WorldWideScience

Sample records for sequoia sempervirens taxodiaceae

  1. Clonal Spread in Second Growth Stands of Coast Redwood, Sequoia sempervirens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Douhovnikoff; Richard S. Dodd

    2007-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one of the rare conifers to reproduce successfully through clonal spread. The importance of this mode of reproduction in stand development is largely unknown. Understanding the importance of clonal spread and the spatial structure of clones is crucial for stand management strategies that would aim to maximize...

  2. Proteomic profiling of proteins associated with the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Ting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration of rooting competence is important for rejuvenation in Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl and is achieved by repeatedly grafting Sequoia shoots after 16 and 30 years of cultivation in vitro. Results Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis revealed three proteins that differentially accumulated in different rejuvenation stages, including oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2, glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (RNP, and a thaumatin-like protein. OEE2 was found to be phosphorylated and a phosphopeptide (YEDNFDGNSNVSVMVpTPpTDK was identified. Specifically, the protein levels of OEE2 increased as a result of grafting and displayed a higher abundance in plants during the juvenile and rejuvenated stages. Additionally, SsOEE2 displayed the highest expression levels in Sequoia shoots during the juvenile stage and less expression during the adult stage. The expression levels also steadily increased during grafting. Conclusion Our results indicate a positive correlation between the gene and protein expression patterns of SsOEE2 and the rejuvenation process, suggesting that this gene is involved in the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens.

  3. Skin tests of pollen grains of taxodiaceae and cupressaceae in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro-Horiuti, T; Nouno, S; Seino, Y

    1992-10-01

    Atmospheric cedar pollen in the southern region of Okayama Prefecture (situated in south-western Japan) has been counted since 1988. Pollen of different species of the Taxodiaceae family (Cryptomeria japonica, Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and Japanese juniper (Juniperus rigida) in the Cupressaceae family, which are propagated mainly in the southern region of Okayama Prefecture, were found among the atmospheric pollen. Scratch tests using the pollen extract from Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae were performed on children with bronchial asthma. Forty (25%) and 30 (18.8%) of the 160 patients reacted positively to an allergen extract from the pollen grains of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese juniper, respectively.

  4. Produção de painéis compensados fenólicos com lâminas de madeira de Sequoia sempervirens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade dos painéis compensados multilaminados produzidos com lâminas de madeira de Sequoia sempervirens. Foram produzidos em laboratório compensados com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, com duas diferentes formulações: (A FF = 100; E = 5; CC = 5; A = 5, e (B FF = 100; E = 15; CC = 15; A = 15, e duas gramaturas: 280g/m² e 320 g/m². Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 130 ºC e tempo de prensagem de dez minutos. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento e de flexão estática (módulo de elasticidade e módulo de ruptura, paralelo e perpendicular às fibras. De uma forma geral, as diferentes formulações de cola e gramaturas não afetaram significativamente as propriedades dos painéis, o que representa um aspecto importante sob o ponto de vista econômico. A resistência ao cisalhamento e a percentagem de falhas na madeira dos painéis produzidos com a formulação (B atenderam aos requisitos mínimos da norma EN 314-2 (1993 para painéis de uso externo. Os resultados indicam que as lâminas de Sequoia sempervirens podem ser utilizadas para compor o miolo de painéis compensados para uso externo.

  5. [Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae from 28S rDNA sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Xiang; Yang, Qun

    2003-03-01

    DNA sequences from 28S rDNA were used to assess relationships between and within traditional Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae s.s. The MP tree and NJ tree generally are similar to one another. The results show that Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae s.s. form a monophyletic conifer lineage excluding Sciadopitys. In the Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae s.s. monophyletic group, the Taxodiaceae is paraphyletic. Taxodium, Glyptostrobus and Cryptomeria forming a clade(Taxodioideae), in which Glyptostrobus and Taxodium are closely related and sister to Cryptomeria; Sequoia, Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia are closely related to each other, forming another clade (Sequoioideae), in which Sequoia and Sequoiadendron are closely related and sister to Metasequoia; the seven genera of Cupressaceae s.s. are found to be closely related to form a monophyletic lineage (Cupressoideae). These results are basically similar to analyses from chloroplast gene data. But the relationships among Taiwania, Sequoioideae, Taxodioideae, and Cupressoideae remain unclear because of the slow evolution rate of 28S rDNA, which might best be answered by sequencing more rapidly evolving nuclear genes.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships in Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae sensu stricto based on matK gene, chlL gene, trnL-trnF IGS region, and trnL intron sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, J; Tsumura, Y; Yoshimaru, H; Tachida, H

    2000-10-01

    Nucleotide sequences from four chloroplast genes, the matK, chlL, intergenic spacer (IGS) region between trnL and trnF, and an intron of trnL, were determined from all species of Taxodiaceae and five species of Cupressaceae sensu stricto (s.s.). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony and the neighbor-joining methods with Cunninghamia as an outgroup. These analyses provided greater resolution of relationships among genera and higher bootstrap supports for clades compared to previous analyses. Results indicate that Taiwania diverged first, and then Athrotaxis diverged from the remaining genera. Metasequoia, Sequoia, and Sequoiadendron form a clade. Taxodium and Glyptostrobus form a clade, which is the sister to Cryptomeria. Cupressaceae s.s. are derived from within Taxodiaceae, being the most closely related to the Cryptomeria/Taxodium/Glyptostrobus clade. These relationships are consistent with previous morphological groupings and the analyses of molecular data. In addition, we found acceleration of evolutionary rates in Cupressaceae s.s. Possible causes for the acceleration are discussed.

  7. Aspen Characteristics - Sequoia National Forest [ds377

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger District, Sequoia National...

  8. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  9. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  10. Air pollution effects on giant sequoia ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.R. Miller; Nancy Grulke; K.W. Stolte

    1994-01-01

    Giant sequoia [Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz] groves are found entirely within the Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer type. Several of its companion tree species, mainly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.), show foliar injury after...

  11. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellavite

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelsemium sempervirens is used in homeopathy for treating patients with anxiety related symptoms, however there have been few experimental studies evaluating its pharmacological activity. We have investigated the effects of homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens on mice, using validated behavioral models. Centesimal (CH dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens, the reference drug diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or a placebo (solvent vehicle were intraperitoneally delivered to groups of mice of CD1 strain during 8 days, then the effects were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD choice test and by the Open-Field (OF exploration test, in a fully blind manner. In the LD test, the mean time spent in the illuminated area by control and placebo-treated animals was 15.98%, for mice treated with diazepam it increased to 19.91% (P = .047, while with G. sempervirens 5 CH it was 18.11% (P = .341, non-significant. The number of transitions between the two compartments increased with diazepam from 6.19 to 9.64 (P < .001 but not with G. Sempervirens. In the OF test, G. sempervirens 5 CH significantly increased the time spent and the distance traveled in the central zone (P = .009 and P = .003, resp., while diazepam had no effect on these OF test parameters. In a subsequent series of experiments, G. sempervirens 7 and 30 CH also significantly improved the behavioral responses of mice in the OF test (P < .01 for all tested variables. Neither dilutions of G. sempervirens affected the total distance traveled, indicating that the behavioral effect was not due to unspecific changes in locomotor activity. In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a diminution of thigmotaxis or neophobia.

  12. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 11a: giant sequoias

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Robert A.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Meyer, Marc; Hanna, Steve; Tadashi, Moody; Caprio, Anthony C.; Battles, John J.

    2013-01-01

    For natural resource managers in the southern Sierra Nevada, giant sequoia requires very little introduction. It receives great attention as an icon of western forests and as a common namesake with the areas where it occurs. While it is a single component of a very complex system, its attention in this assessment and in general is well deserved. Giant sequoia is one of the few "destination species" that attracts a wide swath of the public by nature of it simply being present. It draws people, who otherwise may not travel, to a natural environment. The result is an expansion of the public’s sense of natural resource stewardship. Because park managers could not achieve their mission without public support, this fostering role of giant sequoia is critical for park natural resources and is important for natural resources in general. Despite its social relevance and physical size, we re-emphasize here that the giant sequoia resource is a relatively small component of the ecosystems of the southern Sierra Nevada. As is the case with all of the resources assessed in the NRCA, we focus on giant sequoia with the understanding that other resources will be considered simultaneously when evaluating management decisions that impact giant sequoia. While we attempt to explicitly address the interaction of giant sequoia with other resources and stressors, we also realize that ultimately managers will integrate much more information than is presented here when making decisions that influence giant sequoia. The autecology and management issues surrounding giant sequoia have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Harvey et al. 1980, Aune 1994, Stephenson 1996). Stephenson (1996), in particular, should be reviewed when considering any management decisions that potentially impact giant sequoia. For those who may not be familiar with giant sequoia ecology, a summary of basic information is provided in a table below. In some parts of this assessment, we reproduce text from Stephenson

  13. Nectar and pollen production in Arabis procurrens Waldst. & Kit. and Iberis sempervirens L. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Strzałkowska-Abramek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological environment in urban areas is specific in many aspects. There are evidences that ornamental plants cultivated in local urban gardens may help in conservation of pollinators. In this study, the flowering pattern, the abundance of flowering, nectar and pollen production as well as insect visitation in Arabis procurrens Waldst. & Kit. and Iberis sempervirens L. were investigated. The species were grown in the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, southeastern Poland. Arabis procurrens bloomed from the middle of April until middle of May and I. sempervirens from the end of April until middle of June. In both species, most flowers opened in the morning hours (40–45% of total were opened by 8:00 h GMT + 2 h. The average sugar yield of A. procurrens was ca. 53% lower compared to I. sempervirens (mean = 1.08 g/m2 and 2.32 g/m2, respectively. In both species, considerable differences in the amount of produced sugars were noted between years. The mass of pollen produced in the flowers of A. procurrens was approx. 35% lower compared to that of I. sempervirens (mean = 0.06 mg and 0.09 mg per flower, respectively. Pollen produced per unit area was correlated with the number of flowers. On average, the species produced 1.46 g (A. procurrens and 2.54 g (I. sempervirens of pollen per 1 m2. The flowers of A. procurrens attracted mainly dipterans (56.3% of total visitors, while I. sempervirens lured chiefly solitary bees (47.4% of total visitors, however in both cases, honeybees, bumblebees and lepidopterans were also recorded. The A. procurrens and I. sempervirens due to flowering in early spring period may be promoted for use in small gardens (rock or pot gardens for both aesthetic value and as plants that support insect visitors in nectar and pollen rewards.

  14. Experimental neuropharmacology of Gelsemium sempervirens: Recent advances and debated issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavite, Paolo; Bonafini, Clara; Marzotto, Marta

    Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories. Toxic doses of Gelsemium cause neurological signs characterized by marked weakness and convulsions, while ultra-low doses or high Homeopathic dilutions counteract seizures induced by lithium and pilocarpine, decrease anxiety after stress and increases the anti-stress allopregnanolone hormone, through glycine receptors. Low (non-Homeopathic) doses of this plant or its alkaloids decrease neuropathic pain and c-Fos expression in mice brain and oxidative stress. Due to the complexity of the matter, several aspects deserve interpretation and the main controversial topics, with a focus on the issues of high dilution pharmacology, are discussed and clarified. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 66380 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restoration of the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... sequoia habitat, wetlands, and soundscapes within the Mariposa Grove, this alternative would relocate... for restoration of wetlands, soundscapes, and giant sequoia habitat within the Mariposa Grove by...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Gelsemine and Gelsemium sempervirens Activity on Neurosteroid Allopregnanolone Formation in the Spinal Cord and Limbic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Venard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Centesimal dilutions (5, 9 and 15 cH of Gelsemium sempervirens are claimed to be capable of exerting anxiolytic and analgesic effects. However, basic results supporting this assertion are rare, and the mechanism of action of G. sempervirens is completely unknown. To clarify the point, we performed a comparative analysis of the effects of dilutions 5, 9 and 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine (the major active principle of G. sempervirens on allopregnanolone (3α,5α-THP production in the rat limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala or H-A and spinal cord (SC. Indeed, H-A and SC are two pivotal structures controlling, respectively, anxiety and pain that are also modulated by the neurosteroid 3α,5α-THP. At the dilution 5 cH, both G. sempervirens and gelsemine stimulated [3H]progesterone conversion into [3H]3α,5α-THP by H-A and SC slices, and the stimulatory effect was fully (100% reproducible in all assays. The dilution 9 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine also stimulated 3α,5α-THP formation in H-A and SC but the reproducibility rate decreased to 75%. At 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine, no effect was observed on 3α,5α-THP neosynthesis in H-A and SC slices. The stimulatory action of G. sempervirens and gelsemine (5 cH on 3α,5α-THP production was blocked by strychnine, the selective antagonist of glycine receptors. Altogether, these results, which constitute the first basic demonstration of cellular effects of G. sempervirens, also offer interesting possibilities for the improvement of G. sempervirens-based therapeutic strategies.

  17. Communicating the role of science in managing giant sequoia groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Pilrto; Robert R. Rogers; Mary Chislock Bethke

    1997-01-01

    Management of giant sequoia groves has been and continues to be a hotly debated issue. The debate has reached Congress, with all parties seeking resolution as to what constitutes an ecologically and publicly acceptable management approach. Determining the correct management approach and communicating that approach to the general public is the crux of the problem....

  18. Management of Giant Sequoia on Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman J. Benson

    1986-01-01

    Established in 1946, the Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest, Tulare County, California, is managed by the California Department of Forestry. It is a multiple-use forest with recreation as its primary focus, although timber management has always played an important role. Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl. ] Buchholz) occurs in...

  19. Landscape-scale variation in canopy water content of giant sequoias during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Vaughn, Nicolas R.; Martin, Roberta E.; Brodrick, Philip G.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian; Nydick, Koren R.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2018-01-01

    Recent drought (2012–2016) caused unprecedented foliage dieback in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum), a species endemic to the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada in central California. As part of an effort to understand and map sequoia response to droughts, we studied the patterns of remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC), both within and among sequoia groves in two successive years during the drought period (2015 and 2016). Our aims were: (1) to quantify giant sequoia responses to severe drought stress at a landscape scale using CWC as an indicator of crown foliage status, and (2) to estimate the effect of environmental correlates that mediate CWC change within and among giant sequoia groves. We utilized airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to assess giant sequoia foliage status during 2015 and 2016 of the 2012–2016 droughts. A series of statistical models were generated to classify giant sequoias and to map their location in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) and vicinity. We explored the environmental correlates and the spatial patterns of CWC change at the landscape scale. The mapped CWC was highly variable throughout the landscape during the two observation years, and proved to be most closely related to geological substrates, topography, and site-specific water balance. While there was an overall net gain in sequoia CWC between 2015 and 2016, certain locations (lower elevations, steeper slopes, areas more distant from surface water sources, and areas with greater climate water deficit) showed CWC losses. In addition, we found greater CWC loss in shorter sequoias and those growing in areas with lower sequoia stem densities. Our results suggest that CWC change indicates sequoia response to droughts across landscapes. Long-term monitoring of giant sequoia CWC will likely be useful for modeling and predicting their population

  20. On the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event, R F; Davis, J D; Tucker, C M; Alfieri, F J

    1970-12-01

    The secondary phloem of 3 species of the Taxodiaceae and 13 species of woody dicotyledons was examined for the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements. Nuclei were found in all mature sieve cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Sequoia sempervirens and Taxodium distichum, and in some mature sieve-tube members in 12 of the 13 species of woody dicotyledons. Except for nuclei of sieve cells undergoing cessation of function, the nuclei in mature sieve cells of M. glyptostroboides, S. sempervirens and T. distichum were normal in appearance. The occurrence and morphology of nuclei in mature sieve-tube members of the woody dicotyledons were quite variable. Only 3 species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus americana and Vitis riparia, contained some mature sieve elements with apparently normal nuclei.

  1. Coping with gravity: the foliar water relations of giant sequoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cameron B; Reese Næsborg, Rikke; Dawson, Todd E

    2017-10-01

    In tall trees, the mechanisms by which foliage maintains sufficient turgor pressure and water content against height-related constraints remain poorly understood. Pressure-volume curves generated from leafy shoots collected crown-wide from 12 large Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindley) J. Buchholz (giant sequoia) trees provided mechanistic insights into how the components of water potential vary with height in tree and over time. The turgor loss point (TLP) decreased with height at a rate indistinguishable from the gravitational potential gradient and was controlled by changes in tissue osmotica. For all measured shoots, total relative water content at the TLP remained above 75%. This high value has been suggested to help leaves avoid precipitous declines in leaf-level physiological function, and in giant sequoia was controlled by both tissue elasticity and the balance of water between apoplasm and symplasm. Hydraulic capacitance decreased only slightly with height, but importantly this parameter was nearly double in value to that reported for other tree species. Total water storage capacity also decreased with height, but this trend essentially disappeared when considering only water available within the typical range of water potentials experienced by giant sequoia. From summer to fall measurement periods we did not observe osmotic adjustment that would depress the TLP. Instead we observed a proportional shift of water into less mobile apoplastic compartments leading to a reduction in hydraulic capacitance. This collection of foliar traits allows giant sequoia to routinely, but safely, operate close to its TLP, and suggests that gravity plays a major role in the water relations of Earth's largest tree species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Biological and Management Implications of Fire-Pathogen Interactions in the Giant Sequoia Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Piirto; John R. Parmeter; Fields W. Cobb; Kevin L. Piper; Amy C. Workinger; William J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    An overriding management goal for national parks is the maintenance or, where necessary, the restoration of natural ecological processes. In Sequoia-Kings Canyon and Yosemite National Parks, there is concern about the effects of fire suppression on the giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest ecosystem. The National Park Service is currently using prescribed fire management...

  3. 78 FR 16294 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Restoration of the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Restoration of the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias, Yosemite National Park, Madera, and Mariposa Counties, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability... the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias in Yosemite National Park. This Draft EIS presents three...

  4. Visual Impacts of Prescribed Burning on Mixed Conifer and Giant Sequoia Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Cotton; Joe R. McBride

    1987-01-01

    Prescribed burning programs have evolved with little concern for the visual impact of burning and the potential prescribed burning can have in managing the forest scene. Recent criticisms by the public of the prescribed burning program at Sequoia National Park resulted in an outside review of the National Park fire management programs in Sequoia, Kings Canyon, and...

  5. Remote measurement of canopy water content in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum) during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roberta E.; Asner, Gregory P.; Francis, Emily; Ambrose, Anthony; Baxter, Wendy; Das, Adrian J.; Vaughn, Nicolas R.; Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Dawson, Todd E.; Nydick, Koren R.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2018-01-01

    California experienced severe drought from 2012 to 2016, and there were visible changes in the forest canopy throughout the State. In 2014, unprecedented foliage dieback was recorded in giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) trees in Sequoia National Park, in the southern California Sierra Nevada mountains. Although visible changes in sequoia canopies can be recorded, biochemical and physiological responses to drought stress in giant sequoia canopies are not well understood. Ground-based measurements provide insight into the mechanisms of drought responses in trees, but are often limited to few individuals, especially in trees of tall stature such as giant sequoia. Recent studies demonstrate that remotely measured forest canopy water content (CWC) is a general indicator of canopy response to drought, but the underpinning leaf- to canopy-level causes of observed variation in CWC remain poorly understood. We combined field and airborne remote sensing measurements taken in 2015 and 2016 to assess the biophysical responses of giant sequoias to drought. In 49 study trees, CWC was related to leaf water potential, but not to the other foliar traits, suggesting that changes in CWC were made at whole-canopy rather than leaf scales. We found a non-random, spatially varying pattern in mapped CWC, with lower CWC values at lower elevation and along the outer edges of the groves. This pattern was also observed in empirical measurements of foliage dieback from the ground, and in mapped CWC across multiple sequoia groves in this region, supporting the hypothesis that drought stress is expressed in canopy-level changes in giant sequoias. The fact that we can clearly detect a relationship between CWC and foliage dieback, even without taking into account prior variability or new leaf growth, strongly suggests that remotely sensed CWC, and changes in CWC, are a useful measure of water stress in giant sequoia, and valuable for assessing and managing these iconic forests in drought.

  6. Multiyear impacts of partial throughfall exclusion on Buxus sempervirens in a Mediterranean forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Letts, M. G.; Rolo, V.; Roset, S.; Rambal, S.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study:We examined the impact of sustained partial throughfall exclusion on the functional performance of Buxus sempervirens L. in the understory of a Mediterranean evergreen forest. We further considered whether any impacts of throughfall exclusion were affected by light availability. Area of study: The study was conducted in the south of France. Material and methods: Several leaf physiological and branch structural traits were measured along a light gradient after seven years from the onset of a throughfall exclusion experiment (TEE). The results were analysed along with annual growth and survival data. Main results: Plant mortality was nil in both the throughfall exclusion and control treatments. Stem diameter growth was reduced by 39% in plants subjected to throughfall exclusion, but this difference was only significant at the p = 0.10 significance level. Leaf physiology remained unaffected by the TEE, but small changes were evident in branch structural traits in high light microsites following throughfall exclusion; branches had lower wood density in the TEE plot, and more biomass was partitioned to leaves relative to stems. Research highlights: These changes do not seem to reflect an acclimatory response that would enhance drought tolerance. Instead, we suggest that these drought effects might exacerbate vulnerability to xylem cavitation in the more open microsites. Reduced growth and increased vulnerability to drought may indicate an incipient decline in plant vitality following TEE. The extension of observations to the whole-plant level and longer periods will elucidate the consequences of these observations for plant fitness, and permit verification of the positive effect of shade on Buxus sempervirens under increased drought. (Author)

  7. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  8. 76 FR 75558 - Environmental Impact Statement for Restoration of the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias, Yosemite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... tree. Fire plays an important role in giant sequoia ecology, creating canopy openings and releasing soil nutrients needed for seedling establishment. Fire scars on the trees indicate that fires occurred... and sites within the Grove include the parking areas, gift shop, ticket booth, tram staging area...

  9. The spectral response of Buxus sempervirens to different types of environmental stress - A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Hoogenboom, Priscilla; Nijland, Wiebe

    2012-11-01

    The European Mediterranean regions are expected to encounter drier summer conditions and warmer temperatures for the winter of +2 °C and of +5 °C for the summer in the next six decennia. As a result the natural vegetation will face harsher conditions due to lower water availability, longer summer droughts and higher temperatures resulting in plant stress conditions. To monitor vegetation conditions like stress and leaf area index dynamics in our study area in Mediterranean France we use earth observation techniques like imaging spectroscopy. To assist image analysis interpretation we carried out a laboratory experiment to investigate the spectral and visible response of Buxus sempervirens, a common Mediterranean species, to five different types of stress: drought, drought-and-heat, light deprivation, total saturation and chlorine poisoning. For 52 days plants were subjected to stress. We collected data on the visible and spectral signs, and calculated thirteen vegetation indices. The plant's response time to different stress types varied from 10 to 32 days. Spectroscopic techniques revealed plant stress up to 15 days earlier than visual inspection. Visible signs of stress of the plants included curling and shrinking of the leaves, de-colouring of the leaves, leaves becoming breakable, opening up of the plant's canopy and sagging of the branches. Spectral signs of stress occurred first in the water absorption bands at 1450 and 1940 nm, followed by reduced absorption in the visible wavelengths, and next by reduced reflectance in near infrared. Light deprivation did not result in any stress signs, while drought, drought and heat and chlorine poisoning resulted in significant stress. The spectral response did not show differences for different stress types. Analysis of the vegetation indices identified the Carter-2 (R695/R760), the Red-Green Index (R690/R550) and the Vogelman-2 (R734 - R747)/(R715 + R726) as the best performing ones to identify stress. The lab

  10. Estimating Leaf Water Potential of Giant Sequoia Trees from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought-induced forest dieback events have motivated research on the mechanisms of tree survival and mortality during drought. Leaf water potential, a measure of the force exerted by the evaporation of water from the leaf surface, is an indicator of plant water stress and can help predict tree mortality in response to drought. Scientists have traditionally measured water potentials on a tree-by-tree basis, but have not been able to produce maps of tree water potential at the scale of a whole forest, leaving forest managers unaware of forest drought stress patterns and their ecosystem-level consequences. Imaging spectroscopy, a technique for remote measurement of chemical properties, has been used to successfully estimate leaf water potentials in wheat and maize crops and pinyon-pine and juniper trees, but these estimates have never been scaled to the canopy level. We used hyperspectral reflectance data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) to map leaf water potentials of giant sequoia trees (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in an 800-hectare grove in Sequoia National Park. During the current severe drought in California, we measured predawn and midday leaf water potentials of 48 giant sequoia trees, using the pressure bomb method on treetop foliage samples collected with tree-climbing techniques. The CAO collected hyperspectral reflectance data at 1-meter resolution from the same grove within 1-2 weeks of the tree-level measurements. A partial least squares regression was used to correlate reflectance data extracted from the 48 focal trees with their water potentials, producing a model that predicts water potential of giant sequoia trees. Results show that giant sequoia trees can be mapped in the imagery with a classification accuracy of 0.94, and we predicted the water potential of the mapped trees to assess 1) similarities and differences between a leaf water potential map and a canopy water content map produced from airborne hyperspectral data, 2

  11. Fungistatic Activity Of Essential Oils Extracted from Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde and Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Chilean Monimiaceae Actividad Fungistática de Extractos de Aceites Asenciales de Peumus boldus Mol., Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde y Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. (Monimiaceae chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalis Bittner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Components of essential oils from the Chilean Monimiaceae, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, and laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. were determined using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GCMS and fungistatic activity of the essential oils was tested against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz G. Winter, and Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. The essential oils of the Monimiaceae species shared some common components; all three had the 3-carene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene terpenes. L. philippiana and L. sempervirens also had safrole.The main components were ascaridol in P. boldus oil, 3-carene in L. philippiana, and safrole in L. sempervirens. The essential oil from L. sempervirens showed the highest fungistatic activity with significant differences in dose as well as exposure. P. violaceum was the most sensitive strain and P. irregulare the most resistant of all the essential oils (P. boldus extract affected growth by only 19%. Therefore, essential oils from these three plants could be used to control the fungal strains studied.Se determinaron los compuestos de aceites esenciales de Monimiaceae chilenas, boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., tepa (Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde, y laurel (Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. a través de cromatografía de gas con espectrometría de masas (CG-EM y se midió la actividad fungistática de los aceites sobre los hongos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Donk, Pythium irregulare Buisman, Ceratocystis pilifera (Fr. C. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum (Schultz Winter y Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. Los aceites esenciales de las especies de Monimiaceae tienen algunos compuestos en común; en las especies estudiadas se encontró que todos tenían los terpenos 3-careno, α-felandreno, y α-pineno. L. philippiana y L. sempervirens además tienen safrol. En cambio

  12. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Patterns and correlates of giant sequoia foliage dieback during California’s 2012–2016 hotter drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.; Ampersee, Nicholas J.; Cahill, Kathleen G.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Sanders, John E.; Williams, A. Park

    2018-01-01

    Hotter droughts – droughts in which unusually high temperatures exacerbate the effects of low precipitation – are expected to increase in frequency and severity in coming decades, challenging scientists and managers to identify which parts of forested landscapes may be most vulnerable. In 2014, in the middle of California’s historically unprecedented 2012–2016 hotter drought, we noticed apparently drought-induced foliage dieback in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum Lindl. [Buchholz]) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks, California. Characteristics of the dieback were consistent with a controlled process of drought-induced senescence: younger (distal) shoots remained green while older (proximal) shoots were preferentially shed. As part of an ongoing interdisciplinary effort to understand and map sequoia vulnerability to hotter droughts, we reviewed historical records for evidence of previous foliage dieback events, surveyed dieback along trail corridors in eight sequoia groves, and analyzed tree-ring data from a high- and a low-foliage-dieback area. In sharp contrast to the greatly elevated mortality of other coniferous species found at low and middle elevations, we estimate that <1% of sequoias died during the drought. Foliage dieback was notably elevated in 2014 – the most severe single drought year in our 122-year record – but much lower in subsequent years. We found no historical records of similar foliage dieback during previous droughts. Dieback in 2014 was highly variable both within and among groves, ranging from virtually no dieback in some areas to nearly 50% in others. Dieback was highest (1) at low elevations, probably due to higher temperatures, reduced snowpack, and earlier snowmelt; (2) in areas of low adult sequoia densities, which likely reflect intrinsically more stressful sites; and (3) on steep slopes, probably reflecting reduced water availability. Average sequoia ring widths were narrower at the high-dieback than the

  14. Leaf to landscape responses of giant sequoia to hotter drought: An introduction and synthesis for the special section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydick, Koren R.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Ambrose, Anthony R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Baxter, Wendy L.; Das, Adrian J.; Dawson, Todd E.; Martin, Roberta E.; Paz-Kagan, Tarin

    2018-01-01

    Hotter droughts are becoming more common as climate change progresses, and they may already have caused instances of forest dieback on all forested continents. Learning from hotter droughts, including where on the landscape forests are more or less vulnerable to these events, is critical to help resource managers proactively prepare for the future. As part of our Leaf to Landscape Project, we measured the response of giant sequoia, the world’s largest tree species, to the extreme 2012–2016 hotter drought in California. The project integrated leaf-level physiology measurements, crown-level foliage dieback surveys, and remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC) to shed light on mechanisms and spatial patterns in drought response. Here we summarize initial findings, present a conceptual model of drought response, and discuss management implications; details are presented in the other four articles of the special section on Giant Sequoias and Drought. Giant sequoias exhibited both leaf- and canopy-level responses that were effective in protecting whole-tree hydraulic integrity for the vast majority of individual sequoias. Very few giant sequoias died during the drought compared to other mixed conifer tree species; however, the magnitude of sequoia drought response varied across the landscape. This variability was partially explained by local site characteristics, including variables related to site water balance. We found that low CWC is an indicator of recent foliage dieback, which occurs when stress levels are high enough that leaf-level adjustments alone are insufficient for giant sequoias to maintain hydraulic integrity. CWC or change in CWC may be useful indicators of drought stress that reveal patterns of vulnerability to future hotter droughts. Future work will measure recovery from the drought and strengthen our ability to interpret CWC maps. Our ultimate goal is to produce giant sequoia vulnerability maps to help target management actions, such as

  15. Comparative study of two coniferous species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) essential oils: chemical composition and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) and Saharan cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) are two cone-bearing seed coniferous woody plants. The chemical composition of their essential oils, isolated from needles and leaves by hydrodistillation, was analyzed with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 66 and 28 compounds were identified, which represented 99.5% and 98.9% of total pine and cypress oils, respectively. Pin...

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the resolution volume for the SEQUOIA spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granroth G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations, of direct geometry spectrometers, have been particularly useful in instrument design and characterization. However, these tools can also be useful for experiment planning and analysis. To this end, the McStas Monte Carlo ray tracing model of SEQUOIA, the fine resolution fermi chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, has been modified to include the time of flight resolution sample and detector components. With these components, the resolution ellipsoid can be calculated for any detector pixel and energy bin of the instrument. The simulation is split in two pieces. First, the incident beamline up to the sample is simulated for 1 × 1011 neutron packets (4 days on 30 cores. This provides a virtual source for the backend that includes the resolution sample and monitor components. Next, a series of detector and energy pixels are computed in parallel. It takes on the order of 30 s to calculate a single resolution ellipsoid on a single core. Python scripts have been written to transform the ellipsoid into the space of an oriented single crystal, and to characterize the ellipsoid in various ways. Though this tool is under development as a planning tool, we have successfully used it to provide the resolution function for convolution with theoretical models. Specifically, theoretical calculations of the spin waves in YFeO3 were compared to measurements taken on SEQUOIA. Though the overall features of the spectra can be explained while neglecting resolution effects, the variation in intensity of the modes is well described once the resolution is included. As this was a single sharp mode, the simulated half intensity value of the resolution ellipsoid was used to provide the resolution width. A description of the simulation, its use, and paths forward for this technique will be discussed.

  17. Antiprotozoal Activity of Buxus sempervirens and Activity-Guided Isolation of O-tigloylcyclovirobuxeine-B as the Main Constituent Active against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia B. Althaus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Buxus sempervirens L. (European Box, Buxaceae has been used in ethnomedicine to treat malaria. In the course of our screening of plant extracts for antiprotozoal activity, a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of B. sempervirens showed selective in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 = 2.79 vs. 20.2 µg/mL for cytotoxicity against L6 rat cells. Separation of the extract by acid/base extraction into a basic and a neutral non-polar fraction led to a much more active and even more selective fraction with alkaloids while the fraction of non-polar neutral constituents was markedly less active than the crude extract. Thus, the activity of the crude extract could clearly be attributed to alkaloid constituents. Identification of the main triterpene-alkaloids and characterization of the complex pattern of this alkaloid fraction was performed by UHPLC/+ESI-QTOF-MS analyses. ESI-MS/MS target-guided larger scale preparative separation of the alkaloid fraction was performed by ‘spiral coil-countercurrent chromatography’. From the most active subfraction, the cycloartane alkaloid O-tigloylcyclovirobuxeine-B was isolated and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity which yielded an IC50 of 0.455 µg/mL (cytotoxicity against L6 rat cells: IC50 = 9.38 µg/mL. O-tigloylcyclovirobuxeine-B is thus most significantly responsible for the high potency of the crude extract.

  18. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  19. Demography of the California spotted owl in the Sierra National Forest and Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George N. Steger; Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    Nine years (1990–1998) of demographic data on California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) in two study areas on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada—one in the Sierra National Forest (SNF), the other in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks (SNP)—are summarized. Numbers of territorial owls fluctuated from 85 to 50 in SNF and 80 to 58...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of the Sequoia Scientific LISST-ABS acoustic backscatter sediment sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2017-12-18

    Sequoia Scientific’s LISST-ABS is an acoustic backscatter sensor designed to measure suspended-sediment concentration at a point source. Three LISST-ABS were evaluated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF). Serial numbers 6010, 6039, and 6058 were assessed for accuracy in solutions with varying particle-size distributions and for the effect of temperature on sensor accuracy. Certified sediment samples composed of different ranges of particle size were purchased from Powder Technology Inc. These sediment samples were 30–80-micron (µm) Arizona Test Dust; less than 22-µm ISO 12103-1, A1 Ultrafine Test Dust; and 149-µm MIL-STD 810E Silica Dust. The sensor was able to accurately measure suspended-sediment concentration when calibrated with sediment of the same particle-size distribution as the measured. Overall testing demonstrated that sensors calibrated with finer sized sediments overdetect sediment concentrations with coarser sized sediments, and sensors calibrated with coarser sized sediments do not detect increases in sediment concentrations from small and fine sediments. These test results are not unexpected for an acoustic-backscatter device and stress the need for using accurate site-specific particle-size distributions during sensor calibration. When calibrated for ultrafine dust with a less than 22-µm particle size (silt) and with the Arizona Test Dust with a 30–80-µm range, the data from sensor 6039 were biased high when fractions of the coarser (149-µm) Silica Dust were added. Data from sensor 6058 showed similar results with an elevated response to coarser material when calibrated with a finer particle-size distribution and a lack of detection when subjected to finer particle-size sediment. Sensor 6010 was also tested for the effect of dissimilar particle size during the calibration and showed little effect. Subsequent testing revealed problems with this sensor, including an inadequate temperature

  1. A lightning multiple casualty incident in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Susanne J; Campagne, Danielle; Stroh, Geoff; Shalit, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Multiple casualty incidents (MCIs) are uncommon in remote wilderness settings. This is a case report of a lightning strike on a Boy Scout troop hiking through Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI), in which the lightning storm hindered rescue efforts. The purpose of this study was to review the response to a lightning-caused MCI in a wilderness setting, address lightning injury as it relates to field management, and discuss evacuation options in inclement weather incidents occurring in remote locations. An analysis of SEKI search and rescue data and a review of current literature were performed. A lightning strike at 10,600 feet elevation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains affected a party of 5 adults and 7 Boy Scouts (age range 12 to 17 years old). Resources mobilized for the rescue included 5 helicopters, 2 ambulances, 2 hospitals, and 15 field and 14 logistical support personnel. The incident was managed from strike to scene clearance in 4 hours and 20 minutes. There were 2 fatalities, 1 on scene and 1 in the hospital. Storm conditions complicated on-scene communication and evacuation efforts. Exposure to ongoing lightning and a remote wilderness location affected both victims and rescuers in a lightning MCI. Helicopters, the main vehicles of wilderness rescue in SEKI, can be limited by weather, daylight, and terrain. Redundancies in communication systems are vital for episodes of radio failure. Reverse triage should be implemented in lightning injury MCIs. Education of both wilderness travelers and rescuers regarding these issues should be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wathen

    Full Text Available Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians, and plants within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds. Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  3. Changes in gas exchange characteristics during the life span of giant sequoia: Implications for response to current and future concentrations of atmospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N.E.; Miller, P.R. (USDA Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States))

    Native stands of giant sequoia are being exposed to relatively high concentrations of atmospheric ozone produced in urban and agricultural areas upwind. The expected change in environmental conditions over the next 100 y is likely to be unprecendented in the life span (ca 2,500 y) of giant sequoia. Changes in the physiological responses of three age classes of giant sequoia (current year, 12 y and 25 y) to different concentrations of ozone were determined, and age-related differences in sensitivity to pollutants were assessed by examining physiological changes (gas exchange, water use efficiency) across the life span of giant sequoia. The CO[sub 2] exchange rate (CER) was greater in current year (12.1 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s) and 2 year old seedlings (4.8 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s) than in all older trees (average of 3.0 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s). Dark respiration was highest for current year seedlings and was increased twofold in symptotic individuals exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. Stomatal conductance was greater in current-year and 2 year old seedlings (335 and 200 mmol H[sub 2]O/m[sup 2]s), respectively, than in all older trees (50 mmol H[sub 2]O/m[sup 2]s), indicating that the ozone concentration in substomatol cavities is higher in young seedlings than in older trees. Significant changes in water use efficiency occurred in trees between ages 5 and 20 years. It is concluded that giant sequoia seedlings are sensitive to atmospheric ozone until they are ca 5 y old. Low conductance, high water use efficiency, and compact mesophyll all contribute to a natural ozone tolerance, or defense, or both, in foliage of older trees. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Mersin-Aydıncık İlçesi Anıt Dallı Servileri (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis (Mill. Gord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. ÖZÇELİK

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ülkemizde bugüne kadar bir çok anıt ağaç ve meşcerenin tespiti yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Mersin ili Aydıncık İlçesindeki; çap, boy, yaş, tepe çapı (somut özellikler ve Mistik özellikleri (soyut özellikler nedeniyle anıt ağaç niteliği taşıyan iki adet Dallı Servi (Cupresus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis (Mill. Gord. tanıtılmıştır. Bu iki ağaç, şimdiye kadar anıt ağaç olarak tescili yapılmış en uzun boylu servi bireyleridir. Bu nedenle; doğal, kültürel ve estetik değere sahip bu doğal varlıkların korunması gerekmektedir.

  5. Determination of epigenetic inheritance, genetic inheritance, and estimation of genome DNA methylation in a full-sib family of Cupressus sempervirens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidou, Evangelia V; Doulis, Andreas G; Aravanopoulos, Filippos A

    2015-05-15

    Genetic inheritance and epigenetic inheritance are significant determinants of plant evolution, adaptation and plasticity. We studied inheritance of restriction site polymorphisms by the f-AFLP method and epigenetic DNA cytosine methylation inheritance by the f-MSAP technique. The study involved parents and 190 progeny of a Cupressus sempervirens L. full-sib family. Results from AFLP genetic data revealed that 71.8% of the fragments studied are under Mendelian genetic control, whereas faithful Mendelian inheritance for the MSAP fragments was low (4.29%). Further, MSAP fragment analysis showed that total methylation presented a mean of 28.2%, which was higher than the midparent value, while maternal inheritance was higher (5.65%) than paternal (3.01%). Interestingly de novo methylation in the progeny was high (19.65%) compared to parental methylation. Genetic and epigenetic distances for parents and offspring were not correlated (R(2)=0.0005). Furthermore, we studied correlation of total relative methylation and CG methylation with growth (height, diameter). We found CG/CNG methylation (N: A, C, T) to be positively correlated with height and diameter, while total relative methylation and CG methylation were positively correlated with height. Results are discussed in light of further research needed and of their potential application in breeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attività sperimentale di agricoltura di precisione su vigneto Confronto tra i sensori Mapir Survey2 e Parrot Sequoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kartsiotis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a comparison via field-testing between Parrot Sequoia and Mapir Survey2 multispectral cameras. Both sensors are commonly used in precision farming activities conducted by micro-RPAS (drones, thanks to their small size and light weight. The experimental activity was performed in summer on the vineyards of the Savignola Paolina agricultural holding in Tuscany. The sensors were taken on board the EXOS drone, a hexacopter developed by Zephyr S.r.l. company and specifically designed for precision farming operations. Good and bad qualities for each cameras are examined by a comprehensive approach, starting from technical specifications and continuing with a comparison of the results obtained on field. All the activity was performed by a partnership between the companies DroneBee and Zephyr S.r.l. .

  8. Impacts of fire management on aboveground tree carbon stocks in Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, John R.; Lutz, James A.; Tarnay, Leland W.; Smith, Douglas G.; Becker, Kendall M.L.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Forest biomass on Sierra Nevada landscapes constitutes one of the largest carbon stocks in California, and its stability is tightly linked to the factors driving fire regimes. Research suggests that fire suppression, logging, climate change, and present management practices in Sierra Nevada forests have altered historic patterns of landscape carbon storage, and over a century of fire suppression and the resulting accumulation in surface fuels have been implicated in contributing to recent increases in high severity, stand-replacing fires. For over 30 years, fire management at Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) national parks has led the nation in restoring fire to park landscapes; however, the impacts on the stability and magnitude of carbon stocks have not been thoroughly examined.

  9. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 22: climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate is a master controller of the structure, composition, and function of biotic communities, affecting them both directly, through physiological effects, and indirectly, by mediating biotic interactions and by influencing disturbance regimes. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park’s (SEKI’s) dramatic elevational changes in biotic communities -- from warm mediterranean to cold alpine -- are but one manifestation of climate’s overarching importance in shaping SEKI’s landscape. Yet humans are now altering the global climate, with measurable effects on ecosystems (IPCC 2007). Over the last few decades across the western United States, human-induced climatic changes have likely contributed to observed declines in fraction of precipitation falling as snow and snowpack water content (Mote et al. 2005, Knowles et al. 2006), advance in spring snowmelt (Stewart et al. 2005, Barnett et al. 2008), and consequent increase in area burned in wildfires (Westerling et al. 2006). In the Sierra Nevada, warming temperatures have likely contributed to observed glacial recession (Basagic 2008), uphill migration of small mammals (Moritz et al. 2008), and increasing tree mortality rates (van Mantgem and Stephenson 2007, van Mantgem et al. 2009). More substantial changes can be expected for the future (e.g., IPCC 2007). Given the central importance of climate and climatic changes, we sought to describe long-term trends in temperature and precipitation at SEKI. Time and budget constraints limited us to analyses of mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation, using readily-available data. If funds become available in the future, further analyses will be needed to analyze trends by season, trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures, and so on. We chose to analyze data from individual weather stations rather than use interpolated climatic data from sources such as PRISM (http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/). In topographically complex mountainous regions with few

  10. Extreme sensitivity of gene expression in human SH-SY5Y neurocytes to ultra-low doses of Gelsemium sempervirens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium s.) is a traditional medicinal plant, employed as an anxiolytic at ultra-low doses and animal models recently confirmed this activity. However the mechanisms by which it might operate on the nervous system are largely unknown. This work investigates the gene expression of a human neurocyte cell line treated with increasing dilutions of Gelsemium s. extract. Methods Starting from the crude extract, six 100 × (centesimal, c) dilutions of Gelsemium s. (2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 9c and 30c) were prepared according to the French homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed for 24 h to test dilutions, and their transcriptome compared by microarray to that of cells treated with control vehicle solutions. Results Exposure to the Gelsemium s. 2c dilution (the highest dose employed, corresponding to a gelsemine concentration of 6.5 × 10-9 M) significantly changed the expression of 56 genes, of which 49 were down-regulated and 7 were overexpressed. Several of the down-regulated genes belonged to G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, inflammatory response and neuropeptide receptors. Fisher exact test, applied to the group of 49 genes down-regulated by Gelsemium s. 2c, showed that the direction of effects was significantly maintained across the treatment with high homeopathic dilutions, even though the size of the differences was distributed in a small range. Conclusions The study shows that Gelsemium s., a medicinal plant used in traditional remedies and homeopathy, modulates a series of genes involved in neuronal function. A small, but statistically significant, response was detected even to very low doses/high dilutions (up to 30c), indicating that the human neurocyte genome is extremely sensitive to this regulation. PMID:24642002

  11. Decomposition and N cycling changes in redwood forests caused by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is an emergent pathogen in redwood forests which causes the disease sudden oak death. Although the disease does not kill coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), extensive and rapid mortality of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has removed this...

  12. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 14: plants of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ann; Das, Adrian; Wenk, Rebecca; Haultain, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks are located in the California Floristic Province, which has been named one of world‘s hotspots of endemic biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). The California Floristic Province is the largest and most important geographic floristic unit in California and extends from the Klamath Mountains of southwestern Oregon to the northwestern portion of Baja California (Hickman 1993). The Sierra Nevada, one of six regions that make up the California Floristic Province, covers nearly 20% of the land in California yet contains over 50% of its flora. Within the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sierra supports more Sierran endemic and rare plant taxa than the central and northern portions of the region (Shevock 1996). Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) encompass roughly 20% of the southern Sierra Nevada region. The parks overlap three floristic subregions (central Sierra Nevada High, southern Sierra Nevada High, and southern Sierra Nevada Foothills), and border the Great Basin Floristic Province. The parks support a rich and diverse vascular flora composed of over 1,560 taxa. Of these, 150 taxa are identified as having special status. The term special status is applied here to include taxa that are state or federally listed, rare in California, or at risk because they have a limited distribution. Only one species from these parks is listed under the state or federal Endangered Species Acts (Carex tompkinsii, Tompkins‘ sedge, is listed as a rare species under the California Endangered Species Act), and one species is under review for federal endangered listing (Pinus albicaulis, whitebark pine). However, an absence of threatened and endangered species recognized by Endangered Species Acts is not equivalent to an absence of species at risk. There are 83 plant taxa documented as occurring in SEKI that are considered imperiled or vulnerable in the state by the California Department of Fish and Game‘s California Natural Diversity

  13. Instituto SEQUOIA : Um serviço privado,  multidisciplinar e de cuidado aos idosos SEQUOIA Institute: A multidisciplinary private service for the care of senior citizens L’Institut SEQUOIA : Un service privé multidisciplinaire pour les soins des personnes du troisième âge Instituto SEQUOIA : Un servicio privado y multidisciplinario de atención a las personas de la tercera edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Fonseca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Population aging is a reality all over the world, requiring a change in the way care is perceived and resources are divided for different age groups. In Brazil, current indicators and projections place the country among those with the highest number of elderly people. By contrast, there is a shortage of action plans and inter- and multi-disciplinary teams, as well as public policies and professionals, focusing on the elderly, in part as a consequence of an accelerated aging process in developing countries. Within this context, the SEQUOIA Institute (IS was created to attend to this process by monitoring the overall health of patients. The institute's routine work includes clinical actions, team meetings, socialization projects and lectures. The IS features a 10% yearly growth in medical assistance, a 20% rise in psychological treatments, and a 50% increase in lecture attendance.Le vieillissement de la population est un phénomène mondial qui exige de revoir la façon dont sont perçus les soins et dont sont divisées les ressources en fonction des différentes tranches d’âge. Les indicateurs et les projections actuels montrent que le Brésil est le pays qui compte la plus grande proportion de personnes âgées. Et pourtant, les plans d’action, les équipes inter- et pluridisciplinaires, mais aussi les politiques publiques et les professionnels spécialistes des questions liées aux personnes âgées sont en nombre insuffisant, notamment en raison d’un processus de vieillissement accéléré dans les pays en développement. C’est dans ce contexte qu’a été créé l’Institut SEQUOIA (IS, dont la mission consiste à gérer ce processus en effectuant un suivi de la santé générale des patients. Les principales tâches de l’institut incluent études cliniques, réunions d’équipes, projets impliquant des débats et conférences. L’IS affiche une croissance annuelle de 10 % dans le secteur de l’assistance médicale, de 20

  14. Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Aquatic Ecosystems in Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Clow, D. W.; Sickman, J. O.

    2016-12-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia and Kings Canyon (SEKI) National Parks are impacted by atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition associated with local and regional air pollution. Documented effects include elevated surface water nitrate concentrations, increased algal productivity, and changes in diatom species assemblages. Annual wet inorganic N deposition maps, developed at 1-km resolution for YOSE and SEKI to quantify N deposition to sensitive high-elevation ecosystems, range from 1.0 to over 5.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Critical loads of N deposition for nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems were quantified and mapped using a geostatistical approach, with N deposition, topography, vegetation, geology, and climate as potential explanatory variables. Multiple predictive models were created using various combinations of explanatory variables; this approach allowed us to better quantify uncertainty and more accurately identify the areas most sensitive to atmospherically deposited N. The lowest critical loads estimates and highest exceedances identified within YOSE and SEKI occurred in high-elevation basins with steep slopes, sparse vegetation, and areas of neoglacial till and talus. These results are consistent with previous analyses in the Rocky Mountains, and highlight the sensitivity of alpine ecosystems to atmospheric N deposition.

  15. SEQUOIA Institute: A multidisciplinary private service for the care of senior citizens L’Institut SEQUOIA : Un service privé multidisciplinaire pour les soins des personnes du troisième âge Instituto SEQUOIA : Un servicio privado y multidisciplinario de atención a las personas de la tercera edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Fonseca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Population aging is a reality all over the world, requiring a change in the way care is perceived and resources are divided for different age groups. In Brazil, current indicators and projections place the country among those with the highest number of elderly people. By contrast, there is a shortage of action plans and inter- and multi-disciplinary teams, as well as public policies and professionals, focusing on the elderly, in part as a consequence of an accelerated aging process in developing countries. Within this context, the SEQUOIA Institute (IS was created to attend to this process by monitoring the overall health of patients. The institute's routine work includes clinical actions, team meetings, socialization projects and lectures. The IS features a 10% yearly growth in medical assistance, a 20% rise in psychological treatments, and a 50% increase in lecture attendance.Le vieillissement de la population est un phénomène mondial qui exige de revoir la façon dont sont perçus les soins et dont sont divisées les ressources en fonction des différentes tranches d’âge. Les indicateurs et les projections actuels montrent que le Brésil est le pays qui compte la plus grande proportion de personnes âgées. Et pourtant, les plans d’action, les équipes inter- et pluridisciplinaires, mais aussi les politiques publiques et les professionnels spécialistes des questions liées aux personnes âgées sont en nombre insuffisant, notamment en raison d’un processus de vieillissement accéléré dans les pays en développement. C’est dans ce contexte qu’a été créé l’Institut SEQUOIA (IS, dont la mission consiste à gérer ce processus en effectuant un suivi de la santé générale des patients. Les principales tâches de l’institut incluent études cliniques, réunions d’équipes, projets impliquant des débats et conférences. L’IS affiche une croissance annuelle de 10 % dans le secteur de l’assistance médicale, de 20

  16. The effect of low- and high-power microwave irradiation on in vitro grown Sequoia plants and their recovery after cryostorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmagyi, A; Surducan, E; Surducan, V

    2017-09-01

    Two distinct microwave power levels and techniques have been studied in two cases: low-power microwave (LPM) irradiation on in vitro Sequoia plants and high-power microwave (HPM) exposure on recovery rates of cryostored (-196°C) Sequoia shoot apices. Experimental variants for LPM exposure included: (a) in vitro plants grown in regular conditions (at 24 ± 1°C during a 16-h light photoperiod with a light intensity of 39.06 μEm -2 s -1 photosynthetically active radiation), (b) in vitro plants grown in the anechoic chamber with controlled environment without microwave irradiation, and (c) in vitro plants grown in the anechoic chamber with LPM irradiation for various times (5, 15, 30, 40 days). In comparison to control plants, significant differences in shoot multiplication and growth parameters (length of shoots and roots) were observed after 40 days of LPM exposure. An opposite effect was achieved regarding the content of total soluble proteins, which decreased with increasing exposure time to LPM. HPM irradiation was tested as a novel rewarming method following storage in liquid nitrogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report using this type of rewarming method. Although, shoot tips subjected to HPM exposure showed 28% recovery following cryostorage compared to 44% for shoot tips rewarmed in liquid medium at 22 ± 1 °C, we consider that the method represent a basis and can be further improved. The results lead to the overall conclusion that LPM had a stimulating effect on growth and multiplication of in vitro Sequoia plants, while the HPM used for rewarming of cryopreserved apices was not effective to achieve high rates of regrowth after liquid nitrogen exposure.

  17. Effects of stock use and backpackers on water quality in wilderness in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Forrester, Harrison; Miller, Benjamin; Roop, Heidi; Sickman, James O.; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    During 2010-2011, a study was conducted in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) to evaluate the influence of pack animals (stock) and backpackers on water quality in wilderness lakes and streams. The study had three main components: (1) a synoptic survey of water quality in wilderness areas of the parks, (2) paired water-quality sampling above and below several areas with differing types and amounts of visitor use, and (3) intensive monitoring at six sites to document temporal variations in water quality. Data from the synoptic water-quality survey indicated that wilderness lakes and streams are dilute and have low nutrient and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations. The synoptic survey sites were categorized as minimal use, backpacker use, or mixed use (stock and backpackers), depending on the most prevalent type of use upstream from the sampling locations. Sites with mixed use tended to have higher concentrations of most constituents (including E.coli) than those categorized as minimal-use (p≤0.05); concentrations at backpacker-use sites were intermediate. Data from paired-site sampling indicated that E.coli, total coliform, and particulate phosphorus concentrations were greater in streams downstream from mixed-use areas than upstream from those areas (p≤0.05). Paired-site data also indicated few statistically significant differences in nutrient, E. coli, or total coliform concentrations in streams upstream and downstream from backpacker-use areas. The intensive-monitoring data indicated that nutrient and E. coli concentrations normally were low, except during storms, when notable increases in concentrations of E.coli, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and turbidity occurred. In summary, results from this study indicate that water quality in SEKI wilderness generally is good, except during storms; and visitor use appears to have a small, but statistically significant influence on stream water quality.

  18. A comparison of effects from prescribed fires and wildfires managed for resource objectives in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, C.B.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Pfaff, Anne H.; McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2011-01-01

    Current goals for prescription burning are focused on measures of fuel consumption and changes in forest density. These benchmarks, however, do not address the extent to which prescription burning meets perceived ecosystem needs of heterogeneity in burning, both for overstory trees and understory herbs and shrubs. There are still questions about how closely prescribed fires mimic these patterns compared to natural wildfires. This study compared burn patterns of prescribed fires and managed unplanned wildfires to understand how the differing burning regimes affect ecosystem properties. Measures of forest structure and fire severity were sampled in three recent prescribed fires and three wildfires managed for resource objectives in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Fine scale patterns of fire severity and heterogeneity were compared between fire types using ground-based measures of fire effects on fuels and overstory and understory vegetation. Prescribed fires and wildfires managed for resource objectives displayed similar patterns of overstory and understory fire severity, heterogeneity, and seedling and sapling survival. Variation among plots within the same fire was always greater than between fire types. Prescribed fires can provide burned landscapes that approximate natural fires in many ways. It is recognized that constraints placed on when wildfires managed for resource objectives are allowed to burn freely may bias the range of conditions that might have been experienced under more natural conditions. Therefore they may not exactly mimic natural wildfires. Overall, the similarity in fire effects that we observed between prescribed fires and managed wildfires indicate that despite the restrictions that are often placed on prescribed fires, they appear to be creating post-fire conditions that approximate natural fires when assessed on a fine spatial scale.

  19. The effects of raking on sugar pine mortality following prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; de Valpine, Perry

    2010-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important tool for fuel reduction, the control of competing vegetation, and forest restoration. The accumulated fuels associated with historical fire exclusion can cause undesirably high tree mortality rates following prescribed fires and wildfires. This is especially true for sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas), which is already negatively affected by the introduced pathogen white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. ex Rabenh). We tested the efficacy of raking away fuels around the base of sugar pine to reduce mortality following prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks, California, USA. This study was conducted in three prescribed fires and included 457 trees, half of which had the fuels around their bases raked away to mineral soil to 0.5 m away from the stem. Fire effects were assessed and tree mortality was recorded for three years after prescribed fires. Overall, raking had no detectable effect on mortality: raked trees averaged 30% mortality compared to 36% for unraked trees. There was a significant effect, however, between the interaction of raking and average pre-treatment forest floor fuel depth: the predicted probability of survival of a 50 cm dbh tree was 0.94 vs. 0.96 when average pre-treatment fuel depth was 0 cm for a raked and unraked tree, respectively. When average pre-treatment forest floor fuel depth was 30 cm, the predicted probability of survival for a raked 50 cm dbh tree was 0.60 compared to only 0.07 for an unraked tree. Raking did not affect mortality when fire intensity, measured as percent crown volume scorched, was very low (0% scorch) or very high (>80% scorch), but the raking treatment significantly increased the proportion of trees that survived by 9.6% for trees that burned under moderate fire intensity (1% to 80% scorch). Raking significantly reduced the likelihood of bole charring and bark beetle activity three years post fire. Fuel depth and anticipated fire intensity need

  20. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszak, J.; Grulke, N.E.; Marrett, M.J.; Prus-Glowacki, W.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of canopy ozone (O 3 ) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O 3 tolerance were analyzed in ∼20-, ∼80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O 3 exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O 3 exposure, and to higher O 3 exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine

  1. Isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszak, J. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Grulke, N.E. [USDA Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)], E-mail: ngrulke@fs.fed.us; Marrett, M.J. [5184 Tower Road, Riverside, CA 92506 (United States); Prus-Glowacki, W. [A Mickiewicz University, Genetics Department, ul. Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    Effects of canopy ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O{sub 3} tolerance were analyzed in {approx}20-, {approx}80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O{sub 3} exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O{sub 3} exposure, and to higher O{sub 3} exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine.

  2. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea depending on the period of flowering of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V M; Belyaeva, S N; Govorun, M I; Pirogova, M E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pollen of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) on the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SHRT) of the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea (SCC). This article presents the results of the analysis of the data on 122 patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology who received SHRT under the conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Fifty one (41.8%) of these patients suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 71 (58.2%) ones had bronchial asthma. The whole group was comprised of 44 men (36.1%) and 78 women (63.9%). The average (median) age of the patients was 55.8 years. All the participants of the study underwent the comprehensive examination including the general medical and physical examination, complete blood count, the study of sputum cytology and immunological properties of blood including the standard characteristics, IgE and lysozyme levels), evaluation of the respiratory and locomotor (physical) functions with the use of the 6-minute walking test. The aeropollenological study of the aerial environment of the southern coast of the Crimea in the region of Yalta showed that the «bloom» of the Mediterranean Cypress occurs during the period from February till April inclusive. The highest concentrations of cypress pollen are observed in March and early April. The overall effectiveness of SHRT for the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology arriving for the treatment at the southern coast of the Crimea from other Crimean localities does not depend on the period of «flowering» (the presence of pollen in the air) of the Mediterranean Cypress. In these patients, the termination of the spa and health resort-based treatment during the «flowering» of the Mediterranean Cypress resulted in nothing more than a strained adaptive response manifested as the altered blood leukocyte count. Such reaction

  3. Assessing the response of Emerald Lake, an alpine watershed in Sequoia National Park, California, to acidification during snowmelt by using a simple hydrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, R.P.; West, C.T.; Peters, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    A sparsely parameterized hydrochemical model has been developed by using data from Emerald Lake watershed, which is a 120-ha alpine catchment in Sequoia National Park, California. Greater than 90% of the precipitation to this watershed is snow; hence, snowmelt is the dominant hydrologic event. A model which uses a single alkalinity-generating mechanism, primary mineral weathering, was able to capture the pattern of solute concentrations in surface waters during snowmelt. An empirical representation of the weathering reaction, which is based on rock weathering stoichiometry and which uses discharge as a measure of residence time, was included in the model. Results of the model indicate that current deposition levels would have to be increased between three-fold and eight-fold to exhaust the alkalinity of the lake during snowmelt if their is a mild acidic pulse in the stream at the beginning of snowmelt as was observed during the study period. The acidic pulse in the inflow stream at the onset of snowmelt was less pronounced than acidic pulses observed in the meltwater draining the snowpack at a point using snow lysimeters or in the laboratory. Sulfate concentrations in the stream water were the most constant; chloride and nitrate concentrations increased slightly at the beginning of snowmelt. Additional field work is required to resolve whether an acidic meltwater pulse occurs over a large area as well as at a point or whether, due to physical and chemical processes within the snowpack, the acidic meltwater pulse is attenuated at the catchment scale. The modest data requirements of the model permit its applications to other alpine watersheds that are much less intensively studied than Emerald Lake watershed

  4. The influence of prefire tree growth and crown condition on postfire mortality of sugar pine following prescribed fire in Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Das, Adrian J.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Tree mortality is a vital component of forest management in the context of prescribed fires; however, few studies have examined the effect of prefire tree health on postfire mortality. This is especially relevant for sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas), a species experiencing population declines due to a suite of anthropogenic factors. Using data from an old-growth mixed-conifer forest in Sequoia National Park, we evaluated the effects of fire, tree size, prefire radial growth, and crown condition on postfire mortality. Models based only on tree size and measures of fire damage were compared with models that included tree size, fire damage, and prefire tree health (e.g., measures of prefire tree radial growth or crown condition). Immediately following the fire, the inclusion of different metrics of prefire tree health produced variable improvements over the models that included only tree size and measures of fire damage, as models that included measures of crown condition performed better than fire-only models, but models that included measures of prefire radial growth did not perform better. However, 5 years following the fire, sugar pine mortality was best predicted by models that included measures of both fire damage and prefire tree health, specifically, diameter at breast height (DBH, 1.37 m), crown scorch, 30-year mean growth, and the number of sharp declines in growth over a 30-year period. This suggests that factors that influence prefire tree health (e.g., drought, competition, pathogens, etc.) may partially determine postfire mortality, especially when accounting for delayed mortality following fire.

  5. Utilizing Remote Sensing Information to Improve Post-fire Rainfall-runoff Predictions after the 2010 Bull Fire in the Sequoia National Forest, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hale, B.; Hogue, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Post-fire management decisions are guided by rainfall-runoff predictions, which ultimately influence downstream treatment and mitigation costs. The current study investigates evolving rainfall-runoff partitioning at the watershed scale over a two-year period after the 2010 Bull Fire which occurred in the southern Sequoia National Forest in California. Stage height was measured at five-minute intervals using pressure transducers, tipping buckets were installed for rainfall duration and intensity, and channel cross-sections were measured approximately every two months to detail sediment deposition or scour. We also utilize remotely sensed vegetation data to evaluate vegetation recovery in the studied watersheds and the corresponding relationship to storm runoff. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation greenness, is evaluated for its potential use as a key recovery indicator. Preliminary results focus on alterations in annual and seasonal precipitation and discharge relationships using in-situ data and Landsat NDVI values for the period of study. NDVI values are consistent with a comprehensive burn, with an acute decrease observed in the initial post-fire period. However, vegetation recovery is highly variable in the studied systems and influenced by shorter-term biomass pulses (grasses) while longer-term recovery of other species (chaparral and pine) is ongoing. Runoff ratios are elevated during early storms and show some recovery in the later part of the study period. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire runoff and longer-term recovery is critical for monitoring values-at-risk, reducing mitigation costs, and improving warnings to downstream public communities.

  6. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  7. Executive summary - Assessing the response of Emerald Lake, an alpine watershed in Sequoia National Park, California, to acidification during snowmelt using a simple hydrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, R.P.; West, C.T.; Peters, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    A simple process-oriented model, called the Alpine Lake Forecaster (ALF), was constructed using data collected from the Integrated Watershed Study of Emerald Lake, Sequoia National Park, California. ALF is able to capture the basic solute patterns during snowmelt in this alpine catchment where groundwater is a minor contributor to streamflow. It includes an empirical representation of primary mineral weathering as the only alkalinity generating mechanism. During a heavy snow year, such as the one used for calibrating the model, the model accurately simulated the surface water chemical change in response to the initial ionic pulse from the snowpack and to the dilution that occurs at peak snowmelt. Because the model does not consider cation exchange, it over-predicts the acidification during the initial period of snowmelt, and therefore is a conservative predictor. However, the minimum alkalinity observed in the main inflows to Emerald Lake and in the lake outflow is accurately simulated by the model. The representation of the lake as simply a missing volume with no additional chemical reactions is supported by the observation. The model predicts a change of 2 to 5 microequiv/L in the minimum alkalinity of the lake outflow during snowmelt if the deposition would have to increase between two and 18 times the current load-alkalinity of the lake; the precise increase depends on hydrologic conditions and on the pattern of solute release from the snowpack. An acidic rainstorm that exhausted the alkalinity of the lake was observed during summer 1984 after the lake had stratified, and is the likely cause of the acidification of Emerald Lake

  8. Seasonal and diel environmental conditions predict western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) behavior at a perennial and an ephemeral stream in Sequoia National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Gabrielle; Meyer, Erik; Das, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Managers making decisions may benefit from a well-informed understanding of a species' population size and trends. Given the cryptic nature and habitat characteristics of the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), however, imperfect detection may be high and population estimates are frequently varied and unreliable. As a case study to investigate this issue, we used temperature dataloggers to examine turtle behavior at 2 long-term monitoring sites with different hydrological characteristics in Sequoia National Park, California, to determine if common stream-survey techniques are consistent with site-specific turtle behavior. Sycamore Creek is an intermittent stream that dries up every summer while the North Fork Kaweah River flows year-round. We found that while turtles spent most of the recorded time in the water (55% in Sycamore Creek and 82% in the North Fork Kaweah River), the timing of traditional surveys only coincided with the turtles' aquatic activity in the North Fork Kaweah River. At Sycamore Creek, turtles were most likely to be in the water at night. In contrast, failure to detect turtles in North Fork Kaweah River is likely owing to the larger size and complexity of the underwater habitat. In both streams, turtles were also more likely to be in the water in the weeks leading up to important changes in hydroperiods. Our findings illustrate the effects that differences in water permanence can have on turtle behavior within the same watershed and how phenotypic plasticity may then affect detection during surveys. Our study highlights the importance of tailoring survey practices to the site-specific behavioral traits of the target species.

  9. Black bear damage to northwestern conifers in California: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth O. Fulgham; Dennis Hosack

    2017-01-01

    A total of 789 black bear damaged trees were investigate over a multi-year period on 14 different study sites chosen on lands of four participating timber companies. The sites ranged from 30 to 50 years of age. Four different conifer species were found to have black bear damage: coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), Douglas-fir (...

  10. Post-fire response of coast redwood one year after the Mendocino lightning complex fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Douglas; Tom. Bendurel

    2012-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests have undergone significant changes over the past century and are now in state more conducive for wildfires. Because fires have been uncommon in redwood forests over the past 80 years, managers have limited data to make decisions about the post-fire environment. In June 2008, a series of lightning storms...

  11. Management practices eelated to the Restoration of old dorest characteristics in coast redwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Guisti

    2012-01-01

    A standardized, interactive, interview process was used with practicing Registered Professional Foresters asking a suite of questions to ascertain their management approaches to coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) stands that could best be transferred to other projects and lands interested in recruiting older forest...

  12. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Mason Earles; Or Sperling; Lucas C. R. Silva; Andrew J. McElrone; Craig R. Brodersen; Malcolm P. North; Maciej A. Zwieniecki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world’s tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water...

  13. A Multiple Logistic Regression Model for Predicting the Development of Phytophthora ramorum symptoms in Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Spencer; Kevin O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum attacks tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) in California and Oregon. We present a stand-level study examining the presence of disease symptoms in individual stems. Working with data from four plots in redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)/tanoak forests in Marin County, and three plots in Mendocino...

  14. Sudden Oak Death in redwood forests: vegetation dynamics in the wake of tanoak decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Ramage; Kevin O’Hara

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of inquiry have concluded that tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) will continue to experience drastic population declines and may even disappear entirely from redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests as a result of the exotic disease sudden oak death (SOD) (Maloney and others 2005, McPherson and others 2005,...

  15. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brown- rot fungi; Lentinus ... The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus ..... wood of coast red wood Sequoia Sempervirens (D. Don). For. Prod. J. 33(5): 15-20 ...

  16. Rangewide Genetic Variation in Coast Redwood Populations at a Chloroplast Microsatellite Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Brinegar

    2012-01-01

    Old growth and second growth populations of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) were sampled at 10 locations throughout its range and analyzed at a highly variable chloroplast microsatellite locus. Very low FST values indicated that there was no significant genetic differentiation between adjacent old growth and second growth populations at each location. Genetic...

  17. Physiology and growth of redwood and Douglas-fir planted after variable density retention outside redwood’s range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy Kerhoulas; Nicholas Kerhoulas; Wade Polda; John-Pascal Berrill

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation following timber harvests is an important topic throughout the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) range. Furthermore, as drought-induced mortality spreads across many of California’s forests, it is important to understand how physiology and stand structure influence reforestation success. Finally, as climate...

  18. Using wood quality measures to evaluate second-growth redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen L. Quarles; Yana. Vlachovic

    2012-01-01

    Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) a valued species for use in appearance grade applications, such as decking, exterior siding and interior paneling, because of its dimensional stability. It is also valued for certain exterior-use applications because of its natural decay resistance. Studies have found that young-growth redwood is less resistant to...

  19. Inbreeding depression in selfs of redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Libby; B. G. McCutchan; C. I. Millar

    1981-01-01

    Given the polyploid chromosome constitution of Sequoia sempervirens, there was reason to question whether it would exhibit inbreeding depression. Preliminary results from studies of self and related outcross families are reported as a guide to the selection of trees for redwood seed orchards and breeding-orchards. The data indicate that, compared to...

  20. Bat use of remnant old-growth redwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; Steven T. Gellman

    1999-01-01

    Most of the old-growth redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in Calfornia has been cut; regenerating forests will probably never resemble those that were harvested, and what old growth remains on private land occurs in small, isolated remnant patches. The landscapes in which these stands occur differ so markedly from their original condition that their...

  1. Cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts of redwood forest resource harvesting in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Richard D. Bergman; Ivan L. Eastin; Leonard R. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The first life cycle impact assessment for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forest management activities (i.e. a cradle-to-sawmill gate input) including the growing, harvesting, and hauling of redwood sawlogs to a sawmill was completed. In the stump-to-truck timber harvesting analysis, primary transport activities such as skidding and yarding consumed...

  2. Life-cycle assessment of redwood decking in the United States with a comparison to three other decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bergman; H. Sup-Han; E. Oneil; I. Eastin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to conduct a life-cycle inventory (LCI) of California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) decking that would quantify the critical environmental impacts of decking from cradle to grave. Using that LCI data, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) was produced for redwood decking. The results were used to compare the environmental footprint...

  3. Natural seedlings and sprouts after regeneration cuttings in old-growth redwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1975-01-01

    Natural regeneration of harvested old-growth stands of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one way to start a new forest that is needed quickly for continuous timber production. Natural seedlings and sprouts developing after stands were cut were studied on the Redwood Experimental Forest, northern California. Three types of regeneration cuttings were...

  4. Coast redwood live crown and sapwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Jesse L. Deffress; Jessica M. Engle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding crown rise and sapwood taper will help meet management objectives such as producing long branch-free boles for clear wood and old-growth restoration, or producing sawlogs with a high proportion of heartwood. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tree crown ratio data were collected 20 years after partial harvesting in a 65-year-old second growth stand....

  5. Impacts on soils and residual trees from cut-to-length thinning operations in California's redwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyungrok Hwang; Han-sup Han; Susan E. Marshall; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Cut-to-length (CTL) harvest systems have recently been introduced for thinning third-growth, young (<25 years old) redwood forests (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl.) in northern California. This type of harvesting can effective for thinning overstocked stands consisting of small-diameter trees. However, forestland managers and government agencies...

  6. Predicting redwood productivity using biophysical data, spatial statistics and site quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Kevin L. O’Hara; Shawn Headley

    2017-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) height growth and basal area growth are sensitive to variations in site quality. Site factors known to be correlated with redwood stand growth and yield include topographic variables such as position on slope, exposure, and the composite variable: topographic relative moisture index. Species...

  7. The ASC Sequoia Programming Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M

    2008-08-06

    In the late 1980's and early 1990's, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was deeply engrossed in determining the next generation programming model for the Integrated Design Codes (IDC) beyond vectorization for the Cray 1s series of computers. The vector model, developed in mid 1970's first for the CDC 7600 and later extended from stack based vector operation to memory to memory operations for the Cray 1s, lasted approximately 20 years (See Slide 5). The Cray vector era was deemed an extremely long lived era as it allowed vector codes to be developed over time (the Cray 1s were faster in scalar mode than the CDC 7600) with vector unit utilization increasing incrementally over time. The other attributes of the Cray vector era at LLNL were that we developed, supported and maintained the Operating System (LTSS and later NLTSS), communications protocols (LINCS), Compilers (Civic Fortran77 and Model), operating system tools (e.g., batch system, job control scripting, loaders, debuggers, editors, graphics utilities, you name it) and math and highly machine optimized libraries (e.g., SLATEC, and STACKLIB). Although LTSS was adopted by Cray for early system generations, they later developed COS and UNICOS operating systems and environment on their own. In the late 1970s and early 1980s two trends appeared that made the Cray vector programming model (described above including both the hardware and system software aspects) seem potentially dated and slated for major revision. These trends were the appearance of low cost CMOS microprocessors and their attendant, departmental and mini-computers and later workstations and personal computers. With the wide spread adoption of Unix in the early 1980s, it appeared that LLNL (and the other DOE Labs) would be left out of the mainstream of computing without a rapid transition to these 'Killer Micros' and modern OS and tools environments. The other interesting advance in the period is that systems were being developed with multiple 'cores' in them and called Symmetric Multi-Processor or Shared Memory Processor (SMP) systems. The parallel revolution had begun. The Laboratory started a small 'parallel processing project' in 1983 to study the new technology and its application to scientific computing with four people: Tim Axelrod, Pete Eltgroth, Paul Dubois and Mark Seager. Two years later, Eugene Brooks joined the team. This team focused on Unix and 'killer micro' SMPs. Indeed, Eugene Brooks was credited with coming up with the 'Killer Micro' term. After several generations of SMP platforms (e.g., Sequent Balance 8000 with 8 33MHz MC32032s, Allian FX8 with 8 MC68020 and FPGA based Vector Units and finally the BB&N Butterfly with 128 cores), it became apparent to us that the killer micro revolution would indeed take over Crays and that we definitely needed a new programming and systems model. The model developed by Mark Seager and Dale Nielsen focused on both the system aspects (Slide 3) and the code development aspects (Slide 4). Although now succinctly captured in two attached slides, at the time there was tremendous ferment in the research community as to what parallel programming model would emerge, dominate and survive. In addition, we wanted a model that would provide portability between platforms of a single generation but also longevity over multiple--and hopefully--many generations. Only after we developed the 'Livermore Model' and worked it out in considerable detail did it become obvious that what we came up with was the right approach. In a nutshell, the applications programming model of the Livermore Model posited that SMP parallelism would ultimately not scale indefinitely and one would have to bite the bullet and implement MPI parallelism within the Integrated Design Code (IDC). We also had a major emphasis on doing everything in a completely standards based, portable methodology with POSIX/Unix as the target environment. We decided against specialized libraries like STACKLIB for performance, but kept as many general purpose, portable math libraries as were needed by the codes. Third, we assumed that the SMPs in clusters would evolve in time to become more powerful, feature rich and, in particular, offer more cores. Thus, we focused on OpenMP, and POSIX PThreads for programming SMP parallelism. These code porting efforts were lead by Dale Nielsen, A-Division code group leader, and Randy Christensen, B-Division code group leader. Most of the porting effort revolved removing 'Crayisms' in the codes: artifacts of LTSS/NLTSS, Civic compiler extensions beyond Fortran77, IO libraries and dealing with new code control languages (we switched to Perl and later to Python). Adding MPI to the codes was initially problematic and error prone because the programmers used MPI directly and sprinkled the calls throughout the code.

  8. Sapwood area - leaf area relationships for coast redwood

    OpenAIRE

    Stancioiu, P T; O'Hara, K L

    2005-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) trees in different canopy strata and crown positions were sampled to develop relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and projected leaf area. Sampling occurred during the summers of 2000 and 2001 and covered tree heights ranging from 7.7 to 45.2 m and diameters at breast height ranging from 9.4 to 92.7 cm. Foliage morphology varied greatly and was stratified into five types based on needle type (sun or shade) and twig color. A str...

  9. A comparative study of modern and fossil cone scales and seeds of conifers: A geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Kruge, M.A.; Van Bergen, P. F.; Sadowska, A.

    1997-01-01

    Modern cone scales and seeds of Pinus strobus and Sequoia sempervirens, and their fossil (Upper Miocene, c. 6 Mar) counterparts Pinus leitzii and Sequoia langsdorfi have been studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), electron-microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic observations revealed only minor microbial activity and high-quality structural preservation of the fossil material. The pyrolysates of both modern genera showed the presence of ligno-cellulose characteristic of conifers. However, the abundance of (alkylated)phenols and 1,2-benzenediols in modern S. sempervirens suggests the presence of non-hydrolysable tannins or abundant polyphenolic moieties not previously reported in modern conifers. The marked differences between the pyrolysis products of both modern genera are suggested to be of chemosystematic significance. The fossil samples also contained ligno-cellulose which exhibited only partial degradation, primarily of the carbohydrate constituents. Comparison between the fossil cone scale and seed pyrolysates indicated that the ligno-cellulose complex present in the seeds is chemically more resistant than that in the cone scales. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the pyrolysis data allowed for the determination of the discriminant functions used to assess the extent of degradation and the chemosystematic differences between both genera and between cone scales and seeds. Elemental composition (C, O, S), obtained using electron-microprobe, corroborated the pyrolysis results. Overall, the combination of chemical, microscopic and statistical methods allowed for a detailed characterization and chemosystematic interpretations of modern and fossil conifer cone scales and seeds.

  10. Scalable Engineering of Quantum Optical Information Processing Architectures (SEQUOIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    fast: recently, it was demonstrated experimentally that photonic cluster states can be produced deterministically by photon scattering off a lambda ...U. The CNOT gate operation corresponds to the sub- matrix of the logic states, shown in solid-color bars and marked with red axis labels. Plots (c

  11. Determination of total Betta-activity and heavy metals in biomonitor species (phytomonitors) from the area of ITR-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Yovchev, M.; Geleva, E.

    2010-01-01

    For the purposes of environmental assessment of the area around the Research reactor in Sofia, species from monitored control points, selected in a certain way (habitat, population, air and hydrogeological parameters) are examined. Samples from following phytomonitored species: Betula pendula (silver birch) popullus canadensis (Canadian populus), Quercus sp. (Oak), Dactilus glomerata (Cock's-foot), Abies alba (Silver Fir) and Sequoia sempervirens (Coast Redwood) were analyzed. The total beta activity was determined by radiometric analysis and heavy metals content was measured using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results are discussed in terms of radiation monitoring program of INRNE (gamma-background, aerosols, surface and groundwater, soil, plants) and obtained values are compared with reference points in the country

  12. An individual-based growth and competition model for coastal redwood forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Das, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Thinning treatments to accelerate coastal redwood forest stand development are in wide application, but managers have yet to identify prescriptions that might best promote Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl. (redwood) growth. The creation of successful thinning prescriptions would be aided by identifying the underlying mechanisms governing how individual tree growth responds to competitive environments in coastal redwood forests. We created a spatially explicit individual-based model of tree competition and growth parameterized using surveys of upland redwood forests at Redwood National Park, California. We modeled competition for overstory trees (stems ≥ 20 cm stem diameter at breast height, 1.37 m (dbh)) as growth reductions arising from sizes, distances, and species identity of competitor trees. Our model explained up to half of the variation in individual tree growth, suggesting that neighborhood crowding is an important determinant of growth in this forest type. We used our model to simulate the effects of novel thinning prescriptions (e.g., 40% stand basal area removal) for redwood forest restoration, concluding that these treatments could lead to substantial growth releases, particularly for S. sempervirens. The results of this study, along with continued improvements to our model, will help to determine spacing and species composition that best encourage growth.

  13. Pliocene taxodiaceous fossil wood from southwestern Ukraine and its palaeoenvironmental implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tiemei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralized wood collected from Late Pliocene strata near Gorbki village in the Transcarpathian region of Beregovo Kholmogor'e in southwestern Ukraine was anatomically studied and identified. The wood possesses distinctive anatomical features and has distinct growth rings with an abrupt transition from early- to late-wood. Wood consists of tracheids with 1–3 seriate, dominating bi-seriate, opposite pits on the radial walls and taxodioid cross-field pitting, indentures present. Rays are uni-seriate and 1 to 73 cells high. Ray parenchyma horizontal walls thin and smooth. Axial parenchyma distributed in early- and late-wood and is solitary and diffuse, with end walls nearly smooth or slightly nodular. The combination of features observed in the wood indicates it belongs to the conifer family Taxodiaceae and is most similar to modern Sequoia and assigned to the fossil genus Sequoioxylon. Comparison with species of Sequoioxylon show it is most similar to Sequoioxylon burejense, but ray tracheids were not found in our specimens. We describe the specimens here as Sequoioxylon cf. s. burejense noting this similarity. Extant Sequoia is distributed in the northern California coastal forest eco-region of northern California and southern Oregon in the United States where they usually grow in a unique environment with heavy seasonal precipitation (2500 mm annually, cool coastal air and fog drip. This study supplies magafossil evidence of Sequoioxylon as an element of the Late Pliocene forest community in Ukraine and indicates a climate with heavy seasonal precipitation and fog drip.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance characterization of traditional homeopathically manufactured copper (Cuprum metallicum) and plant (Gelsemium sempervirens) medicines and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel; Goyens, Martine; Henry, Marc; Capieaux, Etienne; Devos, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    NMR proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule H 2 O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton ( 1 H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields. We measured dilution and potentization processes through measurements of 1 H spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times. In order to interpret the recorded fluctuations in T 1 - or T 2 -values, experimental data were linearized by investigating how the area under a fluctuating time = f(dilution) curve (dilution integral or DI) changes with dilution. Two kinds of fitting procedures were considered: chi-square fitting with a goodness-of-fit probability, and least absolute deviations criterion with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. We showed that fluctuations are not attributable to random noise and/or experimental errors, evidencing a memory effect quantifiable by the slope of the DI = f(dilution) straight line. For all experiments, correlation coefficients were found to lie above 0.9999, against 0.999 for random noise. The discrimination between experimental slopes and slopes associated with random noise data was very good at a five-sigma level of confidence (i.e. probability 3 × 10 -7 ). Discrimination between experimental slopes at a five-sigma level was possible in most cases, with three exceptions: gelsemium aqua pura v gelsemium dilution (four-sigma); copper aqua pura v gelsemium aqua pura (four-sigma) and copper simple dilution v gelsemium simple dilution (three-sigma). All potentized samples show very good discrimination (at least nine-sigma level) against aqua pura, lactose or simple dilution. It was possible to transform the associated relaxation times into a molecular rotational correlation time τ c and an average spin-spin distance d. Our experiments thus point to a considerable slowing down of molecular movements (τ c  > 1300 ps or T = 224-225 K) around water molecules up to a distance of 3.7 Å, values. It was also possible to rule out other possible mechanisms of relaxation (diffusive motion, 17 O- 1 H relaxation or coupling with the electronic spin, S = 1, of dissolved dioxygen molecules). There is clear evidence that homeopathic solutions cannot be considered as pure water as commonly assumed. Instead, we have evidenced a clear memory effect upon dilution/potentization of a substance (water, lactose, copper, gelsemium) reflected by different rotational correlation times and average H⋯H distances. A possible explanation for such a memory effect may lie in the formation of mesoscopic water structures around nanoparticles and/or nanobubbles mediated by zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field as suggested by quantum field theories. The existence of an Avogadro's 'wall' for homeopathically-prepared medicines is not supported by our data. Rather it appears that all dilutions have a specific material configuration determined by the potentized substance, also by the chemical nature of the containers, and dissolved gases and the electromagnetic environment. This sensitivity of homeopathically-prepared medicines to electromagnetic fields may be amplified by the highly non-linear processing routinely applied in the preparation of homeopathic medicines. Future work is needed in such directions. The time is now ripe for a demystification of the preparation of homeopathic remedies. Copyright © 2017 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Parks. (a) Dogs and cats. Dogs and cats are prohibited on any park land or trail except within one-fourth mile of developed areas which are accessible by a designated public automobile road. (b) Fishing. (1) Fishing restrictions, based on management objectives described in the parks' Resources Management...

  16. 76 FR 9537 - Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... camping, hunting, sightseeing, horseback riding, hiking, rock climbing, rock hounding, and vegetation and... providing benefits equal to or better than the current condition. Alternatives being considered at this time...

  17. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... compliance with Sec. 4(d)(5) of the Wilderness Act. The WSP will reevaluate existing wilderness-related plans... the Web site (to assist in reducing costs, the public is strongly encouraged to accept compact disks... available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying...

  18. Functional Ecology Effect Aspect Geographic on the Cypress (Cupresuss sempervirens L.var horizontalis) Growth in the Abbas Abad Behshahr Planting Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, H.; Fallah, A.; Hojjati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the growth of cypress in different aspects (North West, West, Northeast and Southwest) is a pure planting stand in the area of Abbas Abad Behshar was considered. Method: Using the inventory network 75 × 100 m and a stratified random method, 50 samples plot 2 R (200 square meters) in different geographical aspects was carried out. In each sample plots, diameters and height of four trees were measured. Excel and SPSS statistical software and statistical analyses and necessary calculations were performed. Findings: The results showed that there are significant differences between amplitude with different aspects of growth. So that the highest diameter increment in the West aspect (0.53 cm) and the lowest in the North East aspect (0.479 cm) were observed. The maximum height growth in the West and South-West aspects (0.53 m) and the lowest was in the northwest aspect (0.49 m) and for average basal area growth, the highest growth in the West aspect was 0.87 m square per ha and lowest in the North west aspect was 0.76 square meters per hectare respectively. The average volume growth to age, respectively, in the aspect of West aspect (4 sylve per ha) and Northeast aspect (6.3 sylve per hectare) were the highest and lowest values.

  19. Mass production of 'Swan's Golden', Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    Some species of 'Swan's Golden' have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of 'Swan's Golden' is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  20. Carex sempervirens tussocks induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition, but not in soil properties, in a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Hai Yu; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Bertil O. Krusi; Jakob Schneller; Otto Wildi; Anita C. Risch

    2011-01-01

    Tussocks of graminoids can induce spatial heterogeneity in soil properties in dry areas with discontinuous vegetation cover, but little is known about the situation in areas with continuous vegetation and no study has tested whether tussocks can induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition. In a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps where vegetation cover is...

  1. Climatic and physiological effects on leaf and tree-ring stable isotopes in California redwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, A. R.; Baxter, W.; Wong, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Carroll, A.; Voelker, S.

    2016-12-01

    Variation in the stable isotope composition of organic matter can provide important information about environmental change and biological responses to it. We analyzed the stable carbon (d13C) and oxygen (d18O) isotope ratios of leaves and of the cellulose from individual tree-rings of California's two redwood species to examine how these trees have responded to environmental variation and change in both time and space. Analyses of leaf d13C for both coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) from throughout their geographical ranges show a marked gradient with tree height for trees of all sizes and ages but no clear difference among species or populations. The gradient is best explained by tree response to changes in both microenvironment and physiology that are known to change with height. In contrast, leaf d18O for both species showed no clear relationship with height but very clear differences between species and populations with giant sequoia displaying a much stronger inferred leaf-level response to the higher evaporative conditions present in the Sierra Nevada mountains as compared to the coast. Both species showed population-level differences with the driest and warmest sites most distinct from all of the others. Intra-annual analyses of d13C and d18O in tree-rings over a 21-year period (1974-1994) were also used to explore how climate and tree response to climate was recorded for both species. These analyses revealed unique (local) climatic effects and response to the climate for each species and population of both redwood species. Most pronounced was a significant increase in intrinsic Water Use Efficiency (iWUE) derived from d13C data over the study period in both species, and a distinct d18O response in relation to drought (e.g. 1976/1977) and to warmer days and nights and above-average precipitation (e.g., 1982-1985). Patterns of co-variation in d13C and d18O in both species suggest that during dry and also warm

  2. Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae among Three Commercial Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala K. Hapukotuwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009 to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice assay was used for four weeks (28 days in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure to 10 (sound scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

  3. Mortality and community changes drive sudden oak death impacts on litterfall and soil nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Richard C; Eviner, Valerie T; Rizzo, David M

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have quantified pathogen impacts to ecosystem processes, despite the fact that pathogens cause or contribute to regional-scale tree mortality. We measured litterfall mass, litterfall chemistry, and soil nitrogen (N) cycling associated with multiple hosts along a gradient of mortality caused by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death. In redwood forests, the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of the major overstory species determine disease patterns and the magnitude and nature of ecosystem change. Bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) has high litterfall N (0.992%), greater soil extractable NO3 -N, and transmits infection without suffering mortality. Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has moderate litterfall N (0.723%) and transmits infection while suffering extensive mortality that leads to higher extractable soil NO3 -N. Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) has relatively low litterfall N (0.519%), does not suffer mortality or transmit the pathogen, but dominates forest biomass. The strongest impact of pathogen-caused mortality was the potential shift in species composition, which will alter litterfall chemistry, patterns and dynamics of litterfall mass, and increase soil NO3 -N availability. Patterns of P. ramorum spread and consequent mortality are closely associated with bay laurel abundances, suggesting this species will drive both disease emergence and subsequent ecosystem function. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

    2005-05-01

    Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

  5. Regeneration Dynamics of Coast Redwood, a Sprouting Conifer Species: A Review with Implications for Management and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex. D. Don Endl. is unique among conifer species because of its longevity, the great sizes of individual trees, and its propensity to reproduce through sprouts. Timber harvesting in the native redwood range along the coast of the western United States has necessitated restoration aimed to promote old forest structures to increase the total amount of old forest, the connectivity between old forests, and to enhance the resiliency of these ecosystems. After disturbance or harvest, healthy redwood stumps sprout vigorously, often producing dozens of sprouts within two years of disturbance. These sprouts form highly aggregated spatial patterns because they are clustered around stumps that may number less than 50 ha−1. Thinning of sprouts can accelerate individual tree growth, providing an effective restoration strategy to accelerate formation of large trees and old forest structures or increase stand growth for timber production. However, management, including restoration activities, is a contentious issue throughout the native range of redwood because of the history of overexploitation of this resource and perceptions that overexploitation is continuing. This paper reviews the science of early stand dynamics in coast redwood and their implications for restoration and other silvicultural strategies.

  6. Plant Uptake of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide in Coast Redwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Whelan, M. E.; Berry, J. A.; Hilton, T. W.; Zumkehr, A.; Stinecipher, J.; Lu, Y.; Kornfeld, A.; Seibt, U.; Dawson, T. E.; Montzka, S. A.; Baker, I. T.; Kulkarni, S.; Wang, Y.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Commane, R.; Loik, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The future resilience of coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) is now of critical concern due to the detection of a 33% decline in California coastal fog over the 20th century. However, ecosystem-scale measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are challenging in coast redwood forests, making it difficult to anticipate the impacts of future changes in fog. To address this methodological problem, we explore coastal variations in atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS), which could potentially be used as a tracer of these ecosystem processes. We conducted atmospheric flask campaigns in coast redwood sites, sampling at surface heights and in the canopy ( 70 m), at the University of California Landels-Hill Big Creek Reserve and Big Basin State Park. We simulated COS atmosphere-biosphere exchange with a high-resolution 3-D model to interpret these data. Flask measurements indicated a persistent daytime drawdown between the coast and the downwind forest (45 ± 6 ppt COS) that is consistent with the expected relationship between COS plant uptake, stomatal conductance, and gross primary production. Other sources and sinks of COS that could introduce noise to the COS tracer technique (soils, anthropogenic activity, nocturnal plant uptake, and surface hydrolysis on leaves) are likely to be small relative to daytime COS plant uptake. These results suggest that COS measurements may be useful for making ecosystem-scale estimates of carbon, water, and energy exchange in coast redwood forests.

  7. Sudden Oak Death-Induced Tanoak Mortality in Coast Redwood Forests: Current and Predicted Impacts to Stand Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens, but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for a thorough understanding of the impacts of sudden oak death (caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, which is currently decimating tanoak populations throughout the redwood range. In this study, we utilized a stratified plot design and a stand reconstruction technique to assess structural impacts, at present and in the future, of this emerging disease. We found that residual trees in diseased plots were more aggregated than trees in unaffected plots, and we predicted that the loss of tanoak will lead to the following short-term changes: greater average diameter, height, height-to-live-crown, and crown length, as well as an increase in average nearest neighbor differences for diameter, height, and crown length. In addition, plots lacking tanoak (living or dead—as compared to plots with tanoak—exhibited greater average diameter and increased nearest neighbor differences with regard to diameter, height, and crown length. We also conducted a preliminary exploration of how sudden oak death-induced structural changes compare with typical old-growth characteristics, and how this disease may affect the structure of old-growth forests.

  8. The right tree for the job? perceptions of species suitability for the provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaill, Simeon J; Bayne, Karen M; Coker, Graham W R; Paul, Thomas S H; Clinton, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing species other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation species) in the belief that alternative species are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which species were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 tree attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate tree species possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the species perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate species. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence tree species selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services.

  9. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  10. 76 FR 14068 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sequoia National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, for research and storage. While conducting NAGPRA... ethnographic study. Ethnographic data places the CA-KER-14 site close to the village hamlets of the Tubatulabal... in Yokut territory) compose the Tubatulabal (Smith 1978). Burial customs based on ethnographic data...

  11. 78 FR 78326 - Revision of the Land Management Plans for the Inyo, Sierra and Sequoia National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... posted to the Region 5 Web site at http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/r5/landmanagement/planning . The Forest..., U.S. Forest Service, Ecosystem Planning Staff, 1323 Club Drive, Vallejo, CA 94592. Comments or...-8823. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information...

  12. Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Allyson L; Sillett, Stephen C; Kramer, Russell D

    2014-01-01

    Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California's redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI) helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE) have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood species have

  13. Estimation the remaining service-lifetime of wooden structure of geothermal cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar with other construction materials, wood strength is decreasing when applied by long term loading. Wooden cooling tower structure at Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd was built in 1998 and it should be evaluated to avoid sudden structural failure. Evaluation conducted through several steps: wood species identification, the physical and mechanical properties testing, and estimation for remaining service-lifetime by generating mathematical models derived from creep test and reduction of cross sectional area of the wood. Identification result that the wood are redwood (Sequoia sempervirens and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii. The wood density value has degraded from the surface until 0.25 cm depth. Strength characteristics of the wood have considerably decreased, but the allowable stress for bending, tension parallel to grain, and shear were still higher than NDS2005 requirements. The allowable stress for compression parallel to grain was slightly lower than NDS, while compression perpendicular to grain was much lower. Average modulus of elasticity reduces become lower than the value stated by the code, but the minimum value of modulus of elasticity (Emin of redwood was still higher than the code value, while Emin of Douglas fir is slightly lower. Then, in accordance with those findings, the construction would not failure yet but the deformation and vibration will occur in higher rate than design planning. This research develops mathematical models for estimating the remaining service-lifetime of the wooden cooling tower structure in geothermal power plant based on the wood performance in resisting long term loading and its deterioration rate. The deterioration rate of wood member of cooling tower structure at Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd is 0.0147 cm depth per year, so equation for the residual service life estimation is σlaterσtoday=bh2(b−0.0147T(h−0.0147T2, and σlater must be lower than allowable stress.

  14. Water-use responses of ‘living fossil’ conifers to CO2 enrichment in a simulated Cretaceous polar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Laura; Osborne, Colin P.; Beerling, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims During the Mesozoic, the polar regions supported coniferous forests that experienced warm climates, a CO2-rich atmosphere and extreme seasonal variations in daylight. How the interaction between the last two factors might have influenced water use of these conifers was investigated. An experimental approach was used to test the following hypotheses: (1) the expected beneficial effects of elevated [CO2] on water-use efficiency (WUE) are reduced or lost during the 24-h light of the high-latitude summer; and (2) elevated [CO2] reduces plant water use over the growing season. Methods Measurements of leaf and whole-plant gas exchange, and leaf-stable carbon isotope composition were made on one evergreen (Sequoia sempervirens) and two deciduous (Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum) ‘living fossil’ coniferous species after 3 years' growth in controlled-environment simulated Cretaceous Arctic (69°N) conditions at either ambient (400 µmol mol−1) or elevated (800 µmol mol−1) [CO2]. Key Results Stimulation of whole-plant WUE (WUEP) by CO2 enrichment was maintained over the growing season for the three studied species but this pattern was not reflected in patterns of WUE inferred from leaf-scale gas exchange measurements (iWUEL) and δ13C of foliage (tWUEL). This response was driven largely by increased rates of carbon uptake, because there was no overall CO2 effect on daily whole-plant transpiration or whole-plant water loss integrated over the study period. Seasonal patterns of tWUEL differed from those measured for iWUEL. The results suggest caution against over simplistic interpretations of WUEP based on leaf isotopic composition. Conclusions The data suggest that the efficiency of whole-tree water use may be improved by CO2 enrichment in a simulated high-latitude environment, but that transpiration is relatively insensitive to atmospheric CO2 in the living fossil species investigated. PMID:19447810

  15. Water-use responses of 'living fossil' conifers to CO2 enrichment in a simulated Cretaceous polar environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Laura; Osborne, Colin P; Beerling, David J

    2009-07-01

    During the Mesozoic, the polar regions supported coniferous forests that experienced warm climates, a CO(2)-rich atmosphere and extreme seasonal variations in daylight. How the interaction between the last two factors might have influenced water use of these conifers was investigated. An experimental approach was used to test the following hypotheses: (1) the expected beneficial effects of elevated [CO(2)] on water-use efficiency (WUE) are reduced or lost during the 24-h light of the high-latitude summer; and (2) elevated [CO(2)] reduces plant water use over the growing season. Measurements of leaf and whole-plant gas exchange, and leaf-stable carbon isotope composition were made on one evergreen (Sequoia sempervirens) and two deciduous (Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum) 'living fossil' coniferous species after 3 years' growth in controlled-environment simulated Cretaceous Arctic (69 degrees N) conditions at either ambient (400 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 micromol mol(-1)) [CO(2)]. Stimulation of whole-plant WUE (WUE(P)) by CO(2) enrichment was maintained over the growing season for the three studied species but this pattern was not reflected in patterns of WUE inferred from leaf-scale gas exchange measurements (iWUE(L)) and delta(13)C of foliage (tWUE(L)). This response was driven largely by increased rates of carbon uptake, because there was no overall CO(2) effect on daily whole-plant transpiration or whole-plant water loss integrated over the study period. Seasonal patterns of tWUE(L) differed from those measured for iWUE(L). The results suggest caution against over simplistic interpretations of WUE(P) based on leaf isotopic composition. The data suggest that the efficiency of whole-tree water use may be improved by CO(2) enrichment in a simulated high-latitude environment, but that transpiration is relatively insensitive to atmospheric CO(2) in the living fossil species investigated.

  16. The penalty of a long, hot summer. Photosynthetic acclimation to high CO2 and continuous light in "living fossil" conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Colin P; Beerling, David J

    2003-10-01

    Deciduous forests covered the ice-free polar regions 280 to 40 million years ago under warm "greenhouse" climates and high atmospheric pCO2. Their deciduous habit is frequently interpreted as an adaptation for minimizing carbon losses during winter, but experiments with "living fossils" in a simulated warm polar environment refute this explanation. Measured carbon losses through leaf abscission of deciduous trees are significantly greater than losses through winter respiration in evergreens, yet annual rates of primary productivity are similar in all species. Here, we investigate mechanisms underlying this apparent paradox by measuring the seasonal patterns of leaf photosynthesis (A) under pCO2 enrichment in the same trees. During spring, A increased significantly in coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), and swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum) at an elevated pCO2 of 80 Pa compared with controls at 40 Pa. However, strong acclimation in Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vc,max) completely offset the CO2 response of A in all species by the end of 6 weeks of continuous illumination in the simulated polar summer. Further measurements demonstrated the temporary nature of acclimation, with increases in Vc,max during autumn restoring the CO2 sensitivity of A. Contrary to expectations, the acclimation of Vc,max was not always accompanied by accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, but was associated with a decline in leaf nitrogen in summer, suggesting an alteration of the balance in plant sources and sinks for carbon and nitrogen. Preliminary calculations using A indicated that winter carbon losses through deciduous leaf abscission and respiration were recovered by 10 to 25 d of canopy carbon fixation during summer, thereby explaining the productivity paradox.

  17. The Penalty of a Long, Hot Summer. Photosynthetic Acclimation to High CO2 and Continuous Light in “Living Fossil” Conifers1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Colin P.; Beerling, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Deciduous forests covered the ice-free polar regions 280 to 40 million years ago under warm “greenhouse” climates and high atmospheric pCO2. Their deciduous habit is frequently interpreted as an adaptation for minimizing carbon losses during winter, but experiments with “living fossils” in a simulated warm polar environment refute this explanation. Measured carbon losses through leaf abscission of deciduous trees are significantly greater than losses through winter respiration in evergreens, yet annual rates of primary productivity are similar in all species. Here, we investigate mechanisms underlying this apparent paradox by measuring the seasonal patterns of leaf photosynthesis (A) under pCO2 enrichment in the same trees. During spring, A increased significantly in coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), and swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum) at an elevated pCO2 of 80 Pa compared with controls at 40 Pa. However, strong acclimation in Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vc,max) completely offset the CO2 response of A in all species by the end of 6 weeks of continuous illumination in the simulated polar summer. Further measurements demonstrated the temporary nature of acclimation, with increases in Vc,max during autumn restoring the CO2 sensitivity of A. Contrary to expectations, the acclimation of Vc,max was not always accompanied by accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, but was associated with a decline in leaf nitrogen in summer, suggesting an alteration of the balance in plant sources and sinks for carbon and nitrogen. Preliminary calculations using A indicated that winter carbon losses through deciduous leaf abscission and respiration were recovered by 10 to 25 d of canopy carbon fixation during summer, thereby explaining the productivity paradox. PMID:12972654

  18. Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson L Carroll

    Full Text Available Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California's redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood

  19. Forest restoration at Redwood National Park: exploring prescribed fire alternatives to second-growth management: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engber, Eamon; Teraoka, Jason; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of Redwood National Park is comprised of second-growth forests characterized by high stand density, deficient redwood composition, and low understory biodiversity. Typical structure of young redwood stands impedes the recovery of old-growth conditions, such as dominance of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), distinct canopy layers and diverse understory vegetation. Young forests are commonly comprised of dense, even-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and redwood stump sprouts, with simple canopy structure and little understory development. Moreover, many of these young stands are believed to be vulnerable to disturbance in the form of drought, disease and fire. Silvicultural practices are increasingly being employed by conservation agencies to restore degraded forests throughout the coast redwood range; however, prescribed fire treatments are less common and potentially under-utilized as a restoration tool. We present an early synthesis from three separate management-scale prescribed fire projects at Redwood National Park spanning 1to 7 years post-treatment. Low intensity prescribed fire had minimal effect on overstory structure, with some mortality observed in trees smaller than 30 cm diameter. Moderate to high intensity fire may be required to reduce densities of larger Douglas-fir, the primary competitor of redwood in the Park’s second growth forests. Fine woody surface fuels fully recovered by 7 years post-burn, while recruitment of larger surface fuels was quite variable. Managers of coastal redwood ecosystems will benefit by having a variety of tools at their disposal for forest restoration and management.

  20. Redwoods, restoration, and implications for carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) of California have several unique characteristics that influence interactions between vegetation and geomorphic processes. Case studies, using a combination of in-channel wood surveys and an air photo inventory of landslides, illustrate current conditions in a redwood-dominated watershed undergoing restoration work, and the influence of wood loading and landslides on the carbon budget. Redwood trees have extremely large biomass (trunk wood volumes of 700 to 1000 m3) and are very decay-resistant; consequently, they have a large and persistent influence on in-channel wood loading. Large wood surveys indicate high wood loading in streams in uncut forests (0.3-0.5 m3/m2 of channel), but also show that high wood loading can persist in logged basin with unlogged riparian buffers because of the slow decay of fallen redwoods. Through a watershed restoration program, Redwood National Park increases in-channel wood loading in low-order streams, but the effectiveness of this technique has not yet been tested by a large flood. Another unique characteristic of redwood is its ability to resprout from basal burls after cutting, so that root strength may not decline as sharply following logging as in other types of forests. An air photo inventory of landslides following a large storm in 1997 indicated: 1) that in the Redwood Creek watershed the volume of material displaced by landslides in harvested areas was not related to the time elapsed since logging, suggesting that the loss of root strength was not a decisive factor in landslide initiation, 2) landslide production on decommissioned logging roads was half that of untreated roads, and 3) landslides removed an estimated 28 Mg of organic carbon/km2 from hillslopes. The carbon budget of a redwood-dominated catchment is dominated by the vegetative component, but is also influenced by the extent of mass movement, erosion control work, and in-channel storage of wood.

  1. Mass production of `Swan`s Golden`, Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Some species of `Swan`s Golden` have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of `Swan`s Golden` is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  2. 76 FR 60452 - In the Matter of: Bahram Maghazehe, a.k.a. Benjamin Maghazehe, a.k.a. Ben Maghazehe, 154 Sequoia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...-installation and removal of the equipment from the U.S. hospital and the export of the equipment from the...). Maghazehe had knowledge that a U.S. hospital was discarding the oncology system and that a company in Iran... States. For purposes of this paragraph, servicing means installation, maintenance, repair, modification...

  3. Mesocosm-Scale Experimental Quantification of Plant-Fungi Associations on Carbon Fluxes and Mineral Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M. Y.; Palmer, B.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Beerling, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The rise of land plants in the Paleozoic is classically implicated as driving lower atmospheric CO2 levels through enhanced weathering of Ca and Mg bearing silicate minerals. However, this view overlooks the fact that plants coevolved with associated mycorrhizal fungi over this time, with many of the weathering processes usually ascribed to plants actually being driven by the combined activities of roots and mycorrhizal fungi. Here we present initial results from a novel mesocosm-scale laboratory experiment designed to allow investigation of plant-driven carbon flux and mineral weathering at different soil depths under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (1500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. Four species of plants were chosen to address evolutionary trends in symbiotic mycorrhizal association and rooting depth on biologically driven silicate weathering under the different CO2 regimes. Gymnosperms were used to investigate potential differences in weathering capabilities of two fungal symbioses: Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides (arbuscular mycorrhizal, AM) and Pinus sylvestris (ectomycorrhizal, EM), and the shallow rooted ancient fern, Osmunda regalis, used to provide a contrast to the three more deeply rooted trees. Plants were grown in a cylindrical mesocosm with four horizontal inserts at each depth. These inserts are a mesh-covered dual-core unit whereby an inner core containing silicate minerals can be rotated within an outer core. The mesh excludes roots from the cylinders allowing fungal-rock pairings to be examined at each depth. Each core contains either basalt or granite, each with severed (rotated cores) or intact (static cores) mycorrhizae. This system provides a unique opportunity to examine the ability of a plant to weather minerals with and without its symbiotic fungi. Preliminary results indicate marked differences in nutritional and water requirements, and response to elevated CO2 between the species. The bulk solution chemistries (p

  4. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  5. The relationship between perceptions of wilderness character and attitudes toward management intervention to adapt biophysical resources to a changing climate and nature restoration at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Watson; Steve Martin; Neal Christensen; Gregg Fauth; Dan Williams

    2015-01-01

    In a recent national survey of federal wilderness managers, respondents identified the high priority need for scientific information about public attitudes toward biophysical intervention to adapt to climate change and attitudes of the public toward restoration of natural conditions. In a survey of visitors to one National Park wilderness in California, visitors...

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboid...

  7. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  8. 76 FR 13944 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of California; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Wilderness; 14. Emigrant Wilderness; 15. Hoover Wilderness; 16. Yosemite National Park; 17. Ansel Adams... monitor) Ansel Adams WA, Kaiser WA, John 15.5 14.9 13.6 7.1 2200 Muir WA (KAIS monitor)......... Sequoia...

  9. Taliraps on koristatud ja müüdudki / Lii Sammler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sammler, Lii, 1963-

    2014-01-01

    Esimest korda talirapsiga viljelusvõistlusel osalenud Väätsa Agro ja Karinu PM OÜ panustasid sordile DK 'Sequoia' ja esialgsetel andmetel korjati kuiva seemet 4-5 tonni ümber hektarilt. Vestlusest agronoomidega

  10. AcEST: BP917160 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequoia glyptostroboides PE=2 SV=1 Length = 319 Score = ...jct: 64 GRGILAMDESNATCGKRLASIGLENTEANRQAYRTLLVTAPGLGQYISGSILFEETLY 121 >tr|Q8LK59|Q8LK59_METGY Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase OS=Meta

  11. Information needs for natural fire management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, David; Bancroft, Larry; Nichols, Thomas; Stohlgren, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The development and implementation of an effective natural fire management program require a clear definition of goals and objectives, an ever-expanding information base, and effective program evaluation. Examples are given from Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

  12. Development of polymorphic genic-SSR markers by cDNA library sequencing in boxwood, Buxus spp. (Buxaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genic microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (genic-SSR) markers were developed in boxwood (Buxus taxa) for genetic diversity analysis, identification of taxa, and to facilitate breeding. cDNA libraries were developed from mRNA extracted from leaves of Buxus sempervirens ‘Vardar Valley’ and seque...

  13. 78 FR 11899 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Mateo County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... California Nonprofit Corporation, for the appraised fair market value. The total appraised value of both... Sempervirens Fund for the appraised fair market value of $420,000. Parcel No. 2 T. 8 S., R. 4 W., Sec. 9, NE\\1... appraised fair market value of $450,000. The areas described aggregate 80 acres, more or less, in Santa...

  14. Chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Diplodia species, fungi involved in forest plants diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been initiated in order to understand what are the microorganisms involved in forest plants diseases and the role played by phytotoxins produced in the pathogenesis processes. The aim of the present thesis was to study the fungi and the phytotoxins associated with canker disease of the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) and the branch dieback of juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.) which are plant diseases with noteworthy social and economical impli...

  15. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  16. Magnetic record associated with tree ring density: Possible climate proxy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Pruner, Petr; Venhodová, Daniela; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2007), s. 1-11 ISSN 1467-4866 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : palaeo-climatic indicator * sequoia tree * magnetic properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2007

  17. Annosus Root disease of Western Conifers (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Schmitt; John R. Parmeter; John T. Kliejunas

    2000-01-01

    Annosus root disease is found on all western conifer species but is of most concern on true firs, hemlocks, and pines. Incense cedar, coast redwood and sequoia are sometimes infected in California. Western juniper is infected throughout its range. Annosus is common and causes extensive decay in old-growth western and mountain hemlock stands. Many mixed conifer stands...

  18. Changing conditions on wilderness campsites: Seven case studies of trends over 13 to 32 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2013-01-01

    This report brings together seven case studies of trends in the number and condition of wilderness campsites over periods ranging from 13 to 32 years. Case examples come from five mountainous wilderness areas in the western United States: Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness in California, the Eagle Cap Wilderness in Oregon, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in...

  19. AcEST: DK962439 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequoia glyptostroboides PE=2 SV=1 Length = 319 Score = 261 bits (667), Expect = 3e...GLASRSAAYYQQGARFAK 183 Query: 637 WRTVV 651 WRTVV Sbjct: 184 WRTVV 188 >tr|Q8LK59|Q8LK59_METGY Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase OS=Meta

  20. Policy Evaluation: Use of the PSB-Aptitude Test as an Admission Requirement for the LVN Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstman, Aranga

    A study was conducted to assess the use of the Psychological Services Bureau's Aptitude Test for Practical Nursing (PSB Aptitude Test) as an entrance requirement for the licensed vocational nurse (LVN) program at College of the Sequoias. The study sought to determine whether the PSB Aptitude Test was a valid indicator of success in the LVN…

  1. Fostering personal relationships with the wild: Oral history's role in recreation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Steiner; Daniel R. Williams

    2017-01-01

    Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) encompass much of central California's most stunning scenery. Dramatic peaks and passes, perennial snowfields, remote lake basins, alpine meadows, steep canyons, and shockingly big trees characterize the more than 800,000 acres of wild land that lie within the parks. Drought-resistant chaparral and blue oak woodlands...

  2. The impact of normative message types on off-trail hiking

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Winter

    2006-01-01

    Depreciative activities and high annual visitation levels threaten the health and sustainability of the giant Sequoia. Signage is one route to managing visitor behavior. Research suggests a two-by-two conceptualization of normative messages in signs. Messages may present the "ought" (injunctive) or the "is" (descriptive) of behavior and may be...

  3. High Sierra Ecosystems: The Role of Fish Stocking in Amphibian Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews

    2003-01-01

    With a rich diversity of aquatic habitats, including deep lakes, shallow ponds, and rushing streams, Dusy Basinin Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks typifies the high Sierra ecosystem where mountain yellow-legged frogs usually thrive. Yet throughout the Sierra, aquatic ecologist Kathleen Matthews found entire water basins empty of these amphibians. Comprehensive...

  4. Pollen analysis of coal-bearing Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Seyitomer basin (Kutahya), western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz-Isik, N. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The late Early-Middle Miocene sequences of the Seyitomer Basin (western Anatolia) were palynologically investigated. Fifty-five taxa belonging to seven gymnospermous and 48 angiospermous pollen genera were identified in the 19 productive samples. Two pollen zones were recognised based on the changing abundance of individual tree taxa. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of Pinus and Cedrus. Zone 2 is characterized by predominance of deciduous Quercus and evergreen Quercus and a marked reduction in representation of Taxodiaceae. The differences in the pollen spectra between Zone 1 and Zone 2 may reflect the global Middle Miocene cooling. These results are largely comparable to pollen data derived from the neighbouring areas. The vegetation of the Seyitomer Basin was dominated by trees. This palynological analysis reveals the existence of a swamp-forest developed in a subtropical to warm-temperate humid climate.

  5. Two ways of legumin-precursor processing in conifers. Characterization and evolutionary relationships of Metasequoia cDNAs representing two divergent legumin gene subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, K P; Wind, C

    1997-06-15

    Subunit monomers and oligomers of crystalloid-type legumins are major components of SDS-soluble fractions from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood, Taxodiaceae) seed proteins. The subunits are made up of disulfide linked alpha-polypeptides and beta-polypeptides with molecular masses of 33 kDa and 23-25 kDa, respectively. Unusually for legumins, those from Metasequoia are glycosylated and the carbohydrate moieties are residing in the C-terminal region of the respective beta-polypeptides. A Metasequoia endosperm cDNA library has been constructed and legumin-encoding transcripts representing two divergent gene subfamilies have been characterized. Intersubfamily comparisons reveal 75% identity at the amino acid level and the values range from 53-35% when the legumin precursors deduced were compared with those from angiosperms. The predicted sequences together with data from amino acid sequencing prove that post-translational processing of Metasequoia prolegumins is directed to two different processing sites, each of them specific for one of the legumin subfamilies. The sites involved differ in their relative position and in the junction to be cleaved: Metasequoia legumin precursors MgLeg18 and MgLeg26 contain the conventional post-translational Asn-Gly processing site, which is generally regarded as highly conserved. In contrast, the MgLeg4 precursor is lacking this site and post-translational cleavage is directed to an unusual Asn-Thr processing site located in its hypervariable region, causing N-terminal extension of the beta-polypeptide relative to those hitherto known. Evidence is given that the unusual variant of processing also occurs in other conifers. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the precursors concerned as representatives of a distinct legumin subfamily, originating from duplication of an ancestral gene prior to or at the beginning of Taxodiaceae diversification.

  6. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  7. Determination of the swelling velocity of different wood species and tissues depending on the cutting direction on microtome section level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenberg, Peter; Wenderdel, Christoph; Zauer, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Swelling velocity in dependence on the anatomical cutting direction of yew [Taxus baccata L.] and boxwood [Buxus sempervirens L.] was determined at temperature of 20 °C and at relative humidity of 10% and 100%. The investigations, conducted on a microtome section level, showed a similar behaviour for specimens of both wood species. It was possible to determine that the swelling velocity for yew and boxwood increases in its anatomical cutting directions. The longitudinal direction showed the lowest value, the tangential direction, by distinction, the highest value. Furthermore, a significant influence of early wood and late wood content on the swelling velocity for yew was detected.

  8. Development of High Resolution Eddy Current Imaging Using an Electro-Mechanical Sensor (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Fluxgate Magnetometer ,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 12: 241-253. 13. A. Abedi, J. J. Fellenstein, A. J. Lucas, and J. P. Wikswo, Jr., “A...206 (2006). 11. Ripka, P., 1992, Review of Fluxgate Sensors, Sensors and Actuators, A. 33, Elsevier Sequoia: 129-141. 12. Primdahl, F., 1979...superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in aircraft aluminum

  9. Development of High Resolution Eddy Current Imaging Using an Electro-Mechanical Sensor (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Primdahl, F., 1979, “The Fluxgate Magnetometer ,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 12: 241-253. 13. A. Abedi, J. J. Fellenstein, A. J. Lucas, and J. P...Issues 1-2, Pages 203-206 (2006). 11. Ripka, P., 1992, Review of Fluxgate Sensors, Sensors and Actuators, A. 33, Elsevier Sequoia: 129-141. 12...Wikswo, Jr., “A superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in

  10. Detection of Oil in Water Column, Final Report: Detection Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    nautical miles per hour) LED Light-emitting diode LISST Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometry LUT Look-up table μm Micron or micrometer...nozzles are attached to an electrically actuated solenoid valve. When a remotely operated switch energizes the valve, oil flows through the nozzles...smaller droplet sizes below 70 μm. Ohmsett personnel used a Sequoia Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) 100X off-the-shelf particle

  11. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Temple, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ozone and acid-mist exposures on the leaf chemistry of Jeffrey pine and giant sequoia seedlings grown in filtered-air greenhouses were investigated. Acid-mist treatments (pH 4.1, 3.4, 2.7, or 2.0) were administered for 3 h, and ozone exposures (0, 0.10, and 0.20 microliter/liter), which followed acid-mist treatments, for 4 h, each for three days a week for six to nine weeks. It was found that seedlings were more susceptible to acid-mist and acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone. Acid mist treatment resulted in higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur (both present in acid mist) as well as Na. Leaves of giant sequoia exhibited increased K and decreased Mn, while Jeffrey pine showed increases in Fe and Mn. In sequoia leaves, concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Ba decreased. Acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in both conifer species. Extensive changes induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of changes in spectral reflectance of conifer seedlings observed after three weeks of fumigation.

  12. Phytochemical composition and in vitro functional properties of three wild rose hips and their traditional preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Mrkonjić, Zorica O; Majkić, Tatjana M; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2018-02-15

    The aim of the present study was investigation of the phenolic profile, ascorbic acid content, antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of three insufficiently examined Rosa species: Rosa dumalis Bechst., R. dumetorum Thuill. and R. sempervirens L. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis resulted in quantification of 14 of the 45 phenolic compounds examined, with ellagic acid as the most dominant. Notable antioxidant activity of all three species was confirmed through several assays. Moderate inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts of all investigated Rosa species was observed. Several extracts of examined Rosa species demonstrated inhibition potency towards production of some monitored eicosanoids in cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipoxygenase pathways. Two R. sempervirens extracts exerted cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HT-29 cell lines, but were inactive towards MRC-5 and MCF7. The results support the potential of these rose hips as food with health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  14. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria S; Fridley, Jason D; Goebel, Marc; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2014-01-01

    Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native) versus L. sempervirens (native) and Frangula alnus (non-native) versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native), over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  15. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    Full Text Available Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native versus L. sempervirens (native and Frangula alnus (non-native versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native, over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of biodegradable pollen-chitosan microcapsules and its application in heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargın, İdris; Kaya, Murat; Arslan, Gulsin; Baran, Talat; Ceter, Talip

    2015-02-01

    Biosorbents have been widely used in heavy metal removal. New resources should be exploited to develop more efficient biosorbents. This study reports the preparation of three novel chitosan microcapsules from pollens of three common, wind-pollinated plants (Acer negundo, Cupressus sempervirens and Populus nigra). The microcapsules were characterized (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis) and used in removal of heavy metal ions: Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Their sorption capacities were compared to those of cross-linked chitosan beads without pollen grains. C. sempervirens-chitosan microcapsules exhibited better performance (Cd(II): 65.98; Cu(II): 67.10 and Zn(II): 49.55 mg g(-1)) than the other microcapsules and the cross-linked beads. A. negundo-chitosan microcapsules were more efficient in Cr(III) (70.40 mg g(-1)) removal. P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules were found to be less efficient. Chitosan-pollen microcapsules (except P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules) can be used in heavy metal removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vegetation Response to Upper Pliocene Glacial/Interglacial Cyclicity in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    1993-09-01

    New detailed pollen analysis of the lower part of the Upper Pliocene Semaforo section (Crotone, Italy) documents cyclic behavior of vegetation at the beginning of the Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The competition between four vegetation units (subtropical humid forest, deciduous temperate forest, altitudinal coniferous forest, and open xeric assemblage) probably reflects modifications of vegetation belts at this montane site. Several increases in herbaceous open vegetation regularly alternate with subtropical humid forest, which expresses rapid climatic oscillations. The complete temporal succession—deciduous forest (rich in Quercus), followed by subtropical humid forest (Taxodiaceae and Cathaya), then altitudinal coniferous forest ( Tsuga, Cedrus, Abies, and Picea), and finally herbaceous open vegetation (Graminae, Compositae, and Artemisia )—displays the climatic evolution from warm and humid interglaciation to cold and dry glaciation. It also suggests an independent variation of temperature and humidity, the two main climatic parameters. The vegetation history of southern Calabria recorded in the Semaforo section have been correlated with the ∂ 18O signal established in the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae, which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  20. Return to the little kingdom Steve Jobs, the creation of Apple, and how it changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Almost thirty years ago, Michael Moritz, then a young journalist at Time magazine, was allowed exclusive access to the inner workings of a cutting-edge technology company to tell the story of its first decade in business. The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer brought readers into the childhood homes of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, showed how they dropped out of college and founded Apple in 1976, and charted the company's rise from basement brainstorming to colossal empire. Now, after spending almost twenty-five years at Sequoia Capital, the much admired private investm

  1. Utilization of silicifed Tertiary wood as raw material for the natural stone industry. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellmann, H J; Schuettler, J; Jakisch, E

    1981-11-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of silicified tree trunks and stumps in the Boehlen brown coal field. The trees, mainly Taxodium and Sequoia 25 million years old, are located within the top brown coal seam of the deposit and present a major obstacle to excavator operation, together with other forms of so-called 'brown coal quartzite'. The quartz of the silicified trees occurs as opal, cryptocrystalline quartz and low temperature quartz. The separate removal and disposal of this wood as well as efforts made to use selected wood as raw material are briefly summarized. Various products for interior house decoration have been manufactured from the wood. (4 refs.)

  2. Smart grids are advancing, light and supple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    While indicating some innovations produced by the Greenlys laboratory (SmartScan to localize losses by means of smart counters, a system for grid self-healing, Sequoia to manage a low voltage network, a tool for the prediction of photovoltaic production in real time), and also the main smart grid projects in France (Nice Grid, Solenn, SoGrid, Smart Electric Lyon, Poste intelligent, Greenlys, Smart Grids Vendee, BienVEnu), this article comments the emergence of several experiments on smart grids in France, the first drawn conclusions and recommendations. Some issues for this new architecture are discussed: the active demand management, cut-offs and flexibility, and the search for profitability

  3. Prediction of Five Softwood Paper Properties from its Density using Support Vector Machine Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza García-Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting paper properties based on a limited number of measured variables can be an important tool for the industry. Mathematical models were developed to predict mechanical and optical properties from the corresponding paper density for some softwood papers using support vector machine regression with the Radial Basis Function Kernel. A dataset of different properties of paper handsheets produced from pulps of pine (Pinus pinaster and P. sylvestris and cypress species (Cupressus lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica beaten at 1000, 4000, and 7000 revolutions was used. The results show that it is possible to obtain good models (with high coefficient of determination with two variables: the numerical variable density and the categorical variable species.

  4. Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Some Commercial Essential Oils and Their Major Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Aazza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L. Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIF KHADEMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Khademi H, Mehregan I, Assadi M, Nejadsatari T, Zarre S. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biodiversitas 17: 16-23. This study was carried out on the Acer monspessulanum complex growing wild in Iran. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for 75 samples representing five different subspecies of Acer monspessulanum were analyzed. Beside this, 86 previously published ITS sequences from GenBank were used to test the monophyly of the complex worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The results indicate that most samples of A. monspessulanum species from Iran were part of a monophyletic clade with 8 samples of A. ibericum from Georgia, A. hyrcanum from Iran and one of A. sempervirens from Greece (PP= 1; BS= 79%. Our results indicate that use of morphological characteristics coupled with molecular data will be most effective.

  6. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  7. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liodakis, S.; Katsigiannis, G.; Kakali, G.

    2005-01-01

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  8. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, S. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)]. E-mail: liodakis@central.ntua.gr; Katsigiannis, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece); Kakali, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  9. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  10. Assessing and ranking the flammability of some ornamental plant species to select firewise plants for landscaping in WUI (SE France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Lampin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Nerium oleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus laurocerasus and Pyracantha coccinea) to the least flammable (Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander); the other species displaying two groups of intermediate flammabilities (Phyllostachys sp.- Photinia fraseri and Cupressus sempervirens ). The species with highly flammable

  11. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  12. Pollen record of the penultimate glacial period in Yuchi Basin, Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiao-Yin; Liew, Ping-Mei

    2010-05-01

    Pollen records of the penultimate glacial period are scare not only in Taiwan, but also in East Asia area. Hence, this study intends to provide a new pollen record from a site, Yuchi Basin, in central Taiwan, which may improve our knowledge of the penultimate glacial period. The sediment core, CTN6, was drilled in the northern part of Yuchi Basin. The core is 29.4 m in length and the sampling interval is 10 cm. In total, 86 samples are processed for pollen analysis. Three pollen zones (I,II and III) are determined according to the ratio of arboreal pollens (AP) and non-arboreal pollens (NAP). Because of the scarcity of dating data, pollen assemblages compared with previous pollen records at peripheral areas is utilized to estimate the ages of each pollen zone. AP dominate (60%) Zone I and III, which consist mainly of Cyclobalanopsis-Castanopsis. Thus, Zone I may mark the MIS 5 because of a Cyclobalanopsis-Castanopsis dominant condition. In Zone II, the increase in NAP and pollen of Taxodiaceae and decrease in pollens of Cyclobalanopsis-Castanopsis indicates the penultimate glacial period, i.e. MIS 6. In contrast to the evergreen broadleaved forest found there today, the herbs occupied the basin in Zone II, indicating a relatively dry climate condition than present. Furthermore, during the penultimate glacial period, the climate condition of early part is wetter, evidenced by a higher AP/NAP in Zone IIb. Finally, comparing with the last glacial period in Toushe, we suggest that the penultimate glacial period is drier due to the lower AP/NAP.

  13. Chemical Properties, Decomposition, and Methane Production of Tertiary Relict Plant Litters: Implications for Atmospheric Trace Gas Production in the Early Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavitt, J. B.; Bartella, T. M.; Williams, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Throughout the early Tertiary (ca. 65-38 Ma) Taxodiaceae-dominated (redwood) wetland forests occupied the high latitudes and were circumpolar in their distribution. Many of these forests had high standing biomass with moderate primary productivity. The geographic extent and amount of Tertiary coals and fossil forests throughout Arctic Canada suggests large areas of wetland forests that may have cycled substantial quantities of carbon, particularly methane until they were replaced by cold tolerant Pinus, Picea, and Larix following climatic cooling associated with the Terminal Eocene Event. To test this hypothesis we compared physiochemical properties, decomposition, and trace gas production of litter from extant Metasequoia, Pinus, Picea, and Larix. Initial results from plantation-grown trees indicate Metasequoia litter is a better source of labile organic substrate than pinaceous litter. Metasequoia litter contained the least lignin and highest amounts of water-soluble compounds of the four litter types studied. Analysis of the lignin structure using cupric oxide oxidation indicates that Metasequoia lignin is enriched in 4'-hydroxyacetophenone and 4'- Hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone relative to the pinaceous litter. In a 12-month decomposition study using litterbags, average litter mass loss was greater for Metasequoia litter (62%) compared to the pinaceous species (50%). Moreover, Metasequoia litter incubated under anoxic conditions produced nearly twice as much CO2 (ca. 4.2 umol/g.day) and CH4 (2.1 umol/g.day) as the pinaceous litter (2.4 umol/g.day for CO2; 1.2 umol/g.day for CH4). Our results support the idea of greater decomposability and palatability of Metasequoia litter as compared to Larix, Picea, or Pinus. Provided that the biochemical properties of Metasequoia have remained relatively stable through geologic time, it appears that early Tertiary Metasequoia-dominated wetland forests may have had higher microbial driven trace gas production than the

  14. Petrographic and biomarker analysis of xylite-rich coal from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins (Pannonian Basin, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đoković, Nataša; Mitrović, Danica; Životić, Dragana; Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.; Stojanović, Ksenija

    2018-02-01

    The maceral and biomarker characteristics of 4 sublithotypes of xylite-rich coal (SXCs), pale yellow, dark yellow, brown and black, originating from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins were determined. Based on these results, differences in sources and changes of organic matter (OM) resulting in formation of 4 SXCs were established. Conifers (particularly Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae and Pinacea) had a significant impact on the precursor OM of all SXCs. The contribution of gymnosperm vs. angiosperm vegetation decreased in order pale yellow SXC>dark yellow SXC>brown SXC>black SXC. The distribution of non-hopanoid triterpenoids indicates that change of SXC colour from yellow to black is associated with reduced input of angiosperm plants from the Betulacea family. Differences in hopane distribution, bitumen content, proportion of short-chain n-alkanes and degree of aromatization of di- and triterpenoids of pale yellow SXC are controlled by microbial communities which took part in the diagenetic alteration of OM. The content of total huminites increased from black to pale yellow SXC, whereas contents of total liptinite and inertinite macerals showed the opposite trend. SXCs differ according to textinite/ulminite ratio, which sharply decreased from pale yellow to black SXC, reflecting increase in gelification of woody tissue. Regarding the composition of liptinite macerals, the SXCs mostly differ according to resinite/liptodetrinite and resinite/suberinite ratios, which are higher in yellow than in brown and black SXC. This result along with values of TOC/N ratio and Carbon Preference Index indicate that the contribution of well preserved woody material, including lignin tissue vs. the impact of epicuticular waxes decreased from yellow to black SXC.

  15. Petrographic and biomarker analysis of xylite-rich coal from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins (Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Nataša

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maceral and biomarker characteristics of 4 sublithotypes of xylite-rich coal (SXCs, pale yellow, dark yellow, brown and black, originating from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins were determined. Based on these results, differences in sources and changes of organic matter (OM resulting in formation of 4 SXCs were established. Conifers (particularly Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae and Pinacea had a significant impact on the precursor OM of all SXCs. The contribution of gymnosperm vs. angiosperm vegetation decreased in order pale yellow SXC>dark yellow SXC>brown SXC>black SXC. The distribution of non-hopanoid triterpenoids indicates that change of SXC colour from yellow to black is associated with reduced input of angiosperm plants from the Betulacea family. Differences in hopane distribution, bitumen content, proportion of short-chain n-alkanes and degree of aromatization of di- and triterpenoids of pale yellow SXC are controlled by microbial communities which took part in the diagenetic alteration of OM. The content of total huminites increased from black to pale yellow SXC, whereas contents of total liptinite and inertinite macerals showed the opposite trend. SXCs differ according to textinite/ulminite ratio, which sharply decreased from pale yellow to black SXC, reflecting increase in gelification of woody tissue. Regarding the composition of liptinite macerals, the SXCs mostly differ according to resinite/liptodetrinite and resinite/suberinite ratios, which are higher in yellow than in brown and black SXC. This result along with values of TOC/N ratio and Carbon Preference Index indicate that the contribution of well preserved woody material, including lignin tissue vs. the impact of epicuticular waxes decreased from yellow to black SXC.

  16. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  17. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  18. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  19. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  20. Paleoenvironmental implications from biomarker and stable isotope investigations on the Pliocene Velenje lignite seam (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Markic, M.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [Montan University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    A Pliocene lignite seam up to 160 m thick occurs in the Velenje basin (Slovenia). The seam originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a non-marine, transgressive setting. Differences in soluble organic matter yield and hydrocarbon content of borehole samples from the lignite are related to differences in the composition of free lipids of microbial origin and/or hydrocarbons derived from the biogeochemical degradation of plant tissue. Variations of the redox conditions within the mire are reflected by pristane/phytane ratios. The abundance of terpenoid biomarkers indicates the predominance of gymnosperms over angiosperms, which is consistent with palynomorphic spectra dominated by pollen of the Sequoia-Taxodium-Metasequoia plant community rather than by angiosperms. Evidence is also provided that the content of land plant derived biomarkers and the preservation of plant tissue is controlled by the input of resin-rich, decay-resistant conifers.

  1. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R; Andreani, C; Kolesnikov, A I

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy E i = 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO

  2. Passive Sampler for Measurements of Atmospheric Nitric Acid Vapor (HNO3 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 vapor is an important nitrogenous air pollutant responsible for increasing saturation of forests with nitrogen and direct injury to plants. The USDA Forest Service and University of California researchers have developed a simple and inexpensive passive sampler for monitoring air concentrations of HNO3. Nitric acid is selectively absorbed on 47-mm Nylasorb nylon filters with no interference from particulate NO3-. Concentrations determined with the passive samplers closely corresponded with those measured with the co-located honeycomb annular denuder systems. The PVC protective caps of standardized dimensions protect nylon filters from rain and wind and allow for reliable measurements of ambient HNO3 concentrations. The described samplers have been successfully used in Sequoia National Park, the San Bernardino Mountains, and on Mammoth Mountain in California.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF PARALLAX ISSUES FOR MULTI-LENS MULTISPECTRAL CAMERA BAND CO-REGISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multi-lens multispectral cameras (MSCs, such as Micasense Rededge and Parrot Sequoia, can record multispectral information by each separated lenses. With their lightweight and small size, which making they are more suitable for mounting on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS to collect high spatial images for vegetation investigation. However, due to the multi-sensor geometry of multi-lens structure induces significant band misregistration effects in original image, performing band co-registration is necessary in order to obtain accurate spectral information. A robust and adaptive band-to-band image transform (RABBIT is proposed to perform band co-registration of multi-lens MSCs. First is to obtain the camera rig information from camera system calibration, and utilizes the calibrated results for performing image transformation and lens distortion correction. Since the calibration uncertainty leads to different amount of systematic errors, the last step is to optimize the results in order to acquire a better co-registration accuracy. Due to the potential issues of parallax that will cause significant band misregistration effects when images are closer to the targets, four datasets thus acquired from Rededge and Sequoia were applied to evaluate the performance of RABBIT, including aerial and close-range imagery. From the results of aerial images, it shows that RABBIT can achieve sub-pixel accuracy level that is suitable for the band co-registration purpose of any multi-lens MSC. In addition, the results of close-range images also has same performance, if we focus on the band co-registration on specific target for 3D modelling, or when the target has equal distance to the camera.

  4. Fluctuations in the East Asian monsoon recorded by pollen assemblages in sediments from the Japan Sea off the southwestern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, from 4.3 Ma to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko; Irino, Tomohisa; Sawada, Ken; Song, Lu; Furota, Satoshi

    2018-04-01

    We reconstructed fluctuations in the East Asian monsoon and vegetation in the Japan Sea region since the middle Pliocene based on pollen data obtained from sediments collected by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program off the southwestern coast of northern Japan. Taxodiaceae conifers Metasequoia and Cryptomeria and Sciadopityacere conifer Sciadopitys are excellent indicators of a humid climate during the monsoon. The pollen temperature index (Tp) can be used as a proxy for relative air temperature. Based on changes in vegetation and reconstructed climate over a period of 4.3 Ma, we classified the sediment sequence into six pollen zones. From 4.3 to 3.8 Ma (Zone 1), the climate fluctuated between cool/moist and warm/moist climatic conditions. Vegetation changed between warm temperate mixed forest and cool temperate conifer forest. The Neogene type tree Carya recovered under a warm/moist climate. The period from 3.8 to 2.5 Ma (Zone 2) was characterized by increased Metasequoia pollen concentration. Warm temperate mixed forest vegetation developed under a cool/moist climate. The period from 2.5 to 2.2 Ma (Zone 3) was characterized by an abrupt increase in Metasequoia and/or Cryptomeria pollen and a decrease in warm broadleaf tree pollen, indicating a cool/humid climate. The Zone 4 period (2.2-1.7 Ma) was characterized by a decrease in Metasequoia and/or Cryptomeria pollen and an increase in cool temperate conifer Picea and Tsuga pollen, indicating a cool/moist climate. The period from 1.7 to 0.3 Ma (Zone 5) was characterized by orbital-scale climate fluctuations. Cycles of abrupt increases and decreases in Cryptomeria and Picea pollen and in Tp values indicated changes between warm/humid and cold/dry climates. The alpine fern Selaginella selaginoides appeared as of 1.6 Ma. Vegetation alternated among warm mixed, cool mixed, and cool temperate conifer forests. Zone 6 (0.3 Ma to present) was characterized by a decrease in Cryptomeria pollen. The warm temperate broadleaf

  5. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  6. Lower Pliocene Fast and Repetitive Vegetation Changes In Southwestern Romania As A Response To Milankovitch Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S.-M.; Suc, J.-P.; Loutre, M. F.

    High-resolution pollen analyses on the lignite-clay Lupoaia section (from 4.9 to 4.3 Ma) in southwestern Romania provide an accurate record of the Lower Pliocene veg- etation changes in the Danube paleodelta environment close to the Carpathians. Many major fluctuations concern thermophilous trees vs. altitudinal trees (chiefly in agree- ment with lignite-clay alternations) and have been referred to changes in temperature. Thanks to a reliable magnetostratigraphic calibration of the section, such changes are to be linked to eccentricity cycles, that provides a more precise chronologic control to the section (Popescu, in press). In addition, regular secondary fluctuations occur which oppose swamp trees (such as most of the Taxodiaceae) to marsh herbs (such as Cyperaceae). They evoke the present-day landscape of the Mississippi delta where swamp forests (constituted by Taxodium distichum mainly) are in competition with herbaceous marshes (made of Cyperaceae such as Mariscus jamaicensis in addition to some Cyrillaceae and Myrica). The latest require significantly more water than the swamps (Roberts, 1986). These plant environments cause two kinds of lignite deposition that have been also identified in the Lupoaia section (Ticleanu and Dia- conita, 1997). According to the chronologic frame previously defined, it is possible to evidence a precession forcing for these alternations. Minima in precession probably caused increasing rainfall over the region and expansion of marshes. So, it is sug- gested that during Lower Pliocene the West Asian monsoon influenced climate of the northeastern Mediterranean region. References. Popescu, S.-M., in press. Repetitive changes in Lower Pliocene vegetation revealed by high-resolution pollen analysis: revised cyclostratigraphy of Southwest- ern Romania. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. Roberts, H.H., 1986. Selected depositional en- vironments of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. Geol. Sc. America Centennial Field Guide-Southeastern Section

  7. Organic geochemistry of the Lower Miocene Oberdorf lignite (Styrian Basin, Austria): its relation to petrography, palynology and the palaeoenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Kolcon, I.; Gratzer, R. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Prospektion und Angewandte Sedimentologie, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Otto, A.; Puettmann, W. [Institut fuer Mineralogie-Umweltanalytik, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 a.M. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    In the Oberdorf trough at the northwestern margin of the Styrian Basin (Austria), an up to 36-m thick Lower Miocene (Ottnangian) lignite seam occurs within the fluvial Koeflach-Voitsberg Formation. Previous results indicate that the lignite originated in a topogenous mire within a wet-forest swamp palaeoenvironment. Differences in soluble organic matter (SOM) yield of borehole samples from the lignite seam are related to free lipids present in plant waxes or resins and the presence of thermally labile polymers indicated by the contents of liptinite macerals (i.e., resinite, suberinite, and liptodetrinite). The n-alkane distribution patterns are dominated by high-molecular weight lipids with marked odd over even predominance, originating from plant waxes. A contribution of algae to the even numbered short-chain lipids, observed in considerable amounts in the footwall sediments is proposed. Terpenoid biomarkers characteristic for conifers and angiosperms were detected, consistent with palynomorphic spectra which are dominated by forest swamp pollen (Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae) and pollen from plants living in a mixed mesophytic forest. Excellent relationships between higher plant biomarker composition and palynologic data indicate that the organic geochemical results reflect the varying inputs of coniferales vs. angiosperms. The data further imply that cuparene may be used for taxonomical differentiation of coniferales families. Organic geochemical data provide evidence that the content of land plant-derived biomarkers is controlled by the input of resin-rich conifers. Concentrations of hopanoids, dominated by hop-17(21)-ene, generally increase towards the top of the lignite, a section characterised by high extents of aromatisation of triterpenoid biomarkers. The results suggest that the aromatisation of angiosperm-derived biomarkers may be governed by the activity of anaerobic rather than by aerobic bacteria. However, changes in the depositional environment and

  8. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  9. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-07-25

    In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC.

  10. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  12. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellavite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s. in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C, a placebo (solvent vehicle, and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD choice test and the open-field (OF exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity and antagonistic effect of essential oils from plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroglu, Sevil

    2007-07-01

    Kahramanmaras, is a developing city located in the southern part of Turkey Thymus eigii (M. Zohary and RH. Davis) Jalas, Pinus nigraAm. sub sp pallasiana and Cupressus sempervirens L. are the useful plants of the Kahramanmaras province and have been understudy since 2004 for the traditional uses of plants empiric drug, spice, herbal tea industry herbal gum and fuel. The study was designed to examine the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of these plants by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. In addition, antimicrobial activity of Thymus eigii was researched by effects when it was used together with antibiotics and even when it was combined with other essential oils. When the results of this study were compared with vancomycin (30 mcg) and erytromycin (15 mcg) standards, it was found that Thymus eigii essential oil was particularly found to possess strongerantimicrobial activity whereas other essential oils showed susceptible or moderate activity However, antimicrobial activity changed also by in vitro interactions between antibiotics and Thymus eigii essential oil, also between essential oils of these plants and that of Thymus eigii causing synergic, additive, antagonist effect.

  14. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine: An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal R. Qasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  16. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  17. Contribution to the study of the insect fauna of some conifer species in the region of Western Traras (Tlemcen - Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichane, M.; Bouchikhi Tani, Z.; Khelil, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the study of Biocenotic insects related to conifer species in Traras, the Western region of Tlemcen, a comprehensive knowledge of the insect fauna hosted by the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill.), Thuya Barbary (Tetraclinis articulata(Vahl) Masters)) and Cypress green(Cupressus sempervirensL) is essential. The various methods used for capturing insects allowed the collection of a large number of species, but a large number still remains unknown. These species are distributed among 10 orders of which the most important are the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Through this list of insects and the nature of their food, six diets to which these species belong were identified. The most representative are herbivores, auxiliaries and borers. This inventory allows the compilation of a list of insects harmful to the conifer species studied in this region. They total species including 9 phytophagous, 8 xylophagous, 7 seed-eating species, 5 opophages and one gall species. The auxiliaries are present with 26 species. (author)

  18. Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papaioannou, Fotini; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Tzakou, Olga; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.

  19. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Musayeib Nawal M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 T. brucei and selectivity index of >4. Results Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. Conclusion The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  20. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Amots; Lev, Efraim; Beckmann, Sabine; Eichberger, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis), white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp.) and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe. PMID:16961931

  1. Woodland diagnosis of ecological reserve "Cerro de Amalucan" in the City of Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Domínguez Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees in urban parks play a key role in the sustainability of cities. The tree is urban landscape of a city, provides environmental, aesthetic, scenic, recreational, cultural and economic benefits. The obwas to study the current state of woodland in the Cerro de Amalucan Ecological Reserve in the city of Puebla, Mexico, a forest dasometric diagnosis was applied by sampling in the area. Settling 17 sampling sites area of 1000 m2, completely randomized design with dasometric data. The results were averaged 183.5 trees per hectare, the most dominant Eucalyptus sp with 61.5% of actual stocks species. Following the species Cupressus lindleyi with 22.2%. Subsequently, the species Juniperus deppeana, with 6.8%, and the species Ipomoea murocoides, which had 2.9% of the total population, like the species polystachya Eysenhardtia, continuing the species flaccid Juniperus, with 1.6%, followed Cupressus sempervirens with 0.96%, Casuarina equisetifolia, with 0.64%, finally Pinus patula with 0.64%. Are cataloged as exotic tree species the next in line: Eucalyptus sp, and Casuarina equisetifolia, Cupressus lindleyi, Cupressus semprevirens and Pinus patula and were characterized as native species: Juniperus deppeana Eysenhardtia polystachya, Juniperus flacida. The areas are to manage 20 hectares with reforestation for restoration, on 75 hectares’ protection is carried out in areas prone to invasion and species conservation and recreation area with 40 hectares for hiking, ecological tours, bike paths and recreation.

  2. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krimat Soumia; Dob Tahar; Lamari Lynda; Boumeridja Saida; Chelghoum Chabane; Metidji Hafidha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods:Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results:The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03%to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL), while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity inβ-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions:The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  4. A synthetic coumarin (4-methyl-7 hydroxy coumarin) has anti-cancer potentials against DMBA-induced skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Soumya S; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Sushil K; Banerjee, Antara; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R

    2009-07-01

    Scopoletin, an alkaloid separated from ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Gelsemium sempervirens (Fam: Loganiaceae) has been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. The synthetic coumarin (4-Methyl-7 hydroxy coumarin) derived from resorcinol and ethyl aceto-acetate in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid is structurally close to scopoletin, being a coumarin derivative. Whether this synthetic compound also has anti-cancer potentials has been evaluated in vivo on DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) induced skin cancer in mice by analyzing results of several cytogenetic endpoints, Comet assay, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Further, expressions of signal proteins like Aryl hydrocarbon receptor , p53, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, Bax, NF-kappaB Apaf, IL-6, Cytochrome-c, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were studied by immunoblot analysis along with histology of skin and immuno-histochemical localization of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and PCNA in DMBA treated mice vis-a-vis carcinogen treated synthetic coumarin fed mice. Feeding of this synthetic coumarin induced positive modulations in expression of all biomarkers in DMBA administered mice, giving clues on its possible signaling pathway(s) - primarily through down-regulation of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and PCNA and up-regulation of apoptotic proteins like Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, Apaf, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, resulting in an appreciable reduction in growth of papilloma in mice. Therefore, this synthetic coumarin shows promise for use in cancer therapy, particularly in skin cancer.

  5. Geographic variation in resistance to nectar robbing and consequences for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lynn S; Leege, Lissa M; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Floral evolution is frequently ascribed to selection by pollinators, but may also be shaped by antagonists. However, remarkably few studies have examined geographic mosaics in resistance to floral antagonists or the consequences for other floral interactions. Gelsemium sempervirens experiences frequent nectar robbing in northern Georgia, but rarely in southern Georgia. We conducted common-garden experiments in both locations using genotypes from each region and measured robbing, pollinator attraction, floral attractive and defensive traits, and plant reproduction. Nectar robbing was more than four times higher in the north vs. south, and pollinator visits did not differ between gardens. Across both gardens, northern genotypes were half as likely to be nectar-robbed but received half as many pollinator visits as southern genotypes, suggesting evolution of resistance to robbing at a cost of reduced pollinator attraction. Plant-level traits, such as height and number of flowers, were more closely associated with resistance to robbing than floral size, shape, or chemistry. Northern genotypes had lower female and estimated male reproduction compared to southern genotypes at both locations, which could be due to costs of resistance to nectar robbing, or costs of adaptations to other biotic or abiotic differences between regions. Our study indicates that geographic variation can play a strong role structuring interactions with floral antagonists and mutualists and provides evidence consistent with the hypothesis that local resistance to nectar robbing imposes costs in terms of decreased pollinator attraction and reproduction. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  6. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  7. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological systems may respond in complex manners as climate change progresses. Among the responses, site-level climate conditions may cause a shift in vegetation due to the physiological tolerances of plant species, and the fire return interval may change. Natural resource managers challenged with maintaining ecosystem health need a way to forecast how these processes may affect every location, in order to determine appropriate management actions and prioritize locations for interventions. We integrated climate change-driven vegetation type transitions with projected change in fire frequency for 45,203 km2 of the southern Sierra Nevada, California, containing over 10 land management agencies as well as private lands. This Magnitude of Change (MOC) approach involves classing vegetation types in current time according to their climate envelopes, and identifying which sites will in the future have climates beyond what that vegetation currently occurs in. Independently, fire models are used to determine the change in fire frequency for each site. We examined 82 vegetation types with >50 grid cell occurrences. We found iconic resources such as the giant sequoia, lower slope oak woodlands, and high elevation conifer forests are projected as highly vulnerable by models that project a warmer drier future, but not as much by models that project a warmer future that is not drier than current conditions. Further, there were strongly divergent vulnerabilities of these forest types across land ownership (National Parks versus US Forest Service lands), and by GCM. For example, of 50 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves and complexes, all but 3 (on Sierra National Forest) were in the 2 highest levels of risk of climate and fire under the GFDL A2 projection, while 15 groves with low-to-moderate risk were found on both the National Parks and National Forests 18 in the 2 under PCM A2. Landscape projections of potential MOC suggest that the region is likely to experience

  8. Uncoupling between soil and xylem water isotopic composition: how to discriminate mobile and tightly-bound water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    As a general rule, no isotopic fractionation occurs during water uptake and water transport, thus, xylem water reflects source water. However, this correspondence does not always happen. Isotopic enrichment of xylem water has been found in several cases and has been either associated to 'stem processes' like cuticular evaporation 1 and xylem-phloem communication under water stress 2,3 or to 'soil processes' such as species-specific use of contrasting water sources retained at different water potential forces in soil. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that mobile and tightly-bound water may show different isotopic signature 4,5. However, standard cryogenic distillation does not allow to separate different water pools within soil samples. Here, we carried out a study in a mixed adult forest (Pinus sylvestris, Quercus subpyrenaica and Buxus sempervirens) growing in a relatively deep loamy soil in the Pre-Pyrenees. During one year, we sampled xylem from twigs and soil at different depths (10, 30 and 50 cm). We also sampled xylem from trunk and bigger branches to assess whether xylem water was enriched in the distal parts of the tree. We found average deviations in the isotopic signature from xylem to soil of 4o 2o and 2.4o in δ18O and 18.3o 7.3o and 8.9o in δ2H, for P.sylvestris, Q.subpyrenaica and B.sempervirens respectively. Xylem water was always enriched compared to soil. In contrast, we did not find clear differences in isotopic composition between xylem samples along the tree. Declining the hypothesis that 'stem processes' would cause these uncoupling between soil and xylem isotopic values, we tested the possibility to separate mobile and tightly-bound water by centrifugation. Even though we could separate two water fractions in soils close to saturation, we could not recover a mobile fraction in drier soils. In this regard, we welcome suggestions on alternatives to separate different soil fractions in order to find the correspondence between soil and

  9. Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rani Basak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Government of Bangladesh, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, semi-government organizations, private organizations and individuals have established a large number of plantations under different programs viz. social forestry, agro-forestry and avenue plantations with indigenous and exotic tree species without considering their habit and habitats. Along with the indigenous species like Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Trewia nudiflora and Artocapus heterophyllus and many exotic species e.g. Swietenia macrophylla, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia auriculiformis, Melia sempervirens, Acacia mangium etc. have been planted randomly. With increasing trend of climate-induced floods, millions of trees have been dying due to floods and water-logging. The most affected species are Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium and Artocarpus heterophyllus etc. This situation has caused severe impacts on socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The impacts involved a significant loss in terms of investment, biodiversity and afforestation program. Little investigations have been conducted to find out the causes of the deaths and also to find out the suitable adaptation practices to reduce impacts of floods on trees. This synthesis focused on the impacts of floods on plantations and also assessed the potential role of traditional forest management practices in addressing the effects flooding on forests in Bangladesh. The study added important information and revealed knowledge gaps on the causes of large forest deaths. It also provided recommendations for policy on the establishment of frequent floods resilient tree crop plantations.

  10. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  11. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  12. Short Communication. Comparing flammability traits among fire-stricken (low elevation and non fire-stricken (high elevation conifer forest species of Europe: A test of the Mutch hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimitrakopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The flammability of the main coniferous forest species of Europe, divided into two groups according to their fire regime and altitudinal distribution, was tested in an effort to detect species-specific differences that may have an influence on community-wide fire regimes.Area of study. Conifer species comprising low- and high-elevation forests in Europe.Materials and Methods. The following conifer species were tested: low elevation; Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine, Pinus brutia (Turkish pine, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, Pinus pinea (stone pine and Cupressus sempervirens (cypress, high elevation (i.e., above 600 m a.s.l.; Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine, Abies alba (white fir, Picea excelsa (Norway spruce, Abies borissii regis (Macedonian fir and Pinus nigra (black pine. Flammability assessment (time-to-ignition and ignition temperature was conducted by an innovative ignition apparatus, heat content was measured with an IKA Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter and ash content by heating 5 g of plant material in a muffle furnace at 650ºC for 1 h. Differences among species was statistically analysed by Duncan’s multiple comparison test.Main results. The results did not distinguish separate groups among traits between fire- and non-fire-stricken communities at the individual species level.Research highlights. Differences in fire regimes among low and high elevation conifer forests could be attributed either to differences in flammability of the plant communities as a whole (i.e., fuelbed or canopy properties vs. individual fuel properties or to other factors (climatic or anthropogenic.Key words: flammability; ignitability; heat content; ash content; conifer species; Mutch hypothesis.

  13. Phytophthora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Rosendahl, Karin C H M; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Meffert, Johan P; Westenberg, Marcel; van de Vossenberg, Bart T L H; Denton, Geoff; van Kuik, Fons A J

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade several Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Pachysandra terminalis plants suffering stem base and root rot, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium. All isolates were homothallic and had a felt-like colony pattern, produced semi-papillate sporangia, globose oogonia and had a maximum growth at ~ 27 C. Several additional Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Buxus sempervirens plants, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium, which had sustained stem base and root rot; similar strains also were isolated from Acer palmatum, Choisya ternata and Taxus in the United Kingdom. All isolates were homothallic and had a stellate colony pattern, produced larger semi-papillate sporangia and smaller globose oogonia than the isolates from Pa. terminalis and had a maximum growth temperature of ~ 30 C. Phylogenetic analyses of both species using the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuc rDNA (ITS), mt cytochrome oxidases subunit I gene (CoxI) and nuc translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1α) revealed that all sequences of each species were identical at each locus and unique to that species, forming two distinct clusters in subclade 2a. Sequence analysis of partial β-tubulin genes showed that both taxa share an identical sequence that is identical to that of Ph. himalsilva, a species originating from Asia, suggesting a common Asian origin. Pathogenicity trials demonstrated disease symptoms on their respective hosts, and re-isolation and re-identification of the inoculated pathogens confirmed Koch's postulates. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. Medicinal plants of the genus Gelsemium (Gelsemiaceae, Gentianales)--a review of their phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and traditional use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Gui-Lin; Su, Yan-Ping; Liu, Ming; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jian; Liao, Kai-Jun; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-02-27

    In the genus Gelsemium, Gelsemium elegans (Gardn. & Champ.) Benth. has been recognized as a toxic plant that is widely distributed in Southeast Asia and has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid pain, neuropathic pain, spasticity, skin ulcers and cancers for many years. Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J.St.-Hil. has been used since the nineteenth century in homeopathy for treating anxiety, neuralgia, migraine and spasmodic disorders, such as asthma and whooping cough in North America. This review aims to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology of medicinal plants in the genus Gelsemium. The overall objective is to explore the evidence supporting its ethnopharmacological effectiveness. A literature survey was performed by searching the scientific databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Scopus, Web of Science and the Chinese CNKI, in addition to traditional Chinese medicine and homeopathic texts for information on Gelsemium. Plants of the genus Gelsemium have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of migraines, neuralgia, sciatica, cancer and various types of sores. Studies into the phytochemical composition of this genus have shown that all of the species are rich sources of monoterpene indole alkaloids and that they have attracted the attention of many researchers due to their markedly diverse and complex architecture. To date, a total of 121 alkaloids have been isolated and identified from the genus. The crude extracts, as well as the monomeric compounds, from the genus possess anti-tumor, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating pharmacological activities. It is evident from the available literature that Gelsemium species possess potential for use as a beneficial therapeutic remedy. However, the analysis of previous pharmacological research suggests that a clear assignment of active molecules and mechanisms of

  15. Nectar alkaloids decrease pollination and female reproduction in a native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lynn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of floral traits may be shaped by a community of floral visitors that affect plant fitness, including pollinators and floral antagonists. The role of nectar in attracting pollinators has been extensively studied, but its effects on floral antagonists are less understood. Furthermore, the composition of non-sugar nectar components, such as secondary compounds, may affect plant reproduction via changes in both pollinator and floral antagonist behavior. We manipulated the nectar alkaloid gelsemine in wild plants of the native perennial vine Gelsemium sempervirens. We crossed nectar gelsemine manipulations with a hand-pollination treatment, allowing us to determine the effect of both the trait and the interaction on plant female reproduction. We measured pollen deposition, pollen removal, and nectar robbing to assess whether gelsemine altered the behavior of mutualists and antagonists. High nectar gelsemine reduced conspecific pollen receipt by nearly half and also reduced the proportion of conspecific pollen grains received, but had no effect on nectar robbing. Although high nectar gelsemine reduced pollen removal, an estimate of male reproduction, by one-third, this effect was not statistically significant. Fruit set was limited by pollen receipt. However, this effect varied across sites such that the sites that were most pollen-limited were also the sites where nectar alkaloids had the least effect on pollen receipt, resulting in no significant effect of nectar alkaloids on fruit set. Finally, high nectar gelsemine significantly reduced seed weight; however, this effect was mediated by a mechanism other than pollen limitation. Taken together, our work suggests that nectar alkaloids are more costly than beneficial in our system, and that relatively small-scale spatial variation in trait effects and interactions could determine the selective impacts of traits such as nectar composition.

  16. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-Ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  17. Simulating soil organic carbon stock as affected by land cover change and climate change, Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Azam; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Massah Bavani, Ali Reza; Jafari, Mostafa; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future. The following land covers were considered: Quercus castaneifolia (QC), Acer velutinum (AV), Alnus subcordata (AS), Cupressus sempervirens (CS) plantations and a natural forest (NF). For assessment of future climate change projections the Fifth Assessment IPCC report was used. These projections were generated with nine Global Climate Models (GCMs), for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) leading to very low and high greenhouse gases concentration levels (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 respectively), and for four 20year-periods up to 2099 (2030s, 2050s, 2070s and 2090s). Simulated values of SOC correlated well with measured data (R 2 =0.64 to 0.91) indicating a good efficiency of the RothC model. Our results showed an overall decrease in SOC stocks by 2099 under all land covers and climate change scenarios, but the extent of the decrease varied with the climate models, the emissions scenarios, time periods and land covers. Acer velutinum plantation was the most sensitive land cover to future climate change (range of decrease 8.34-21.83tCha -1 ). Results suggest that modeling techniques can be effectively applied for evaluating SOC stocks, allowing the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication.Wood identification based on their common name and their transversal surface anatomy.Application to the batch from the expedition of Ruiz and Pavon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrakopoulos, A. P.; Mitsopoulos, I. D.; Kaliva, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The flammability of the main coniferous forest species of Europe, divided into two groups according to their fire regime and altitudinal distribution, was tested in an effort to detect species-specific differences that may have an influence on community-wide fire regimes. Area of study: Conifer species comprising low- and high-elevation forests in Europe. Materials and methods: The following conifer species were tested: low elevation; Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Turkish pine), Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Pinus pinea (stone pine) and Cupressus sempervirens (cypress), high elevation (i.e., above 600 m a.s.l.); Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), Abies alba (white fir), Picea excelsa (Norway spruce), Abies borissii regis (Macedonian fir) and Pinus nigra (black pine). Flammability assessment (time-to-ignition and ignition temperature) was conducted by an innovative ignition apparatus, heat content was measured with an IKA Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter and ash content by heating 5 g of plant material in a muffle furnace at 650 degree centigrade for 1 h. Differences among species was statistically analysed by Duncan's multiple comparison test. Main results: The results did not distinguish separate groups among the tested flammability traits between fire- and non-fire-stricken communities at the individual species level. Research highlights: Differences in fire regimes among low and high elevation conifer forests could be attributed either to differences in flammability of the plant communities as a whole (i.e., fuelbed or canopy properties vs. individual fuel properties) or to other factors (climatic or anthropogenic). (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550{degrees}C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations.

  20. Increasing the UAV data value by an OBIA methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedrero, Angel; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Rodriguez-Esparragon, Dionisio; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there has been a noteworthy increment of using images registered by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in different remote sensing applications. Sensors boarded on UAVs has lower operational costs and complexity than other remote sensing platforms, quicker turnaround times as well as higher spatial resolution. Concerning this last aspect, particular attention has to be paid on the limitations of classical algorithms based on pixels when they are applied to high resolution images. The objective of this study is to investigate the capability of an OBIA methodology developed for the automatic generation of a digital terrain model of an agricultural area from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and multispectral images registered by a Parrot Sequoia multispectral sensor board on a eBee SQ agricultural drone. The proposed methodology uses a superpixel approach for obtaining context and elevation information used for merging superpixels and at the same time eliminating objects such as trees in order to generate a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the analyzed area. Obtained results show the potential of the approach, in terms of accuracy, when it is compared with a DTM generated by manually eliminating objects.

  1. Molecular-Level Simulations of the Turbulent Taylor-Green Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, M. A.; Bitter, N. P.; Koehler, T. P.; Plimpton, S. J.; Torczynski, J. R.; Papadakis, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, a statistical, molecular-level technique that provides accurate solutions to the Boltzmann equation, is applied to the turbulent Taylor-Green vortex flow. The goal of this work is to investigate whether DSMC can accurately simulate energy decay in a turbulent flow. If so, then simulating turbulent flows at the molecular level can provide new insights because the energy decay can be examined in detail from molecular to macroscopic length scales, thereby directly linking molecular relaxation processes to macroscopic transport processes. The DSMC simulations are performed on half a million cores of Sequoia, the 17 Pflop platform at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the kinetic-energy dissipation rate and the energy spectrum are computed directly from the molecular velocities. The DSMC simulations are found to reproduce the Kolmogorov -5/3 law and to agree with corresponding Navier-Stokes simulations obtained using a spectral method. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  2. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Postfire Vegetation Survey Campaigns through Large and Heterogeneous Areas: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability. Additionally, we compared the spatial information provided by the drone orthomosaic at ultra-high spatial resolution with another image provided by the WorldView-2 satellite at high spatial resolution. The drone raw imagery presented some anomalies, such as horizontal banding noise and non-homogeneous radiometry. Camera locations showed a lack of synchrony of the single frequency GPS receiver. The georeferencing process based on ground control points achieved an error lower than 30 cm in X-Y and lower than 55 cm in Z. The drone orthomosaic provided more information in terms of spatial variability in heterogeneous burned areas in comparison with the WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The drone orthomosaic could constitute a viable alternative for the evaluation of post-fire vegetation regeneration in large and heterogeneous burned areas.

  3. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-03-17

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila.

  4. Robust and adaptive band-to-band image transform of UAS miniature multi-lens multispectral camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, Jyun-Ping; Rau, Jiann-Yeou; Haala, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    Utilizing miniature multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) cameras by mounting them on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has the benefits of convenience and flexibility to collect remote sensing imagery for precision agriculture, vegetation monitoring, and environment investigation applications. Most miniature MS cameras adopt a multi-lens structure to record discrete MS bands of visible and invisible information. The differences in lens distortion, mounting positions, and viewing angles among lenses mean that the acquired original MS images have significant band misregistration errors. We have developed a Robust and Adaptive Band-to-Band Image Transform (RABBIT) method for dealing with the band co-registration of various types of miniature multi-lens multispectral cameras (Mini-MSCs) to obtain band co-registered MS imagery for remote sensing applications. The RABBIT utilizes modified projective transformation (MPT) to transfer the multiple image geometry of a multi-lens imaging system to one sensor geometry, and combines this with a robust and adaptive correction (RAC) procedure to correct several systematic errors and to obtain sub-pixel accuracy. This study applies three state-of-the-art Mini-MSCs to evaluate the RABBIT method's performance, specifically the Tetracam Miniature Multiple Camera Array (MiniMCA), Micasense RedEdge, and Parrot Sequoia. Six MS datasets acquired at different target distances and dates, and locations are also applied to prove its reliability and applicability. Results prove that RABBIT is feasible for different types of Mini-MSCs with accurate, robust, and rapid image processing efficiency.

  5. Relationship between availability of the collateral circulation and ischemic time for myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Assessment by technetium-99m tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Norio; Kondo, Makoto; Fukuoka, Yoshitomo; Higuchi, Hirokazu; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Matsuoka, Ryota; Araki, Makoto; Tanio, Hitoshi; Doyama, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial accumulation before reperfusion therapy of a radioactive tracer in the completely occluded region, conceivably reflects the viability of myocytes and degree of collateral circulation. To confirm this, the present study examined the relationship in the title. Subjects were 33 patients (F 7, M 26; average age 65 y) of the first 1-branch acute myocardial infarction and of TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction trial) grade 0 who recovered to TIMI 3 within 12 hr after attack: 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, 740 MBq, was intravenously injected before reperfusion and just after which, SPECT imaging (TF-SPECT) was conducted with Toshiba E. CAM, and regional severity score index (RSSI) (0-3) was calculated. About 1 week later, to see the myocardial viability in the chronic phase, GITl (Glucose-Insulin- 201 Tl) (111 MBq) SPECT was performed 30 min after its injection to calculate RSSI as above, and the echocardiography with ALOKA Pro Sound SSD-4000 or SIEMENS Acuson SEQUOIA C256 was done to calculate the regional wall motion score index (RWMSI) (0-4). RWMSI was found significantly correlated with TF-RSSI, the group with the better collateral circulation (TF-RSSI, 1.9 or less) exhibited significantly lower GITl-RSSI and RWMSI, and correlation between the ischemic time and neither TF-RSSI, GITl-RSSI nor RWMSI was found. Thus under these conditions, the development of collateral vessels was found to have potential protective effects on myocardium independently on the ischemic time. (T.I.)

  6. Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

  7. Areal variation and chemical modification of weathered shale infiltration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Spalding, B.P.; Munro, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial variability of infiltration into a weathered shale subsoil was evaluated at a site proximal to one used for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Double-ring infiltometers were installed at 48 locations on a 2- by 2-m grid after the removal of 1 to 2 m of soil (Litz-Sequoia association, Typic Hapludults). Infiltration rates were measured before and during the 0- to 20- and 239- to 259-day periods following treatment with solutions of NaOH, KOH, NaF, NaAlO 2 , and Na 2 SiO 3 at rates of 151 equivalents/m 2 . None of these chemical treatments significantly altered infiltration rate, indicating that chemical modification of soil exchange properties may be achieved without inducing hydrologic disturbance in these subsoils. A semivariogram analysis of infiltration data showed that areal variability was random; any spatial patterning must therefore occur at a smaller scale than 2 m

  8. Equine Grazing in Managed Subalpine Wetlands: Effects on Arthropods and Plant Structure as a Function of Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

    2013-12-01

    Grazing management necessarily emphasizes the most spatially extensive vegetation assemblages, but landscapes are mosaics, often with more mesic vegetation types embedded within a matrix of drier vegetation. Our primary objective was to contrast effects of equine grazing on both subalpine vegetation structure and associated arthropods in a drier reed grass ( Calamagrostis muiriana) dominated habitat versus a wetter, more productive sedge habitat ( Carex utriculata). A second objective was to compare reed grass and sedge as habitats for fauna, irrespective of grazing. All work was done in Sequoia National Park (CA, USA), where detailed, long-term records of stock management were available. We sampled paired grazed and control wet meadows that contained both habitats. There were moderate negative effects of grazing on vegetation, and effects were greater in sedge than in reed grass. Conversely, negative grazing effects on arthropods, albeit limited, were greater in the drier reed grass, possibly due to microhabitat differences. The differing effects on plants and animals as a function of habitat emphasize the importance of considering both flora and fauna, as well as multiple habitat types, when making management decisions. Sedge supported twice the overall arthropod abundance of reed grass as well as greater diversity; hemipteran and dipteran taxa were particularly abundant in sedge. Given the greater grazing effects on sedge vegetation, greater habitat provision for terrestrial arthropods, and value as aquatic arthropod habitat, the wetter sedge assemblage is worthy of additional consideration by managers when planning for grazing and other aspects of land usage.

  9. Use of the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio as an environmental tracer: an example of the application to the Fossil Forest of the Dunarobba (FFD) sedimentary system near Aviglano Umbro (Terni-Central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, M.

    2002-01-01

    A recent discovery of Pliocene tree trunks (Taxodium, Glyptostrobus or Sequoia) perfectly preserved in the fluvial lacustrine sediments deposited in the old Tiberin Lake (near the town of Dunarobba, Central Italy) has led to the study of the conditions responsible for the trunks preservation. The present work has applied Sr isotope techniques to examine and confirm fluid migration in the different sediment types which cross the entire fluvial-lacustrine sequence. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios measured in carbonate and in silicate fractions of samples collected from a bore hole (from 0 to 120 m) it is concluded that each sedimentary level has limited communication between zones and is characterised by different isotope values. This suggests that the intrinsic properties of these clays make them a good material for isolating waste, both for direct use and for a better buffer in other formations, possibly less secure, such as salt or granite. The results obtained in the present work have demonstrated some of the potential uses of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratio as an environmental tracer for confirming results from some of the geotechnical (such as permeability) and geochemical parameters of these host sediments

  10. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  11. [Estimation of the atrioventricular time interval by pulse Doppler in the normal fetal heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamela-Olkowska, Anita; Dangel, Joanna

    2009-08-01

    To assess normative values of the fetal atrioventricular (AV) time interval by pulse-wave Doppler methods on 5-chamber view. Fetal echocardiography exams were performed using Acuson Sequoia 512 in 140 singleton fetuses at 18 to 40 weeks of gestation with sinus rhythm and normal cardiac and extracardiac anatomy. Pulsed Doppler derived AV intervals were measured from left ventricular inflow/outflow view using transabdominal convex 3.5-6 MHz probe. The values of AV time interval ranged from 100 to 150 ms (mean 123 +/- 11.2). The AV interval was negatively correlated with the heart rhythm (page of gestation (p=0.007). However, in the same subgroup of the fetal heart rate there was no relation between AV intervals and gestational age. Therefore, the AV intervals showed only the heart rate dependence. The 95th percentiles of AV intervals according to FHR ranged from 135 to 148 ms. 1. The AV interval duration was negatively correlated with the heart rhythm. 2. Measurement of AV time interval is easy to perform and has a good reproducibility. It may be used for the fetal heart block screening in anti-Ro and anti-La positive pregnancies. 3. Normative values established in the study may help obstetricians in assessing fetal abnormalities of the AV conduction.

  12. Use of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic ratio as an environmental tracer: an example of the application to the Fossil Forest of the Dunarobba (FFD) sedimentary system near Aviglano Umbro (Terni-Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, M

    2002-12-01

    A recent discovery of Pliocene tree trunks (Taxodium, Glyptostrobus or Sequoia) perfectly preserved in the fluvial lacustrine sediments deposited in the old Tiberin Lake (near the town of Dunarobba, Central Italy) has led to the study of the conditions responsible for the trunks preservation. The present work has applied Sr isotope techniques to examine and confirm fluid migration in the different sediment types which cross the entire fluvial-lacustrine sequence. Based on the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios measured in carbonate and in silicate fractions of samples collected from a bore hole (from 0 to 120 m) it is concluded that each sedimentary level has limited communication between zones and is characterised by different isotope values. This suggests that the intrinsic properties of these clays make them a good material for isolating waste, both for direct use and for a better buffer in other formations, possibly less secure, such as salt or granite. The results obtained in the present work have demonstrated some of the potential uses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic ratio as an environmental tracer for confirming results from some of the geotechnical (such as permeability) and geochemical parameters of these host sediments.

  13. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program

  14. How big is big and how small is small the sizes of everything and why

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Timothy Paul

    2013-01-01

    This book is about how big is the universe and how small are quarks, and what are the sizes of dozens of things between these two extremes. It describes the sizes of atoms and planets, quarks and galaxies, cells and sequoias. It is a romp through forty-five orders of magnitude from the smallest sub-nuclear particles we have measured, to the edge of the observed universe. It also looks at time, from the epic age of the cosmos to the fleeting lifetimes of ethereal particles. It is a narrative that trips its way from stellar magnitudes to the clocks on GPS satellites, from the nearly logarithmic scales of a piano keyboard through a system of numbers invented by Archimedes and on to the measurement of the size of an atom. Why do some things happen at certain scales? Why are cells a hundred thousandths of a meter across? Why are stars never smaller than about 100 million meters in diameter? Why are trees limited to about 120 meters in height? Why are planets spherical, but asteroids not? Often the size of an objec...

  15. Marginal Bayesian nonparametric model for time to disease arrival of threatened amphibian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiming; Hanson, Timothy; Knapp, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the extinction of hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. It has become increasingly important to be able to precisely predict time to Bd arrival in a population. The data analyzed herein present a unique challenge in terms of modeling because there is a strong spatial component to Bd arrival time and the traditional proportional hazards assumption is grossly violated. To address these concerns, we develop a novel marginal Bayesian nonparametric survival model for spatially correlated right-censored data. This class of models assumes that the logarithm of survival times marginally follow a mixture of normal densities with a linear-dependent Dirichlet process prior as the random mixing measure, and their joint distribution is induced by a Gaussian copula model with a spatial correlation structure. To invert high-dimensional spatial correlation matrices, we adopt a full-scale approximation that can capture both large- and small-scale spatial dependence. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with delayed rejection is proposed for posterior computation, and an R package spBayesSurv is provided to fit the model. This approach is first evaluated through simulations, then applied to threatened frog populations in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Tree thermometers and commodities: historic climate indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.M.; Pandolfi, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    In four modern trees, hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios track the modern temperature records. In a 2000-yr sequence of a Japanese cedar, there are the same periodicities of variation of D/H and O 18 /O 16 as have been found in O 18 /O 16 in a Greenland ice well. The same periodicities are found in uranium and organic carbon concentrations versus depth in a sea core from the Santa Barbara Channel, and in carbon-14 variations in a sequence of Bristlecone pine from southern California. In a 2000-yr sequence of Japanese cedar and in a 1000-yr sequence of European oak D/H and O 18 /O 16 are related to each other by a slope of 8, just as they are in world-wide precipitation. In a 72-yr sequence of Sequoia gigantea, measured year by year for its oxygen isotope ratios, the 10.5-yr cycle of sunspot numbers found, but not the 21-yr cycle of sunspot magnetism; this we believe indicates that the sun is affecting the earth's climate with non-magnetic particles, probably photons. All these phenomena are related to periodic changes in sea surface temperature caused by periodic changes in the sun. (author)

  17. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations

  18. The Inelastic Instrument suite at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, Garrett E; Abernathy, Douglas L; Ehlers, Georg; Hagen, Mark E; Herwig, Kenneth W; Mamontov, Eugene; Ohl, Michael E; Wildgruber, Christoph U

    2008-01-01

    The instruments in the extensive suite of spectrometers at the SNS are in various stages of installation and commissioning. The Back Scattering Spectrometer (BASIS) is installed and is in commissioning. It's near backscattering analyzer crystals provide the 3 eV resolution as expected. BASIS will enter the user program in the fall of 2007. The ARCS wide angular-range thermal to epithermal neutron spectrometer will come on line in the fall of 2007 followed shortly by the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer. These two direct geometry instruments provide moderate resolution and the ability to trade resolution for flux. In addition both instruments have detector coverage out to 140o to provide a large Q range. The SEQUOIA spectrometer, complete in 2008, is the direct geometry instrument that will provide fine resolution in the thermal to epithermal range. The Spin-Echo spectrometer, to be completed on a similar time scale, will provide the finest energy resolution worldwide. The HYSPEC spectrometer, available no later than 2011, will provide polarized capabilities and optimized flux in the thermal energy range. Finally, the Vision chemical spectrometer will use crystal analyzers to study energy transfers into the epithermal range

  19. Fire decreases arthropod abundance but increases diversity: Early and late season prescribed fire effects in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Schwilk, Dylan W.; Knapp, Eric E.; Groth, Eric; Keeley, Jon E.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to fire suppression in the 20th century, the mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., historically burned in frequent fires that typically occurred during the late summer and early fall. Fire managers have been attempting to restore natural ecosystem processes through prescription burning, and have often favored burning during the fall in order to mimic historical fire regimes. Increasingly, however, prescription burning is also being done during the late spring and early summer in order to expand the window of opportunity for needed fuel reduction burning. The effect of prescribed fires outside of the historical fire season on forest arthropods is not known. The objective of this study was to compare the short-term effects of prescribed fires ignited in the early and late fire season on forest floor arthropods. Arthropod abundance and diversity were assessed using pitfall trapping in replicated burn units in Sequoia National Park, California. Overall, abundance of arthropods was lower in the burn treatments than in the unburned control. However, diversity tended to be greater in the burn treatments. Fire also altered the relative abundances of arthropod feeding guilds. No significant differences in arthropod community structure were found between early and late season burn treatments. Instead, changes in the arthropod community appeared to be driven largely by changes in fuel loading, vegetation, and habitat heterogeneity, all of which differed more between the burned and unburned treatments than between early and late season burn treatments.

  20. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Egami, R.T.; Bowen, J.L.; Frazier, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  1. 2011 Computation Directorate Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D L

    2012-04-11

    From its founding in 1952 until today, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant strategic investments to develop high performance computing (HPC) and its application to national security and basic science. Now, 60 years later, the Computation Directorate and its myriad resources and capabilities have become a key enabler for LLNL programs and an integral part of the effort to support our nation's nuclear deterrent and, more broadly, national security. In addition, the technological innovation HPC makes possible is seen as vital to the nation's economic vitality. LLNL, along with other national laboratories, is working to make supercomputing capabilities and expertise available to industry to boost the nation's global competitiveness. LLNL is on the brink of an exciting milestone with the 2012 deployment of Sequoia, the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) 20-petaFLOP/s resource that will apply uncertainty quantification to weapons science. Sequoia will bring LLNL's total computing power to more than 23 petaFLOP/s-all brought to bear on basic science and national security needs. The computing systems at LLNL provide game-changing capabilities. Sequoia and other next-generation platforms will enable predictive simulation in the coming decade and leverage industry trends, such as massively parallel and multicore processors, to run petascale applications. Efficient petascale computing necessitates refining accuracy in materials property data, improving models for known physical processes, identifying and then modeling for missing physics, quantifying uncertainty, and enhancing the performance of complex models and algorithms in macroscale simulation codes. Nearly 15 years ago, NNSA's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), now called the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, was the critical element needed to shift from test-based confidence to science-based confidence

  2. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, Robert [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: rjk9@cornell.edu

    2007-10-15

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program.

  3. The Effect of Chemical Treatments on Lampenflora and a Collembola Indicator Species at a Popular Tour Cave in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Seale, L. Don; Permar, Brianne; McClary, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Growth of invasive, opportunistic plants (i.e. lampenflora) in popular tour caves is a significant concern for land managers worldwide. Numerous chemicals at various concentrations have been utilized to remove phototrophic lampenflora colonizing artificially lit surfaces within these caves; however formulations, effectiveness, and impacts appear anecdotal and temporally limited. At Crystal Cave, Sequoia National Park, California, we study lampenflora and cave springtail ( Tomocerus celsus) response to a single 0.05 ml/cm2 dose of 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and 15.0% hydrogen peroxide compared to no treatment over the course of one year. Additionally, we explore potential food web impacts resulting from invasive lampenflora in naturally oligotrophic caves by utilizing stable isotope analysis of T. celsus found on and off lampenflora. Time-effect decay models indicate 1.0 and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite effectively eliminate lampenflora in 11 and 21 days, respectively, while lampenflora decay projections exceed 600 days with 15.0% hydrogen peroxide treatment. Repeat surveys of T. celsus indicate a negative response to 1.0% sodium hypochlorite ( P = 0.02), and the probability of observing T. celsus was inversely related to the effectiveness of each treatment. Further, T. celsus had similar diets regardless of their lampenflora association ( P = 0.92). We conclude that treatments of sodium hypochlorite at or below 0.5% achieve management goals with limited impacts to the presence or diet of a common cave-adapted indicator species.

  4. Making the transition to the third era of natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    We are entering the third era of National Park Service (NPS) natural resources management— an era defined by rapid and unprecedented global changes. This third era promises to overturn not only some of our most fundamental assumptions about parks and protected areas, but also many of the ideals we currently hold dear. A common initial reaction to the diverse challenges of this transition is to feel overwhelmed and adrift; I have certainly had such feelings myself. But these feelings carry the risk of reducing our effectiveness as resource stewards right when we can least afford to be less effective: during a transition that is demanding us to be particularly clear-headed and far-seeing. Here I briefly examine some of the challenges of this new era, focusing on those that can most often elicit feelings of discouragement. When we examine the challenges individually, they begin to lose some of their ability to cast gloom—especially when we consider them in the light of lessons from an earlier fundamental transition in NPS natural resources management, beginning a half-century ago. My perspective is shaped by my 35 years as a place-based scientist stationed in a large national park (Sequoia and Kings Canyon), and by my passion for national parks in general. While the discussion that follows is most relevant to large national parks set aside primarily for their natural features, several of the ideas are also relevant to other park units.

  5. High performance computing enabling exhaustive analysis of higher order single nucleotide polymorphism interaction in Genome Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudey, Benjamin; Abedini, Mani; Hopper, John L; Inouye, Michael; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Wagner, John; Zhou, Zeyu; Zobel, Justin; Reumann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a common approach for systematic discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are associated with a given disease. Univariate analysis approaches commonly employed may miss important SNP associations that only appear through multivariate analysis in complex diseases. However, multivariate SNP analysis is currently limited by its inherent computational complexity. In this work, we present a computational framework that harnesses supercomputers. Based on our results, we estimate a three-way interaction analysis on 1.1 million SNP GWAS data requiring over 5.8 years on the full "Avoca" IBM Blue Gene/Q installation at the Victorian Life Sciences Computation Initiative. This is hundreds of times faster than estimates for other CPU based methods and four times faster than runtimes estimated for GPU methods, indicating how the improvement in the level of hardware applied to interaction analysis may alter the types of analysis that can be performed. Furthermore, the same analysis would take under 3 months on the currently largest IBM Blue Gene/Q supercomputer "Sequoia" at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory assuming linear scaling is maintained as our results suggest. Given that the implementation used in this study can be further optimised, this runtime means it is becoming feasible to carry out exhaustive analysis of higher order interaction studies on large modern GWAS.

  6. Climate Variability, Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Exposure, and Amphibian Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Diamond, S.; Corn, S.; Muths, E.; Tonnessen, K.; Campbell, D. H.

    2001-12-01

    Increasing levels of UV radiation represent a potential threat to aquatic organisms in a wide range of environments, yet controls on in situ variability on UV exposure are relatively unknown. The primary control on the penetration of UV radiation in surface water environments is the amount of photoreactive dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Consequently, biogeochemical processes that control the cycling of DOC also affect the exposure of aquatic organisms to UV radiation. Three years of monitoring UV extinction and DOC composition in Rocky Mountain, Glacier, Sequoia/ Kings Canyon, and Olympic National Parks demonstrate that the amount of fulvic acid DOC is much more important than the total DOC pool in controlling UV attenuation. This photoreactive component of DOC originates primarily in soil, and is subject both to biogeochemical controls (e.g. temperature, moisture, vegetation, soil type) on production, and hydrologic controls on transport to surface water and consequently UV exposure to aquatic organisms. Both of these controls are positively related to precipitation with greater production and transport associated with higher precipitation amounts. For example, an approximately 20 percent reduction in precipitation from 1999 to 2000 resulted in a 27% - 59% reduction in the amount of photoreactive DOC at three sites in Rocky Mountain National Park. These differences in the amount of hydrophobic DOC result in an increase in UV exposure in the aquatic environment by a factor of 2 or more. Implications of these findings for observed patterns of amphibian decline will be discussed.

  7. Kinetic turbulence simulations at extreme scale on leadership-class systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bei [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Tang, William [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Williams, Timothy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Madduri, Kamesh [The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable predictive simulation capability addressing confinement properties in magnetically confined fusion plasmas is critically-important for ITER, a 20 billion dollar international burning plasma device under construction in France. The complex study of kinetic turbulence, which can severely limit the energy confinement and impact the economic viability of fusion systems, requires simulations at extreme scale for such an unprecedented device size. Our newly optimized, global, ab initio particle-in-cell code solving the nonlinear equations underlying gyrokinetic theory achieves excellent performance with respect to "time to solution" at the full capacity of the IBM Blue Gene/Q on 786,432 cores of Mira at ALCF and recently of the 1,572,864 cores of Sequoia at LLNL. Recent multithreading and domain decomposition optimizations in the new GTC-P code represent critically important software advances for modern, low memory per core systems by enabling routine simulations at unprecedented size (130 million grid points ITER-scale) and resolution (65 billion particles).

  8. Comparison of quality of ultrasonographic image of the pancreas: Tissue harmonic image vs. Fundamental image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2002-01-01

    To compare the quality of ultrasonographic (US) images, tissue harmonic image (THI) versus fundamental image (FI), of the pancreas. During a recent 2 month period, forty one patients with the normal pancreas on US were included. All of them were free of abnormal clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of pancreatic disease, US was performed by an abdominal radiologist with a 2.5-5 MHz convex-array transducer (Sequoia 512: Acuson, Mountain View, Calif.U.S.A.). Comparison of THI and FI of the pancreas was done for the following parameters:conspicuity, intermal architecture, and delineation range. Grading was made by the consensus of two abdominal radiologist witha three-point scale. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcox signed rank sum test. For the evaluation of the US image quality of the pancreas THI showed better conspicuity (p=0.0130), clearer internal architecture (p=0.0029) and superior delineation range (p=0.0191) than those of FI. THI appears to show a superior image quality than FI in evaluation of the pancreas.

  9. Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its Utility in Paleoecological Reconstruction of Eocene High Latitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; LePage, B. A.; Vann, D. R.; Johnson, A. H.

    2001-05-01

    Abundant fossil plant remains are preserved in the Eocene-aged deposits of the Buchanan Lake formation on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. Intact leaf litter, logs, and stumps preserved in situ as mummified remains present an opportunity to determine forest composition, structure, and productivity of a Taxodiaceae-dominated forest that once grew north of the Arctic Circle (paleolatitude 75-80° N). We excavated 37 tree stems for dimensional analysis from mudstone and channel-sand deposits. Stem length ranged from 1.0 m to 14.8 m (average = 3.2 m). Stem diameter ranged from less than 10 cm to greater than 75 cm (average = 32.2 cm). All stem wood was tentatively identified to genus as Metasequoia sp. The diameters and parabolic shape of the preserved tree trunks indicate that the Metasequoia were about 39 m tall across a wide range of diameters. The allometric relationships we derived for modern Metasequoia (n=70) allowed independent predictions of Metasequoia height given the stand density and stump diameters of the fossil forest. The two height estimates of 40 and 40.5 m match the results obtained from measurements of the Eocene trees. We used stump diameter data (n =107, diameter > 20 cm) and an uniform canopy height of 39 m to calculate parabolic stem volume and stem biomass for a 0.22 ha area of fossil forest. Stem volume equaled 2065 m3 ha-1 and stem biomass equaled 560 Mg ha-1 . In the Eocene forest, as determined from length of stems that were free of protruding branches and from 7 exhumed tree tops, the uppermost 9 m of the trees carried live branches with foliage. In living conifers, branch weights and the amount of foliage carried by branches are well correlated with branch diameters measured where the branch joins the main stem. To determine the biomass in branches and foliage in the Eocene forest, we used relationships derived from large modern Metasequoia. Based on the regression of branch weight v. branch diameter (r2 = 0.97) and foliar biomass v

  10. Stand structure and regeneration of a mixed forest (Abies alba-Fagus sylvatica in the Central Pyrenees, Ordesa National Park, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležal, J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The locations and biometrical characteristics of 2391 living and dead trees > 1.3 m tall of Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, and the 378 understory shrubs o/Buxus sempervirens, were mapped in a 1.4 ha plot on the northern slope of Ordesa Valley to evaluate several hypotheses about stand structural development, tree species regeneration and coexistence. The plot is located in relatively undisturbed old-growth forest, but contains areas at low elevation which were formerly pasture. Abies is typically represented by many young trees and gradually declining numbers of trees in successively older size classes, whereas Fagus has greater numbers of trees in larger size and older age classes. This would imply a shift in dominance from beech to fir if the two species have similar mortality rates. We tested two hypotheses about the coexistence of ecologically similar species: (1 based on differentiation of regeneration niches, and (2 by means of different life history strategies (preference for survivorship or fecundity. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to determine if the two species prefer different habitats. The analysis of spatial patterns and interspecific associations by Ripley's K-function was used to estimate the role of competition among trees in forest dynamics. The data provide empirical support for both tested hypotheses, although it has been shown that their importance varies depending on the degree of environmental heterogeneity along the slope across the plot. Different life history strategies appear critical to the success of coexistence in moderate environment at lower elevations, where co-dominant species have overlapping regeneration niches.

    [fr] Dans une parcelle de 1, 4 Ha au versant nord de la vallée d'Ordesa nous avons cartographie à petite échelle et pris des données biométriques sur 2391 hêtres (Fagus sylvatica et sapins (Abies alba vivants ou morts mais tous s'élevant à plus de 1,3 m, ainsi

  11. PARKS OF RECREATIONAL COMPLEXES OF SUDAK CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina L. Potapenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of optimal paths of landscaping recreational complexes South-Eastern Crimea (Sudak for example, taking into account climatic, geographical and historical characteristics of the region. Material. Green plantings of recreational complexes have been surveyed in 2015–2016: the sanatorium "Sudak" of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation, the area is 26 ha; the pension "Crimean spring", an area is 10 ha; the pension "Zvezdniy", an area is 3 ha; the sanatorium "Sokol", an area is 3 ha; the Tourist and recreational complex "Sudak", an area is 17 ha. Results. Dendroflora of Sudak recreational facilities includes 151 species belonging to 90 genera and 47 families. The most represented species in the following families: Rosaceae – 27 (17,9%, Oleaceae – 12 (7,9%, Pinaceae – 12 (7,9%, Cupressaceae – 10 (6,7%, Fabaceae – 7 (4,6%. The greatest form variety is possessed by representatives of the family Cupressaceae (8, or 33,0%, the pyramidal form of cypress evergreen (Cupressus sempervirens `Pyramidalis` dominates among them. An assortment of ornamental trees and shrubs in the studied sites are quite diverse – 175 species and forms. Deciduous trees and shrubs prevail here – 60 (34,3% and 37 (21,1% species and forms respectively. There are 37 (21,1% species and forms of coniferous trees and shrubs. There are 24 (13,7% types and forms of evergreen foliage plants: shrubs – 18 (10,3%, trees – 4 (2,3%, lianas – 2 (1,1%. Main conclusions. The source of introductory material for the green construction of South-Eastern Crimea should be the representatives of families Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Fabaceae those are the most adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of the region. Increasing the diversity of ornamental trees and shrubs should be achieved through the use of coniferous and evergreen plants. To create picturesque groups of plants with different emotional conten increasing the number of

  12. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.

  13. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  14. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Roques

    Full Text Available Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China, and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major

  15. Imprint of oaks on nitrogen availability and δ15N in California grassland-savanna: A case of enhanced N inputs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, S.S.; Kellogg, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Woody vegetation is distributed patchily in many arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where it is often associated with elevated nitrogen (N) pools and availability in islands of fertility. We measured N availability and δ15N in paired blue-oak versus annual grass dominated patches to characterize the causes and consequences of spatial variation in N dynamics of grassland-savanna in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. We found significantly greater surface soil N pools (0–20 cm) in oak patches compared to adjacent grass areas across a 700 m elevation gradient from foothills to the savanna-forest boundary. N accumulation under oaks was associated with a 0.6‰ depletion in soil δ15N relative to grass patches. Results from a simple δ15N mass balance simulation model, constrained by surface soil N and δ15N measured in the field, suggest that the development of islands of N fertility under oaks can be traced primarily to enhanced N inputs. Net N mineralization and percent nitrification in laboratory incubations were consistently higher under oaks across a range of experimental soil moisture regimes, suggesting a scenario whereby greater N inputs to oak patches result in net N accumulation and enhanced N cycling, with a potential for greater nitrate loss as well. N concentrations of three common herbaceous annual plants were nearly 50% greater under oak than in adjacent grass patches, with community composition shifted towards more N-demanding species under oaks. We find that oaks imprint distinct N-rich islands of fertility that foster local feedback between soil N cycling, plant N uptake, and herbaceous community composition. Such patch-scale differences in N inputs and plant–soil interactions increase biogeochemical heterogeneity in grassland-savanna ecosystems and may shape watershed-level responses to chronic N deposition.

  16. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration

  17. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  18. Computation Directorate 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D L

    2009-03-25

    Whether a computer is simulating the aging and performance of a nuclear weapon, the folding of a protein, or the probability of rainfall over a particular mountain range, the necessary calculations can be enormous. Our computers help researchers answer these and other complex problems, and each new generation of system hardware and software widens the realm of possibilities. Building on Livermore's historical excellence and leadership in high-performance computing, Computation added more than 331 trillion floating-point operations per second (teraFLOPS) of power to LLNL's computer room floors in 2008. In addition, Livermore's next big supercomputer, Sequoia, advanced ever closer to its 2011-2012 delivery date, as architecture plans and the procurement contract were finalized. Hyperion, an advanced technology cluster test bed that teams Livermore with 10 industry leaders, made a big splash when it was announced during Michael Dell's keynote speech at the 2008 Supercomputing Conference. The Wall Street Journal touted Hyperion as a 'bright spot amid turmoil' in the computer industry. Computation continues to measure and improve the costs of operating LLNL's high-performance computing systems by moving hardware support in-house, by measuring causes of outages to apply resources asymmetrically, and by automating most of the account and access authorization and management processes. These improvements enable more dollars to go toward fielding the best supercomputers for science, while operating them at less cost and greater responsiveness to the customers.

  19. Modularized Parallel Neutron Instrument Simulation on the TeraGrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Meili; Cobb, John W.; Hagen, Mark E.; Miller, Stephen D.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to build a bridge between the TeraGrid (TG), a national scale cyberinfrastructure resource, and neutron science, the Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway (NSTG) is focused on introducing productive HPC usage to the neutron science community, primarily the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Monte Carlo simulations are used as a powerful tool for instrument design and optimization at SNS. One of the successful efforts of a collaboration team composed of NSTG HPC experts and SNS instrument scientists is the development of a software facility named PSoNI, Parallelizing Simulations of Neutron Instruments. Parallelizing the traditional serial instrument simulation on TeraGrid resources, PSoNI quickly computes full instrument simulation at sufficient statistical levels in instrument de-sign. Upon SNS successful commissioning, to the end of 2007, three out of five commissioned instruments in SNS target station will be available for initial users. Advanced instrument study, proposal feasibility evaluation, and experiment planning are on the immediate schedule of SNS, which pose further requirements such as flexibility and high runtime efficiency on fast instrument simulation. PSoNI has been redesigned to meet the new challenges and a preliminary version is developed on TeraGrid. This paper explores the motivation and goals of the new design, and the improved software structure. Further, it describes the realized new features seen from MPI parallelized McStas running high resolution design simulations of the SEQUOIA and BSS instruments at SNS. A discussion regarding future work, which is targeted to do fast simulation for automated experiment adjustment and comparing models to data in analysis, is also presented

  20. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  1. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  2. TRAO Multibeam Receiver System and Key Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngung

    2017-06-01

    Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) is now equipped with a main controling computer with VxWorks operating system, a new receiver system, and a new backend system. The new receiver system(TRAO-SEQUOIA) is equipped with high-performing 16-pixel MMIC pre-amplifiers in a 4x4 array, operating within 85~115 GHz frequency range. The system temperature ranges from 150 K (86~110 GHz) to 450 K (115 GHz). The 2nd IF modules with the narrow band and the 8 channels with 4 FFT spectrometers allow to observe 2 frequencies simultaneously within the 85~100 or 100~115 GHz bands for all 16 pixels of the receiver. Radome replacement was completed successfully as of February 2017. In addition, a new servo system will be installed in 2017 summer. We provide OTF (On-The-Fly) as a main observing mode, and position switching mode is available as well. The backend system (FFT spectrometer) provides the 4096x2 channels with fine velocity resolution of about 0.05 km/sec (15 kHz) per channel, and their full spectra bandwidth is 60 MHz. Beam efficiency of the TRAO was measured to be about 46% - 54% (with less than 2% error) between 86 and 115 GHz bands and pointing errors of the 14m telescope were found be 4.4 arcsec in AZ direction and 6 arcsec in EL direction. Generally, we allocate 18 hours of telescope time a day from January to the middle of May, and from October to December. Three Key Science Programs had been selected in 2015 fall and they are supposed to have higher priority for telescope time.

  3. Measurement of Vapor Flow As an Important Source of Water in Dry Land Eco-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; He, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.

    2014-12-01

    When the temperature of land surface is lower than that of air and deeper soils, water vapor gathers toward the ground surface where dew maybe formed depending on the prevailing dew point and wind speed. Some plants are able to absorb the dew and vapor flow while the soil can readily absorb both. Certain animals such as desert beetles and ants harvest the dew or fog for daily survival. Recently, it is also realized that the dew and vapor flow can be a life-saving amount of water for plant survival at the driest seasons of the year in arid and semi-arid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in arid and semi-arid regions in China and USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of plant is characterized by the absorption and desorption functions derived for plant physiology and water balance studies. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic vapor flow movements from the atmosphere and the groundwater table to soil surface. Results show that dew is usually formed on soil and plant surfaces during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The amount of dew harvested using gravels on the soil surface was enough to support water melon agriculture on deserts. The vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by artificially seeded plants in semi-arid regions forming new forests. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  4. Lightning safety awareness of visitors in three California national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Lori; Allen, Jacoby; Davis, Kyle P; Campagne, Danielle; Snowden, Brandy; Hughes, Susan

    2011-09-01

    To assess the level of lightning safety awareness among visitors at 3 national parks in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. A 12-question, short answer convenience sample survey was administered to participants 18 years of age and over concerning popular trails and points of interest with known lightning activity. There were 6 identifying questions and 5 knowledge-based questions pertaining to lightning that were scored on a binary value of 0 or 1 for a total of 10 points for the survey instrument. Volunteers in Fresno, California, were used as a control group. Participants were categorized as Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park (SEKI), frontcountry (FC), or backcountry (BC); Yosemite National Park (YNP) FC or BC; and Fresno. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between groups. 467 surveys were included for analysis: 77 in Fresno, 192 in SEKI, and 198 in YNP. National park participants demonstrated greater familiarity with lightning safety than individuals from the metropolitan community (YNP 5.84 and SEKI 5.65 vs Fresno 5.14, P = .0032). There were also differences noted between the BC and FC subgroups (YNP FC 6.07 vs YNP BC 5.62, P = .02; YNP FC 6.07 vs SEKI FC 5.58, P = .02). Overall results showed that participants had certain basic lightning knowledge but lacked familiarity with other key lightning safety recommendations. While there are statistically significant differences in lightning safety awareness between national parks and metropolitan participants, the clinical impact of these findings are debatable. This study provides a starting point for providing educational outreach to visitors in these national parks. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sources and Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Western U.S. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    USENKO, SASCHA; MASSEY SIMONICH, STACI L.; HAGEMAN, KIMBERLY J.; SCHRLAU, JILL E.; GEISER, LINDA; CAMPBELL, DON H.; APPLEBY, PETER G.; LANDERS, DIXON H.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal snowpack, lichens, and lake sediment cores were collected from fourteen lake catchments in eight western U.S. National Parks and analyzed for sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in order to determine their current and historical deposition, as well as to identify their potential sources. Seasonal snowpack was measured to determine the current wintertime atmospheric PAH deposition; lichens were measured to determine the long-term, year around deposition; and the temporal PAH deposition trends were reconstructed using lake sediment cores dated using 210Pb and 137Cs. The fourteen remote lake catchments ranged from low-latitude catchments (36.6° N) at high elevation (2900 masl) in Sequoia National Park, CA to high-latitude catchments (68.4° N) at low elevation (427 masl) in the Alaskan Arctic. Over 75% of the catchments demonstrated statistically significant temporal trends in ΣPAH sediment flux, depending on catchment proximity to source regions and topographic barriers. The ΣPAH concentrations and fluxes in seasonal snowpack, lichens, and surficial sediment were 3.6 to 60,000 times greater in the Snyder Lake catchment of Glacier National Park than the other 13 lake catchments. The PAH ratios measured in snow, lichen, and sediment were used to identify a local aluminum smelter as a major source of PAHs to the Snyder Lake catchment. These results suggest that topographic barriers influence the atmospheric transport and deposition of PAHs in high-elevation ecosystems and that PAH sources to these national park ecosystems range from local point sources to diffuse regional and global sources. PMID:20465303

  6. The Lunula: An ultrasound imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Ahn, Joong Mo

    2001-01-01

    The lunula is the white, half-moon-shaped area seen on some, but not all nails. Usually the lunula is the topographic marker of the distal part of the nail matrix, and known to have the ability of nail production. Ultrasonographic imaging of the lunula has not been reported before. This study was undertaken to demonstrate normal ultrasonographic features of the lunula. Ultrasonographic examination of the lunula was performed in the right thumb of 20 healthy volunteers (10M, 10F, mean age 30, range 26-36 years) with a real-time, high-resolution ultrasound unit (Sequoia 512, Acuson, Mountain view, CA, USA) with 8-15 MHz linear transducers. Gray scale color, and special Doppler imagings were performed with longitudinal scanning. The lunula was not seen inspection in three of the 20 volunteers. The mean size of the lunula in the other 17 volumteen was 3.31 ± 1.24 mm (range 2-6.2 mm). Gray scale ultrasound imaging showed the lunula; ovoid shaped hypo-echoic zone in proximal fingernail in 18 of 20 volunteers (mean size, 6.74 ± 0.98 mm, range 5-8.8 mm). In two of 20 volunteers, the lunula was indistinct on gray scale ultrasound examination. However, all lunula were identifiable on color Doppler imaging by detecting vascularity within the lunula. Spectral wave pattern of the lunula was a bi-directional pulsatile wave. Peak velocity was within 5-15 m/sec (mean 8 m/sec). The lunula is identifiable on ultrasound examination as a hyper-vascular, ovoid shaped, hypo-echoic zone in proximal fingernail. This normal structure should not be misinterpreted as an abnormal sub-ungual lesion.

  7. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Holmquist

    Full Text Available Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

  8. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a) long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b) additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

  9. Seasonal variability of cohesive sediment aggregation in the Bach Dang-Cam Estuary, Haiphong (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain; Vinh, Vu Duy; Arfi, Robert; Panché, Jean-Yves; Mari, Xavier; Van Thuoc, Chu; Torréton, Jean-Pascal

    2012-04-01

    In the Bach Dang-Cam Estuary, northern Vietnam, mechanisms governing cohesive sediment aggregation were investigated in situ in 2008-2009. As part of the Red River delta, this estuary exhibits a marked contrast in hydrological conditions between the monsoon and dry seasons. The impact on flocculation processes was assessed by means of surveys of water discharge, suspended particulate matter concentration and floc size distributions (FSDs) conducted during a tidal cycle at three selected sites along the estuary. A method was developed for calculating the relative volume concentration for the modes of various size classes from FSDs provided by the LISST 100X (Sequoia Scientific Inc.). It was found that all FSDs comprised four modes identified as particles/flocculi, fine and coarse microflocs, and macroflocs. Under the influence of the instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy, their proportions varied but without significant modification of their median diameters. In particular, when the turbulence level corresponded to a Kolmogorov microscale of less than ˜235 μm, a major breakup of flocs resulted in the formation of particles/flocculi and fine microflocs. Fluctuations in turbulence level were governed by seasonal variations in freshwater discharge and by the tidal cycle. During the wet season, strong freshwater input induced a high turbulent energy level that tended to generate sediment transfer from the coarser size classes (macroflocs, coarse microflocs) to finer ones (particles/flocculi and fine microflocs), and to promote a transport of sediment seawards. During the dry season, the influence of tides predominated. The turbulent energy level was then only episodically sufficiently high to generate transfer of sediment between floc size classes. At low turbulent energy, modifications in the proportions of floc size classes were due to differential settling. Tidal pumping produced a net upstream transport of sediment. Associated with the settling of sediment

  10. Field instruments for real time in-situ crude oil concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.B.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling, M.C.Jr.; Ojo, T.O.

    2003-01-01

    Accidental oil spills, contaminant release during resuspension, storms, and harmful algal blooms are all episodic events that can effect coastal margins. It is important to quantitatively describe water and ecological quality evolution and predict the impact to these areas by such events, but traditional sampling methods miss environmental activity during cyclical events. This paper presents a new sampling approach that involves continuous, real-time in-situ monitoring to provide data for development of comprehensive modeling protocols. It gives spill response coordinators greater assurance in making decisions using the latest visualization tools which are based on a good understanding of the physical processes at work in pulsed events. Five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in aquatic systems were described. The in-situ and ex-situ sensors can measure plume transport and estimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure concentrations to assess risk of toxicity. A brief description and evaluation of the following 5 sensors was provided: the LISST-100 by Sequoia Instrument, a submersible multi-angle laser scattering instrument; the AU-10 field fluorometer by Turner Designs, an ex-situ single wavelength fluorometer; the Flashlamp by WET Labs Inc., an in-situ single wavelength fluorometer; and, the ECO-FL3 and SAFire by WET Labs Inc., two in-situ multiple wavelength fluorometers. These instruments were used to analyze crude oil emissions of various concentrations. All of the instruments followed a linear response within the tested concentration range. At the lowest concentrations the LISST-100 was not as effective as the fluorometers because of limited particle volume for scatter. For the AU-10 field fluorometer, the highest concentrations tested were above the measurement range of the instrument. 6 refs., 5 figs

  11. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Dean L.; Miller, Carol; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2000-01-01

    Vegetation pattern on landscapes is the manifestation of physical gradients, biotic response to these gradients, and disturbances. Here we focus on the physical template as it governs the distribution of mixed-conifer forests in California's Sierra Nevada. We extended a forest simulation model to examine montane environmental gradients, emphasizing factors affecting the water balance in these summer-dry landscapes. The model simulates the soil moisture regime in terms of the interaction of water supply and demand: supply depends on precipitation and water storage, while evapotranspirational demand varies with solar radiation and temperature. The forest cover itself can affect the water balance via canopy interception and evapotranspiration. We simulated Sierran forests as slope facets, defined as gridded stands of homogeneous topographic exposure, and verified simulated gradient response against sample quadrats distributed across Sequoia National Park. We then performed a modified sensitivity analysis of abiotic factors governing the physical gradient. Importantly, the model's sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, and soil depth varies considerably over the physical template, particularly relative to elevation. The physical drivers of the water balance have characteristic spatial scales that differ by orders of magnitude. Across large spatial extents, temperature and precipitation as defined by elevation primarily govern the location of the mixed conifer zone. If the analysis is constrained to elevations within the mixed-conifer zone, local topography comes into play as it influences drainage. Soil depth varies considerably at all measured scales, and is especially dominant at fine (within-stand) scales. Physical site variables can influence soil moisture deficit either by affecting water supply or water demand; these effects have qualitatively different implications for forest response. These results have clear implications about purely inferential approaches

  12. Effects of eradication and restoration treatments on Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas; Keeley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Low elevation grasslands in California long have been dominated by Mediterranean grasses, but many areas still have large native forb populations. Alien forbs invade these grasslands, displacing both native and other alien species. Italian thistle is a noxious alien herb that has recently invaded these grasslands, including ungrazed blue oak (Quercus douglassii) and interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) stands in Sequoia National Park. Here, Italian thistle tends to dominate under oaks and has the potential to substantially alter the foothill ecosystem by displacing native plants and acting as a ladder fuel that can carry fires into the oak canopy. We tested the effects of selectively reducing Italian thistle populations alone and in combination with restoration of native species. Two thistle eradication techniques (clipping and the application of clopyralid herbicide) and two restoration techniques (addition of native forb seeds or planting native grass plugs) were used. After two consecutive years of treatment we found: a) clipping was not effective at reducing Italian thistle populations (clipping reduced Italian thistle density in some areas, but not vegetative cover), b) herbicide reduced both Italian thistle density and vegetative cover for the first two growing seasons after application, but cover rebounded in the third growing season, c) native forb cover and species richness were not significantly affected by clipping or spot-treating with herbicide, d) the grass and forb addition treatments by themselves were not effective at reducing Italian thistle during the course of this study and e) sowing annual forb seeds after clipping resulted in greater forb cover and moderately reduced Italian thistle vegetative cover in the short term.

  13. Past, Present, and Future Old Growth in Frequent-fire Conifer Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Abella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Old growth in the frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States, such as those containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi, giant sequoia (Sequioa giganteum and other species, has undergone major changes since Euro-American settlement. Understanding past changes and anticipating future changes under different potential management scenarios are fundamental to developing ecologically based fuel reduction or ecological restoration treatments. Some of the many changes that have occurred in these forests include shifts from historically frequent surface fire to no fire or to stand-replacing fire regimes, increases in tree density, increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees, decreases in understory productivity, hydrological alterations, and accelerated mortality of old trees. Although these changes are widespread, the magnitude and causes of changes may vary within and among landscapes. Agents of change, such as fire exclusion or livestock grazing, likely interacted and had multiple effects. For example, historical ranching operations may have altered both fire regimes and understory vegetation, and facilitated institutional fire exclusion through fragmentation and settlement. Evidence exists for large variation in presettlement characteristics and current condition of old growth across this broad forest region, although there are many examples of striking similarities on widely distant landscapes. Exotic species, climate change, unnatural stand-replacing wildfires, and other factors will likely continue to degrade or eradicate old growth in many areas. As a policy of fire exclusion is proving to be unsustainable, mechanical tree thinning, prescribed fire, or wildland fire use will likely be key options for forestalling continued eradication of old growth by severe crown fires. For many practical and societal reasons, the wildland-urban interface may afford some of the most immediate opportunities for re

  14. Multiscale Framework for Assessing Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Aquatic Ecosystems in Wilderness Areas of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David; Saros, Jasmine; McMurray, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Sickman, James

    2017-04-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Wilderness areas of the western United States are impacted by current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition associated with local and regional air pollution. Documented effects include elevated surface water nitrate concentrations, increased algal productivity, and changes in diatom species assemblages. A predictive framework was developed for sensitive high-elevation basins across the western United States at multiple spatial scales including the Rocky Mountain Region (Rockies), the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), and Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) National Parks. Spatial trends in critical loads of N deposition for nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems were quantified and mapped using a geostatistical approach, with modeled N deposition, topography, vegetation, geology, and climate as potential explanatory variables. Multiple predictive models were created using various combinations of explanatory variables; this approach allowed for better quantification of uncertainty and identification of areas most sensitive to high atmospheric N deposition (> 3 kg N ha-1 yr-1). For multiple spatial scales, the lowest critical loads estimates (1.5 + 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) correspond with areas of high N deposition and vary spatially ranging from less than 20% to over 40% of the study area for the Rockies, GYA, YOSE, and SEKI. These predictive models and maps identify sensitive aquatic ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition and can be used to help protect against future anthropogenic disturbance. The approach presented here may be transferable to other remote and protected high-elevation ecosystems at multiple spatial scales that are sensitive to adverse effects of pollutant loading in the US and around the world.

  15. Experimental Repatriation of Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Bradford, David F.; Pratt, David; Wood, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog) was common in the Tableland area of Sequoia National Park, California where it was possible to find hundreds of tadpoles and adults around many of the ponds and lakes. Surveys in 1993-1995 demonstrated that R. muscosa was absent from more than half of all suitable habitat within the park, including the Tableland area. At that same time, R. muscosa was still common at Sixty Lake Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, 30 km to the northeast. To evaluate the potential causes for the extirpation, we repatriated R. muscosa eggs, tadpoles, subadults, and adult frogs from Sixty Lake Basin to four sites in the Tableland area in 1994 and 1995. We subsequently surveyed each release site and the surrounding area 2 - 3 times per week in 1994-1995, and intermittently in 1996-1997, to monitor the survival of all life history stages, and to detect dispersal of adults and subadults. We also monitored predation, water quality, weather, and water temperature. Our techniques for capturing, holding, transporting, and releasing R. muscosa were refined during the study, and during 1995 resulted in high initial survival rates of all life history stages. Adult frogs were anaesthetized, weighed, measured, tagged, and held in plastic boxes with wet paper towels. Tadpoles were collected and held in fiberglass screen cages set in the water at the edge of a pond. This resulted in relatively natural conditions with less crowding and good water circulation. Frogs, tadpoles, and eggs were placed in Ziploc bags for transport to the Tableland by helicopter. Short-term survival of tadpoles, subadults, and adults was high at all four release sites, tadpoles reached metamorphosis, and adult frogs were still present. However, we detected no evidence of reproduction at three sites (e.g., no new eggs or small tadpoles) and nearly all life history stages disappeared within 12 months. At the fourth site, there was limited reproduction, but it was

  16. Recovery of distal coronary flow reserve in LAD and LCx after Y-Graft intervention assessed by transthoracic echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Y- graft (Y-G) is a graft formed by the Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA) connected to the Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) and by a free Right Internal Mammary Artery (RIMA) connected to LIMA and to a Marginal artery of Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). Aim of the work was to study the flow of this graft during a six months follow-up to assess whether the graft was able to meet the request of all the left coronary circulation, and to assess whether it could be done by evaluation of coronary flow reserve (CFR). Methods In 13 consecutive patients submitted to Y-G (13 men), CFR was measured in distal LAD and in distal LCx from 1 week after , every two months, up to six months after operation (a total of 8 tests for each patient) by means of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and Adenosine infusion (140 mcg/kg/min for 3-6 min). A Sequoia 256, Acuson-Siemens, was used. Contrast was used when necessary (Levovist 300 mg/ml solution at a rate of 0,5-1 ml/min). Max coronary flow diastolic velocity post-/pre-test ≥2 was considered normal CFR. Results Coronary arteriography revealed patency of both branches of Y-G after six months. Accuracy of TTE was 100% for LAD and 85% for LCx. Feasibility was 100% for LAD and 85% for LCx. CFR improved from baseline in LAD (2.21 ± 0.5 to 2.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.03) and in LCx (1.7 ± 1 to 2.12 ± 1, p = 0.05). CFR was under normal at baseline in 30% of patients vs 8% after six months in LAD (p = 0.027), and in 69% of patients vs 30% after six months in LCx (p = 0.066). Conclusion CFR in Y-G is sometimes reduced in both left territories postoperatively but it improves at six months follow-up. A follow-up can be done non-invasively by TTE and CFR evaluation. PMID:20716357

  17. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2017-04-01

    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  18. Evaluation of Integrating the Invasive Species Forecasting System to Support National Park Service Decisions on Fire Management Activities and Invasive Plant Species Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peter; Morisette, T.; Rodman, Ann; McClure, Craig; Pedelty, Jeff; Benson, Nate; Paintner, Kara; Most, Neal; Ullah, Asad; Cai, Weijie; hide

    2007-01-01

    The USGS and NASA, in conjunction with Colorado State University, George Mason University and other partners, have developed the Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS), a flexible tool that capitalizes on NASA's remote sensing resource to produce dynamic habitat maps of invasive terrestrial plant species across the United States. In 2006 ISFS was adopted to generate predictive invasive habitat maps to benefit noxious plant and fire management teams in three major National Park systems: The Greater Yellowstone Area (Yellowstone / Grand Tetons National Parks), Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, and interior Alaskan (between Denali, Gates of The Arctic and Yukon-Charley). One of the objectives of this study is to explore how the ISFS enhances decision support apparatus in use by National Park management teams. The first step with each park system was to work closely with park managers to select top-priority invasive species. Specific species were chosen for each study area based on management priorities, availability of observational data, and their potential for invasion after fire disturbances. Once focal species were selected, sources of presence/absence data were collected from previous surveys for each species in and around the Parks. Using logistic regression to couple presence/absence points with environmental data layers, the first round of ISFS habitat suitability maps were generated for each National Park system and presented during park visits over the summer of 2006. This first engagement provided a demonstration of what the park service can expect from ISFS and initiated the ongoing dialog on how the parks can best utilized the system to enhance their decisions related to invasive species control. During the park visits it was discovered that separate "expert opinion" maps would provide a valuable baseline to compare against the ISFS model output. Opinion maps are a means of spatially representing qualitative knowledge into a quantitative two

  19. Cenozoic plant diversity of Yunnan: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiang Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan in southwestern China is renowned for its high plant diversity. To understand how this modern botanical richness formed, it is critical to investigate the past biodiversity throughout the geological time. In this review, we present a summary on plant diversity, floristics and climates in the Cenozoic of Yunnan and document their changes, by compiling published palaeobotanical sources. Our review demonstrates that thus far a total of 386 fossil species of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms belonging to 170 genera within 66 families have been reported from the Cenozoic, particularly the Neogene, of Yunnan. Angiosperms display the highest richness represented by 353 species grouped into 155 genera within 60 families, with Fagaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Juglandaceae being the most diversified. Most of the families and genera recorded as fossils still occur in Yunnan, but seven genera have disappeared, including Berryophyllum, Cedrelospermum, Cedrus, Palaeocarya, Podocarpium, Sequoia and Wataria. The regional extinction of these genera is commonly referred to an aridification of the dry season associated with Asian monsoon development. Floristic analyses indicate that in the late Miocene, Yunnan had three floristic regions: a northern subtropical floristic region in the northeast, a subtropical floristic region in the east, and a tropical floristic region in the southwest. In the late Pliocene, Yunnan saw two kinds of floristic regions: a subalpine floristic region in the northwest, and two subtropical floristic regions separately in the southwest and the eastern center. These floristic concepts are verified by results from our areal type analyses which suggest that in the Miocene southwestern Yunnan supported the most Pantropic elements, while in the Pliocene southwestern Yunnan had abundant Tropical Asia (Indo–Malaysia type and East Asia and North America disjunct type that were absent from northwestern Yunnan. From the late Miocene to

  20. The Use of Acoustic Radiation Force Decorrelation-Weighted Pulse Inversion for Enhanced Ultrasound Contrast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Elizabeth B; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Wang, Shiying; Klibanov, Alexander L; Hossack, John A; Mauldin, Frank William

    2017-02-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging for cancer diagnosis and screening can be enhanced with the use of molecularly targeted microbubbles. Nonlinear imaging strategies such as pulse inversion (PI) and "contrast pulse sequences" (CPS) can be used to differentiate microbubble signal, but often fail to suppress highly echogenic tissue interfaces. This failure results in false-positive detection and potential misdiagnosis. In this study, a novel acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based approach was developed for superior microbubble signal detection. The feasibility of this technique, termed ARF decorrelation-weighted PI (ADW-PI), was demonstrated in vivo using a subcutaneous mouse tumor model. Tumors were implanted in the hindlimb of C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of MC38 cells. Lipid-shelled microbubbles were conjugated to anti-VEGFR2 antibody and administered via bolus injection. An image sequence using ARF pulses to generate microbubble motion was combined with PI imaging on a Verasonics Vantage programmable scanner. ADW-PI images were generated by combining PI images with interframe signal decorrelation data. For comparison, CPS images of the same mouse tumor were acquired using a Siemens Sequoia clinical scanner. Microbubble-bound regions in the tumor interior exhibited significantly higher signal decorrelation than static tissue (n = 9, P < 0.001). The application of ARF significantly increased microbubble signal decorrelation (n = 9, P < 0.01). Using these decorrelation measurements, ADW-PI imaging demonstrated significantly improved microbubble contrast-to-tissue ratio when compared with corresponding CPS or PI images (n = 9, P < 0.001). Contrast-to-tissue ratio improved with ADW-PI by approximately 3 dB compared with PI images and 2 dB compared with CPS images. Acoustic radiation force can be used to generate adherent microbubble signal decorrelation without microbubble bursting. When combined with PI, measurements of the resulting microbubble signal

  1. The use of Acoustic Radiation Force decorrelation-weighted pulse inversion (ADW-PI) for enhanced ultrasound contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Elizabeth; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Wang, Shiying; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.; Mauldin, F. William

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of ultrasound imaging for cancer diagnosis and screening can be enhanced with the use of molecularly targeted microbubbles. Nonlinear imaging strategies such as pulse inversion (PI) and “contrast pulse sequences” (CPS) can be used to differentiate microbubble signal, but often fail to suppress highly echogenic tissue interfaces. This failure results in false positive detection and potential misdiagnosis. In this study, a novel Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) based approach was developed for superior microbubble signal detection. The feasibility of this technique, termed ARF-decorrelation-weighted PI (ADW-PI), was demonstrated in vivo using a subcutaneous mouse tumor model. Materials and Methods Tumors were implanted in the hindlimb of C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of MC38 cells. Lipid-shelled microbubbles were conjugated to anti-VEGFR2 antibody and administered via bolus injection. An image sequence using ARF pulses to generate microbubble motion was combined with PI imaging on a Verasonics Vantage programmable scanner. ADW-PI images were generated by combining PI images with inter-frame signal decorrelation data. For comparison, CPS images of the same mouse tumor were acquired using a Siemens Sequoia clinical scanner. Results Microbubble-bound regions in the tumor interior exhibited significantly higher signal decorrelation than static tissue (n = 9, p < 0.001). The application of ARF significantly increased microbubble signal decorrelation (n = 9, p < 0.01). Using these decorrelation measurements, ADW-PI imaging demonstrated significantly improved microbubble contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) when compared to corresponding CPS or PI images (n = 9, p < 0.001). CTR improved with ADW-PI by approximately 3 dB compared to PI images and 2 dB compared to CPS images. Conclusions Acoustic radiation force can be used to generate adherent microbubble signal decorrelation without microbubble bursting. When combined with pulse inversion

  2. Untangling the Impacts of Climate Variability on Atmospheric Rivers and Western U.S. Precipitation Using PERSIANN-CONNECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, S. L.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; McCabe-Glynn, S.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs), the large plumes of moisture transported from the tropics, impact many aspects of society in the Western U.S. When ARs make landfall, they are often associated with torrential rains, swollen rivers, flash flooding, and mudslides. We demonstrate that by viewing precipitation events associated with ARs as "objects", calculating their physical characteristics (mean intensity (mm/hr), speed (km/hr), etc.), assigning environmental characteristics (e.g. phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation) for each system, and then performing empirical analyses, we can reveal interactions between different climate phenomena. To perform this analysis, we use a unique object oriented data set based on the gridded, satellite precipitation data from the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) algorithm known as PERSIANN-CONNECT, for the period 3/2000 to 12/2010. The data is segmented into 4D objects (longitude, latitude, time and intensity). Each of the segmented precipitation systems is described by over 72 characteristics. A search of the PERSIANN-CONNECT database for all Western U.S. large-scale precipitation systems returns 626 systems. Out of the 626 large-scale precipitation systems, 200 occurred at the same time as documented Western U.S. land falling ARs (a list of ARs provided by Dr. Martin Ralph). Here we report the physical and environmental characteristics for these 200 storms including a comparison to the 426 non-AR storms. We also report results of an analysis of the δ18O measurements collected from Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park in the Southwestern Sierra Nevada Mountains (McCabe-Glynn et al., in prep.) for the 200 AR precipitation systems. For an overall assessment of the impacts of climate variability on all 626 precipitation systems, we focus on ENSO, and show that during El Nino/La Nina, as compared with Neutral phases of ENSO, the systems are larger (9505, 9097, vs. 6075km

  3. FOREWORD: VI Workshop in Electron Volt Neutron Spectroscopy: Frontiers and Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, A. G.; Senesi, R.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.

    2014-12-01

    January 2014 saw the congregation in Abingdon (UK) of scientists from across the world, to discuss the current state and future of spectroscopy using epithermal neutrons. This meeting was the sixth in a series of workshops held in collaboration between the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) and the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy), aimed at bringing together researchers with an interest in the use of electron-volt neutrons in spectroscopic studies [1]. This technique is termed Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS), and also Neutron Compton Scattering (NCS) in reference to the analogy with Compton scattering of X-rays from electrons. In particular, this meeting centred jointly around experimentalists and theoreticians, formulating animated discussions as to the current overview of DINS and future horizons facing the field. The use of electron Volt neutrons for spectroscopic measurements dates back to the advent of proton-driven spallation neutron sources in the 1970s and 1980s. Following an initial scientific meeting in Los Alamos (USA) [2], the first two meetings in this series were held in Abingdon (UK) in 1995 and 1998, with subsequent meetings held in Santa Fe (USA) in 2005 [3], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) in 2006 [4], and Rome, Italy; in 2010 [5]. The flagship instrument serving a continual user-programme for DINS measurements, and the main focus of this meeting, has been the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS [6, 7]. Subsequent instruments like SEQUOIA in the USA [8, 9] and a newer spectrometer in the Bariloche LINAC in Argentina [10, 11] have also been commissioned and began serving a growing user community. The availability of DINS measurements has extended the range of possible spectroscopic techniques that utilise neutrons into the kinematic region of high energy and momentum transfers, shown schematically in Figure 1. Spectroscopic instrument suites such as that of ISIS are thus able to probe processes on timescales across nine

  4. Documenter le futur: fantasmes, projections et decalages spatiotemporels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Forge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de documentation future recèle un paradoxe : le mot documenter renvoie à des traces relevées dans un passé factuel, tandis que le futur ne peut, par définition, être qu’incertain, que l’objet de fantasmes, de projections. L’analyse suivante questionne ce paradoxe à travers l’analyse d’un motif cinématographique : un homme et une femme face à une tranche de séquoia, représentation symbolique du temps. Ce motif apparait dans trois oeuvres majeures du cinéma : Vertigo, d’Alfred Hitchcock, La Jetée de Chris Marker, et l’Armée des douze singes, de Terry Gilliam. La répétition de ce motif est mise en rapport avec l’ouvrage de Pierre Bayard, Le plagiat par anticipation, afin de l’envisager sous l’angle du paradoxe temporel, plutôt que sous le régime de la chronologie historique. Cette analyse prend pour point de départ une oeuvre intitulée Vozes Fantasmas, qui sur le principe de la documentation future propose d’écouter des murmures de spectateurs visitant une exposition qui n’a pas eu lieu. RESUMO O conceito de documentação do futuro evoca um paradoxo: o verbo documentar refere-se a traços ou rastros preservados de um passado factual, enquanto o futuro por definição é algo incerto, objeto de especulações, fantasias e projeções. Nossa reflexão questiona este paradoxo a partir da análise de uma cena cinematográfica: um homem e uma mulher em frente de um corte de sequoia, que é a representação simbólica do tempo. Esta cena aprece em três grandes obras do cinema: Vertigo (Um corpo que cai de Alfred Hitchcock, La Jetée de Chris Marker, e Os Doze Macacos de Terry Gilliam. A repetição desta cena é abordada em relação à obra de Pierre Bayard, Plágio por antecipação, a fim de considerá-la em termos de paradoxo temporal, e não como uma cronologia histórica. Esta análise tem como ponto de partida um trabalho artístico intitulado Vozes Fantasmas, que seguindo o princípio de

  5. Practical Steps toward Computational Unification: Helpful Perspectives for New Systems, Adding Functionality to Existing Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    and functions may be integrated into a system efficiently, with minimal effort, and with an eye toward an eventual Computational Unification of the Earth Sciences. A fundamental to such systems is meta-data which describe not only the content of data but also how intricate relationships are represented and used to good advantage. Retrieval techniques will be discussed including trade-offs in using externally managed meta-data versus embedded meta-data, how the two may be integrated, and how "simplifying assumptions" may or may not actually be helpful. The perspectives presented in this talk or poster session are based upon the experience of the Sequoia 2000 and BigSur research projects at the University of California, Berkeley, which sought to unify NASA's Mission To Planet Earth's EOS-DIS, and on-going experience developed by Science Tools corporation, of which the author is a principal. NOTE: These ideas are most easily shared in the form of a talk, and we suspect that this session will generate a lot of interest. We would therefore prefer to have this session accepted as a talk as opposed to a poster session.

  6. Sources of nitrogen deposition in Federal Class I areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-M. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is desired to control excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition due to its detrimental impact on ecosystems. Using a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, Nr deposition in the contiguous US and eight selected Class I areas (Voyageurs (VY, Smoky Mountain (SM, Shenandoah (SD, Big Bend (BB, Rocky Mountain (RM, Grand Teton (GT, Joshua Tree (JT, and Sequoia (SQ is investigated. First, modeled Nr deposition is compared with National Trends Network (NTN and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET deposition values. The seasonality of measured species is generally well represented by the model (R2 > 0.6, except in JT. While modeled Nr is generally within the range of seasonal observations, large overestimates are present in sites such as SM and SD in the spring and summer (up to 0.6 kg N ha month−1, likely owing to model high-biases in surface HNO3. The contribution of non-measured species (mostly dry deposition of NH3 to total modeled Nr deposition ranges from 1 to 55 %. The spatial distribution of the origin of Nr deposited in each Class I area and the contributions of individual emission sectors are estimated using the GEOS-Chem adjoint model. We find the largest role of long-range transport for VY, where 50 % (90 % of annual Nr deposition originates within 670 (1670 km of the park. In contrast, the Nr emission footprint is most localized for SQ, where 50 % (90 % of the deposition originates from within 130 (370 km. Emissions from California contribute to the Nr deposition in remote areas in the western US (RM, GT. Mobile NOx and livestock NH3 are found to be the major sources of Nr deposition in all sites except BB, where contributions of NOx from lightning and soils to natural levels of Nr deposition are significant (∼ 40 %. The efficiency in terms of Nr deposition per kg emissions of NH3-N, NOx-N, and SO2-S are also estimated. Unique seasonal features are found in JT (opposing

  7. Reconstructing Hydrologic Variability in Southwestern North America Using Speleothem Proxies and Precipitation Isotopes from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe-Glynn, Staryl

    climate changes largely due to increased water vapor content in a warmer atmosphere. I also utilize precipitation data and isotopic analysis from precipitation samples collected weekly from near the cave site at Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park, California, from 2001 to 2011, to analyze climate mode patterns during extreme precipitation events and to construct an isotopic data base of precipitation samples. Composite maps indicate extreme precipitation weeks consist of a weaker Aleutian Low, coupled with a deep low pressure cell located northwest of California and enhanced subtropical moisture. I find extreme precipitation weeks occur more often during the La Nina phase and less during the positive Eastern Pacific (EP) phase or during the Central Pacific (CP) neutral phase at our site. Analyses of climate mode patterns and precipitation amounts indicate that when the negative Arctic Oscillation (AO), negative and neutral Pacific North American pattern (PNA), and positive Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (La Nina) are in sync, the maximum amount of precipitation anomalies are distributed along the Western US. Additionally, the central or eastern Pacific location of El Nino Southern Oscillation sea surface temperature anomalies can further enhance predictive capabilities of the landfall location of extreme precipitation.

  8. Uranium-lead isotopic ages from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides new information on the timing and distribution of Mesozoic magmatic events in the Sierra Nevada batholithic complex chiefly between 36° and 37°N. latitude. U-Pb ages have been determined for 133 zircon and 7 sphene separates from 82 samples of granitoid rocks. Granitoid rocks in this area range in age from 217 to 80 m.y. Triassic intrusions are restricted to the east side of the batholith; Jurassic plutons occur south of the Triassic plutons east of the Sierra Nevada, as isolated masses within the Cretaceous batholith, and in the western foothills of the range; Cretaceous plutons form a continuous belt along the axis of the batholith and occur as isolated masses east of the Sierra Nevada. No granitic intrusions were emplaced for 37 m.y. east of the Sierra Nevada following the end of Jurassic plutonism. However, following emplacement of the eastern Jurassic granitoids, regional extension produced a fracture system at least 350 km long into which the dominantly mafic, calc-alkalic Independence dike swarm was intruded 148 m.y. ago. The dike fractures probably represents a period of regional crustal extension caused by a redistribution of the regional stress pattern accompanying the Nevadan orogeny. Intrusion of Cretaceous granitic plutons began in large volume about 120 m.y. ago in the western Sierra Nevada and migrated steadily eastward for 40 m.y. at a rate of 2.7 mm/y. This slow and constant migration indicates remarkably uniform conditions of subduction with perhaps downward migration of parent magma generation or a slight flattening of the subduction zone. Such steady conditions could be necessary for the production of large batholithic complexes such as the Sierra Nevada. The abrupt termination of plutonism 80 m.y. ago may have resulted from an increased rate of convergence of the American and eastern Pacific plates and dramatic flattening of the subduction zone. U-Pb ages of the Giant Forest-alaskite sequence in Sequoia National Park are

  9. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  10. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  11. Characteristics of subtropic karstic Dinaride Lake in its unstable geothectonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, N.

    2009-04-01

    the brown coal. To WNW Charophyta algae were collected during mapping of the sheet Udbina (Sokač et al., 1976). Farther on, toward ESE, in Sinj (see fig. 1, bellow) only Alisma (swampy plant) seeds were determined (Mandić et al., 2008). Second part, is characterized by compensated calcium carbonate sedimentation (mostly lacustrine chalk up to 95% of CaCO3). In some places textures of subsurface lacustrine current are shown, like obstacle flow, therefore Lake should be deep in its central parts. Diverse Congeria genera are enough numerous. Charaophyta gyrogonites are present in lacustrine chalk 4m abowe the coal (key fossil Rabdochara langeri in Plevlja, Otilovići) but up the column are lacking while water becmome to deep and turbid. Thickness of sediments between two coals (brown and lignite) in the central depressions (Livno) amount 1.500 m (Kochansky & Sli\\vsković, 1980). Third part with its lignite coal belong to time of another tectonic push by Adriatic Plate. This time up to 17 lignite beds were counted (in Livno), many of them with tree trunks nearly 10m in diameter, fractured mainly in small parts, one extra large peace was 10m long. Between particular earthquakes must have elapsed several thousands of years to allow Sequoia and other trees to grow on hilly islands. Most of interbeds make different gastropods: numerous well preserved Hydrobiids and single shells of Planorbarius (key-genus for the swampy shoreline) completely pressed. Some white laminated interbeds are very light and it is not known if this is not a diatomite. Ostracode assemblages slighly differ from previous, maybe because the sediment has lesser CaCO3 component. No Charophyta algae are mentoned. Congeria in the limestone of Sarajevo regia belong to the sli\\vskovići species indicating high energy environment. To WNW, in the Bihać area numerous gastropods also indicate high energy water; opposite to them excelent preserved saltwater ostracodes (Krstić, 2000) like Chinometacypris