overuse of medicines by doctors were negatively associated with medication adherence only among patients with asthma. The findings of this study suggest that patients' specific beliefs about the necessity of medicines represent an important modifiable target for improving patient-doctor consultations when prescribing medicines.
Full Text Available Background. This study compared comorbidity-related medical care cost associated with different types of cancer, by examining breast (N=287, colon (N=272, stomach (N=614, and lung (N=391 cancer patients undergoing surgery. Methods. Using medical benefits claims data, we calculated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI and total medical cost. The effect of comorbidity on the medical care cost was investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models and controlling for demographic characteristics and cancer stage. Results. The treatment costs incurred by stomach and colon cancer patients were 1.05- and 1.01-fold higher, respectively, in patients with higher CCI determined. For breast cancer, the highest costs were seen in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the increase in cost reduced as CCI increased. Colon cancer patients with diabetes mellitus and a CCI = 1 score had the highest medical costs. The lowest medical costs were incurred by lung cancer patients with COPD and a CCI = 2 score. Conclusion. The comorbidities had a major impact on the use of medical resources, with chronic comorbidities incurring the highest medical costs. The results indicate that comorbidities affect cancer outcomes and that they must be considered strategies mitigating cancer’s economic and social impact.
Tomašević Katarina D.
Full Text Available This article represents a fragment of the author's doctoral dissertation Serbian Music at the Crossroads of the East and the West? On the Dialogue between the Traditional and the Modern in Serbian Music between the Two World Wars (the review of the thesis see on www.newsound.org.yu, issue No 24. The thesis (mentor: prof. Dr Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman was defended at the Faculty of Music, Belgrade, on January 2004. A revised text of the dissertation is forthcoming, in an edition of the Institute of Musicology of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The article describes the creative orientation of composers Miloje Milojević, Petar Konjović and Josip Slavenski as the key figures of the epoch, indicates their choices of an Eastern or Western orientation, and explains the antagonism between the poetics of the "Europeans" and the representatives of avant-garde trends. The topicality of the East-West dichotomy in the critical consciousness of the protagonist of this period is marked as one of the main and the most important dilemma of the polemical context of the Serbian art after the World War I. Conducted from standpoints "Pro et Contra Europe", East-West discussion was also the part of the debate of Serbian national art's development strategy in the new, modern epoch of its history.
Page, Kathleen Raquel; Castillo-Page, Laura; Wright, Scott M
To describe diversity programs for racial and ethnic minority faculty in U.S. medical schools and identify characteristics associated with higher faculty diversity. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study of leaders of diversity programs at 106 U.S. MD-granting medical schools in 2010. Main outcome measures included African American and Latino faculty representation, with correlations to diversity program characteristics, minority medical student representation, and state demographics. Responses were obtained from 82 of the 106 institutions (77.4%). The majority of the respondents were deans, associate and assistant deans (68.3%), members of minority ethnic/racial background (65.9% African American, 14.7% Latino), and women (63.4%). The average time in the current position was 6.7 years, with approximately 50% effort devoted to the diversity program. Most programs targeted medical trainees and faculty (63.4%). A majority of programs received monetary support from their institutions (82.9%). In bivariate analysis, none of the program characteristics measured were associated with higher than the mean minority faculty representation in 2008 (3% African American and 4.2% Latino faculty). However, minority state demographics in 2008, and proportion of minority medical students a decade earlier, were significantly associated with minority faculty representation. Medical student diversity 10 years earlier was the strongest modifiable factor associated with faculty diversity. Our results support intervening early to strengthen the minority medical student pipeline to improve faculty diversity. Schools located in states with low minority representation may need to commit additional effort to realize institutional diversity.
Teherani, Arianne; Hodgson, Carol S; Banach, Mary; Papadakis, Maxine A
In a previous study, we showed that unprofessional behavior in medical school was associated with subsequent disciplinary action. This study expands on that work by identifying the domains of unprofessional behavior that are most problematic. In this retrospective case-control study, negative comments were extracted from student files for 68 case (disciplined) and 196 matched control (nondisciplined) physicians. Comments were analyzed qualitatively and subsequently quantified. The relationship between domains of behavior and disciplinary action was established through chi-square tests and multivariate analysis of variance. Three domains of unprofessional behavior emerged that were related significantly to later disciplinary outcome: (1) poor reliability and responsibility, (2) lack of self-improvement and adaptability, and (3) poor initiative and motivation. Three critical domains of professionalism associated with future disciplinary action have been defined. These findings could lead to focused remediation strategies and policy decisions.
Cherkil, Sandhya; Gardens, Seby J; Soman, Deepak Kuttikatt
The two ubiquitous factors that have been identified in medical courses to underlie mental health are stress and different coping styles adopted to combat stress. To find the association between coping styles and stress in undergraduate medical students. A medical college in Central Kerala. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Source and Severity of Stress Scale, Medical Student Version, was used to assess the source and nature of stress. Brief Cope was used to find out the coping styles adopted. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and SAS. Chi-square analysis was used to find the association between coping styles and stress domains and with the overall stress score. There is a significant positive association between overall stress score and coping styles (P=0.001) of 'Negative cope', 'Blame', and 'Humor'. 'Positive cope' and 'Religion' has significant positive association with 'Academics' (P=0.047) and 'self Expectations' (P=0.009). 'Blame' (Pmanagement techniques in the medical school.
Full Text Available Jiannong Liu1, Haifeng Guo1, David Gilbertson1, Robert Foley1,2, Allan Collins1,21Chronic Disease Research Group, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Most end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients begin renal replacement therapy with hemoglobin levels below the recommended US National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative Guidelines lower level of 110 g/L. Although most patients eventually reach this target, the time required varies substantially. This study aimed to determine whether length of time with below-target hemoglobin levels after dialysis initiation is associated with medical costs, and if so, whether intermediate factors underlie the associations. US patients initiating dialysis in 2002 were studied using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ESRD database. Anemia persistence (time in months with hemoglobin below 110 g/L was determined in a six-month entry period, and outcomes were assessed in the subsequent six-month follow-up period. The structural equation modeling technique was used to evaluate associations between persistent anemia and medical costs and to determine intermediate factors for these associations. The study included 28,985 patients. Mean per-patient-per-month medical cost was $6267 (standard deviation $5713 in the six-month follow-up period. Each additional month with hemoglobin below 110 g/L was associated with an 8.9% increment in medical cost. The increased cost was associated with increased erythropoietin use and blood transfusions, and increased rates of hospitalization and vascular access procedures in the follow-up period. Keywords: anemia persistency, end-stage renal disease, medical costs, structural equation modeling
Sinclair Alan J
Full Text Available Abstract Aim To assess the factors associated with antihyperglycaemic medication initiation in UK patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were identified during the index period of 2003-2005. Eligible patients were ≥ 30 years old at the date of the first observed diabetes diagnosis (referred to as index date and had at least 2 years of follow-up medical history (N = 9,158. Initiation of antihyperglycaemic medication (i.e., treatment was assessed in the 2-year period following the index date. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to examine the association between time to medication initiation and patient age and other factors. Results Mean (SD HbA1c at diagnosis was 8.1% (2.3. Overall, 51% of patients initiated antihyperglycaemic medication within 2 years (65%, 55%, 46% and 40% for patients in the 30- th, 75th percentile time to treatment initiation was 63 (8, 257 days. Of the patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% at diagnosis, 87% initiated treatment within 2 years. These patients with a higher HbA1c also had shorter time to treatment initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (HR = 2.44 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61, 3.70]; p Conclusions In this UK cohort of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, only 51% had antihyperglycaemic medication initiated over a 2-year period following diagnosis. Older patients were significantly less likely to have been prescribed antihyperglycaemic medications. Elevated HbA1c was the strongest factor associated with initiating antihyperglycaemic medication in these patients.
Chaudry, Imtiaz; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M
Because most medical schools in the United States and Canada require no formal ophthalmology training, the authors queried medical student and ophthalmic patients to compare their perceptions of the quality of life (QOL) associated with vision loss. Cross-sectional comparative study of consecutive medical students and patients with vision loss using a validated, reliable, time trade-off utility instrument. Consecutive Jefferson Medical College medical students (cohort 1: 145 second-year student; cohort 2: 112 third-year/fourth-year students) and 283 patients with vision loss (patient cohort). Time trade-off vision utilities with anchors of 0.0 (death) to 1.0 (normal vision permanently) were used to quantify the QOL associated with vision loss. Students were asked to assume they had: (i) mild vision loss (20/40 to 20/50 vision in the better-seeing eye), (ii) legal blindness (20/200 in the better-seeing eye), and (iii) absolute blindness (no light perception bilaterally). Mean utilities for cohort 1/cohort 2 were 0.96/0.95 (p = 0.20) for mild vision loss, 0.88/0.84 for legal blindness (p = 0.009), and 0.80/0.67 (p student/patient mean utilities were 0.96/0.79 (p students underestimated the QOL associated with vision loss referent to patients with vision loss by 153%-425%. Medical students dramatically underestimated the impact of vision loss on patient QOL. Clinical training slightly improved medical student perceptions. Trivialization of vision loss could result in systemic health harm, less ophthalmic research dollars, loss of the finest medical students entering ophthalmology, and overall adverse financial effects for the field. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pisani, Margaret A; Araujo, Katy L B; Murphy, Terrence E
To evaluate the association between cumulative dose of haloperidol and next-day diagnosis of delirium in a cohort of older medical ICU patients, with adjustment for its time-dependent confounding with fentanyl and intubation. Prospective, observational study. Medical ICU at an urban, academic medical center. Age 60 years and older admitted to the medical ICU who received at least one dose of haloperidol (n = 93). Of these, 72 patients were intubated at some point in their medical ICU stay, whereas 21 were never intubated. None. Detailed data were collected concerning time, dosage, route of administration of all medications, as well as for important clinical covariates, and daily status of intubation and delirium using the confusion assessment method for the ICU and a chart-based algorithm. Among nonintubated patients, and after adjustment for time-dependent confounding and important covariates, each additional cumulative milligram of haloperidol was associated with 5% higher odds of next-day delirium with odds ratio of 1.05 (credible interval [CI], 1.02-1.09). After adjustment for time-dependent confounding and covariates, intubation was associated with a five-fold increase in odds of next-day delirium with odds ratio of 5.66 (CI, 2.70-12.02). Cumulative dose of haloperidol among intubated patients did not change their already high likelihood of next-day delirium. After adjustment for time-dependent confounding, the positive associations between indicators of intubation and of cognitive impairment and next-day delirium became stronger. These results emphasize the need for more studies regarding the efficacy of haloperidol for treatment of delirium among older medical ICU patients and demonstrate the value of assessing nonintubated patients.
Full Text Available This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students in a private university in Beirut, Lebanon, and evaluate the association between extracurricular involvement and stress and burnout relief in preclinical medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 165 preclinical medical students. Distress level was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 while that of burnout was measured through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS. The MBI-SS assesses three interrelated dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic efficacy. Extracurricular activities were divided into four categories: physical exercise, music, reading, and social activities. All selected participants responded. A substantial proportion of preclinical medical students suffered from stress (62% and burnout (75%. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed that being a female or a 1st year medical student correlated with higher stress and burnout. Music-related activities were correlated with lower burnout. Social activities or living with parents were associated with lower academic efficacy. The high stress and burnout levels call for action. Addressing the studying conditions and attending to the psychological wellbeing of preclinical medical students are recommendations made in the study.
Fares, Jawad; Saadeddin, Zein; Al Tabosh, Hayat; Aridi, Hussam; El Mouhayyar, Christopher; Koleilat, Mohamad Karim; Chaaya, Monique; El Asmar, Khalil
This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students in a private university in Beirut, Lebanon, and evaluate the association between extracurricular involvement and stress and burnout relief in preclinical medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 165 preclinical medical students. Distress level was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) while that of burnout was measured through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). The MBI-SS assesses three interrelated dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic efficacy. Extracurricular activities were divided into four categories: physical exercise, music, reading, and social activities. All selected participants responded. A substantial proportion of preclinical medical students suffered from stress (62%) and burnout (75%). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed that being a female or a 1st year medical student correlated with higher stress and burnout. Music-related activities were correlated with lower burnout. Social activities or living with parents were associated with lower academic efficacy. The high stress and burnout levels call for action. Addressing the studying conditions and attending to the psychological wellbeing of preclinical medical students are recommendations made in the study. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boonvisudhi, Thummaporn; Kuladee, Sanchai
To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression in Thai medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total score of five or greater derived from the Thai version of Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction was classified as "possible IA". Then chi-square test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between possible IA, depression and associated factors. From 705 participants, 24.4% had possible IA and 28.8% had depression. There was statistically significant association between possible IA and depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.77, P-value depression in possible IA group was 1.58 times of the group of normal Internet use (95% CI: 1.04-2.38, P-value = 0.031). Academic problems were found to be a significant predictor of both possible IA and depression. IA was likely to be a common psychiatric problem among Thai medical students. The research has also shown that possible IA was associated with depression and academic problems. We suggest that surveillance of IA should be considered in medical schools.
Yanes, Tatiane; Humphreys, Linda; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Biesecker, Barbara
Little is known about the adaptive process and experiences of parents raising a child with an undiagnosed medical condition. The present study aims to assess how uncertainty, hope, social support, and coping efficacy contributes to adaptation among parents of children with an undiagnosed medical condition. Sixty-two parents of child affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least two years completed an electronically self-administered survey. Descriptive analysis suggested parents in this population had significantly lower adaptation scores when compared to other parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions, and parents of children with a diagnosed intellectual and/or physical disability. Similarly, parents in this population had significantly lower hope, perceived social support and coping efficacy when compared to parents of children with a diagnosed medical condition. Multiple linear regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and domains of adaptation. Positive stress response was negatively associated with emotional support (B = −0.045, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.009, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive self-esteem was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B = −0.248, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.007, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive social integration was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B-0.273, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with uncertainty towards child's health (B = 0.323, p ≤ 0.001), and affectionate support (B = 0.110, p ≤ 0.001). Finally, adaptive spiritual wellbeing was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's family (B = −0.221, p ≤ 0.05). Findings from this study have highlighted the areas where parents believed additional support was required, and provided insight into factors that contribute to parental adaptation. PMID:28039658
Mantas, John; Ammenwerth, Elske; Demiris, George; Hasman, Arie; Haux, Reinhold; Hersh, William; Hovenga, Evelyn; Lun, K. C.; Marin, Heimar; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Wright, Graham
Objective: The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on revising the existing international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop
Full Text Available The subject of this paper concerns the consideration of the social and artistic position of Serbian music within the framework of socialist cultural policies and the post-socialist culture of Serbia in transition. That position will be examined from the perspective of some vital creative issues in respect of which aesthetic, poetical and stylistic streams have often been formed or modified, and weighed against each other. This involves the problems of what and how, which ultimately lie at the root of every musical trend and more generally in art, coupled with the problem of why as a certain point of ‘rotation’ at which both the what and the how are met and modified. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development: Identities of Serbian Music in the World Cultural Context
Feleke, Senafikish Amsalu; Mulatu, Muluadam Abebe; Yesmaw, Yeshaneh Seyoum
The significant impact of medication administration errors affect patients in terms of morbidity, mortality, adverse drug events, and increased length of hospital stay. It also increases costs for clinicians and healthcare systems. Due to this, assessing the magnitude and associated factors of medication administration error has a significant contribution for improving the quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude and associated factors of medication administration errors among nurses at the Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital inpatient department. A prospective, observation-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from March 24-April 7, 2014 at the Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital inpatient department. A total of 82 nurses were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, and observed while administering 360 medications by using a checklist supplemented with a review of medication charts. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package and logistic regression was done to identify possible factors associated with medication administration error. The incidence of medication administration error was 199 (56.4 %). The majority (87.5 %) of the medications have documentation error, followed by technique error 263 (73.1 %) and time error 193 (53.6 %). Variables which were significantly associated with medication administration error include nurses between the ages of 18-25 years [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.9, 95 % CI (1.65,6.38)], 26-30 years [AOR = 2.3, 95 % CI (1.55, 7.26)] and 31-40 years [AOR = 2.1, 95 % CI (1.07, 4.12)], work experience of less than or equal to 10 years [AOR = 1.7, 95 % CI (1.33, 4.99)], nurse to patient ratio of 7-10 [AOR = 1.6, 95 % CI (1.44, 3.19)] and greater than 10 [AOR = 1.5, 95 % CI (1.38, 3.89)], interruption of the respondent at the time of medication administration [AOR = 1.5, 95 % CI (1.14, 3.21)], night shift of medication administration
Wisniewski, A E
In this exploratory analysis, I use a Burkean dramatist approach to investigate the relatively under-examined dynamics of how medical knowledge on obesity has changed outside of the American context. I examine how, over the past forty years, Canadian medical professionals have used the Canadian Medical Association Journal to generate a field of knowledge which organizes the ways in which obesity can be described, studied and treated. I argue that since the 1970s medical professionals have been increasingly interested in the relationship between obesity and a broadly defined social environment, and that this merger is rhetorically realized in the concept of the "obesogenic environment." I suggest that the process of engaging obesity has generated rhetoric that has often been resonant with the political ideologies expressed in health policy, but that can also create opportunities for the expression of alternative social goals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare medical students on a modern MBChB programme who did an optional intercalated degree with their peers who did not intercalate; in particular, to monitor performance in subsequent undergraduate degree exams. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861. The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating. Results Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9% students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18–20 common assessment scale (CAS marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p th year OSCE (p = 0.001 and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010. Conclusion Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine.
Vijay, Aishwarya; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Tee, Ying Chew; Pillai, Veena; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Clark, Kirsty; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Abstract Purpose: Transgender people are frequent targets of discrimination. Discrimination against transgender people in the context of healthcare can lead to poor health outcomes and facilitate the growth of health disparities. This study explores factors associated with medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender people in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 436 physicians at two major university medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed an online survey. Sociodemographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs, and intentions to discriminate against transgender people were measured. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to evaluate independent covariates of discrimination intent. Results: Medical doctors who felt more fearful of transgender people and more personal shame associated with transgender people expressed greater intention to discriminate against transgender people, whereas doctors who endorsed the belief that transgender people deserve good care reported lower discrimination intent. Stigma-related constructs accounted for 42% of the variance and 8% was accounted for by sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions: Constructs associated with transgender stigma play an important role in medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender patients. Development of interventions to improve medical doctors' knowledge about and attitudes toward transgender people are necessary to reduce discriminatory intent in healthcare settings. PMID:29227183
Vijay, Aishwarya; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Tee, Ying Chew; Pillai, Veena; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Clark, Kirsty; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L; Wickersham, Jeffrey A
Transgender people are frequent targets of discrimination. Discrimination against transgender people in the context of healthcare can lead to poor health outcomes and facilitate the growth of health disparities. This study explores factors associated with medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender people in Malaysia. A total of 436 physicians at two major university medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed an online survey. Sociodemographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs, and intentions to discriminate against transgender people were measured. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to evaluate independent covariates of discrimination intent. Medical doctors who felt more fearful of transgender people and more personal shame associated with transgender people expressed greater intention to discriminate against transgender people, whereas doctors who endorsed the belief that transgender people deserve good care reported lower discrimination intent. Stigma-related constructs accounted for 42% of the variance and 8% was accounted for by sociodemographic characteristics. Constructs associated with transgender stigma play an important role in medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender patients. Development of interventions to improve medical doctors' knowledge about and attitudes toward transgender people are necessary to reduce discriminatory intent in healthcare settings.
Karovic Maricic, Vesna; Danilovic, Dusan; Lekovic, Branko
Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.
Full Text Available This work discusses the historical struggle of Serbian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the autonomous freedom, through numerous rebellions and uprisings in the 19th century, such as rebellions and uprisings of Serbs in Šumadija. After its success in Serbia under the rule of Miloš Obrenović, Serbs' struggle for the autonomous freedom in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the last period of the Ottoman and later Austro-Hungarian authority was a 'categorical imperative of Serbian self defence'. Resistance to foreign occupiers in Bosnia and Herzegovina was repeated after the disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991, with the struggle for the autonomous freedom in the Republic of Srpska, for its achievements, challenges and perspectives. On both of these occasions, Serbian people remained and fought for their freedom and unity in the community with other nations. On both of these occasions, destiny and outcome of this successful struggle with opponents were earlier in hands of great powers and later in hands of powerful states. Their earlier and later attitudes towards Serbs were different. Compared to Bulgarians and Bulgaria, or Cretans and Crete, after whose uprisings the great powers awarded them the autonomy, they only promised the same to Serbs while some of them opposed it and corrupted, up until the end of the First World War. It was similar with the struggle of Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina for freedom in the achieved Republic of Srpska, up until the United States of America took Bosnia and Herzegovina in its own hands. The States, in cooperation with the Contact Group members, ended the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the meeting in Dayton in the USA in 1995, while at the same time legitimizing the Republic of Srpska within the two-entity Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Full Text Available In the present study we examined psychometric properties of the Serbian translation of the Empathy Quotient scale (S-EQ. The translated version of the EQ was applied on a sample of 694 high-school students. A sub-sample consisting of 375 high-school students also completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, another widely used empathy measure. The following statistical analyses were applied: internal consistency analysis, explanatory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analyses, and factor congruence analysis. Correlation with IRI and gender differences were calculated to demonstrate validity of the instrument. Results show that the Serbian 40-item version of EQ has lower reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = .782 than the original. The originally proposed one factor structure of the instrument was not confirmed. The short version with 28 items showed better reliablity (alpha= .807. The three-factor solution (cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity, and social skills showed good cross-sample stability (Tucker congruence coefficient over .8 but the results of CFA confirmed the solution proposed in the reviewed literature only partially. The mean scores are similar to those obtained in the other studies, and, as expected, women have significantly higher scores than men. Correlations with all subscales of IRI are statistically significant for the first two subscales of EQ, but not for the „social skills.” We concluded that the Serbian version of the „Empathy Quotient” is a useful research tool which can contribute to cross-cultural studies of empathy, although its psychometric characteristics are not as good as those obtained in the original study. We also suggest that a 28-item should be used preferably to the original 40-item version. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identification, measurement and development of cognitive and emotional competences important for a society oriented to European integrations
Full Text Available This paper proposes a Serbian cadastral domain model as the country profile for the real estate cadastre, based on the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, defined within ISO 19152. National laws and other legal acts were analyzed and the incorrect applications of the law are outlined. The national “Strategy of measures and activities for increasing the quality of services in the field of geospatial data and registration of real property rights in the official state records”, which was adopted in 2017, cites the shortcomings of the existing cadastral information system. The proposed profile can solve several problems with the system, such as the lack of interoperability, mismatch of graphic and alphanumeric data, and lack of an integrated cadastral information system. Based on the existing data, the basic concepts of the Serbian cadastre were extracted and the applicability of LADM was tested on an obtained conceptual model. Upon obtaining positive results, a complete country profile was developed according to valid national laws and rulebooks. A table of mappings of LADM classes and country profile classes is presented in this paper, together with an analysis of the conformance level. The proposed Serbian country profile is completely conformant at the medium level and on several high-level classes. LADM also provides support for three-dimensional (3D representations and 3D registration of rights, so the creation of a country profile for Serbia is a starting point toward a 3D cadastre. Given the existence of buildings with overlapping rights and restrictions in 3D, considering expanding the spatial profile with 3D geometries is necessary. Possible solutions to these situations were analyzed. Since the two-dimensional (2D cadastre in Serbia is not fully formed, the proposed solution is to use the 2D model for simple right situations, and the 3D model for more complex situations.
Full Text Available Numerous political, national and cultural issues that are more than a century dealt with the great Serbian statesman and scientist Stojan Novakovic historical destiny again set before generation of contemporary Serbian intellectuals and patriots. In this article we will try to point out the fundamental point of view Novakovic, designed and imbued his elaborate knowledge and experience as prime minister, diplomats, parliamentarians, scientists, publicists. Novakovic highlights the signs by which not only can we fathom the significance of certain historical phenomena and processes that followed the Serbian society, but also to recognize and determine the challenges we will inevitably face and intertwine in the future. Political ideas about building and strengthening state-permanent form, the necessity of a national program, as well as cultural and educational tasks at which he testified, have a lasting, zavjetanu force, as well as the message that the national aspirations of the Serbian people should be reflected and implemented through universal human, universal values. Today's situation in Serbian society witnessed how wise and far-sighted Novakovic warnings to constitutional order and freedoms of people are losing every sense of importance and if you do not come from the universal acceptance of legality, order, permanence and serious work, diligent preservation of all violence and arbitrariness. The aim of a strong rule of law and to prevent that ever happening again arbitrariness of individuals who should be placed on her forehead. Novakovic was particularly interested in how to be 'dismembered Serbian nation' to know each other, closer and unify national culture. He notes that there is no freedom without education, making education and politics must act together.
Cook, Alyssa F.; Arora, Vineet M.; Rasinski, Kenneth A.; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.
Purpose Medical student mistreatment has been recognized for decades and is known to adversely impact students both personally and professionally. Similarly, burnout has been shown to negatively impact students. This study assesses the prevalence of student mistreatment across multiple medical schools and characterizes the association between mistreatment and burnout. Method In 2011, the authors surveyed a nationally representative sample of third-year medical students. Students reported the frequency of mistreatment by attending faculty and residents since the beginning of their clinical rotations. Burnout was measured using a validated two-item version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Of 919 eligible students from 24 different medical schools, 564 (61%) completed the survey. The majority reported at least one incident of mistreatment by faculty (64% [361/562]) and by residents (75.5% [426/562]). Notable minorities experienced recurrent mistreatment, defined as mistreatment categorized as “several” or “numerous” times by student self-report (10.7% [59/562] by faculty and 12.6% [71/562] by residents). Recurrent mistreatment was associated with high burnout (57.4% vs. 31.5%; p<0.01 for recurrent mistreatment by faculty; 49.1% vs. 32.1%; p<0.01 for recurrent mistreatment by residents). Conclusions Medical student mistreatment remains prevalent. Recurrent mistreatment by faculty and residents is associated with medical student burnout. Although further investigation is needed to assess causality, these data provide additional impetus for medical schools to address student mistreatment to mitigate its adverse consequences on their personal and professional well-being. PMID:24667503
Gosmann, Fanny; Nørgaard, Astrid; Rasmussen, Maj-Britt
of transfusion-associated dyspnoea. Vital signs and changes in dyspnoea and blood pressure were registered within the frame of the Early Warning Score, and one case was documented as being transfusion-related in the medical record. No cases were reported to the haemovigilance system. DISCUSSION: The incidence...... to the haemovigilance system. The clinical implications are discussed within the frame of the Early Warning Score. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective audit of electronic hospital medical records of patients receiving blood transfusion in a single medical emergency unit. Patients were admitted during a 6-month period...... and data on symptoms and vital signs were extracted from the records. RESULTS: Of 4,353 consecutively admitted patients, 156 patients were transfused with a total of 411 blood components. The audit identified five cases of transfusion-associated circulatory overload (incidence 3.2%) and four cases...
Marković Goran; Mladenović Jelena; Cvijović Milica; Miljković Jelena
Total protein and lipid contents were analysed in 5 samples of canned fish (sardines, Atlantic mackerel fillets, tuna in olive oil, smoked Baltic sprat and herring fillets) available on the Serbian market. Standard methods for the determination of protein (Kjeldahl method) and lipid (Soxhlet method) contents were used on drained samples. The protein content was 21.31% on average, with a range of 18.59% - 24.17%. Total lipids showed considerably large variations (5.49% - 35.20%), and averaged ...
Full Text Available The BWA (Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique for the measurement of the mean crystallite thickness and thickness distributions of phyllosilicates was applied to a set of kaolin and bentonite minerals. Six samples of kaolinitic clays, one sample of halloysite, and five bentonite samples from selected Serbian deposits were analyzed. These clays are of sedimentary volcano-sedimentary (diagenetic, and hydrothermal origin. Two different types of shape of thickness distribution were found - lognormal, typical for bentonite and halloysite, and polymodal, typical for kaolinite. The mean crystallite thickness (T BWA seams to be influenced by the genetic type of the clay sample.
Full Text Available A professional and competent public administration is necessary for successful transition from a socialist, centrally planned economy to a functioning market democracy. The difficulty lies in building an organized and effective civil service sector. This paper gives a brief overview of formal bureaucratic reasoning, beginning with Niskanen’s theory, followed by the principal-agent model. The "Weberian state hypothesis", which provides an alternative view of bureaucracies in less developed countries, is subsequently explored. Finally, the currant state of Serbian public administration is described, along with a discussion of challenges to be addressed in the future.
Wium-Andersen, M K; Kobylecki, C J; Afzal, S
, income, body mass index, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and intake of meat and vegetables. Results were performed separately in each study and combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: In both studies, high uric acid was associated with lower risk......OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, several studies have suggested that depression is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defenses. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of the antioxidant uric acid are associated with lower risk of hospitalization with depression...... of hospitalization as in-patient or out-patient with depression and antidepressant medication use. A doubling in uric acid was associated with an effect estimate of 0.57 (95% CI 0.49-0.65) and 0.77 (0.73-0.81) for hospitalization with depression and antidepressant medication use. The association was consistent...
Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.
Background Functional GI syndromes are known to be very prevalent but this may be associated with unrecognized medications use. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of PPI, antidepressant, and narcotic use in the general population, and evaluate the association between each medication and functional GI syndromes adjusting for potential confounders. Methods In 2008 and 2009, newly revised versions of a validated bowel disease questionnaire were mailed to a community based cohort (total mailed=8006) of Olmsted County, MN residents; 3831 returned the questionnaire (response rate=48.0%). Medication usage, specifically PPIs, narcotics, and antidepressants in the last year, was elicited via three separate questions on the questionnaire. The association between each medication and GI symptom complexes was assessed using multiple variable logistic regression models. Results A total of 3515 of the respondents (92%) had complete data (mean age: 61±15; 54% female). The overall proportion reporting PPI use was 20% (95% CI: 19, 22), narcotic use 12% (95% CI: 11, 13), and antidepressant use 15% (95% CI: 14, 16). PPI use was significantly associated with IBS status (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.7) as well as with GERD (OR=3.5, 95% CI 2.7, 4.4) and dyspepsia (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.5, 2.7). The association of PPI use with IBS was not explained by coexistent GERD or dyspepsia. Antidepressant use was significantly associated only with bloating (OR=1.6, 1.1, 2.2). Conclusions Some medications that may alter intestinal transit or bowel flora are commonly utilized by the general population, and PPI use appears to be linked to IBS. PMID:23360217
Maisha Kelly Freeman
those studies were included in this review. Several studies were located that evaluated the safety of medical marijuana; however, much of the review focused on inhaled, recreational marijuana use due to the paucity of information on inhaled medical marijuana. Since marijuana is a Schedule1 product, few clinical studies have been conducted to determine the adverse event profile of the product. As a result, several articles that characterized recreational inhaled marijuana were included. Recreational inhaled marijuana use may be associated with an increase in cardiovascular (CV/ cerebrovascular effects (CVA; however, conflicting information exists in the literature. Recreational marijuana use may also increase risky behaviors that increase the transmission of infectious diseases and respiratory diseases. Many of the studies were retrospective in nature; therefore, it was difficult to determine a cause and effect relationship between inhaled marijuana use and the development of adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions. Conclusions: There is a paucity of information related to the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Recreational marijuana use is associated with several adverse events including CV/CVA, respiratory, and transmission of infectious diseases. Theoretical literature indicates that medical marijuana may be associated with significant drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Legalization of medical marijuana may be associated with an increase in abuse/dependence and accidental exposures in children. Pharmacists need to be educated regarding the appropriate use of medical marijuana to avoid adverse reactions and potential drug-drug interactions between medical marijuana and other products. Type: Original Research
Taylor, Frederick R
Medications administered long term, such as those used for migraine prophylaxis, are often associated with weight change as a side effect. Such effects may compromise general health status, exacerbate coexisting medical conditions, and affect medication adherence. Weight gain should be of particular concern in patients with migraine, as there is evidence that overweight and obese patients with migraine are at risk for an increased frequency and severity of migraine attacks. This article reviews weight-change data from recent clinical studies of migraine-preventive medications in children, adolescents, and adults with migraine. A PubMed search was conducted for English-language articles published between January 1970 and November 2007. Among the search terms were migraine prevention, migraine prophylaxis, migraine treatment, antidepressant drug, beta-adrenergic-receptor blockers, antiepileptic drug, anticonvulsant drug, weight gain, and weight loss. Studies that reported weight-change data (gain, loss, or neutral) were included. When available, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were selected for review. Open-label, retrospective or prospective trials may also have been included. Most of the migraine-preventive medications classified by the United States Headache Consortium as group 1 based on the high level of evidence for their efficacy--for instance, amitriptyline, propranolol, and divalproex sodium-have been associated with varying degrees of weight gain. The exceptions are timolol, which is weight neutral, and topiramate, which is associated with weight loss. Among the drugs that have been associated with weight gain, a higher incidence of weight gain was observed with amitriptyline and divalproex sodium than with propranolol. Weight-change effects require careful consideration when selecting migraine-preventive medications, and weight should be monitored carefully over the course of any migraine treatment plan.
Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.
Shortliffe, Edward H.; Bates, David W.; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Greenwood, Karen; Safran, Charles; Steen, Elaine B.; Tang, Paul C.; Williamson, Jeffrey J.
Don E. Detmer has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) for the past five years, helping to set a course for the organization and demonstrating remarkable leadership as AMIA has evolved into a vibrant and influential professional association. On the occasion of Dr. Detmer's retirement, we fondly reflect on his professional life and his many contributions to biomedical informatics and, more generally, to health care in the U.S. and globally. PMID:19574463
Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis V
BACKGROUND: In our previous study of workers, blood donors and medical students, students stood out with a higher 1-year prevalence of migraine (28%) and tension-type headache (TTH) (74%). General factors associated with headache were common for all groups except low physical activity. The hypoth...
Vijay, Aishwarya; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Tee, Ying Chew; Pillai, Veena; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Clark, Kirsty; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.
Purpose: Transgender people are frequent targets of discrimination. Discrimination against transgender people in the context of healthcare can lead to poor health outcomes and facilitate the growth of health disparities. This study explores factors associated with medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender people in Malaysia.
... Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition... for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition (Guidelines). The NIH is seeking input from the public on... updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition must be submitted electronically at...
Abdullah I. Almojali
Conclusion: The study documents a statistically significant association between stress and poor sleep quality. A recommendation for the management of medical college is to establish academic counseling centers focusing in promoting good sleep hygiene and strengthening students’ study skills and coping with their stressful environment.
Teng, Sha; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Wenxin; Lin, Xiaohong; Shang, Yabin; Peng, Xiao; Liu, Hongxia
Kidney transplant recipients require lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive medications to avoid graft rejection and graft loss. Symptoms experienced may influence recipients' perceived quality of life and medication adherence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the symptom experience associated with immunosuppressive medications in adult kidney transplant recipients and to explore the association between the symptom experience and adherence to immunosuppressive medications. A cross-sectional design was used. The study was conducted in a general hospital in China from October 2013 to September 2014. A total of 231 recipients with a follow-up of at least 1 year after kidney transplantation were included. Symptom experience associated with immunosuppressive medications was measured by the 13-item Symptom Experience of Immunosuppressive-related Side Effects Scale. Self-reported adherence to immunosuppressive medications was assessed using the Adherence with Immunosuppressive Medication Scale. Ridit analysis was used to rank symptom distress items. A proportion of 60.6% of recipients were male; the time after kidney transplantation was arbitrarily divided into a short-term cohort (1-4 years) and a long-term cohort (4-16 years) according to the median duration of follow-up (4 years). High blood pressure, hair loss, and tiredness were the three most distressing symptoms over all items of the whole sample. High blood pressure was the most distressing symptom for the 1- to 4-year cohort and the 4- to 16-year cohort. For men high blood pressure was the most distressing symptom, whereas for women hair loss was the most distressing symptom. Recipients in the 4- to 16-year cohort perceived a higher level of symptom distress compared with those in the 1- to 4-year cohort, especially in excess hair growth and difficulty sleeping. A negative relationship was found between symptom distress and adherence to immunosuppressive medications (r = -.541, p = .000). Recipients
Tung, Joyce Y; Do, Chuong B; Hinds, David A; Kiefer, Amy K; Macpherson, J Michael; Chowdry, Arnab B; Francke, Uta; Naughton, Brian T; Mountain, Joanna L; Wojcicki, Anne; Eriksson, Nicholas
While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence). Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.
Joyce Y Tung
Full Text Available While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for obtaining large amounts of medical information from a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence. Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggest that online collection of self-reported data from a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations.
Gastroenterology is one of the most competitive internal medicine fellowship. However, factors that associated with program competitiveness have not been documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between characteristics of gastroenterology fellowship programs and their competitiveness through the proportion of US medical graduates for the academic year 2016/17. This study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with data obtained from the American Medical Association. The proportion of US medical graduates in gastroenterology fellowships was used as an indicator of program competitiveness. Using both univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, we analyzed the association between the proportion of medical graduates in each program and 27 program characteristics based on a significance level of 0.05. In total, 153 out of 171 gastroenterology fellowship programs satisfied the inclusion criteria. A multivariate analysis revealed that a higher proportion of US medical graduates was significantly associated with five program characteristics: that it was a university-based program (p < 0.001), the ratio of full-time paid faculty to fellow positions (p < 0.001), the proportion of females in the program (p = 0.002), location in the Pacific region (p = 0.039), and a non-smoker hiring policy (p = 0.042). Among the five significant factors, being university based, located in the Pacific, and having a non-smoker hiring policy were likely to remain unchanged over a long period. However, program directors and candidates should pay attention to equivalence between full-time paid faculty and fellowship positions, and the proportion of women in the program. The former indicates the level of supervision while the latter has become increasingly important owing to the higher proportion of women in medicine.
Darnell, Doyanne; Peterson, Roselyn; Berliner, Lucy; Stewart, Terri; Russo, Joan; Whiteside, Lauren; Zatzick, Douglas
Rape is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related comorbidities. Most victims do not obtain treatment for these conditions. Acute care medical settings are well positioned to link patients to services; however, difficulty engaging victims and low attendance at provided follow-up appointments is well documented. Identifying factors associated with follow-up can inform engagement and linkage strategies. Administrative, patient self-report, and provider observational data from Harborview Medical Center were combined for the analysis. Using logistic regression, we examined factors associated with follow-up health service utilization after seeking services for rape in the emergency department. Of the 521 diverse female (n = 476) and male (n = 45) rape victims, 28% attended the recommended medical/counseling follow-up appointment. In the final (adjusted) logistic regression model, having a developmental or other disability (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.77), having a current mental illness (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.13-0.49), and being assaulted in public (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.87) were uniquely associated with reduced odds of attending the follow-up. Having a prior mental health condition (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.86-4.91), a completed Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's (SANE) examination (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.84-4.81), and social support available to help cope with the assault (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = 1.76-7.11) were associated with an increased odds of attending the follow-up. Findings point to relevant characteristics ascertained at the acute care medical visit for rape that may be used to identify victims less likely to obtain posttraumatic medical and mental health services. Efforts to improve service linkage for these patients is warranted and may require alternative service delivery models that engage rape survivors and support posttraumatic recovery.
Willie M. Abel
Full Text Available Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens.Methods: Black women (N=80 who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence.Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67% were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend=0.015.Conclusions: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension.
Medical biochemistry is the usual name for clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in Serbia. Medical biochemistry laboratories and medical biochemists as a profession are part of Health Care System and are regulated through: the Health Care Law and rules issued by the Chamber of Medical Biochemists of Serbia. The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Serbia dates from 1945, when Department of Medical Biochemistry was established at Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1987 at the same Faculty a five years undergraduate branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program. Since 2006 the new five year undergraduate (according to Bologna Declaration) and postgraduate program of four-year specialization according to EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has been established. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health accredits the programs. There are four requirements for practicing medical biochemistry in the Health Care System: University Diploma of the Faculty of Pharmacy (Medical Biochemistry), successful completion of the profession exam at the Ministry of Health after completion of one additional year of obligatory practical training in medical laboratories, membership in the Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists and licence for skilled work issued by Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists.
Agahi, Farshad; Speicher, Mark R; Cisek, Grace
Medical schools use a variety of preadmission indices to select potential students. These indices generally include undergraduate grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, and preadmission interviews. To investigate whether the admission indices used by Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine are associated with the academic and clinical performance of their students. Associations between the prematriculation variables of undergraduate science GPA, undergraduate total GPA, MCAT component scores, and interview scores and the academic and clinical variables of the first- and second-year medical school GPA, Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation (CE) total and discipline scores, scores in clinical rotations for osteopathic competencies, COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation passage, and match status were evaluated. Two-tailed Pearson product-moment correlations with a Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine these relationships. The traditional predictors of science and total undergraduate GPA as well as total and component MCAT scores had small to moderate associations with first- and second-year GPA, as well as COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2-CE total scores. Of all predictors, only the MCAT biological sciences score had a statistically significant correlation with failure of the COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation examination (P=.009). Average interview scores were associated only with the osteopathic competency of medical knowledge (r=0.233; n=209; P=.001), as assessed by clerkship preceptors. No predictors were associated with scores in objective structured clinical encounters or with failing to match to a residency position. The data indicate that traditional predictors of academic performance (undergraduate GPA, undergraduate science GPA, and MCAT scores) have small to moderate association with medical school grades and
Payne, Rupert A; Abel, Gary A; Simpson, Colin R; Maxwell, Simon R J
Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This study examined the frequency of hospital admission for falls or fractures, and the association with a recent change in the use of cardiovascular and psychotropic medications. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study of 39,813 patients aged >65 years from 40 Scottish general practices. Data on current prescriptions, dates of drug changes (defined as increases in dose or starting new drugs), diagnoses and clinical measurements were extracted from primary care electronic records, linked to national hospital admissions data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association of change in prescribing of cardiovascular or psychotropic medication with admission to hospital for falls or fractures in the following 60 days. A total of 838 patients (2.1 %) were admitted in the 1-year study period. Following adjustment for factors including age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, co-morbidity and current prescribing, changes in both cardiovascular and psychotropic medications were associated with subsequent admission for falls or fractures (odds ratio [OR] 1.54 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.03] and 1.68 [95 % CI 1.28-2.22], respectively). There was no evidence for a difference in the effect of change in medication for different cardiovascular drug types (p = 0.86), but there was evidence (p = 0.003) for variation in the association between change in different psychotropic medications and admission; the strongest associations were observed for changes in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 1.99 [95 % CI 1.29-3.08]), non-SSRI/tricyclic antidepressants (OR 4.39 [95 % CI 2.21-8.71]) and combination psychotropic medication (OR 3.05 [95 % CI 1.66-5.63]). Recent changes in psychotropic and cardiovascular medications are associated with a substantial increase in risk of hospital admission for falls and fractures. Caution should thus be taken when
Opondo, Dedan; Visscher, Stefan; Eslami, Saeid; Verheij, Robert A.; Korevaar, Joke C.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen
To assess guideline adherence of co-prescribing NSAID and gastroprotective medications for elders in general practice over time, and investigate its potential association with the electronic medical record (EMR) system brand used. We included patients 65 years and older who received NSAIDs between
Opondo, D.; Visscher, S.; Eslami, S.; Verheij, R.A.; Korevaar, J.C.; Abu-Hanna, A.
Objective: To assess guideline adherence of co-prescribing NSAID and gastroprotective medications for elders in general practice over time, and investigate its potential association with the electronic medical record (EMR) system brand used. Methods: We included patients 65 years and older who
Huang, Lei; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yao, Yuhong; Shan, Chang; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Mengyi; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Zhao, Xudong
Critical thinking is an essential ability for medical students. However, the relationship between parental rearing styles and medical students' critical thinking disposition has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental rearing styles were significant predictors of critical thinking disposition among Chinese medical students. 1,075 medical students from the first year to the fifth year attending one of three medical schools in China were recruited via multistage stratified cluster sampling. The Chinese Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory(CTDI-CV) and The Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) questionnaire were applied to collect data and to conduct descriptive analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The critical thinking disposition average mean score was 287.44 with 632 participants (58.79%) demonstrating positive critical thinking disposition. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the rearing styles of fathers, including "overprotection", "emotional warmth and understanding", "rejection" and "over-interference" were significant predictors of medical students' critical thinking disposition that explained 79.0% of the variance in critical thinking ability. Rearing styles of mothers including "emotional warmth and understanding", "punishing" and "rejection" were also found to be significant predictors, and explained 77.0% of the variance. Meaningful association has been evidenced between parental rearing styles and Chinese medical students' critical thinking disposition. Parental rearing styles should be considered as one of the many potential determinant factors that contribute to the cultivation of medical students' critical thinking capability. Positive parental rearing styles should be encouraged in the cultivation of children's critical thinking skills.
Full Text Available Background. Blood pressure (BP control is poor among hypertensives in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. A potentially modifiable factor for control of BP is medication nonadherence (MNA; our study therefore aimed to determine factors associated with MNA among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria. Methodology. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu Hospital (n=120, Ghana; and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, (n=73 Apapa General Hospital Lagos (n=79 and University College Hospital Ibadan (n=85, Nigeria. Results. 357 hypertensive patients (42.6% males participated. MNA was found in 66.7%. Adherence showed correlation with depression (r=-0.208, P<0.001, concern about medications (r=-0.0347, P=0.002, and knowledge of hypertension (r=0.14, P=0.006. MNA was associated with formal education (P=0.001 and use of herbal preparation (P=0.014. MNA was found in 61.7% of uninsured participants versus 73.1% of insured participants (P=0.032. Poor BP control was observed in 69.7% and there was significant association between MNA and poor BP control (P=0.006. Conclusion. MNA is high among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria and is associated with depression, concern about hypertensive medications, formal education, and use of herbal preparations. The negative association between health insurance and MNA suggests interplay of other factors and needs further investigation.
To conduct a bibliometric analysis of the Original articles published in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. The study was conducted in Peshawar and comprised all Original articles published in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association between 2009 and2013. The articles were downloaded from the Journal website and bibliometric parameters were analysed. A total number of 913 Original articles were found in regular issues of the Journal, while leaving out six special supplements that were published during the period under study. The number of Original articles increased steadily from 148(16.2%) in 2009 to 214(23.4%) in 2013, In yearly terms, Original articles published each year ranged between 148 and 214; 510(55.9%) had 21-30 citations; 3-author contributions ranked the highest with 206(22.6%); 481(52.7%) authors were geographically affiliated to Sindh, Pakistan; Community Medicine was the most popular medical specialty with was 140(15.3%) articles; 17340(90.5%) citations were from journals; and the most productive institution was Aga Khan University, Karachi. The number of papers published in Journal of Pakistan Medical Association per issue increased from 2009 to 2013 and the main region in terms of contribution was Sindh.
Sobowale, Kunmi; Ham, Sandra A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D
This nationally representative study sought to identify personality traits that are associated with academic achievement in medical school. Third-year medical students, who completed an initial questionnaire in January 2011, were mailed a second questionnaire several months later during their fourth year. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and burnout, the authors used multivariate logistic regressions to determine whether Big Five personality traits were associated with receiving honors/highest grade in clinical clerkships, failing a course or rotation, and being selected for the Alpha Omega Alpha or Gold Humanism Honor Society. The adjusted response rates for the two surveys were 61 (n = 564/919) and 84% (n = 474/564). The personality trait conscientiousness predicted obtaining honors/highest grade in all clinical clerkships. In contrast, students high in neuroticism were less likely to do well in most specialties. Students with higher conscientiousness were more likely to be inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society, while students high in openness or agreeableness traits were more likely to be inducted into the Gold Humanism Honor Society. Burnout was not associated with any clinical performance measures. This study suggests the importance of personality traits, particularly conscientiousness, in predicting success during the clinical years of medical school. Medical educators should consider a nuanced examination of personality traits and other non-cognitive factors, particularly for psychiatry.
Full Text Available Context: There is scant research on premenstrual syndrome (PMS and its more severe counterpart, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD in Indian females. This study aimed to evaluate symptoms of PMS in medical students and to find the association of sociodemographic variables and lifestyle factors with PMDD. Subjects and Methods: A total of 179 medical students residing in the hostel of an Indian medical college and its affiliated teaching hospital were approached, of which 100 (55.8% returned the completed questionnaires. Data related to lifestyle factors was collected. Self-screening quiz for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision PMDD and Shortened Premenstrual Assessment Form were used for diagnosis of PMDD and detection of symptomatology, respectively. Results: PMDD was present in 37% of the respondents. It was found at a higher rate in older and postgraduate students. PMDD was significantly associated with lifestyle factors, namely, sleep, physical activity, total tea/coffee intake, and change in tea/coffee and food intake under stress. The most common physical and psychological symptoms were body ache/joint pain and feeling depressed/blue, respectively. Conclusions: PMDD is fairly common in Indian medical students residing in hostel although cultural factors may influence symptom expression. This study suggests that PMDD is associated with lifestyle factors in young, professional, urban women. Modification in lifestyle may thus be an important approach for management of PMS/PMDD. Prospective studies with larger representative samples are needed to validate these findings.
Mishra, Amrita; Banwari, Girish; Yadav, Priyanka
There is scant research on premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and its more severe counterpart, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Indian females. This study aimed to evaluate symptoms of PMS in medical students and to find the association of sociodemographic variables and lifestyle factors with PMDD. A total of 179 medical students residing in the hostel of an Indian medical college and its affiliated teaching hospital were approached, of which 100 (55.8%) returned the completed questionnaires. Data related to lifestyle factors was collected. Self-screening quiz for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision PMDD and Shortened Premenstrual Assessment Form were used for diagnosis of PMDD and detection of symptomatology, respectively. PMDD was present in 37% of the respondents. It was found at a higher rate in older and postgraduate students. PMDD was significantly associated with lifestyle factors, namely, sleep, physical activity, total tea/coffee intake, and change in tea/coffee and food intake under stress. The most common physical and psychological symptoms were body ache/joint pain and feeling depressed/blue, respectively. PMDD is fairly common in Indian medical students residing in hostel although cultural factors may influence symptom expression. This study suggests that PMDD is associated with lifestyle factors in young, professional, urban women. Modification in lifestyle may thus be an important approach for management of PMS/PMDD. Prospective studies with larger representative samples are needed to validate these findings.
Michelle Nigri Levitan
Full Text Available Objective: To present the most relevant findings regarding the Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder. Methods: We used the methodology proposed by the Brazilian Medical Association for the Diretrizes Project. The MEDLINE (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS online databases were queried for articles published from 1980 to 2012. Searchable questions were structured using the PICO format (acronym for “patient” [or population], “intervention” [or exposure], “comparison” [or control], and “outcome”. Results: We present data on clinical manifestations and implications of panic disorder and its association with depression, drug abuse, dependence and anxiety disorders. In addition, discussions were held on the main psychiatric and clinical differential diagnoses. Conclusions: The guidelines are proposed to serve as a reference for the general practitioner and specialist to assist in and facilitate the diagnosis of panic disorder.
Kim, Do Yeun; Lee, Yun Gyoo; Kim, Bong-Seog
This study was conducted to investigate the current role of medical oncologists in cancer care with a focus on increasing the recognition of medical oncology as an independent specialty. Questionnaires modified from the Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey dealing with oncology structure, resources, research, and patterns of care given by medical oncologists were selected. Several modifications were made to the questionnaire after feedback from the insurance and policy committee of the Korean Association for Clinical Oncology (KACO). The online survey was then sent to KACO members. A total of 214 medical oncologists (45.8% of the total inquiries), including 71 directors of medical oncology institutions, took the survey. Most institutions had various resources, including a medical oncology department (94.1%) and a department of radiation oncology (82.4%). There was an average of four medical oncologists at each institution. Medical oncologists were involved in various treatments from diagnosis to end-of-life care. They were also chemotherapy providers from a wide range of institutions that treated many types of solid cancers. In addition, 86.2% of the institutions conducted research. This is the first national survey in Korea to show that medical oncologists are involved in a wide range of cancer treatments and care. This survey emphasizes the contributions and proper roles of medical oncologists in the evolving health care environment in Korea.
Williams, Ishmael; Valderrama, Amy L; Bolton, Patricia; Greek, April; Greer, Sophia; Patterson, Davis G; Zhang, Zefeng
To examine prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) scope of practice for acute cardiovascular events and characteristics that may affect scope of practice; and to describe variations in EMS scope of practice for these events and the characteristics associated with that variability. In 2008, we conducted a telephone survey of 1,939 eligible EMS providers in nine states to measure EMS agency characteristics, medical director involvement, and 18 interventions authorized for prehospital care of acute cardiovascular events by three levels of emergency medical technician (EMT) personnel. A total of 1,292 providers responded to the survey, for a response rate of 67%. EMS scope of practice interventions varied by EMT personnel level, with the proportion of authorized interventions increasing as expected from EMT-Basic to EMT-Paramedic. Seven of eight statistically significant associations indicated that EMS agencies in urban settings were less likely to authorize interventions (odds ratios department-based EMS agencies were two to three times more likely to authorize interventions for EMT-Intermediate personnel. Volunteer EMS agencies were more than twice as likely as nonvolunteer agencies to authorize interventions for EMT-Basic and EMT-Intermediate personnel but were less likely to authorize any one of the 11 interventions for EMT-Paramedics. Greater medical director involvement was associated with greater likelihood of authorization of seven of the 18 interventions for EMT-Basic and EMT-Paramedic personnel but had no association with EMT-Intermediate personnel. We noted statistically significant variations in scope of practice by rural vs. urban setting, medical director involvement, and type of EMS service (fire department-based/non-fire department-based; volunteer/paid). These variations highlight local differences in the composition and capacity of EMS providers and offer important information for the transition towards the implementation of a national scope of
Lourinho, Isabel; Moreira, André; Mota-Cardoso, Rui; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
Personality has became popular in medical student's selection. However, few research exists about the association between the big five personality traits and the existent medical school selection tools. Our aim was to study which personality traits were selected by a medical school admission interview. One hundred ninety four graduate applicants that had applied to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto through the graduate entry approach, after ranked on previous achievement, were interviewed between the academic years of 2011 and 2013. From these, 181 (93.3%) answered to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that assesses high order personality traits of openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Admission interview corresponded to the second phase of the seriation process. Every applicant was interviewed and scored by three interviewers on seven dimensions asesssed by Lickert scale (1-10). Interview score was the sum of the dimensions. Linear mixed effects model and respective regression coefficients were used to estimate the association between personality traits from each interviewer's score. Final models were adjusted for gender, interviewers and previous achievement. Openness to experience (Beta = 0.18: CI 95%: 0.05; 0.30) had the strongest association with interview score followed by the interaction effect between the extraversion and conscientiousness traits (Beta = 0.14; CI 95%: 0.02; 0.25). Also, applicants scored higher when their gender was opposite to the interviewers. Previous achievement and interview score had no association. Our admission interview selected different personality traits when compared to other selection tools. Medical schools should be aware of the implications of the adopted selection tools on the admitted medical student's personality because it can help providing beneficial interventions.
Jennifer Felicia Scheel
Full Text Available IntroductionNon-adherence to immunosuppressive medication is regarded as an important factor for graft rejection and loss after successful renal transplantation. Yet, results on prevalence and relationship with psychosocial parameters are heterogeneous. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association of immunosuppressive medication non-adherence and psychosocial factors.MethodsIn 330 adult renal transplant recipients (≥12 months posttransplantation, health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, social support, and subjective medication experiences were assessed, and their associations with patient-reported non-adherence was evaluated.Results33.6% of the patients admitted to be partially non-adherent. Non-adherence was associated with younger age, poorer social support, lower mental, but higher physical health-related quality of life. There was no association with depression and anxiety. However, high proportions of clinically relevant depression and anxiety symptoms were apparent in both adherent and non-adherent patients.ConclusionIn the posttransplant follow-up, kidney recipients with lower perceived social support, lower mental and higher physical health-related quality of life, and younger age can be regarded as a risk group for immunosuppressive medication non-adherence. In follow-up contacts with kidney transplant patients, physicians may pay attention to these factors. Furthermore, psychosocial interventions to optimize immunosuppressive medication adherence can be designed on the basis of this information, especially including subjectively perceived physical health-related quality of life and fostering social support seems to be of importance.
Full Text Available Hepatitis A is an acute viral disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV .In many areas of the world represents a significant epidemiological problem, and the infection is usually transmitted by contact, rarely contaminated water and food. The main objective of the study was to identify the most important epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A in Serbian areas of Kosovo and Metohija. We used the data of reporting of infectious diseases, reports on infectious diseases (seven-day, month, year of the Department of Public Health Pristina in Kosovska Mitrovica. In our research we used epidemiological Studies of cross-section (cross-sectional. Between 2003-2015. in Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian middle registered 223 cases of hepatitis A. The average incidence in the reporting period was 11.03 / 10,0000. Analysis of age distribution revealed that the most common incidence in people aged 15-19 years, and the rarest people aged 50-59 years. Hepatitis A occurs throughout the year, showing seasonal variations. Trend of incidence shows a negative trend with a reduction in the number of cases in the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. Based on the results of our study we can conclude that hepatitis A is an important public health and socioeconomic problem. In order to prevent hepatitis A, it is important to continue to improve hygiene and sanitary conditions of life as the best general preventive measures.
Full Text Available The privatization concept, applied after the 2000 changes, failed to bring the expected performance to Serbian industry. Privatization partly initiated the enterprises restructuring in some fields of manufacturing industry. It brought fresh capital, new technologies and new managerial know-how. However, the result thereof was far weaker than the initially expected. The reasons for the said, but also the end aims of the given process, are analyzed in detail throughout the following article. The research is based on the processing of data from financial statements, submitted by the companies from the Serbian non-financial corporate sector in the period 2002-2007. Panel analysis disclosed the way in which the results of each of the observed ownership forms have changed over time in different sectors and branches of the industry. On the other hand, we also tested the hypothesis according to which privatization effects on the companies’ performances significantly vary depending on the company size, whereby the effects of capital sales model have been implicitly assessed.
Ošmjanski Vera B.
Full Text Available The aim of the empirical part of the research was to explore the attitude of the Serbian academic community towards the English language used as lingua franca (ELF, i.e. neutral variety of the English language. The results might be a starting point in considering whether to include ELF in the language policy and, consequently, into English curricula in Serbia. The research included members of Serbian academic community, students of different departments, and English language teachers in the state owned and privately owned universities in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis. After examining their attitudes towards key postulates of ELF the conclusions are that it is necessary to start discussions about the concepts of the variety and to reassess current deeply rooted ideas about the English language from the perspective of modern linguistic trends. The need for a more liberal approach to the variety is not generated only in the needs of the market, i.e. those people to whom English is a practical means of international communication, but also the need to adjust ELT (English Language Teaching to modern linguistic tendencies and the European Council recommendations.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the reception of new anglicisms by native speakers of Serbian, from semantic and pragmatic viewpoints, through theoretical and empirical observations. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate to what extent and in what ways speakers understand anglicisms which they regularly encounter in Serbian daily newspapers and weekly magazines. It is through Grice's Cooperative Principle that the relationship between the journalist and the reader is examined and described. The conclusions are based on an analysis of the results of a large-scale research project conducted on a representative sample of native speakers who constitute the target readership of the selected newspapers and magazines. The research tool – an extensive written questionnaire – was created on the basis of a large corpus of anglicisms extracted from non-specialist daily and weekly press. The results of the analysis corroborate the initial hypothesis that there are varying degrees of noise in the communication channel between the journalist and reader, and that the journalist does not adhere to the Cooperative Principle. The way in which one of its maxims is regularly disregarded cannot fit into the existing classification and displays characteristics of a new category here termed ‘neglecting the maxim of manner’.
Stevanovic, Dejan; Laurent, Jeff; Lakic, Aneta
This study extended previous cross-cultural work regarding the tripartite model of anxiety and depression by developing Serbian translations of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C), the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C), and the Affect and Arousal Scale (AFARS). Characteristics of the scales were examined using 449 students (M age = 12.61 years). Applying item retention criteria established in other studies, PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS translations with psychometric properties similar to English-language versions were identified. Preliminary validation of the scales was conducted using a subset of 194 students (M age = 12.37 years) who also completed measures of anxiety and depression. Estimates of reliability, patterns of correlations among scales, and age and gender differences were consistent with previous studies with English-speaking samples. Findings regarding scale validity were mixed, although consistent with existing literature. Serbian translations of the PH-C, PANAS-C, and AFARS mirror the original English-language scales in terms of both strengths and weaknesses.
Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski resorts (Kopaonik, Zlatibor, Stara planina, Divčibare are very strong, leading to degradation of unique mountain landscape, and functionality losses. Processes of urbanization, construction or improvement works, cause hard degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The logging, large excavation activities, erosion, noise and water pollution constantly impact the habitats of all animal and plant species residing in small areas. The process leads to severe fragmentation of the remaining old-growth forests, endangering future subsistence. Consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition, with high concentration of pollutants, in reservoirs for water supply. Legal nature-protection standards are weakly implemented in regional ski areas. Effective protection of landscape in Serbian ski-areas is based on careful considerations of impact assessment at all levels of planning (spatial and urban planning and designing activities, which enables application of restoration concept, in accordance with general goals of environmental protection (preserving biodiversity, CO2 sequestration, attenuation of effects of global climate changes.
Krstović Saša Z.
Full Text Available The production of fumonisins by potentially toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides isolates originating from Serbian maize and wheat kernels was tested in vitro. A total of six F. verticillioides isolates were incubated on yeast extract sucrose medium (YESA for 4 weeks at 25 °C in the dark. Their toxin production potential was tested by applying a modified HPLC method for determination of fumonisins in cereals, since the TLC method gave no results. Analyses were performed on a HPLC-FLD system after sample extraction from YESA and extract cleanup on a SPE column. Although the isolates were tested for fumonisin B1, B2 and B3, only fumonisin B1 was detected. The results showed that all tested isolates had toxigenic potential for fumonisin B1 production. The average fumonisin B1 production of the isolates ranged from 7 to 289 μg/kg, thus indicating a highly variable toxigenic potential among the isolates. Isolate 1282 expressed the highest toxigenic potential for fumonisin B1 production (289 μg/kg, while isolate 2533/A showed a questionable potential for fumonisin production (7 μg/kg. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31023
Full Text Available Germany has always had an essential influence on Serbia's economic development. Today, Germany is Europe's economic and political superstar so this is even more pronounced. Hence, the aim of this paper is to explore the fundamental causal relationship between German and Serbian economy. In doing so, after the introductory part, where we emphasized interconnection in terms of investment, foreign trade, employment, new technologies etc., we are extending our study using quarterly 2004q1-2015q2 GDP data of both Serbia and Germany to estimate the Vector Error Correction model (VECM. The results suggest that there is co-integration between Serbia's and Germany's economic growth. The statistically significant negative coefficient on êt-1 indicates that Serbian GDP responds to a temporary disequilibrium between the Germany and Serbia. On the other hand, Germany does not appear to respond to a disequilibrium between the two economies; the t-ratio on êt-1 is statistically insignificant. These results support the idea that economic conditions in Serbia depend on those in Germany incomparably more than conditions in Germany depend on Serbia. Despite a solid long-term impact, there is not short run causality running from GerGDP to SrbGDP.
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the characters of several Serbian novels published from the Enlightenment to the present day, whose main characters show obvious resemblances with Cervantes’ Don Quixote: Dositej Obradović´s Život i priključenija (1783, Jovan Sterija Popović´s Roman bez romana (1838, various novels of Jakov Ignjatović (Večiti mladoženja, 1878; Vasa Rešpekt, 1875; Milan Narandžić, 1860-1862, and Sančova verzija by Ratomir Damjanović (1999. We analyze their personalities, pointing out the similarities with their model and then exploring the differences or particularities emanating from either the author’s style, the period of its creation and/or the poetics of the Serbian literature. Our goal is to investigate the manner and the level in which the Cervantine legacy has been creatively transformed and what constant characteristics of the personality of Don Quixote have resisted the passage of time.
Full Text Available Ballets for children have been recognized as a unique genre of the dance art. From the point of children ballet production of the Yugoslav ballet assembly very little was documented, and this particularly referred to the Serbian production. Children‘s ballets aim to provide an experience for young people, to educate on dance art and to attract, engage and sustain children as an audience for major ballet houses. They challenge a whole range of difficultes and problems that have to be solved by the choreographers and dancers. For example, the first major challenge in taking children to the ballet is that the story is told entirely through dance, and many children find this aspect of the ballet difficult to appreciate. The author examined the representations of the ballet body and analyzed how this and some other difficulties have been solved in children‘s ballet production of the Serbian National Theatre Ballet (SNP in Novi Sad during the long period of forty five years, from the first performances in 1972 up to now, namely to 2017. In addition, the author has made an inventory by listing repertoir, choreografies, and stories. She was tracking the number of performances for each production and the number of audience to conclude on the impact of the children‘s ballet. The implication of the paper is that the possibile solutions referred to in the paper could be seen as a suggestion for the future opportunities of the production, particularly in the case of the future premieres.
Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija
The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.
Full Text Available Ecotourism can be defined as responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and cultural heritage and improves the well-being of local people. Sustainable planning and management of ecotourism development are important and necessary for increasing positive and decreasing negative effects on the complex environment. This paper analyses the suitability of selected protected natural areas in the Serbian Danube region for the purposes of ecotourism development. The multi-criteria analysis includes several natural and socio-economic factors and criteria which influence ecotourism development. The integration of Geographic Information System (GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP greatly facilitates the decision-making process in the ecotourism destination planning. A suitability map of the analysed protected natural areas for ecotourism development as one of the sustainable tourism types is highlighted as a result of this paper. Such analysis assists in the objective promotion of ecotourism destinations and thus contributes to the improvement of Serbian tourism development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008
Full Text Available Stockholders and other interested parties used to exchange information in writing by means of physical submission, while today with just a click on any known company’s Internet page it is possible to acquire both the information needed and its financial situation. The aim of this work is to indicate the lack of corporate culture and investor communication on the Serbian stock market by analyzing investor relations via the e-communication tools of some of the best Serbian companies. This study investigates investor relations on the Internet of companies listed on the Belgrade Stock Exchange (BELEX 15 and BELEX LINE. For this purpose, the websites of the 20 largest listed companies of the Republic of Serbia were screened for investor relations items. Results obtained by using a three-stage model show that most companies in Serbia are at the second stage of internet investor relations, i.e., where information available through other sources is combined to better inform investors. In the third stage companies use the full interactive possibilities of the Internet for investor relations purposes. The author also stresses that the quality of investor relations must be a part of every company’s strategic vision.
Susic, Gordana; Vojinovic, Jelena; Vijatov-Djuric, Gordana; Stevanovic, Dejan; Lazarevic, Dragana; Djurovic, Nada; Novakovic, Dusica; Consolaro, Alessandro; Bovis, Francesca; Ruperto, Nicolino
The Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR) is a new parent/patient-reported outcome measure that enables a thorough assessment of the disease status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We report the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the parent and patient versions of the JAMAR in the Serbian language. The reading comprehension of the questionnaire was tested in 10 JIA parents and patients. Each participating centre was asked to collect demographic, clinical data and the JAMAR in 100 consecutive JIA patients or all consecutive patients seen in a 6-month period and to administer the JAMAR to 100 healthy children and their parents. The statistical validation phase explored descriptive statistics and the psychometric issues of the JAMAR: the three Likert assumptions, floor/ceiling effects, internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha, interscale correlations, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity). A total of 248 JIA patients (5.2% systemic, 44.3% oligoarticular, 23.8% RF-negative polyarthritis, 26.7% other categories) and 100 healthy children were enrolled in three centres. The JAMAR components discriminated healthy subjects from JIA patients. All JAMAR components revealed good psychometric performances. In conclusion, the Serbian version of the JAMAR is a valid tool for the assessment of children with JIA and is suitable for use both in routine clinical practice and clinical research.
Full Text Available The research presented in this paper was an attempt to find differences in the use of grammatical information carried by the function words in Serbian. The aim was to determine the level of word processing at which grammatical information shows its differential effects in groups of subjects who themselves differ in verbal ability. For this purpose, the psycholinguistic tasks applied were grammatically primed reading aloud and grammatically primed grammatical classification with an appropriate control of extra-linguistic factors that may have affected aforementioned tasks. Verbal aptitude was assessed in a psychometric manner, and the subjects were divided into "high verbal" and "low verbal" groups. Taking into account statistical control of extra-linguistic factors, the results indicate that groups of high verbal and low verbal subjects cannot be differentiated based on reading aloud performance. The high verbal subjects, however, were more efficient in grammatical classification than low verbal subjects. The results also indicated that the presence of grammatical information embedded in function words-primes had a stronger effect on word processing in low verbal group. Such pattern of results testify to the advantage of high verbal subjects in lexical and post lexical processing, while no differences were established in the word recognition processes. The implications of these findings were considered in terms of test construction for the assessment of verbal ability in Serbian language. .
Full Text Available Sayings and proverbs are the elements of spirit and wisdom of a people, represent the force of thought and metaphor, intelligence and spiritual wisdom, the power of observation, the truths of skills argumentation and to explore life, the power of language to express much in few words. From everything that exists in literary creation, a particular difficulty lies in translating sayings and proverbs from one language to another. From what has created in the whole literary work, a particular challenge is to translate the sayings and proverbs from one language to another. Romanian and Serbian reflects very well the virtues which are adapted to express sayings and proverbs, communicate more in a few words say more than what is said with words, if that partner has the satisfaction to decipher the intentions of the author. Both pickers’ sayings, Vuk Karadzic and Anton Pann have desire as their collections through this remember the sayings and proverbs Serbian and Romanian, and contributed to their entry into our everyday language, and gave the magnitude and expressiveness.
Antić Dejan D.
Full Text Available The Serbian army was forced to retreat towards Metohija and Albania eventually due to the armed aggression and attacks from the north and east in October 1915 by the united forces of the German and Austro-Hungarian units against the Kingdom of Serbia. Together with the army, the monarch, executive and legislative branch, intellectuals and civilians also retreated, not wanting to fall in the hands of the incoming army formations of the Central Powers. Following the retreat of the government and army bodies, the territory of the Kingdom of Serbia found itself under the control of the enemy forces, which started the 3-year period of occupation. The subject of this paper are the texts written by the newspaper called Leskovački glasnik (Leskovac Messenger in the period between World War I and World War II, which dealt with the sufferings of the Serbian civilians in the Bulgarian occupied zone from 1915 to 1918. Special attention is paid to the Leskovački glasnik's reports about marking the anniversary of the Bulgarian terror and killings of Serbs, about opening and consecration of memorials, about the heroic deeds and the tragic destiny of the people in south Serbia.
Vučić, Vesna; Arsić, Aleksandra; Petrović, Snježana; Milanović, Sandra; Gurinović, Mirjana; Glibetić, Maria
This study examined the fatty acid (FA) composition of 13 (7 soft and 6 hard) Serbian margarines. Significantly higher amounts of trans fatty acids (TFA) were found in hard margarines (up to 28.84% of total FA), than in soft ones (0.17-6.89%). Saturated FA (SFA) were present with 22.76-51.17%. Oleic acid ranged from 26.78% to 43.78%. The proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) was 22.15-49.29% in soft margarines, but only 8.02-15.28% in hard margarines, probably due to the hydrogenisation process. The atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes (AI and TI, respectively) in soft margarines were relatively low (AI 0.23-0.63 and TI 0.44-0.97), but in hard margarines AI and particularly TI were high (1.03-1.67 and 1.96-3.04, respectively). These findings suggest that FA composition of Serbian margarines should be improved by replacing atherogenic TFA and SFA with beneficial ones, in order to avoid adverse effects on health. Therefore legislative changes and consumer information are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The entry of international companies in the field of tourism in the domestic market creates a huge potential for its growth, greater involvement in the international tourism, flow of people and information as well as transfer of new technologies. Furthermore, international companies in the field of tourism develop tourism in the country they enter and it is therefore necessary to prepare the domestic market for their entry. Controlled and uncontrolled factors both have impact on the attractiveness of a country as a potential market and consequently affect its business operations. Various barriers to entry may be administrative and real (actual, thus affecting the development of market for entry and business operations of companies interested in internationalization in the field of tourism. The subject of this paper is to analyze the market entry barriers of Serbia faced by international companies in the field of tourism. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate if the Serbian market is attractive for entry of international companies in the field of tourism by analysis of its market entry barriers. The results show that the Serbian market still has to work to reduce market entry barriers, in order to become more attractive for entry of international companies in tourism. Manifold advantages of the global companies' entry in the market are that they are perceived as strong incentives for countries such as Serbia to develop their market and make it more accessible to enter.
Full Text Available The dynamic relationship between the banking regulatory framework and Basel capital standards, on the one side and economic growth and other macroeconomic indicators on the other side, attracts international academic and business circles for many years. Perceived from the Serbian perspective, the impact of the banking regulation development, or the Basel standards application, on economic growth is one of the most actual issues, especially since Serbia starting from December 31st 2011, began the Basel II application. The fact that the National Bank of Serbia and the Serbian commercial banks, gradually directed attention to more actual Basel III standard, further increasing the importance of the topic that this paper will be addressed. Quantitative and qualitative analyzes that were performed during the research presented in this paper indicate a significant potential for further positive effects, including economic growth, due to the implementation of Basel standards in Serbia. Positive results of application largely depend on adequate preparation, analysis and actions of all relevant parties in Basel standards implementation.
Stakić Mirjana M.
Full Text Available In the work we examine the possibility of application of productive research tasks in working with gifted students in teaching Serbian language and literature. Using specific examples of interpretations of literary works we show that productive research assignments encourage students' creative and inventive expression, creativity, imagination and criticality and enable them to develop in accordance with their personality, individual preferences and abilities. In the examples of their use in problem solving, we determine how productive research tasks are conducive to gifted students who need to learn through problem solving and school work and to experience learning as a challenge. They present the basis for independent research, which allows gifted students to express their own creativity and the need to acquire new, challenging knowledge, and represent a powerful motivational tool that teachers can use in order to further develop their talent. Creative application of the productive research tasks in teaching Serbian language and literature is the possibility that the education of gifted students is not treated as elitist question, but to transform teaching process into development of giftedness and talent, where the role of the teacher in the teaching process rises to the role of the mentor.
Liu, Jinlin; Zhu, Bin; Mao, Ying
A large number of programs have been implemented in many countries to increase the healthcare workforce recruitment in rural and remote areas. Rural early exposure programs for medical students have been shown to be effective strategies. However, no related studies have been reported before in China. This study was carried out to determine the association between medical students' participation in rural clinical clerkships and their intentions to choose rural medical work after graduation from western medical schools in China. Based on a two-stage random sampling method, the cross-sectional survey was carried out in ten western provinces in China. A brief questionnaire filled in by medical students was used for data collection. A total of 4278 medical students participated in the study. The response rate was approximately 90.34%. Pearson's chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed for data analyses. Approximately 52.0% of medical students disclosed intentions to work in rural medical institutions after graduation. Only one in five participants had experience with a rural clinical clerkship. Rural clinical clerkships were significantly associated with medical students' intentions to work in rural medical institutions (OR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05-1.46); further analyses indicated that such clerkships only had a significant impact among the medical students with an urban background (OR: 2.10, 95%CI: 1.48-2.97). In terms of the sociodemographic characteristics, younger age, low level of parental education, majoring in general practice, and studying in low-level medical schools increased the odds of having intentions to engage in rural medical work among medical students; however, rural origins was the only positive univariate predictor. In addition, the predictors of intentions to choose rural medical work were different between medical students with a rural background and those with an urban background. Rural clinical clerkship is likely to
Boehnke, Kevin F; Litinas, Evangelos; Clauw, Daniel J
Opioids are commonly used to treat patients with chronic pain (CP), though there is little evidence that they are effective for long term CP treatment. Previous studies reported strong associations between passage of medical cannabis laws and decrease in opioid overdose statewide. Our aim was to examine whether using medical cannabis for CP changed individual patterns of opioid use. Using an online questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective survey of 244 medical cannabis patients with CP who patronized a medical cannabis dispensary in Michigan between November 2013 and February 2015. Data collected included demographic information, changes in opioid use, quality of life, medication classes used, and medication side effects before and after initiation of cannabis usage. Among study participants, medical cannabis use was associated with a 64% decrease in opioid use (n = 118), decreased number and side effects of medications, and an improved quality of life (45%). This study suggests that many CP patients are essentially substituting medical cannabis for opioids and other medications for CP treatment, and finding the benefit and side effect profile of cannabis to be greater than these other classes of medications. More research is needed to validate this finding. This article suggests that using medical cannabis for CP treatment may benefit some CP patients. The reported improvement in quality of life, better side effect profile, and decreased opioid use should be confirmed by rigorous, longitudinal studies that also assess how CP patients use medical cannabis for pain management. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David C; Douaud, Patrick; Smythe, William E
The literature on codes of ethics suggests that grammatical and linguistic structures as well as the theoretical ethical orientation conveyed in codes of ethics have implications for the manner in which such codes are received by those bound by them. Certain grammatical and linguistic structures, for example, tend to have an authoritarian and disempowering impact while others can be empowering. The authors analyze and compare the codes of ethics of the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) and the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) in terms of their ethical orientation and grammatical/linguistic structures. The results suggest that the two codes differ substantially along these two dimensions. The CNA code contains proportionally more statements that provide a rationale for ethical behaviour; the statements of the CMA code tend to be more dogmatic. Functional grammar analysis suggests that both codes convey a strong deontological tone that does not enhance the addressee's ability to engage in discretionary decision-making. The nurses' code nonetheless implies a collaborative relationship with the client, whereas the medical code implies that the patient is the recipient of medical wisdom. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Jakobsen, Gunn Signe; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Sandbu, Rune; Nordstrand, Njord; Hofsø, Dag; Lindberg, Morten; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Hjelmesæth, Jøran
The association of bariatric surgery and specialized medical obesity treatment with beneficial and detrimental outcomes remains uncertain. To compare changes in obesity-related comorbidities in patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 or ≥35 and at least 1 comorbidity) undergoing bariatric surgery or specialized medical treatment. Cohort study with baseline data of exposures from November 2005 through July 2010 and follow-up data from 2006 until death or through December 2015 at a tertiary care outpatient center, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Norway. Consecutive treatment-seeking adult patients (n = 2109) with severe obesity assessed (221 patients excluded and 1888 patients included). Bariatric surgery (n = 932, 92% gastric bypass) or specialized medical treatment (n = 956) including individual or group-based lifestyle intervention programs. Primary outcomes included remission and new onset of hypertension based on drugs dispensed according to the Norwegian Prescription Database. Prespecified secondary outcomes included changes in comorbidities. Adverse events included complications retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry and a local laboratory database. Among 1888 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 43.5 (12.3) years (1249 women [66%]; mean [SD] baseline BMI, 44.2 [6.1]; 100% completed follow-up at a median of 6.5 years [range, 0.2-10.1]). Surgically treated patients had a greater likelihood of remission and lesser likelihood for new onset of hypertension (remission: absolute risk [AR], 31.9% vs 12.4%); risk difference [RD], 19.5% [95% CI, 15.8%-23.2%], relative risk [RR], 2.1 [95% CI, 2.0-2.2]; new onset: AR, 3.5% vs 12.2%, RD, 8.7% [95% CI, 6.7%-10.7%], RR, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.3-0.5]; greater likelihood of diabetes remission: AR, 57.5% vs 14.8%; RD, 42.7% [95% CI, 35.8%-49.7%], RR, 3.9 [95% CI, 2.8-5.4]; greater risk of new-onset depression: AR, 8.9% vs 6.5%; RD, 2.4% [95% CI, 1.3%-3.5%], RR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]; and
Full Text Available This study deals with the first Serbian oratorio, Vaskrsenje (Resurrection by Stevan Hristić, and the first Serbian musical drama, Divina Tragoedia by Milenko Paunović. These works are based on two different interpretations of the same theme (the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. They were composed almost at the same time (1912, but separately, with no inter-textual relations. They represent the first steps of Modernism in Serbian music. Hristić’s work follows the French and Italian heritage whereas Paunović’s is connected with the German, post-Wagnerian tradition. In this text we highlight the different intensities of modernity realized by the composers, by comparing numerous aspects of the theme, genre and style with new types of expressiveness and procedures in the treatment of all musical resources. The parallel investigation of the oratorio and musical drama shows the closeness of these two young composers in their musical attempts, but also emphasizes some factors that were decisive for the public presentation of their works. Hristić predicted that the genre of oratorio had better chances of placement than, for example, a symphonic or musical-dramatic composition. Actually, a choir had strong links with tradition and it presented a significant means of potential communication, as well as penetrating novelties into other parts of the oratorio. Due to his readiness to make an effort and to compromise, the composer succeeded in performing his work. On the other hand, Paunović did not anticipate problems in the national cultural system of his time. Numerous aspects of his work, which prevented performance, confirm this. The chosen genre of German musical drama was a very speculative investment in the local musical context. Furthermore, the score was inappropriate for the real reproductive potential of Serbian performers. In addition, an avant-garde gesture was marked by the blasphemous treatment of the New-Testament theme in the dramatic
Zenan, Joan S.
The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task forc...
Full Text Available Ping Wu,1 Naifeng Liu2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Southeast University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB, patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and medication adherence.Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients using structured questionnaires in a Chinese tertiary hospital. A total of 130 patients were enrolled to be interviewed about TPB variables (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs relevant to medication adherence. Medication adherence was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the association between TPB and MMAS-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between different variables and MMAS-8, with statistical significance determined at P<0.05.Results: From 130 eligible Chinese patients with an average age of 60.6 years and a male proportion of 50.8%, a nonsignificant relationship between behavioral, normative, and the most facilitating control beliefs and OAD adherence was found in our study. Having the OADs on hand (P=0.037 was the only facilitating control belief associated with adherence behavior. Being away from home or eating out (P=0.000, not accepting the disease (P=0.000, ignorance of life-long drug adherence (P=0.038, being busy (P=0.001, or poor memory (P=0.008 were control belief barriers found to be correlated with poor adherence. TPB is the only important determinant influencing OAD adherence among all the factors (P=0.011.Conclusion: The results indicate that the TPB model could be used to examine adherence to OADs. One
Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Bonilla-Velez, Juliana; Tobón-García, Daniel; Ángel-Isaza, Ana María
Gaps between evidence-based research and clinical-public health practice have been evident for decades. One of the aims of medical student research is to close this gap. Accordingly, evaluating individual and environmental factors that influence participation of medical students in research are needed to understand and identify potential targets for action. This study aims to identify characteristics of medical student researchers in Colombia and the associated factors with scientific publications. A cross-sectional study of Colombian medical students involved in research using a validated, self-administered, online survey. The survey was distributed through the Colombian Association of Medical Students' Associations (ASCEMCOL). Data sets were analyzed using descriptive and summary statistics. Bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were conducted to identify predictors of scientific publications. A total of 133 responses were analyzed from students at 12 Colombian cities and 20 higher-education institutions. Although 94% of responders had at least one research proposal, only 57% had completed a project, and 17% had published their findings. Barriers for undertaking research included time restrictions and a lack of mentorship. Motivational factors included opportunity to publish findings and good mentorship. Students planning to do a specialization (OR = 3.25; 95% Confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-8.30), innovators (OR = 3.52; 95%CI = 1.30-9.52) and committed (OR = 3.39; 95%CI = 1.02-11.29), those who had previously published their findings (OR 9.13 IC95% 2.57-32.48), and were further in their medical education (OR 2.26 IC95% 1.01-5.07), were more likely to publish scientific papers. Our findings describe medical students understanding of the process of conducting research in Colombia. Although there appears to be motivation to participate in research, very few students achieve publication. Barriers such as time constraints
Jeffrey S Chang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: 5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor. RESULTS: The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori. Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.
Shaffi Ahamed, Shaik; Enani, Jawaher; Alfaraidi, Lama; Sannari, Lujain; Algain, Rihaf; Alsawah, Zainah; Al Hazmi, Ali
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing psychiatric disorder. So far there have not been any studies on BDD in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female medical students and to investigate whether there is an association between BDD and body features of concern, social anxiety and symptoms of BDD. A cross sectional study was carried out on female medical students of the college of medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during January to April, 2015. Data were collected using the body image disturbance questionnaire, Body dysmorphic disorder symptomatology and social interaction anxiety scale. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze the results. Out of 365 students who filled out the questionnaire, 4.4% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.54% to 7.04%) were positive for BDD with skin (75%) and fat (68.8%) as the most frequent body features of concern. Ten features (skin, fat, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, legs, lips, fingers, and shoulders) out of twenty-six were significantly associated with BDD. Arms and chest were independently associated with BDD. The odds of presence of body concern related to "arms" was 4.3 (95% C.I: 1.5, 12.1) times more in BDD subjects than non-BDD subjects, while concern about "chest" was 3.8 (1.3, 10.9) times more when compared to non-BDD subjects. No statistically significant association was observed between BDD and social anxiety (P = 0.13). This was the first study conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) on female medical students, which quantified the prevalence of BDD and identified the body features associated with it. Body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in female medical students but it is relatively rare and an unnoticed disorder.
Rosenman Marc B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential address is a common element in patient electronic medical records. Guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specify that residence in a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice within a year prior to a positive culture date is among the criteria for differentiating healthcare-acquired from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Residential addresses may be useful for identifying patients residing in healthcare-associated settings, but methods for categorizing residence type based on electronic medical records have not been widely documented. The aim of this study was to develop a process to assist in differentiating healthcare-associated from community-associated MRSA infections by analyzing patient addresses to determine if residence reported at the time of positive culture was associated with a healthcare facility or other institutional location. Results We identified 1,232 of the patients (8.24% of the sample with positive cultures as probable cases of healthcare-associated MRSA based on residential addresses contained in electronic medical records. Combining manual review with linking to institutional address databases improved geocoding rates from 11,870 records (79.37% to 12,549 records (83.91%. Standardization of patient home address through geocoding increased the number of matches to institutional facilities from 545 (3.64% to 1,379 (9.22%. Conclusions Linking patient home address data from electronic medical records to institutional residential databases provides useful information for epidemiologic researchers, infection control practitioners, and clinicians. This information, coupled with other clinical and laboratory data, can be used to inform differentiation of healthcare-acquired from community-acquired infections. The process presented should be extensible with little or no added data costs.
Agogo, George O; Ramsey, Christine M; Gnjidic, Danijela; Moga, Daniela C; Allore, Heather
ABSTRACTBackground:Longitudinal studies of older adults are characterized by high dropout rates, multimorbid conditions, and multiple medication use, especially proximal to death. We studied the association between multiple medication use and incident dementia diagnoses including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Lewy-body dementia (LBD), simultaneously accounting for dropout. Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data with three years of follow-up, a set of covariate-adjusted models that ignore dropout was fit to complete-case data, and to the whole-cohort data. Additionally, covariate-adjusted joint models with shared random effects accounting for dropout were fit to the whole-cohort data. Multiple medication use was defined as polypharmacy (⩾ five medications), hyperpolypharmacy (⩾ ten medications), and total number of medications. Incident diagnoses were 2,032 for AD, 135 for VD, and 139 for LBD. Percentages of dropout at the end of follow-up were as follows: 71.8% for AD, 81.5% for VD, and 77.7% for LBD. The odds ratio (OR) estimate for hyperpolypharmacy among those with LBD versus AD was 2.19 (0.78, 6.15) when estimated using complete-case data and 3.00 (1.66, 5.40) using whole-cohort data. The OR reduced to 1.41 (0.76, 2.64) when estimated from the joint model accounting for dropout. The OR for polypharmacy using complete-case data differed from the estimates using whole-cohort data. The OR for dementia diagnoses on total number of medications was similar, but non-significant when estimated using complete-case data. Reasons for dropout should be investigated and appropriate statistical methods should be applied to reduce bias in longitudinal studies among high-risk dementia cohorts.
Eric L. Anderson
Full Text Available Introduction: In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs. Methods: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED (Part I and then combined this with expert consensus (Part II. Results: In Part I, we discuss terminological issues and existing evidence on medical exams and laboratory studies of psychiatric patients in the ED. Conclusion: Emergency physicians should work cooperatively with psychiatric receiving facilities to decrease unnecessary testing while increasing the quality of medical screening exams for psychiatric patients who present to EDs. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2235-242.
Carter, Laura; Wilson, Stephen; Tumer, Erwin G
The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to document sedation and analgesic medications administered preoperotively, intraoperatively, and during postanesthesia care for children undergoing dental rehabilitation using general anesthesia (GA). Patient gender, age, procedure type performed, and ASA status were recorded from the medical charts of children undergoing GA for dental rehabilitation. The sedative and analgesic drugs administered pre-, intra-, and postoperatively were recorded. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation. A sample of 115 patients with a mean age of 64 (+/-30) months was studied; 47% were females, and 71% were healthy. Over 80% of the patients were administered medications primarily during pre- and intraoperative phases, with fewer than 25% receiving medications postoperatively. Morphine and fentanyl were the most frequently administered agents intraoperatively. The procedure type, gender, and health status were not statistically associated with the number of agents administered. Younger patients, however, were statistically more likely to receive additional analgesic medications. Our study suggests that a minority of patients have postoperative discomfort in the postanesthesia care unit; mild to moderate analgesics were administered during intraoperative phases of dental rehabilitation.
Kong, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Eun-Shil; Lee, Seon-Young; Cho, Hyun-Young; Lee, Bin Na; Park, Jee Young
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the relationship between the risk factors of MS and medical cost of major diseases related to MS in Korean workers, according to the scale of the enterprise. Data was obtained from annual physical examinations, health insurance qualification and premiums, and health insurance benefits of 4,094,217 male and female workers who underwent medical examinations provided by the National Health Insurance Corporation in 2009. Logistic regression analyses were used to the identify risk factors of MS and multiple regression was used to find factors associated with medical expenditures due to major diseases related to MS. The study found that low-income workers were more likely to work in small-scale enterprises. The prevalence rate of MS in males and females, respectively, was 17.2% and 9.4% in small-scale enterprises, 15.9% and 8.9% in medium-scale enterprises, and 15.9% and 5.5% in large-scale enterprises. The risks of MS increased with age, lower income status, and smoking in small-scale enterprise workers. The medical costs increased in workers with old age and past smoking history. There was also a gender difference in the pattern of medical expenditures related to MS. Health promotion programs to manage metabolic syndrome should be developed to focus on workers who smoke, drink, and do little exercise in small scale enterprises.
Ali, Muhammed; Alemu, Tigestu; Sada, Oumer
Diabetes is a global problem with devastating human, social and economic impact. Anti-diabetic medications play a major role in the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. However, inadequate adherence compromises safety and treatment effectiveness, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to anti-diabetic medications and associated factors among patient with diabetes mellitus receiving care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Among the total of 146 diabetic patients (mean age 46.5 ± 14.7), the level of adherence to anti diabetic medication was 54.8% (80) whilst 45.2% (66) of the participants were non adherent. Multiple logistic regression showed that knowledge of medication (AOR = 4.905, 95% CI 1.64-14.62, medication availability (AOR = 0.175, 95% CI 0.031-0.987) and education level (AOR = 13.65, 95% CI 1.45-128.456) were reasons for non-adherence.
Elkington, Lisa J; Hughes, David C
Sport-related concussion is a growing health concern in Australia. Public concern is focused on the incidence and potential long term consequences of concussion. Children may be more prone to concussion and take longer to recover. The Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Medical Association have collaborated to present the most contemporary evidence-based information in a format appropriate for all stakeholders. This position statement aims to ensure that participant safety and welfare is paramount when dealing with concussion in sport.First aid principles apply in the management of the athlete with suspected concussion, including protection of the cervical spine. Tools exist for use by members of the community, allowing identification of key symptoms and signs that raise the suspicion of concussion. Medical professionals should use the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3, in conjunction with clinical assessment for the diagnosis of concussion. Clinical assessment includes mechanism of injury, symptoms and signs, cognitive functioning, and neurological assessment including balance testing. In any situation where concussion is suspected, the athlete must be immediately removed from sport and not be allowed to return to activity until they have been assessed by a medical practitioner. "If in doubt, sit them out."A diagnosis of concussion requires immediate physical and cognitive rest, followed by a structured, graduated return to physical activity. Children require a longer period of recovery from concussion. Algorithms are provided for use by medical and non-medically trained stakeholders in the recognition and management of concussion.
Peric, Zoran; Adolphi, Emma Lagerbäck; Stevens, Thomas
on multi-millennial timescales, with no detailed examination of dust MAR at the two ends of the Eurasian loess belt on shorter, sub-orbital scales. Here we present a detailed quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronology from the Serbian Titel Loess Plateau (Veliki Surduk loess core...
Full Text Available This study investigated trait EI in childhood in a Serbian population by validating a Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Child Form (TEIQue-CF. All 606 participants (Mage = 10.33, SD = 1.55 completed the TEIQue-CF, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (revised version, and the Guess Who peer assessment. Data on academic achievement and truancy were also obtained. The Serbian TEIQue-CF demonstrated robust psychometric properties with satisfactory internal consistencies and extensive evidence of validity in relation to criteria such as emotion recognition, academic grades, truancy rates, and peer ratings. Factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution for the total sample, but a unifactorial structure for the two groups of younger children aged 8 to 9 and 10 to 11. Overall, the results corroborate the validity of the Serbian adaptation and the theoretical and practical importance of the construct of trait EI in children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018
Odak, S.; Benčić, A.
In this article the authors discuss the role of Jasenovac Concentration Camp in Croatian and Serbian political and social spheres. Connecting the historical data with the analysis of the recent mutual accusations of genocide between the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Serbia before the
Full Text Available This paper analyses achievements of Serbian cinematography after 2000, which narrative strategies and visual aesthetics are focused on the issues of violence and victims in the context of social despair, post-communist transition and ongoing global value crisis. Films made by Mladen Đorđević Life and Death of a Porn Gang (2009, Srđan Spasojević A Serbian Movie (2010, and Marko Novaković Menagerie (2012 integrate these complex characteristics of disintegration of Serbian community and dysfunctional state system into their cinematic poetics. These films present examples of radical film aesthetics, which, through strategies of making things unusual, and the influence of underground, pornography and horror on the realistic drama, speak about permanently traumatised Serbian society. They directly connect collective political state and the domain of personal, family, intimate and sexual, controversially relying on the images and narratives of gender misogyny and the violence it produces and its victims. The paper critically approaches these issues from the gender- feminist perspective.
Vesna Z Dickov
Full Text Available Since the Serbian translation of the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude appeared in 1973, the narrative works of Gabriel García Márquez have continued to interest Serbian critics. After an initial break with readers’ expectations, criticism of the magical realism and other aspects of the prose of García Márquez soon (from 1975 began to develop in Serbia, and intensified in the later seventies of the last century as well as at the end of the first decade of the 21st century, when a series of essays, reviews, articles and studies were published on the novels, stories, reportages, essays and memoirs of García Márquez, including his journalistic work. Half of the texts written by Serbian critics for literary journals came out in Belgrade, especially in Književna reč (The Literary Word, the most prolific authors being Radomir Ivanović and Branko Anđić. The judgment of Serbian critics, presented in the literary magazines, which was based frequently on the latest advances in narratology, genealogy and comparative literature, has contributed greatly to the shaping of readers’ expectations not only regarding Gabriel García Márquez’s prose but also new Latin American narrative in general.
Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295
Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.
Haynes, Douglas M
In May 1870 the American Medical Association (AMA) voted to deny the admission of black delegates and their white colleagues to the national meeting in Washington, D.C. Historians of race and medicine have customarily viewed this decision as marking a crucial milestone in the formation of the nexus between racism and the development of the American medical profession in the era after the Civil War (1861-64). This study recasts this narrative by locating the 1870 decision in relation to the antebellum practices of the association and their social consequences for American medicine. It argues that the viability of the AMA as the national voice of the profession was critically dependent on rejecting racial equality. Indeed, at a moment when the question of the abolition of slavery polarized the nation, the AMA was founded in 1847 to create a voluntary professional organization, national in scope, dedicated to raising the standards of medical training and practice. To this end, the AMA elected presidents and selected host cities for annual meetings in the North, South, and West. Seven out of the fourteen meetings and six out of fourteen presidents were from slave and/or border states. These institutional practices together with the representation of blacks as different and enjoying an appropriate status as slaves grounded the national identity of the profession in black subordination. Similarly, the gendered discourses about healing and practices of female exclusion privileged medical authority as male by drawing on and reinforcing patriarchy. In the wake of the war, leaders hoped to restore the national character of the organization by resuming antebellum practices. In response to the new possibilities for blacks in medicine--as represented by the biracial National Medical Society--the AMA took steps to vigorously police the racial boundaries of the national profession. As this study will show, the 1870 decision reflected the logic of the racial politics at the heart
Full Text Available Background. Chronic stress among medical students affects academic performance of students and leads to depression, substance use, and suicide. There is, however, a shortage of such research evidence in Ethiopia. Objective. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and severity of stress and its association with substance use and academic performance among medical students. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 329 medical students at Jimma University. Data were collected using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Medical Students Stress Questionnaire (MSSQ-20, and Drug Abuse Surveillance Test (DAST. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Logistic regression analysis and Student’s t-test were applied. Results. The mean age of the respondents was 23.02 (SD = 2.074 years. The current prevalence of stress was 52.4%. Academic related stressor domain was the main source of stress among 281 (88.6% students. Stress was significantly associated with khat chewing [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI (1.17, 7.85], smoking [AOR = 4.55, 95% CI (1.05, 19.77], and alcohol intake [AOR = 1.93, 95% CI (1.03, 3.60]. The prevalence of stress was high during the initial three years of study. Stress was significantly (p=0.001 but negatively (r=-0.273 correlated with academic achievement. Conclusion. Stress was a significant problem among medical students and had a negative impact on their academic performance. Year of study, income, and substance use were associated with stress. Counseling and awareness creation are recommended.
Fernanda Brenneisen Mayer
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate personal and institutional factors related to depression and anxiety prevalence of students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Methods The authors performed a multicenter study (August 2011 to August 2012, examining personal factors (age, sex, housing, tuition scholarship and institutional factors (year of the medical training, school legal status, location and support service in association with scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8 % completed the study. The depressive symptoms prevalence was 41 % (BDI > 9, state-anxiety 81.7 % and trait-anxiety in 85.6 % (STAI > 33. There was a positive relationship between levels of state (r = 0,591, p < 0.001 and trait (r = 0,718, p < 0.001 anxiety and depression scores. All three symptoms were positively associated with female sex and students from medical schools located in capital cities of both sexes. Tuition scholarship students had higher state-anxiety but not trait-anxiety or depression scores. Medical students with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms disagree more than their peers with the statements “I have adequate access to psychological support” and “There is a good support system for students who get stressed”. Conclusions The factors associated with the increase of medical students’ depression and anxiety symptoms were female sex, school location and tuition scholarship. It is interesting that tuition scholarship students showed state-anxiety, but not depression and trait-anxiety symptoms.
Sorg, Heiko; Knobloch, Karsten
First quantitative evaluation of the requirements for the promotion as associate professor (AP) at German medical faculties. Analysis of the AP-regulations of German medical faculties according to a validated scoring system, which has been adapted to this study. The overall scoring for the AP-requirements at 35 German medical faculties was 13.5±0.6 of 20 possible scoring points (95% confidence interval 12.2-14.7). More than 88% of the AP-regulations demand sufficient performance in teaching and research with adequate scientific publication. Furthermore, 83% of the faculties expect an expert review of the candidate's performance. Conference presentations required as an assistant professor as well as the reduction of the minimum time as an assistant professor do only play minor roles. The requirements for assistant professors to get nominated as an associate professor at German medical faculties are high with an only small range. In detail, however, it can be seen that there still exists large heterogeneity, which hinders equal opportunities and career possibilities. These data might be used for the ongoing objective discussion.
Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Arandjic, D.; Kovacevic, M.
Mammography is method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. In Serbia, mammography is performed only clinically, although there is a long term plan to introduce mammography as screening method. Currently there are 60 mammography units in practice in Serbia, resulting with 70 000 mammographies annually. The purpose of this paper is preliminary evaluation of the mammography practice in Serbia, having in mind the annual number of examinations and fact that part of examination is performed on women without any clinical signs. For pilot implementation of Quality Control (QC) protocol in mammography, five hospitals with highest workload have been selected, representing the typical mammography practice in Serbia. Developed QC protocol, based on European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, actual practice and resources, includes equipment testing and maintenance, staff training and QC management and allocation of responsibilities. Subsequently, it should be applied on the national scale. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Mean glandular doses ranged from 0.12 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density ranged from 1.2 to 2.8. Main problems were associated with film processing, viewing conditions and optical density control. The preliminary survey of mammography practice highlighted the need for optimization of radiation protection and training of operating staff, although the survey itself was very valuable learning process for all participants. Furthermore, systematic implementation of QC protocol should provide reliable performance of mammography units and maintain satisfactory image quality and keep patient doses as low as reasonably practical.(author)
Amanda L. Divin
Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.
Full Text Available Serbian music criticism became a subject of professional music critics at the beginning of the twentieth century, after being developed by music amateurs throughout the whole previous century. The Serbian Literary Magazine (1901- 1914, 1920-1941, the forum of the Serbian modernist writers in the early 1900s, had a crucial role in shaping the Serbian music criticism and essayistics of the modern era. The Serbian elite musicians wrote for the SLM and therefore it reflects the most important issues of the early twentieth century Serbian music. The SLM undertook the mission of educating its readers. The music culture of the Serbian public was only recently developed. The public needed an introduction into the most important features of the European music, as well as developing its own taste in music. This paper deals with two aspects of the music criticism in the SLM, in view of its educational role: the problem of virtuosity and the method used by music critics in this magazine. The aesthetic canon of the SLM was marked by decisively negative attitude towards the virtuosity. Mainly concerned by educating the Serbian music public in the spirit of the highest music achievements in Europe, the music writers of the SLM criticized both domestic and foreign performers who favoured virtuosity over the 'essence' of music. Therefore, Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, and even Peter Tchaikowsky with his Violin concerto became the subject of the magazine's criticism. However their attitude towards the interpreters with both musicality and virtuoso technique was always positive. That was evident in the writings on Jan Kubelík. This educational mission also had its effect on the structure of critique writings in the SLM. In their wish to inform the Serbian public on the European music (which they did very professionally, the critics gave much more information on biographies, bibliographies and style of the European composers, than they valued the interpretation
Haukka, Jari; Kriikku, Pirkko; Mariottini, Claudia; Partonen, Timo; Ojanperä, Ilkka
The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The postmortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. All postmortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine and bupropion, n = 2974. Non-medical use of substance was the outcome variable. Predictors were the following: gender, residence at the time of death, place of death, blood alcohol concentration, age, drug abuse, number of prescriptions of any psychoactive drugs in last year and proportion of prescriptions issued by psychiatrist in last year. In 50.4% of the studied cases, at least one drug was detected without a prescription. Clonazepam, alprazolam and tramadol were the most prevalent non-medical findings in these cases (6.6, 6.1 and 5.6%, respectively). The risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs was especially high in cases with history of drug abuse (88.5%) and in fatal poisonings (71.0%). The proportion of non-medical use of the studied substances varied between 5.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.1-10.1%)] for risperidone and 55.7% for fentanyl (95% CI = 44.1-66.9%). Valid prescription for one or more of any psychoactive drug was associated with lower odds for non-medical use of the studied substances. Additionally, the higher the proportion of psychoactive drugs prescribed by a psychiatrist, the lower the probability of non-medical use. Non-prescribed psychoactive drugs are found commonly at postmortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland, with history of drug abuse being a major contributing
Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, SK
Background: Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted...
Domingues,Renan B.; Teixeira,Antônio Lúcio; Domingues,Simone A.
The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between migraine and physical practice among 480 medical students who were submitted to a questionnaire about headaches and physical practices. Migraine diagnosis was assessed by ID-Migraine and functional disability was evaluated with MIDAS. The type (aerobic or strength training), the weekly frequency and the intensity of physical practice and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. There was a reduction in functional disability of ...
Wen-Ping Zeng; Han Su; Chein-Wen Chen; Shu-Meng Cheng; Li-Fang Chang; Wen-Chii Tzeng; Bing-Hsiean Tzeng
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in patients requiring mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h. VAP is the most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of complications and death in intensive care units (ICUs). Materials and Methods: Two historical comparison groups of 375 patients who used mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h in the medical ICU (MICU) from December 1, 2011 to May 31, 2012 and December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014 were enrolled in this stud...
Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.
Stanković Uroš N.
Full Text Available The article deals with legal terms appearing in Serbian translation of French Code of Civil Procedure (Code de procédure civile, 1806 authored by Serbian writer and politician Lazar Zuban (1795-1850. The author made an attempt to determine whether the terms used by Zuban had existed in historical sources previous to the translator's work. If so, it would mean that Zuban was using already existing technical terms. In cases in which he failed to find certain legal term in texts older than Zuban's work, the author tried to establish if the unfound term had been the translator's invention. As to the terms of civil law, Zuban mostly took over words already present in Serbian vocabulary at the time. This fact is easily explainable: family, property, contracts, torts, inheritage are very present in people's everyday life, which brought about terminology of civil law to be relatively developed. On the contrary, terms belonging to the civil procedure were scarce because judiciary and court procedure in the time of Zuban's work were still being on rudimentary level. That is the reason why the translator had to forge his own legal terms. Zuban did not translate German legal terms (the translator used German translation of a Code as protograph mechanically; he was making effort to fathom the meaning of a word in question and find its adequate Serbian equivalent. In some cases that effort was fruitful. Nevertheless, in a long term Zuban's labor was in vain, as none of his forged words survived in Serbian legal terminology.
Han, Paul K J; Williams, Andrew E; Haskins, Amy; Gutheil, Caitlin; Lucas, F Lee; Klein, William M P; Mazor, Kathleen M
Aversion to "ambiguity"-uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information-about medical tests and treatments is an important psychological response that varies among individuals, but little is known about its nature and extent. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual-level ambiguity aversion relates to important health cognitions related to different cancer screening tests. A survey of 1,074 adults, ages 40 to 70 years, was conducted in four integrated U.S. healthcare systems. The Ambiguity Aversion in Medicine (AA-Med) scale, a measure of individual differences in aversion to ambiguity (AA) about medical tests and treatments, was administered along with measures of several cancer screening-related cognitions: perceived benefits and harms of colonoscopy, mammography, and PSA screening, and ambivalence and future intentions regarding these tests. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between AA-Med scores and cancer screening cognitions. Individual-level AA as assessed by the AA-Med scale was significantly associated (P ambiguity. Individual-level AA constitutes a measurable, wide-ranging cognitive bias against medical intervention, and more research is needed to elucidate its mechanisms and effects. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Wolf, Megan R; Rosenstock, Jason B
The authors studied whether low levels of exercise or inadequate sleep correlated with higher levels of burnout and depression in medical students. Medical students of all years at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in Fall 2012 and Winter 2013. Validated measures were used to assess exercise, sleep, burnout, and depression. Response rates were 28.7 % at the beginning of the school year and 22.6 % at the middle of the school year. Burnout rates overall were 22.4 % at the beginning of the year and 19.2 % in the middle of the year. Eight percent of students screened positive for depression at the beginning of the year and 9.3 % in the middle of the year. Decreased exercise frequency was significantly correlated with lower professional efficacy. Pathological sleepiness was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of burnout. Inadequate sleep correlated with significantly lower professional efficacy and higher exhaustion scores. Burnout was associated with a positive depression screen. Positive depression screening, pathological sleepiness, and sleeping less than 7 h a night were independent predictors of burnout. Sleep habits, exercise, and a positive depression screen were associated with burnout risk within the medical student population.
Zheng, Bang; Wang, Kailu; Pan, Ziqi; Li, Man; Pan, Yuting; Liu, Ting; Xu, Dan; Lyu, Jun
To investigate the sleep quality and related factors among medical students in China, understand the association between dormitory environment and sleep quality, and provide evidence and recommendations for sleep hygiene intervention. A total of 555 undergraduate students were selected from a medical school of an university in Beijing through stratified-cluster random-sampling to conduct a questionnaire survey by using Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and self-designed questionnaire. Analyses were performed by using multiple logistic regression model as well as multilevel linear regression model. The prevalence of sleep disorder was 29.1%(149/512), and 39.1%(200/512) of the students reported that the sleep quality was influenced by dormitory environment. PSQI score was negatively correlated with self-reported rating of dormitory environment (γs=-0.310, Psleep disorder included grade, sleep regularity, self-rated health status, pressures of school work and employment, as well as dormitory environment. RESULTS of multilevel regression analysis also indicated that perception on dormitory environment (individual level) was associated with sleep quality with the dormitory level random effects under control (b=-0.619, Psleep disorder was high in medical students, which was associated with multiple factors. Dormitory environment should be taken into consideration when the interventions are taken to improve the sleep quality of students.
Drent, Gerda; Moons, P.; De Geest, S.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Haagsma, E. B.
Symptom experience (occurrence and perceived distress) associated with side effects of immunosuppressive medications in organ transplant patients may well be associated with poorer quality of life and medication non-compliance. The aims of this study were: first, to assess symptom experience in
Kendall M. Campbell
Full Text Available Purpose: We compared MCAT scores, grade point averages (GPAs, and medical school acceptance rates of Black and Latino students in an outreach program called Undergraduate Science Students Together Reaching Instructional Diversity and Excellence (USSTRIDE to non-USSTRIDE students. We hypothesized that Black and Latino participants in USSTRIDE had higher acceptance rates to medical school, higher MCAT scores, and college GPAs when compared to other Black and Latino medical school applicants from our institution. Methods: The academic performance (GPAs and MCAT scores and acceptance and matriculation rate data on all Black and Latino Florida State University applicants to any medical school from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the AIS/AMCAS database and separated into two comparison groups (USSTRIDE vs. Non-USSTRIDE. Independent sample T-tests and chi-square analysis, Cohen's D test, and odds ratios were determined. Results: Average science GPA was 3.47 for USSTRIDE students (n=55 and 3.45 for non-USSTRIDE students (n=137, p=0.68, d=0.0652. Average cumulative GPA was 3.57 for USSTRIDE students and 3.54 for non-USSTRIDE students (p=0.45, d=0.121. Average MCAT score was 23 for USSTRIDE students and 25 for non-USSTRIDE students (p=0.02, d=0.378. Twenty-three percent of accepted USSTRIDE students and 29% of accepted non-USSTRIDE students had multiple acceptances (p=0.483, OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.52–3.88. Forty-nine percent of non-USSTRIDE students and 75% of USSTRIDE students matriculated in medical school (p=0.001, OR 3.13 95% CI 1.51–6.74. About 78.6% of USSTRIDE students matriculated at FSU's medical school compared to 36.2% of non-USSTRIDE students (p<0.01. Conclusions: USSTRIDE and non-USSTRIDE students had similar science and cumulative GPAs. USSTRIDE students' MCAT scores were lower but acceptance rates to medical school were higher. Participation in USSTRIDE is associated with increased acceptance rates for Black and Latino students to our
Almalki, Sami A; Almojali, Abdullah I; Alothman, Ali S; Masuadi, Emad M; Alaqeel, Meshal K
To assess levels of burnout in medical students, and to explore the influence of extracurricular activities on burnout at a medical school in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with first to fourth year medical students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Socio-demographic, burnout level (the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, MBI-SS) and participation in extracurricular activities data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression. From the 306 medical students approached, 249 (81.4%) completed the questionnaire. The level of high burnout was 67.1% (n=167). The study revealed that the majority (62.3%, n=155) of students had high levels of cynicism, 58.6% (n=146) had high levels of emotional exhaustion, and 60.2% (n=150) had low levels of professional efficacy. Most of the students (73.5%, n=183) participated in extracurricular activities, and 112 (45%) students were organizers of extracurricular activities. No significant association was found between burnout levels and the frequency of involvement in extracurricular activities (χ 2 =2.2, df=2, p=0.333). However, students who were organizing extracurricular activities were less likely to have low professional efficacy (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.27- 0.96). High levels of burnout were reported at this medical school. Although the burnout level is not significantly associated with the frequency of involvement in extracurricular activities, leading and organizing extracurricular activities might result in lower levels of burnout. Therefore, improving the students' leadership skills should be considered in curriculum planning, and greater emphasis should be placed on the quality of involvement in extracurricular activities rather than the quantity.
Heinen, Ines; Bullinger, Monika; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela
Medical students have been found to report high levels of perceived stress, yet there is a lack of theoretical frameworks examining possible reasons. This cross-sectional study examines correlates of perceived stress in medical students on the basis of a conceptual stress model originally developed for and applied to the general population. The aim was to identify via structural equation modeling the associations between perceived stress and emotional distress (anxiety and depression), taking into account the activation of personal resources (optimism, self-efficacy and resilient coping). Within this cross-sectional study, 321 first year medical students (age 22 ± 4 years, 39.3% men) completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20), the Self-Efficacy Optimism Scale (SWOP) and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). The statistical analyses used t-tests, ANOVA, Spearman Rho correlation and multiple regression analysis as well as structural equation modeling. Medical students reported higher levels of perceived stress and higher levels of anxiety and depression than reference samples. No statistically significant differences in stress levels were found within the sample according to gender, migration background or employment status. Students reported more self-efficacy, optimism, and resilient coping and higher emotional distress compared to validation samples and results in other studies. Structural equation analysis revealed a satisfactory fit between empirical data and the proposed stress model indicating that personal resources modulated perceived stress, which in turn had an impact on emotional distress. Medical students' perceived stress and emotional distress levels are generally high, with personal resources acting as a buffer, thus supporting the population-based general stress model. Results suggest providing individual interventions for those students, who need support in dealing with the
Turner, Joseph S; Pettit, Katie E; Buente, Bryce B; Humbert, Aloysius J; Perkins, Anthony J; Kline, Jeffrey A
Effective communication with patients impacts clinical outcome and patient satisfaction. We measure the rate at which medical students use six targeted communication elements with patients and association of element use with patient satisfaction. Participants included fourth year medical students enrolled in an emergency medicine clerkship. A trained observer measured use of six communication elements: acknowledging the patient by name, introducing themselves by name, identifying their role, explaining the care plan, explaining that multiple providers would see the patient, and providing an estimated duration of time in the emergency department. The observer then conducted a survey of patient satisfaction with the medical student encounter. A total of 246 encounters were documented among forty medical student participants. For the six communication elements evaluated, in 61% of encounters medical students acknowledged the patient, in 91% they introduced themselves, in 58 % they identified their role as a student, in 64% they explained the care plan, in 80% they explained that another provider would see the patient, and in only 6% they provided an estimated duration of care. Only 1 encounter (0.4%) contained all six elements. Patients' likelihood to refer a loved one to that ED was increased when students acknowledged the patient and described that other providers would be involved in patient care (P = 0.016 and 0.015 respectively, Chi Square). Likewise, patients' likelihood to return to the ED was increased when students described their role in patient care (P = 0.035, Chi Square). This pilot study demonstrates that medical students infrequently use all targeted communication elements. When they did use certain elements, patient satisfaction increased. These data imply potential benefit to additional training for students in patient communication.
Antony B Holmes
Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR systems offer an exceptional opportunity for studying many diseases and their associated medical conditions within a population. The increasing number of clinical record entries that have become available electronically provides access to rich, large sets of patients' longitudinal medical information. By integrating and comparing relations found in the EHRs with those already reported in the literature, we are able to verify existing and to identify rare or novel associations. Of particular interest is the identification of rare disease co-morbidities, where the small numbers of diagnosed patients make robust statistical analysis difficult. Here, we introduce ADAMS, an Application for Discovering Disease Associations using Multiple Sources, which contains various statistical and language processing operations. We apply ADAMS to the New York-Presbyterian Hospital's EHR to combine the information from the relational diagnosis tables and textual discharge summaries with those from PubMed and Wikipedia in order to investigate the co-morbidities of the rare diseases Kaposi sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, and Kawasaki disease. In addition to finding well-known characteristics of diseases, ADAMS can identify rare or previously unreported associations. In particular, we report a statistically significant association between Kawasaki disease and diagnosis of autistic disorder.
Full Text Available We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April–August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02. Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40–21.90 and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63–38.15. No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions.
Loayza H. Maria Paz
Full Text Available Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years. The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder was 22.19%; and of insomnia, 28.15%. Difficulty initiating sleep (OR=3.45, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=7.61, falling asleep later (OR=1.99 and waking up earlier (OR=1.91 were associated with suspicion of psychiatric disorder. As a group, the variables difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, falling asleep after 11 pm, and waking up before 6 am presented an odds ratio of 5.96 for positivity in the screening for psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=2.24 was associated with "being female," and falling asleep later (OR=0.43 was associated with "being male". These results underscore the importance of determining in what cases difficulty sleeping may have severe clinical repercussions or affect performance.
Full Text Available Molecular diversity of 145 barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L. accessions from the Serbian GenBank was assessed by single sequence repeats (SSR markers. A set of 15 SSRs, covering all chromosomes of the diploid barley genome with 2-3 SSR markers per chromosome, with a range of 4-18 alleles per locus were used. In total, 15 loci and 119 alleles were detected, with an average of 7.93 alleles per locus. The Polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.220 to 0.782 with a mean value of 0.534. Regarding the growth habit and row type groups, gene diversity was comparatively higher for the spring (0.616 and six-rowed accessions (0.616 than for the winter and two- rowed accessions (0.322 and 0.478, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance showed that all sources of variation were significant (P < 0.01, but the between-group component was predominant (76.85% for growth habit and 89.45% for row type. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis based on the shared allele distance (DSA matrix estimated on the SSR data assigned the genotypes into two clusters - the first smaller consisting of the six 6-rowed spring cultivars and the second comprising six subclusters. Genotype MBR1012 was separated from all other genotypes that constitute UPGMA tree. The associations of genotypes belonging to different growth habit and row type groups were assessed using Principal Coordinate Analysis revealing separation of winter growth habit group from facultative one. The use of the STRUCTURE clustering algorithm allowed the identification of 2 subpopulations of genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31092
Dimitrijević, M. S.; Tsvetkov, M.; Popović, L. C.; Golev, V.
The Sixth Serbian-Bulgarian Astronomical Conference was organized by Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, and held in Belgrade, in the building of Mathematical Faculty in Jagiceva Street, from 75th to 11th May 2008. Co-organizers were Mathematical Faculty, Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic", Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), Space Research Institute of BAS and Department of Astronomy of the University of Sofia. Co-chairmen of the Scientific Organizing Committee were Milan Dimitrijevic and Milcho Tsvetkov and Co-vice chairmen Luka C. Popovic and Valeri Golev. Chair of the Local Organizing Committee was Andjelka Kovacevic. The conference [was] attended by 58 participants. From Serbia were 36, from Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, Mathematical Faculty, Faculty of Sciences from Nis, Institute of Physics from Zemum, High School for pedagogues of occupational studies from Aleksinac, Faculty of Sciences from Kragujevac, Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" and Astronomical Society "Magellanic Cloud." From Bulgaria were present 17 colleagues: Svetlana Boeva, Ana Borisova, Momchil Dechev, Peter Duchlev, Lostadinka Koleva, Georgi Petrov, Vasil Popov, Konstatin Stavrev, Katya Ysvetkova and Milcho Tsvetkov from Institute of Astronomy of BAS, Rumen Bogdanovski and Krasmimira Ianova from Space Research Institute of BAS, Georgi R. Ivanov, Georgi Petrov and Grigor Nikolov from Department of Astronomy, Sofia University "St Kliment Ohridski,", Yavor Chapanov from Central Laboratory for Geodesy of BAS and Petya Pavlova from Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv. Besides participants from Serbia and Bulgaria the Conference [was] attended [by] Vlado Milicevic from Canada, Jan Vondrak from Czech Republic, Aytap Sezer from Turkey and Tetyana Sergeeva and Alexandr Sergeev from Ukraine. On the Conference were presented 13 invited lectures, 22 short talks and 35 posters, in total
Full Text Available In this paper the author gives an overview of the development from abstract to causal juridical acts and explains the abstract legal effect of juridical acts in present-day European civil law (in the law of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France. He concludes that in contemporary law juridical acts cannot have full abstract legal effect, as in archaic legal orders, because modern legal orders do not allow the creation of claims and debts in a way that entirely excludes the possibility to scrutinize whether a juridical act is null and void for the infringement of public order by its aim. In relation to the law of Serbia, the author refers to the difference between juridical acts that create obligations, that is claims and debts, and acts by which the parties merely dispose of the claims and debts already imposed. This division of juridical acts has its origins in the German legal culture, but it is fairly applicable to the Serbian law, as well. The author points out that the requirement of the Law on obligations, that all juridical acts must have a valid cause, applies without exception to juridical acts imposing an obligation (the so-called Verpflichtungsgeschäfte, regardless of whether they are concluded in the form of an abstract of causal act, i.e. whether the purpose of the transaction is determinable from their content. In this context he refers to the standpoint adopted in the doctrine that the cause of juridical acts gains relevance by three means: by the agreement of the parties, objection of the respondent and when the court determines ex officio whether the contract is contrary to public order. The author supports the point of view that in Serbian law juridical acts aimed merely to disposing of claims and debts already imposed (the so-called Verfügungsgeschäfte may have a legal effect, which is independent from their cause. For these reasons, the author is of the opinion that in present-day legal orders, hence in Serbian law too
Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Andrews, Alice; Stukel, Therese A
To determine whether the quality of press releases issued by medical journals can influence the quality of associated newspaper stories. Retrospective cohort study of medical journal press releases and associated news stories. We reviewed consecutive issues (going backwards from January 2009) of five major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine) to identify the first 100 original research articles with quantifiable outcomes and that had generated any newspaper coverage (unique stories ≥100 words long). We identified 759 associated newspaper stories using Lexis Nexis and Factiva searches, and 68 journal press releases using Eurekalert and journal website searches. Two independent research assistants assessed the quality of journal articles, press releases, and a stratified random sample of associated newspaper stories (n=343) by using a structured coding scheme for the presence of specific quality measures: basic study facts, quantification of the main result, harms, and limitations. Proportion of newspaper stories with specific quality measures (adjusted for whether the quality measure was present in the journal article's abstract or editor note). We recorded a median of three newspaper stories per journal article (range 1-72). Of 343 stories analysed, 71% reported on articles for which medical journals had issued press releases. 9% of stories quantified the main result with absolute risks when this information was not in the press release, 53% did so when it was in the press release (relative risk 6.0, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 15.4), and 20% when no press release was issued (2.2, 0.83 to 6.1). 133 (39%) stories reported on research describing beneficial interventions. 24% mentioned harms (or specifically declared no harms) when harms were not mentioned in the press release, 68% when mentioned in the press release (2.8, 1.1 to 7.4), and 36% when no press release
Alfian, Sofa D; Sinuraya, Rano K; Kautsar, Angga P; Abdulah, Rizky
Self-medication is the use of medicines for therapeutic intent without a clinician’s advice or prescription. The National Socioeconomic Survey for Indonesia in 2009 found the percentage of the Indonesians engaging in self-medication is increasing. The objectives of this study were to assess consumers’ expectations regarding service quality provide by pharmacist in self-medication practices and determine the factors associated with self-medication in Bandung, Indonesia. We conduct a cross-sectional survey at eight randomly selected community pharmacies during July-November 2012 and purposely sampled 1,200 costumers purchasing medication at those sites. Subjects reported they understood the information about the medicines given by the pharmacist but still wanted more information and time to consult with the pharmacist about their medicines. Factors associated with self-medication were younger age, male gender, greater education and lower income. The intervention is needed to improve appropriate self-medication.
Viana, Michele; Bottiroli, Sara; Sances, Grazia; Ghiotto, Natascia; Allena, Marta; Guaschino, Elena; Nappi, Giuseppe; Tassorelli, Cristina
Background and aim Factors implicated in the evolution of episodic migraine into chronic migraine are largely elusive. Medication overuse is considered to be one of the main determinants, but other possible clinical and psychological factors can play a role. The aim of this study is to identify factors that are associated with chronic migraine with medication overuse. Method We enrolled consecutive migraine patients, subdividing them in two groups: Subjects with a long history of episodic migraine and subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse. We then compared their clinical and psychological variables in a cross-sectional study. Results Three hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled, of which 156 were episodic migraine and 162 were chronic migraine and medication overuse patients. The mean age was 42.1 ± 10.3, 80.8% were female. The duration of migraine was 24.6 years in episodic migraine and 24.0 years in chronic migraine and medication overuse ( p = 0.57). After the multivariate analysis, the factors associated to chronic migraine and medication overuse were: Marital status (married vs. unmarried, OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.63-8.19, p = 0.002; separated/divorced/widowed vs. unmarried, OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.13-15.47, p = 0.031), physical activity (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91, p = 0.029), age at onset of migraine (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.98, p = 0.016), use of at least one migraine preventive medication (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.18-4.71, p = 0.014), history of depression (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.25-6.73, p = 0.012), insomnia associated with the use of hypnotics (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.65-18.93, p = 0.006), traumatic head injuries (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.57-7.99, p = 0.002), snoring (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05-4.79, p = 0.036), previous and/or actual use of combined oral contraceptives (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-10.3, p = 0.031) and higher scores in the Childhood Trauma questionnaire (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.02, p = 0.012). Conclusion We considered
van der Veen, Willem; van den Bemt, Patricia Mla; Bijlsma, Maarten; de Gier, Han J; Taxis, Katja
BACKGROUND: Information technology-based methods such as bar code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication administration errors (MAEs) in hospitalized patients. In practice, however, systems are often not used as intended, leading to workarounds.
Nkokone S Z Tema
Full Text Available Background. Psychiatrists are often called upon to evaluate patients with a medical condition and psychiatric symptoms, either as a complication thereof or initial presenting symptoms. There are often grey areas with regard to neuropsychiatric disorders in which psychiatrists and specialists from other clinical disciplines would need to co-manage or share ideas on the comprehensive treatment of a presenting patient. Objectives. This study was undertaken to provide a demographic and clinical profile of all patients consulted by the consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP service at the Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH in Johannesburg, and to describe the clinical management of patients admitted with a diagnosis of a mental disorder associated with a comorbid medical condition, including delirium, dementia and a mood or psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition. Methods. A retrospective record review of all patients referred to the HJH CLP team over a 6-month period. Results. A total of 884 routine and emergency consultations were done for 662 patients (males n=305; females n=357 between the ages of 13 and 90 years who were referred from various other clinical departments. The most common documented reason for referral was a request for assessment (n=182; 27.5%, which consisted of mental state assessment, reconsultation and assessing capacity. A total of 63 patients (10.0% of cases consulted were admitted to either the medical or psychiatric wards with a confirmed diagnosis of delirium, dementia and/or a mood or psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition (although admission wards were identified in 55 files only. The medical wards admitted the majority (n=37; 67.3% mostly for delirium (n=28; 50.9%. HIV was identified as the most common systemic aetiological factor (n=23; 67.7%. Conclusion. In this study, a female patient between 31 and 45 years of age was slightly more likely to be referred to the HJH CLP service for assessment, and
Saraf, Avantika A.; Peterson, Alec W.; Simmons, Sandra F.; Schnelle, John F.; Bell, Susan P.; Kripalani, Sunil; Myers, Amy P.; Mixon, Amanda S.; Long, Emily A.; Jacobsen, J. Mary Lou; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.
Background More than half of the hospitalized older adults discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) have more than three geriatric syndromes. Pharmacotherapy may be contributing to geriatric syndromes in this population. Objectives Develop a list of medications associated with geriatric syndromes and describe their prevalence in patients discharged from acute care to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) Design Literature review and multidisciplinary expert panel discussion, followed by cross-sectional analysis. Setting Academic Medical Center in the United States Participants 154 hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries discharged to SNFs Measurements Development of a list of medications that are associated with six geriatric syndromes. Prevalence of the medications associated with geriatric syndromes was examined in the hospital discharge sample. Results A list of 513 medications was developed as potentially contributing to 6 geriatric syndromes: cognitive impairment, delirium, falls, reduced appetite or weight loss, urinary incontinence, and depression. Medications included 18 categories. Antiepileptics were associated with all syndromes while antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiparkinsonism and opioid agonists were associated with 5 geriatric syndromes. In the prevalence sample, patients were discharged to SNFs with an overall average of 14.0 (±4.7) medications, including an average of 5.9 (±2.2) medications that could contribute to geriatric syndromes, with falls having the most associated medications at discharge, 5.5 (±2.2). Conclusions Many commonly prescribed medications are associated with geriatric syndromes. Over 40% of all medications ordered upon discharge to SNFs were associated with geriatric syndromes and could be contributing to the high prevalence of geriatric syndromes experienced by this population. PMID:27255830
Full Text Available Background: Although enterococci are relatively common nosocomial pathogens in surgical intensive care units (ICUs, their significance in blood cultures from patients in the medical ICU is unclear. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study spanning 2 years, the clinical and microbiological characteristics of enterococcal bacteremia among medical ICU patients were evaluated. Results: Of 1325 admissions, 35 with enterococcal bacteremia accounted for 14.8% of positive blood cultures. They were significantly older (P=0.03 and had various co-morbidities. Most had vascular (96.9% and urinary (85.3% catheters, and 67.7% were mechanically ventilated. In addition to blood, enterococci were isolated from vascular catheters (8.6% and other sites (20%, while no focus was identified in 77% of patients. Prior use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials was nearly universal. All isolates tested were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin were 44.7% and 52.6%, respectively. Compared with other medical ICU patients, patients with enterococcal bacteremia had a longer ICU stay (P<0.0001 and a trend toward higher ICU mortality (P=0.08. Conclusions: Enterococcal bacteremia is an important nosocomial infection in the medical ICU, with a predilection for older patients with multiple comorbidities. Its occurrence is associated with a significantly longer ICU stay and a trend to a higher mortality. The choice of antibiotics should be dictated by local susceptibility data.
Almojali, Abdullah I; Almalki, Sami A; Alothman, Ali S; Masuadi, Emad M; Alaqeel, Meshal K
Medical students tend to reduce their sleep, in an effort to adjust and cope with their workload and stressful environment. This study estimated the prevalence of and the relationship between poor sleep quality and stress among medical students. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sample of male and female medical students in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the stress level by using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. A high prevalence of poor sleep quality (76%) and stress (53%) were found, with a statistically significant association (pstress are less likely to have poor sleep quality (OR=0.28, pstress and poor sleep quality. A recommendation for the management of medical college is to establish academic counseling centers focusing in promoting good sleep hygiene and strengthening students' study skills and coping with their stressful environment. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori
Background In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001), ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001), ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016), and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037) and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013). Conclusions Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career
Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori
In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: 'Admission from hometown' (β=0.189, P=0.001), 'Student preparing for the entrance exam' (β=0.172; P=0.001), 'Intent for rural practice' (β=0.123, P=0.016), and 'Work-life balance' (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were 'Presence of medical relatives' (β=-0.107, P=0.037) and 'Scientific orientation' (β=-0.125, P=0.013). Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career, we may be able to increase enthusiasm for this specialty.
Full Text Available Background: In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results: Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001, ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001, ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016, and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013. While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037 and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013. Conclusions: Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their
Lernbass, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Wolf, Nadine D; Abler, Birgit
Imaging studies of reward processing have demonstrated a mesolimbic-mesocortical dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. Such studies on reward processing in patients and also in healthy controls showed that differential activations of dopaminergic brain areas are associated with adaptive changes in response speed related to different reward values. Given this relationship, we investigated reward processing on the behavioural level in a larger sample of 49 medicated patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (ICD-10 F20) and 49 healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to react by button press upon two different stimuli in order to retain a 60 % chance winning a previously announced high (1$) or low (20¢) amount of money paid to participants after the experiment. Concordant with previous reports on deficits in reward processing, acceleration of reaction times in patients upon low rewards differed significantly (p non-smoking subgroup of patients (n = 24). In this subgroup, we also observed a significant (p monetary reward task might constitute a feasible behavioural proxy for dopaminergic dysfunction and its different dimensions regarding psychopathology but also medication in patients with schizophrenia. In line with clinical observations, our findings support the notion that smoki