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Sample records for sequestration fluorometric detection

  1. Modern Aspects Of Fluorometric Detection In Liquid-Phase Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Bernard; Garnier, Jean P.; Dreux, Claude

    1983-10-01

    Recent advances are described in the combined use of fluorometric derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for clinical chemistry determinations. Derivatives (especially dansyl derivatives) can be formed prior to chromatography in the case of estrogens, amino acids, and catecholamines. In post-column reactions, we preferred to use air-segmented reactions as they conform better to all the optimized chromatographic and spectrofluorometric parameters. Fluorescent derivatives produced from cate-cholamines, tryptophan and its metabolites, hydroxyindoles, tryptamine, amino acids, sugars, polyamines, and other substances are often sufficiently sensitive to be detected in picogram quantities by HPLC. Their reaction principle and some of their applications to samples are described. Recently, chemical excitation of fluorophore-like dansyl amino acid was proposed as a detection system for HPLC. By a post-column reaction, a fluorophore can be made to emit light by its reaction with trichlorophenyl oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide. The detection limit of this system is about 10 fmol for each dansyl amino acid. Application of this new reaction to catecholamines opens up new prospects for fluorometric detection.

  2. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  3. Dynamic modification of microorganisms by pyrenebutanoate for fluorometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Holá, V.; Šlais, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2005), s. 548-555 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4031201; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1447; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : CZE * microorganisms * fluorometric detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  4. A fluorometric lateral flow assay for visual detection of nucleic acids using a digital camera readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Maria; Sevastou, Areti; Kalogianni, Despina P

    2018-06-04

    A fluorometric lateral flow assay has been developed for the detection of nucleic acids. The fluorophores phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as labels, while a common digital camera and a colored vinyl-sheet, acting as a cut-off optical filter, are used for fluorescence imaging. After DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the biotinylated PCR product is hybridized to its complementary probe that carries a poly(dA) tail at 3΄ edge and then applied to the lateral flow strip. The hybrids are captured to the test zone of the strip by immobilized poly(dT) sequences and detected by streptavidin-fluorescein and streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugates, through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The assay is widely applicable, simple, cost-effective, and offers a large multiplexing potential. Its performance is comparable to assays based on the use of streptavidin-gold nanoparticles conjugates. As low as 7.8 fmol of a ssDNA and 12.5 fmol of an amplified dsDNA target were detectable. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a fluorometric lateral flow assay based on fluorescein and phycoerythrin fluorescent labels for the detection of single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences and using a digital camera readout. SA: streptavidin, BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin, B: biotin, FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate, PE: phycoerythrin, TZ: test zone, CZ: control zone.

  5. Vitamin E composition of some seed oils as determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speek, A.J.; Schrijver, J.; Schreurs, W.H.P.

    1985-01-01

    A high‐performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the simultaneous analysis of E vitamers α‐, and β‐, γ‐ and δ‐tocopherol and α‐tocotrienol in seed oils. After diluting the oils with n‐hexane, E vitamers are separated by HPLC and detected fluorometrically. Standardization is

  6. Fluorometric graphene oxide-based detection of Salmonella enteritis using a truncated DNA aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Raja; AlAmer, Saleh; Eissa, Shimaa; Rahamn, Anas Abdel; Abu Salah, Khalid M; Zourob, Mohammed

    2017-12-18

    The work describes a fluorescence-based study for mapping the highest affinity truncated aptamer from the full length sequence and its integration in a graphene oxide platform for the detection of Salmonella enteriditis. To identify the best truncated sequence, molecular beacons and a displacement assay design are applied. In the fluorescence displacement assay, the truncated aptamer was hybridized with fluorescein and quencher-labeled complementary sequences to form a fluorescence/quencher pair. In the presence of S. enteritidis, the aptamer dissociates from the complementary labeled oligonucleotides and thus, the fluorescein/quencher pair becomes physically separated. This leads to an increase in fluorescence intensity. One of the truncated aptamers identified has a 2-fold lower dissociation constant (3.2 nM) compared to its full length aptamer (6.3 nM). The truncated aptamer selected in this process was used to develop a fluorometric graphene oxide (GO) based assay. If fluorescein-labeled aptamer is adsorbed on GO via π stacking interaction, fluorescence is quenched. However, in the presence of target (S. enteriditis), the labeled aptamers is released from surface to form a stable complex with the bacteria and fluorescence is restored, depending on the quantity of bacteria being present. The resulting assay has an unsurpassed detection limit of 25 cfu·mL -1 in the best case. The cross reactivity to Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is negligible. The assay was applied to analyze doped milk samples for and gave good recovery. Thus, we believe that the truncated aptamer/graphene oxide platform is a potential tool for the detection of S. Enteritidis. Graphical abstract Fluorescently labelled aptamer against Salmonella enteritidis was adsorbed on the surface of graphene oxide by π-stacking interaction. This results in quenching of the fluorescence of the label. Addition of Salmonella enteritidis restores fluorescence, and this

  7. A facile molecularly imprinted polymer-based fluorometric assay for detection of histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaotong; Ashley, Jon; Zhou, Tongchang

    2018-01-01

    urgently needed. In this paper, we developed a facile and cost-effective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based fluorometric assay to directly quantify histamine. Histamine-specific MIP nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) were synthesized using a modified solid-phase synthesis method. They were then immobilized...

  8. Fluorometric detection of adenine in target DNA by exciplex formation with fluorescent 8-arylethynylated deoxyguanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshio; Kugenuma, Kenji; Tanaka, Makiko; Suzuki, Azusa; Saito, Isao

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrated an intriguing method to discriminate adenine by incident appearance of an intense new emission via exciplex formation in hybridization of target DNA with newly designed fluorescent 8-arylethynylated deoxyguanosine derivatives. We described the synthesis of such highly electron donating fluorescent guanosine derivatives and their incorporation into DNA oligomers which may be used for the structural study and the fluorometric analysis of nucleic acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New LASER fluorometric HPLC detection for ortho-tyrosine in gamma-irradiated phenylalanine solution and pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio; Nagasawa, Taeko; Izumi, Keiko; Kitamura, Mayumi

    1999-01-01

    New analytical procedure for o-tyrosine was studied to investigate effects of gamma irradiation on aqueous phenylalanine solution and pork. The process includes extraction and hydrolysis of protein, derivatization of the free amino acid by fluororeagent, and finally separation and detection by LASER fluorometric HPLC. The detection limit was 25ng. To study how the procedure works, irradiated phenylalanine solution and pork were analyzed. The samples were irradiated at doses up to 10 kGy at room temperature. Three tyrosine isomers were detected in phenylalanine solution, and 2 isomers (o-and p-tyrosine) were found in pork. Dose response was found in the formation of the isomers both in phenylalanine solution and in pork. O-tyrosine peak obtained from irradiated pork was separated from interference successfully. Those findings illustrate the procedure may be applicable to detection of irradiated food. (author)

  10. Rapid and sensitive determination of beta-phenylethylamine in animal brains by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, C; Tsuji, M; Nakajima, T

    1989-05-01

    A reversed phase HPLC method with fluorometric detection for the analysis of beta-phenylethylamine has been developed using p-methoxyphenylethylamine as an internal standard. Two columns, containing 200 microL of Dowex 50-X8 and Amberlite CG-50 respectively, were used to prepare a fraction containing beta-phenylethylamine. The recoveries of beta-phenylethylamine and p-methoxyphenylethylamine were 53.9 +/- 9.4% and 68.1 +/- 12.4%, respectively, and elution profile of p-methoxyphenylethylamine was sufficiently well correlated with that of beta-phenylethylamine. Regional distributions of beta-phenylethylamine in rat and mouse brains were determined. The highest concentrations were found in hypothalamus and hippocampus in both animals.

  11. [Determination of atracurium and laudanosine in dog plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Chen, Mei; Kuang, Yushan; Ye, Liming; Zhang, Wensheng

    2013-06-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with fluorometric detection has been developed for the determination of atracurium and its major metabolite laudanosine in dog plasma. The separation of atracurium and laudanosine was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column, and the mobile phase consisted of 0.03 mol/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (72: 28, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Verapamil was used as the internal standard. The sample was extracted by dichloromethane, concentrated and dissolved in the mobile phase. The detection is performed at 240 nm for excitation and 320 nm for emission. The results showed that the linear concentration ranges of the calibration curve were 25 - 5 000 microg/L for atracurium (r = 0.999 0), and 25 - 6 000 microg/L for laudanosine (r = 0.9984). The recoveries were 92.1% - 109.5%. The limits of detection were 3 microg/L for atracurium and 1 microg/L for laudanosine. The RSDs of intra-day and inter-day were less than 10%. The stability tests under various conditions have been performed. The method is specific, sensitive and accurate in the determination of atracurium and laudanosine, and also can be used for the pharmacokinetic investigations of atracurium and laudanosine in plasma.

  12. Size-controlled sensitivity and selectivity for the fluorometric detection of Ag+ by homocysteine capped CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Hangzhou; Liang, Zhenhua; Peng, Guihua; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Hengwei

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized water dispersible CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in different sizes and with various capping reagents, and have studied the effects of their size on the sensitivity and selectivity in the fluorometric determination of metal ions, particularly of silver(I). It is found that an increase in the particle size of homocysteine-capped CdTe QDs from 1.7 nm to 3.3 nm and to 3.7 nm enhances both the sensitivity and selectivity of the determination of Ag(I) to give an ultimate limit of detection as low as 8.3 nM. This effect can partially be explained by the better passivation of surface traps on smaller sized QDs via adsorption of Ag(I), thereby decreasing the apparent detection efficiency. In addition, the presence of CdS in the CdTe QDs is likely to play a role. The study demonstrates that an improvement in sensing performance is accomplished by using QDs of fine-tuned particle sizes. Such effects are likely also to occur with other QD-based optical probes. (author)

  13. Determination of ochratoxin A in wine by means of immunoaffinity and aminopropyl solid-phase column cleanup and fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Francesco; Iacovelli, Vito; Catucci, Lucia; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Pascale, Michelangelo; Visconti, Angelo; Agostiano, Angela

    2013-02-27

    A new analytical method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in red wine has been developed by using a double-extract cleanup and a fluorometric measurement after spectral deconvolution. Wine samples were diluted with a solution containing 1% polyethylene glycol and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate, filtered, and purified by immunoaffinity and aminopropyl solid-phase column. OTA contents in the purified extract were determined by a spectrofluorometer (excitation wavelength, 330 nm; emission wavelength, 470 nm) after deconvolution of fluorescence spectra. Average recoveries from wine samples spiked with OTA at levels ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ng/mL were 94.5-105.4% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of <15% (n = 4). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.2 ng/mL, and the total time of analysis was 30 min. The developed method was tested on 18 red wine samples (naturally contaminated and spiked with OTA at levels ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 ng/mL) and compared with AOAC Official Method 2001.01, based on immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC with fluorescence detector. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.9765) was observed between OTA levels obtained with the two methods, highlighting the reliability of the proposed method, the main advantage of which is the simple OTA determination by a benchtop fluorometer with evident reductions of cost and time of analysis.

  14. Silica nanoparticles doped with an iridium(III) complex for rapid and fluorometric detection of cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Juanjuan; Feng, Qingyue; Chen, Xiudan; Li, Jing; Wang, Huili; Li, Mei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We describe a nanosensor for sensitive and selective detection of cyanide anions. The Ir(III) chlorine bridge complex [Ir(C N ) 2 -m-Cl] 2 (Irpq, where pq is C N = 2-phenyl quinoline) was doped into silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) with a typical size of about 30 nm. The intensity of the yellow emission of the doped SiNPs (under 410 nm exCitation) was strongly enhanced on addition of cyanide ions due to the replacement of chloride by cyanide. The method can detect cyanide ions in the 12.5 to 113 μM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 1.66 μM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The method is simple, sensitive and fast, and this makes it a candidate probe for the fast optical determination of cyanide. (author)

  15. N-Dansyl-N`-ethylthiourea for the fluorometric detection of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, M.; Sandor, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.

    1996-11-01

    N-Dansyl-N`-ethylthiourea (DET) forms fluorescent chelates with a large number of heavy metal ions. The influence of the pH-value on the luminescence of DET and its metal chelates was investigated. The addition of Cu(II) to DET causes a bathochromic shift of the emission maximum, which is linearly dependent on the Cu(II) concentration. Low detection limits and a wide linear range of detection are achieved by HPLC using RP 18 columns as stationary phase. Also presented are first measurements of fluorescence decay times of the ligand as well as some complexes. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles for fluorometric detection of dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Hu, Cho-Chun

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for the detection of dimethoate based on the peroxidase-like activity of silver-nanoparticles-modified oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AgNPs/oxMWCNTs) has been developed. The synthesized AgNPs/oxMWCNTs showed excellent peroxidease-like catalytic activity in hydrogen peroxide-Amplex red (AR) system (AR is oxidized to resorufinat, with the resorufin fluorescence at 584nm being used to monitor the catalytic activity). After dimethoate was added to AgNPs/oxMWCNTs, the interaction between dimethoate and the AgNPs inhibited the catalytic activity of AgNPs/oxMWCNTs. The decrease in fluorescence was used for the detection of dimethoate in the range of 0.01-0.35μgmL -1 (R 2 =0.998) with a detection limit of 0.003μgmL -1 (signal/noise=3). This method exhibited good selectivity for the detection of dimethoate even in the presence of high concentration of other pesticides. Consequently, the method was applied to measure the concentration of dimethoate residue in lake water and fruit, thus obtaining satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multispectral fluorometric sensor for real time in-situ detection of marine petroleum spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.M.; Lieberman, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fluorescence based in-situ sensor system for real time monitoring and detection of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment. The system consists of an array of underwater sensors deployed just below the water surface. The sensors can detect floating product (surface sheen) from below the surface as well as detect emulsified or dissolved phase petroleum in the water column. Data from each of the sensors is transmitted to a central base station computer for display, logging, and analysis. The primary intended use of the system is to protect marine facilities from accidental, petroleum discharges by providing responding authorities with immediate notification of the occurrence of a leak or spill. The detection of petroleum is based upon the fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found within petroleum derived products. The sensors utilize broadband ultraviolet excitation from a pulsed xenon lamp to generate fluorescence in contaminated sea water. The intensity of the resulting fluorescence emission is proportional to both the oil concentration in water, and/or the oil film thickness on the water surface. Multispectral fluorescence emission information is used to distinguish between several possible petroleum classes and eliminate false positive interference from non-petroleum based fluorophores such as chlorophyll. Real time qualitative identification yields an important advantage in terms of rapidly resolving questions of spill origin or in determining an appropriate response. To enable long term underwater deployment, the optical energy of the ultraviolet excitation source also serves to prevent the occurrence of biofouling on the surface of the optical window. The results of initial testing in San Diego Harbor and at the Ohmsett wave tank facility in New Jersey demonstrate the system's ability to detect petroleum products under a variety of conditions, including the presence of strong harbor

  18. HPLC/Fluorometric Detection of Carvedilol in Real Human Plasma Samples Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bilal; Arslan, Sakir

    2016-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to quantify carvedilol in human plasma using an isocratic system with fluorescence detection. The method included a single-step liquid-liquid extraction with diethylether and ethylacetate mixture (3 : 1, v/v). HPLC separation was carried out by reversed-phase chromatography with a mobile phase composed of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7)-acetonitrile (65 : 35, v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 240 nm (excitation) and 330 nm (emission). The calibration curve for carvedilol was linear from 10 to 250 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision values for carvedilol in human plasma were plasma averaged out to 91.8%. The limits of detection and quantification of carvedilol were 3.0 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. Also, the method was successfully applied to three patients with hypertension who had been given an oral tablet of 25 mg carvedilol. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A G-quadruplex-based Label-free Fluorometric Aptasensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Juan; Tian, Xue; Kong, Xiang Juan; Chu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    A G-quadruplex-based, label-free fluorescence assay was demonstrated for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), hybridized by ATP-aptamer and its complementary sequence, was employed as a substrate for ATP binding. SYBR Green I (SG I) was a fluorescent probe and exonuclease III (Exo III) was a nuclease to digest the dsDNA. Consequently, in the absence of ATP, the dsDNA was inset with SG I and was digested by Exo III, resulting in a low background signal. In the presence of ATP, the aptamer in dsDNA folded into a G-quadruplex structure that resisted the digestion of Exo III. SG I was inserted into the structure, showing high fluorescence. Owing to a decrease of the background noise, a high signal-to-noise ratio could be obtained. This sensor can detect ATP with a concentration ranging from 50 μM to 5 mM, and possesses a capacity for the sensitive determination of other targets.

  20. A dual chemosensor: Colorimetric detection of Co{sup 2+} and fluorometric detection of Zn{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Youl; Kim, So Young; Kim, Jin Ah; Kim, Cheal, E-mail: chealkim@seoultech.ac.kr

    2016-11-15

    A new dual chemosensor 1was designed and synthesized. Receptor 1 detected Co{sup 2+} via color change and Zn{sup 2+} with turn-on fluorescence in a 1:1stoichiometric system, respectively. The response mechanisms of 1-Co{sup 2+} and 1-Zn{sup 2+} complexes have been analyzed using UV–vis spectroscopy, fluorescence titration, ESI-mass spectrometry analysis, NMR titration and DFT calculations. Importantly, the detection limit of 1 for Co{sup 2+}was down to 0.34 μM a near-perfect aqueous solution, which is the lowest one among those previously reported for organic chemosensors for sensing of Co{sup 2+}. 1 was also used to quantify Co{sup 2+} in real water samples. Therefore, a versatile chemosensor 1 could be a great method for detecting of both Co{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}.

  1. Going With the Flow: An Aid in Detecting and Differentiating Bronchopulmonary Sequestrations and Hybrid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Edward R; DeBari, Suzanne E; Giannone, Mariann M; Pogoriler, Jennifer E; Johnson, Ann M; Horii, Steven C; Gebb, Juliana S; Howell, Lori J; Adzick, N Scott; Coleman, Beverly G

    2018-02-01

    68 of 73 hybrid lesions. Ultrasound is most accurate for systemic feeding artery detection in bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions and can also type the lesions as intralobar or extralobar when draining veins are evaluated. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. New colorimetric and fluorometric sensing strategy based on the anisotropic growth of histidine-mediated synthesis of gold nanoclusters for iodide-specific detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Zhu, Haiyan; Yang, Xiaoming; Dou, Yao; Liu, Zhongde

    2013-04-07

    Iodide, as a biologically important anion, it remains a worthwhile yet challenging undertaking to find a sensitive and specific approach to provide a technically simple iodide detection. In this article, it was found that no other ions than iodide-induced anisotropic growth of gold nanocrystals (AuNCs) originated from a small molecule, histidine-mediated synthesis of AuNCs, were observed. Simultaneously, it is accompanied by the fluorescence quenching of AuNCs and the naked-eye visible color change. Therefore, a new colorimetric and fluorometric sensing strategy was developed for the iodide-specific detection. Compared with currently reported methods, the present one displays the advantages of the visual detection and simplicity. The quenched fluorescence and enhanced surface plasmon resonance absorbance were found to be proportional to the iodide concentration over the range of 0.8-60 and 1.2-50 μM with a detection limit (3σ) of 118 nM and 215 nM, respectively.

  3. A method for the determination of volatile ammonia in air, using a nitrogen-cooled trap and fluorometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.G.; Tigchelaar, R.G.; Berden, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    A quick, cheap, and accurate method for the determination of ammonia in air is described. Ammonia and water vapor are trapped simultaneously in a gas sampling tube cooled in liquid nitrogen. Subsequently ammonia is derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde and determined using fluorescence detection. The

  4. Highly selective and sensitive coumarin-triazole-based fluorometric 'turn-off' sensor for detection of Pb2+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaily; Kumar, Ajay; Parveen, Iram; Ahmed, Naseem

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to even very low concentrations of Pb 2+ is known to cause cardiovascular, neurological, developmental, and reproductive disorders, and affects children in particular more severely. Consequently, much effort has been dedicated to the development of colorimetric and fluorescent sensors that can selectively detect Pb 2+ ions. Here, we describe the development of a triazole-based fluorescent sensor L5 for Pb 2+ ion detection. The fluorescence intensity of chemosensor L5 was selectively quenched by Pb 2+ ions and a clear color change from colorless to yellow could be observed by the naked eye. Chemosensor L5 exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity towards Pb 2+ ions in phosphate-buffered solution [20 mM, 1:9 DMSO/H 2 O (v/v), pH 8.0] with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry, a detection limit of 1.9 nM and a 6.76 × 10 6  M -1 binding constant. Additionally, low-cost and easy-to-prepare test strips impregnated with chemosensor L5 were also produced for efficient of Pb 2+ detection and proved the practical use of this test. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Photometric and fluorometric detection of radiolytic changes to selected animal foods as a result of treatment with ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chory, C.

    1993-01-01

    The methods specified in the heading were tested for their suitability to detect any previous irradiation treatment of shrimps, chickens or mock salmon. Shrimps and chickens are among those foods that are already routinely irradiated for commercial reasons and have therefore been included in the most recent version of the provisional guidelines of the EC commission on the irradiation of foodstuffs. Parameters like radiation-induced formation of carbonyl compounds, changes to radiation-responsive sulfhydryl groups of proteins and DNA strand breaks caused by ionizing radiation offered useful approaches to the detection of any such irradiation. One decisive factor for the choice of the chemical methods of analysis to be used was their straightforwardness. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Pharmacological modification of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in vitro detected by a novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Reversal of resistance and selective cytotoxic actions of cyclosporin A and verapamil on MDR leukemia T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1990-07-15

    A novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on measurements of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and DNA staining by Hoechst 33342, was used for drug sensitivity testing and detection of resistance reversal in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines. The 72-hr assay was found to be sensitive, reproducible and linearly related to the number of viable cells within a broad range of cell concentrations. At clinically achievable drug concentrations, the calcium channel blocker Verapamil (ver) and the immunosuppressant Cyclosporin A (csA) were found to partly reverse acquired Vincristine (vcr) resistance in multi-drug resistant (MDR) T-ALL L100 cells with little or no effect on the drug-sensitive parental L0 cell line. By combining the fluorometric indices, we found that low concentrations of csA were growth-inhibitory, whereas higher concentrations (greater than 10 micrograms/ml) were progressively cytotoxic for drug-sensitive L0 cells. In MDR L100 cells, on the other hand, csA produced significant cell kill even at low drug concentrations. Ver had no effects on sensitive L0 cells but showed considerable cytotoxic action towards MDR L100 cells. There was no apparent relationship between drug reversal of vcr resistance and the cytotoxic actions of the drug per se since the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (dil) significantly potentiated the actions of vcr on MDR L100 cells without being more toxic to these cells (compared to vcr-sensitive L0 cells).

  7. Fluorometric analysis for uranium in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    A fluorometric method is used for the routine determination of uranium at 0.2 to parts-per-billion (ppB) concentrations in natural surface waters. Duplicate 200-μl aliquots of the water samples are pipetted onto 0.4-g pellets of 98 percent NaF-2 percent LiF flux contained in platinum dishes. The pellets are dried under heat lamps and fused over special propane burners. The fused pellets are subjected to ultraviolet radiation and the fluorescence is measured in a fluorometer. The lower limit of detection is 0.2 ppB of uranium, and the precision is about 15 relative percent in the 0.2 to 10 ppB uranium concentration range. Two analysts determine uranium in 750 to 900 samples per week using this method. Samples containing solids or more than 19 ppB of uranium are analyzed by a delayed neutron counting method

  8. Detection of tumor-specific cytotoxic drug activity in vitro using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and primary cultures of tumor cells from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Fridborg, H; Csoka, K; Sundström, C; de la Torre, M; Kristensen, J; Bergh, J; Hagberg, H; Glimelius, B; Rastad, J

    1994-03-01

    The semi-automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by viable cells, was employed for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with hematological or solid tumors. In total, 390 samples from 20 diagnoses were tested with up to 12 standard cytotoxic drugs. The technical success rate for different tumor types ranged from 67 to 95%. Fluorescence was linearly related to cell number but variably steep depending on tumor type. Samples from most solid tumors thus showed higher signal-to-noise ratios than hematological samples. A wide spectrum of in vitro drug activity was obtained, with acute leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas being sensitive to almost all tested drugs, whereas renal and adrenocortical carcinomas were essentially totally resistant. Between these extremes were samples of breast and ovarian carcinomas and sarcomas. When in vitro response was compared with known clinical response patterns, a good correspondence was observed. The results indicate that the FMCA is a rapid and efficient method for in vitro measurement of tumor-specific drug activity both in hematological and in solid tumors. The assay may be suitable for new drug development and direction of phase-2 trials to suitable patients.

  9. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  10. Geologic Carbon Sequestration Leakage Detection: A Physics-Guided Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Harp, D. R.; Chen, B.; Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    One of the risks of large-scale geologic carbon sequestration is the potential migration of fluids out of the storage formations. Accurate and fast detection of this fluids migration is not only important but also challenging, due to the large subsurface uncertainty and complex governing physics. Traditional leakage detection and monitoring techniques rely on geophysical observations including pressure. However, the resulting accuracy of these methods is limited because of indirect information they provide requiring expert interpretation, therefore yielding in-accurate estimates of leakage rates and locations. In this work, we develop a novel machine-learning technique based on support vector regression to effectively and efficiently predict the leakage locations and leakage rates based on limited number of pressure observations. Compared to the conventional data-driven approaches, which can be usually seem as a "black box" procedure, we develop a physics-guided machine learning method to incorporate the governing physics into the learning procedure. To validate the performance of our proposed leakage detection method, we employ our method to both 2D and 3D synthetic subsurface models. Our novel CO2 leakage detection method has shown high detection accuracy in the example problems.

  11. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  12. Poly(acrylic acid)-templated silver nanoclusters as a platform for dual fluorometric turn-on and colorimetric detection of mercury (II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Lin, Youhui; Huang, Zhenzhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2012-01-15

    An easy prepared fluorescence turn-on and colorimetric dual channel probe was developed for rapid assay of Hg(2+) ions with high sensitivity and selectivity by using poly(acrylic acid)-templated silver nanoclusters (PAA-AgNCs). The PAA-AgNCs exhibited weak fluorescence, while upon the addition of Hg(2+) ions, AgNCs gives a dramatic increase in fluorescence as a result of the changes of the AgNCs states. The detection limit was estimated to be 2 nM, which is much lower than the Hg(2+) detection requirement for drinking water of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the turn-on sensing mode offers additional advantage to efficiently reduce background noise. Also, a colorimetric assay of Hg(2+) ions can be realized due to the observed absorbance changes of the AgNCs. More importantly, the method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg(2+) ions in real water samples, which suggests our proposed method has a great potential of application in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On-site monitoring of Hebei Spirit oil spill by fluorometric detection of oil residues in coastal waters off Taean, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.; Yim, U.H.; Hong, S.H.; Jung, J.H.; Won, J.; An, J.; Choi, H.W.; Shim, W.J. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed activities conducted to monitor a crude oil spill that contaminated over 70 km of the western Korean coastline. Contamination levels and temporal variations of dissolved and dispersed oils in sea and pore water at 40 beaches were monitored using a portable fluorimeter for 10 months after the spill. More than 980 samples from the heavily-impacted Mallipo Beach area were analyzed. The analysis showed that oil concentrations in the sea water were as high as 16,600 {mu}g/L directly after the spill, and decreased to below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 {mu}g/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. However, the oil content in pore water remained high, with levels of up to 2,320 {mu}g/L for the first few months following the spill. Higher oil contamination levels were observed at some sites for up to 10 months after the spill. Results of the study suggested that oil in pore water persisted in confined areas along the coastline. Results from the fluorescence detection technique were then compared with traditional gas chromatography (GC) techniques of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. It was concluded that fluorescence detection was capable of generating accurate results more quickly and cost-effectively than traditional GC techniques. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Fluorometric determination of nitrite with 4-hydroxycoumarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T.; Arai, Y.; Takitani, S.

    1986-12-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible fluorometric method for determination of nitrite has been developed. This method is based on the nitrosation of 4-hydroxycoumarin in acidic medium and subsequent reduction to 3-amino-4-hydroxy-coumarin, which is fluorescent in alkaline medium. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the nitrite concentration in the range of 3 ng/mL to 1 ..mu..g/mL in the sample solution, with a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (50 ng/mL). The method has been applied to the determination of nitrite in saliva.

  15. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  16. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  17. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  18. Carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  19. Fluorometric determination of ethidium bromide efflux kinetics in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Gabriel A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efflux pump activity has been associated with multidrug resistance phenotypes in bacteria, compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The development of methods for the early detection and quantification of drug transport across the bacterial cell wall is a tool essential to understand and overcome this type of drug resistance mechanism. This approach was developed to study the transport of the efflux pump substrate ethidium bromide (EtBr across the cell envelope of Escherichia coli K-12 and derivatives, differing in the expression of their efflux systems. Results EtBr transport across the cell envelope of E. coli K-12 and derivatives was analysed by a semi-automated fluorometric method. Accumulation and efflux of EtBr was studied under limiting energy supply (absence of glucose and low temperature and in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, chlorpromazine. The bulk fluorescence variations were also observed by single-cell flow cytometry analysis, revealing that once inside the cells, leakage of EtBr does not occur and that efflux is mediated by active transport. The importance of AcrAB-TolC, the main efflux system of E. coli, in the extrusion of EtBr was evidenced by comparing strains with different levels of AcrAB expression. An experimental model was developed to describe the transport kinetics in the three strains. The model integrates passive entry (influx and active efflux of EtBr, and discriminates different degrees of efflux between the studied strains that vary in the activity of their efflux systems, as evident from the calculated efflux rates: = 0.0173 ± 0.0057 min-1; = 0.0106 ± 0.0033 min-1; and = 0.0230 ± 0.0075 min-1. Conclusion The combined use of a semi-automated fluorometric method and an experimental model allowed quantifying EtBr transport in E. coli strains that differ in their overall efflux activity. This methodology can be used for the early detection of differences in

  20. Comparison of CO2 Detection Methods Tested in Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells at a Geological Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenborn, Harry M.; Jain, Jinesh N.

    2016-05-17

    The geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is one method of reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Monitoring programs typically determine baseline conditions in surface and near-surface environments before, during, and after CO2 injection to evaluate if impacts related to injection have occurred. Because CO2 concentrations in groundwater fluctuate naturally due to complex geochemical and geomicrobiologicalinteractions, a clear understanding of the baseline behavior of CO2 in groundwater near injection sites is important. Numerous ways of measuring aqueous CO2 in the field and lab are currently used, but most methods have significant shortcomings (e.g., are tedious, lengthy, have interferences, or have significant lag time before a result is determined). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of two novel CO2 detection methods and their ability to rapidly detect CO2in shallow groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Illinois Basin –Decatur Project geological sequestration site. The CarboQC beverage carbonation meter was used to measure the concentration of CO2 in water by monitoring temperature and pressure changes and calculating the PCO2 from the ideal gas law. Additionally, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO< sub>2sensor enclosed in a gas-permeable, water-impermeable membrane measured CO2by determining an equilibrium concentration. Results showed that the CarboQC method provided rapid (< 3 min) and repeatable results under field conditions within a measured concentration range of 15 –125 mg/L CO2. The NDIR sensor results correlated well (r2= 0.93) with the CarboQC data, but CO2 equilibration required at least 15 minutes, making the method somewhat less desirable under field conditions. In contrast, NDIR-based sensors have a greater potential for long-term deployment. Both

  1. Ineffectiveness of a fluorometric method for identifying irradiated food base on thymine glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.D.; Stepanik, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    At dosages used for food irradiation, some of the thymine present in the DNA of irradiated food may be converted to thymine glycol. A fluorometric assay for thymine glycol was investigated as a possible method of detecting irradiated foods based on this effect. Experiments were performed on homogenates of irradiated chicken breast meat and on DNA isolated from irradiated chicken breast meat. In both cases the assay was subject to interference from one of the reagents, o-aminobenzaldehyde, and lacked the necessary sensitivity to detect the thymine glycol produced by radiolysis of the DNA at relevant dosages

  2. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  3. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  4. Synthesis of nitrogen- and iron-containing carbon dots, and their application to colorimetric and fluorometric determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen- and iron-containing carbon dots (N,Fe-CDs) are synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) and hemin at 180 °C. The N,Fe-CDs are mainly doped with nitrogen and trace amounts of iron(III). The N,Fe-CDs also display intrinsic fluorescence with excitation/emission maxima at 365/452 nm and a quantum yield of 27 %. The nanodots are shown to act as peroxidase mimics by catalyzing the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide to form a blue product whose quantity can be determined by photometry at 652 nm. This was exploited to design colorimetric and fluorometric assays for dopamine (DA). The colorimetric assay is based on the oxidation of DA by H2O2 in presence of the N,Fe-CDs and TMB. It has an instrumental detection limit of 40 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3), and a visual detection limit of 0.4 μM. The fluorometric assay is based on an inner filter effect that is caused by the formation of oxidized TMB which overlaps (and absorbs) the emission of the N,Fe-CDs located at 452 nm. The fluorometric detection limit is as low as 20 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). (author)

  5. Fluorometric determination of uric acid in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Moyes, Kasey

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to validate a new fast method for determination of uric acid in milk. The method is based on an enzymatic-fluorometric technique that requires minimal pre-treatment of milk samples. The present determination of uric acid is based on the enzymatic oxidation o...

  6. Fluorometric Assessment Of Lysosomal Enzymes In Garlic Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garlic oil on Lysosomal enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated fluorometrically. The serum lysosomal enzymes assayed include β-glucuronidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) β-D-galactosidase and α-D-galactosidase. The results of the study in nMole-4Mu/hr/ml show that ...

  7. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  8. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  9. Reaction-based Indicator displacement Assay (RIA) for the selective colorimetric and fluorometric detection of peroxynitrite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03983a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Lacina, Karel; Ramsamy, Elena C.; Flower, Stephen E.; Fossey, John S.; Qian, Xuhong

    2015-01-01

    Using the self-assembly of aromatic boronic acids with Alizarin Red S (ARS), we developed a new chemosensor for the selective detection of peroxynitrite. Phenylboronic acid (PBA), benzoboroxole (BBA) and 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)phenylboronic acid (NBA) were employed to bind with ARS to form the complex probes. In particular, the ARS–NBA system with a high binding affinity can preferably react with peroxynitrite over hydrogen peroxide and other ROS/RNS due to the protection of the boron via the solvent-insertion B–N interaction. Our simple system produces a visible colorimetric change and on–off fluorescence response towards peroxynitrite. By coupling a chemical reaction that leads to an indicator displacement, we have developed a new sensing strategy, referred to herein as RIA (Reaction-based Indicator displacement Assay). PMID:28706677

  10. Fluorometric determination of nucleic acids based on the use of polydopamine nanotubes and target-induced strand displacement amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Bai, Dong-Mei; -Geng, Xin; Hu, Ya-Lei; Cai, Qi-Yong; Xing, Ke; Zhang, Lin; Li, Zhao-Hui

    2018-01-10

    The authors describe a fluorometric method for the quantitation of nucleic acids by combining (a) cycled strand displacement amplification, (b) the unique features of the DNA probe SYBR Green, and (c) polydopamine nanotubes. SYBR Green undergoes strong fluorescence enhancement upon intercalation into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The polydopamine nanotubes selectively adsorb single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and molecular beacons. In the absence of target DNA, the molecular beacon, primer and SYBR Green are adsorbed on the surface of polydopamine nanotubes. This results in quenching of the fluorescence of SYBR Green, typically measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 488/518 nm. Upon addition of analyte (target DNA) and polymerase, the stem of the molecular beacon is opened so that it can bind to the primer. This triggers target strand displacement polymerization, during which dsDNA is synthesized. The hybridized target is then displaced due to the strand displacement activity of the polymerase. The displaced target hybridizes with another molecular beacon. This triggers the next round of polymerization. Consequently, a large amount of dsDNA is formed which is detected by addition of SYBR Green. Thus, sensitive and selective fluorometric detection is realized. The fluorescent sensing strategy shows very good analytical performances towards DNA detection, such as a wide linear range from 0.05 to 25 nM with a low limit of detection of 20 pM. Graphical abstract Schematic of a fluorometric strategy for highly sensitive and selective determination of nucleic acids by combining strand displacement amplification and the unique features of SYBR Green I (SG) and polydopamine nanotubes.

  11. Fluorometric determination of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in cows' milk and other opaque matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in milk have until now been dependent upon several time consuming and troublesome procedures. This has limited investigations in the area. The present article presents a new, reliable, analytical procedure, based on enzymatic degradation and fluoro......Analyses of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in milk have until now been dependent upon several time consuming and troublesome procedures. This has limited investigations in the area. The present article presents a new, reliable, analytical procedure, based on enzymatic degradation...... and fluorometric detection. Standards and control materials were based on milk that was stripped of intrinsic glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in order to obtain standards and samples based on the same matrix. The analysis works without pre-treatment of the samples, e.g. without centrifugation and precipitation...

  12. Use of a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader in high-throughput screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebe, Duncan R.; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Hahn, Holly; Warrior, Usha; Traphagen, Linda; Burns, David J.

    1999-04-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) efforts at Abbott Laboratories have been greatly facilitated by the use of a Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader. The FLIPR consists of an incubated cabinet with integrated 96-channel pipettor and fluorometer. An argon laser is used to excite fluorophores in a 96-well microtiter plate and the emitted fluorometer. An argon laser is used to excite fluorophores in a 96-well microtiter plate and the emitted fluorescence is imaged by a cooled CCD camera. The image data is downloaded from the camera and processed to average the signal form each well of the microtiter pate for each time point. The data is presented in real time on the computer screen, facilitating interpretation and trouble-shooting. In addition to fluorescence, the camera can also detect luminescence form firefly luciferase.

  13. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-12-12

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  14. Fluorometric sensing of endotoxin based on aggregation of CTAB capped gold nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ida Evangeline [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Unit, University of South Africa, Florida Park 1709 Johannesburg (South Africa); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of different sizes were used to carry out comparative fluorometric detection study on endotoxin. At excitation wavelength, 308 nm the GNPs exhibited strong emission intensity at wavelength 421 nm with varying intensities at 215.122, 234.965 and 262.551 for 15 nm (GNPs-I), 30 nm (GNPs-II) and 40 nm (GNPs-III), respectively. The different sizes of GNPs were interacted with endotoxin to study the effect of GNPs size on endotoxin detection. The electrostatic interaction between GNPs (GNPs-I, II, and III) and endotoxin led to the enhancement of the fluorescence intensities. The sensitivity of endotoxin detection was improved significantly by decreasing the size of the GNPs to 15 nm (GNPs-I). The endotoxin detection limit using GNPs-I was theoretically calculated to be 0.56×10{sup −9} M using the formula 3SD/slope, and it was able to detect lower levels of endotoxin when compared to GNPs-II or GNPs-III. The GNPs-I showed excellent selectivity for endotoxin detection with the optimized pH and volumetric ratio. Most importantly the optimized size was successfully used to detect endotoxin in real samples (milk samples and fruit juices) with a recovery rate of 98–105%.

  15. A sol-gel based molecular imprint incorporating carbon dots for fluorometric determination of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pengli; Gao, Junfa; Liu, Jianha; Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Jiahong; Peng, Jun; Zuo, Pengjian; He, Hua

    2016-01-01

    We are introducing functionalized carbon dots (C-dots) coated with a shell of molecularly imprinted sol-gel as a new tool in molecular imprint-based detection. Specifically, an imprint recognizing nicotinic acid (NA) was prepared in two steps. The first involves pyrolytic decomposition of citric acid in the presence of aminopropyltriethoxysilane to yield triethoxysilyl-modified C-dots with a typical size of 2.8 ± 1.1 nm. These are then polycondensed in the presence of tetraethoxysilane and NA at room temperature to give spherical silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) with a typical size of ∼300 nm and containing C-dots and NA in the silica matrix. NA was then removed by extraction. The resulting SiNPs are well permeable to NA, photostable, display strong blue luminescence and can bind NA fairly selectively. The fluorometric detection scheme is based on the finding that increasing concentrations of NA quench the fluorescence of the C-dots in the SiNPs. NA can be determined by this method in the 0.5 to 10.5 μM concentration range, with a 12.6 nM detection limit. The composite was successfully utilized as a fluorescent probe for the determination of NA in spiked human urine samples. The method is believed to have a wider scope in being applicable to other analytes that are capable of quenching the fluorescence of C-dots. (author)

  16. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L −1 , with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L −1 . This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L −1 and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L −1

  17. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  18. Photometric and fluorometric continuous kinetic assay of acid phosphatases with new substrates possessing longwave absorption and emission maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, E; Wolfbeis, O S

    1984-11-15

    A direct and continuous kinetic method for the photometric and fluorometric determination of various acid phosphatases is described. It is based on new coumarin-derived phosphates, which after enzymatic hydrolysis undergo dissociation to form intensely colored and strongly fluorescent phenolate anions. The latter have absorption maxima ranging from 385 to 505 nm, and fluorescence maxima between 470 and 595 nm. The new substrates were compared with respect to their rate of enzymatic hydrolysis, optimum pH, and detection limits of acid phosphatase from potato and wheat germ. Detection limits of 0.001 unit/ml were found by photometry, and as low as 0.00006 unit/ml by fluorometry. The principal advantages of the new substrates over existing ones are longwave absorptions and emissions, large Stokes shifts, and the low pKa values of the corresponding phenols, thus allowing a direct and continuous assay of acid phosphatase even in weakly acidic solutions.

  19. A New Coumarin-Based Colorimetric and Fluorometric Sensor for Cu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Kyounglyong; Jun, Kun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Koon Ha [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a new colorimetric and fluorescent 'turn-off' sensor for Cu{sup 2+} based on coumarin Shiff base of hydroxycinnamaldehyde. It displays a 50 nm red-shift of maximum absorption band with color change from colorless to greenish-yellow upon addition of Cu{sup 2+} in 10 mM tris-HCl buffer solution (acetonitrile/water = 9:1, pH = 7.01). And also remarkable fluorescence quenching was observed upon the addition of Cu{sup 2+}. The 1:2 stoichiometry of sensor complex (sensor A + Cu{sup 2+}) was confirmed by Job's plot based on absorption titration. Chemosensors, small chemical compounds that sense the presence of analytes or energy, typically consist of two components: a receptor moiety that interacts with the target analytes and a read-out system that signals binding. And one of the most utilized research tool for the study of chemosensors employs a colorimetric and fluorometric spectroscopic techniques. So far successful reports on metal ion sensors have been documented including our recent result. Many different kinds of optical or fluorescent sensors have several advantages (such as high sensitivity and selectivity, non-destructive analysis, low cost and real-time monitoring), which allow naked-eye detection of color and fluorescent emission change upon metal ion binding without the use of any expensive spectroscopic equipment.

  20. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan, E-mail: nwang@hust.edu.cn; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-05-15

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1}, with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}. This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}.

  1. DNA aptamer selection and aptamer-based fluorometric displacement assay for the hepatotoxin microcystin-RR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shijia; Li, Qi; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping; Ma, Haile

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-RR (MC-RR) is a highly acute hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. It is harmful to both humans and the environment. A novel aptamer was identified by the systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method as a recognition element for determination of MC-RR in aquatic products. The graphene oxide (GO) SELEX strategy was adopted to generate aptamers with high affinity and specificity. Of the 50 aptamer candidates tested, sequence RR-33 was found to display high affinity and selectivity, with a dissociation constant of 45.7 ± 6.8 nM. Aptamer RR-33 therefore was used as the recognition element in a fluorometric assay that proceeds as follows: (1) Biotinylated aptamer RR-33 is immobilized on the streptavidinylated wells of a microtiterplate, and carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labelled complementary DNA is then allowed to hybridize. (2) After removal of excess (unbound) cDNA, sample containing MC-RR is added and incubated at 37 °C for 2 h. (3) Displaced free cDNA is washed away and fluorescence intensity measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 490/515 nm. The calibration plot is linear in the 0.20 to 2.5 ng·mL −1 concentration range, and the limit of detection is 80 pg·mL −1 . The results indicate that the GO-SELEX technology is appropriate for the screening of aptamers against small-molecule toxins. The detection scheme was applied to the determination of MC-RR in (spiked) water, mussel and fish and gave recoveries between 91 and 98 %. The method compares favorably to a known ELISA. Conceivably, this kind of assay is applicable to other toxins for which appropriate aptamers are available. (author)

  2. Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, E.J.; Pickles, W.L.; Silver, E.A.; Hoffmann, G.D.; Lewicki, J.; Apple, M.; Repasky, K.; Burton, E.A.

    2009-11-01

    Hyperspectral plant signatures can be used as a short-term, as well as long-term (100-yr timescale) monitoring technique to verify that CO2 sequestration fields have not been compromised. An influx of CO2 gas into the soil can stress vegetation, which causes changes in the visible to nearinfrared reflectance spectral signature of the vegetation. For 29 days, beginning on July 9th, 2008, pure carbon dioxide gas was released through a 100-meter long horizontal injection well, at a flow rate of 300 kg/day. Spectral signatures were recorded almost daily from an unmown patch of plants over the injection with a ''FieldSpec Pro'' spectrometer by Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc. Measurements were taken both inside and outside of the CO2 leak zone to normalize observations for other environmental factors affecting the plants.

  3. Hybrid silica nanoparticles for sequestration and luminescence detection of trivalent rare-earth ions (Dy3+ and Nd3+) in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topel, Seda Demirel; Legaria, Elizabeth Polido; Tiseanu, Carmen; Rocha, João; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.

    2014-12-01

    New hybrid material-based adsorbents acting also as luminescent probes upon uptake of trivalent rare-earth (RE) ions Nd3+ and Dy3+ have been developed. SiO2 NPs functionalized by three different organic ligands, N-aminopropylen-amido-iminodiacetic acid (L1), pyridine-α,β-dicarboxylic acid bis(propylenamide) (L2), and N-propylen-iminodiacetic acid (L3), have been produced and fully characterized by 13C, 1H, and 29Si solid-state NMR, FTIR, TGA, XRD, TEM, nitrogen gas adsorption, and also by NTA and DLS in solution. The synthesized hybrid materials are well dispersible and stable in aqueous solutions according to NTA and consist of spheres with diameters less than 100 nm. Their affinities to the lanthanide ions Dy3+ and Nd3+ have been investigated in aqueous solution and characterized by SEM-EDS and complexometric titration, demonstrating that they can be successfully used as adsorbents for sequestration of trivalent RE ions. The adsorbed RE ions can efficiently be desorbed from saturated nanoadsorbents by addition of hydrochloric acid. The produced nanomaterials may also be used as luminescent probes for Dy3+ and Nd3+ ions in solution.

  4. Carbon sequestration leadership forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) is an international climate change initiative that will focus on development of carbon capture and storage technologies as a means of accomplishing long-term stabilisation of greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. This initiative is designed to improve these technologies through coordinated research and development with international partners and private industry. Three types of cooperation are currently envisioned within the framework of the Forum: data gathering, information exchange, and joint projects. Data gathered from participating countries will be aggregated, summarised, and distributed to all of the Forum's participants. Joint projects will be identified by member nations with the Forum serving as a mechanism for bringing together government and private sector representatives from member countries. The article also reports the inaugural meeting which was held 23-25 June 2003 in Washington.

  5. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  6. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  7. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  8. Fluorometric assay for phenotypic differentiation of drug-resistant HIV mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qinchang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Yin, Sheng; Dragusha, Shpend; El-Mahdy, Ahmed F. M.; Ejupi, Valon; Shibata, Takayuki; Kai, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Convenient drug-resistance testing of viral mutants is indispensable to effective treatment of viral infection. We developed a novel fluorometric assay for phenotypic differentiation of drug-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus-I protease (HIV-PR) which uses enzymatic and peptide-specific fluorescence (FL) reactions and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of three HIV-PR substrates. This assay protocol enables use of non-purified enzyme sources and multiple substrates f...

  9. To Sequestrate or not to Sequestrate in View of the National Credit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Advantage of creditors; civil suit; compulsory sequestration; concursus creditorum; credit agreements; debt counsellor; debt enforcement; debt relief measures; debt restructuring; debt review; discretion of court; National Credit Act; NCA; reckless credit; Section 129 notice; sequestration; sequestration applications; ...

  10. A new BODIPY-derived ratiometric senor with internal charge transfer (ICT) effect: colorimetric/fluorometric sensing of Ag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changli; Han, Zhong; Wang, Mengjia; Yang, Zhenghao; Ran, Xueqin; He, Weijiang

    2018-02-13

    With a 4-aminostyryl group introduced at its 3-position, a BODIPY BDP-ODTAC was derived as a new ratiometric sensor for Ag + by modifying 4-amino group as a Ag + chelator, 1-oxa-4,10-dithia-7-azacyclododecane (ODTAC). In addition to the specific Ag + -induced hypsochromic absorption shift from 606 to 562 nm, this sensor demonstrated an excitation shift from 600 to 560 nm due to the internal charge transfer (ICT) effect endowed by the introduced α-4-aminostyryl group. The Ag + -induced recovery and enhancement of the intrinsic local emission band was also observed. The different sensing behavior of ODTAC-BDP with chelator ODTAC substituting on the meso-phenyl group infers that the ratiometric sensing behavior of BDP-ODTAC is correlated to the amino group in ODTAC acting as the electron donor for the ICT effect. With high Ag + selectivity over interfering cations such as Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ , BDP-ODTAC displays a fluorometric limit of detection (LOD) of ∼17 nM (∼0.002 ppm), which is distinctly lower than EPA and WHO standards for drinking water (500 nM, ∼0.055 ppm). Moreover, the BDP-ODTAC-doped PVC film shows the Ag + sensitivity of 1 ppm with a color switch from blue to purple, providing this sensor the ability to determine Ag + in totally aqueous solution sensitively via naked-eye detection.

  11. Fluorometric determination of samarium and europium in rare earth minerals with. beta. -diketoneternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H; Hiraki, K; Nishikawa, Y [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1981-07-01

    This communication reported the optimum conditions for the fluorometric determination of these ions, and the method was adopted in the simultaneous determination of samarium and europium in xenotime and monazite minerals. From the experimental results on the effect of diverse ions and the extraction pH of the aqueous phase, it became clear that TTA-TOPO hexane method was the best system for the determination of samarium and europium because of the highest fluorescence sensitivity of the ternary complex, and also because the lower extraction pH eliminated the effect of diverse ions. Moreover, the very high detection limit (2 ppb) of Sm was achieved by the use of a red sensitive photomultiplier. Which was used at 644 nm, and that of Eu (0.02 ppb) at 614 nm. The procedure was established as follows: The rare earth minerals (xenotime, monazite) sample was treated with hot conc. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and twice precipitated with 0.5 mol dm/sup -3/ oxalic acid (pH was adjusted to 2.0 -- 2.2). Then the precipitate was filtered and ignited to give the rare earth oxide. Fifty milligrams of the oxide was dissolved in HCl and diluted with water in order to obtain the solution containing 5 ..mu..g cm/sup -3/ rare earth oxide. An aliquot of the solution ((1.0 -- 3.0) cm/sup 3/) was adjusted to pH 5.5 with sodium acetate and shaken with 1 x 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup -3/ TTA- 2 x 10/sup -2/ mol dm/sup -3/ TOPO hexane solution. Then the fluorescence intensity of the organic layer was measured at 644 nm for Sm and 614 nm for Eu. In this procedure, the recovery of Sm and Eu was found to be about 96%. Xenotime contained 0.70% of Sm and 0.004% of Eu, and monazite contained 1.84% of Sm and 0.003% of Eu.

  12. Fluorometric detection of nitroaromatics by fluorescent lead complexes: A spectroscopic assessment of detection mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Chatterjee, Sourav; Majumder, Ishani; Ghosh, Soumen; Yoon, Sangee; Sim, Eunji

    2018-04-01

    Three Schiff base ligands such as 2-[(2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (HL1), 2-[(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (HL2), 2-[(3,5-Dichloro-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (HL3) have been synthesized by condensation of aldehydes (such as 3,5-Dichloro-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 2-Hydroxy-benzaldehyde, and 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde) with Tris-(hydroxymethyl)amino methane and characterized by IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Then all these three ligands have been used to prepare Pb(II) complexes by reaction with lead(II) acetate tri-hydrate in methanol. In view of analytical and spectral (IR, UV-vis and Mass) studies, it has been concluded that, except HL2, other two ligands form 1:1 metal complexes (1 and 3) with lead. Between two complexes, complex 3 is highly fluorescent and this property has been used to identify the pollutant nitroaromatics. Finally, the quenching mechanism has been established by means of spectroscopic investigation.

  13. In vitro testing of chemotherapeutic drug combinations in acute myelocytic leukaemia using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Fridborg, H; Kristensen, J; Sundström, C; Nygren, P

    1993-05-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was employed for analysing the effect of different chemotherapeutic drug combinations and their single constituents in 44 cases of acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML). A large heterogeneity with respect to cell kill was observed for all combinations tested, the interactions ranging from antagonistic to synergistic in terms of the multiplicative concept for drug interactions. However, an 'additive' model provided a significantly better fit of the data compared to the effect of the most active single agent of the combination (Dmax) for several common antileukaemic drug combinations. When the two interaction models were related to treatment outcome 38% of the non-responders showed preference for the additive model whereas the corresponding figure for responders was 80%. Overall, in 248 of 290 (85%) tests performed with drug combinations, there was an agreement between the effect of the combination and that of the most active single component. Direct comparison of Dmax and the combination for correlation with clinical outcome demonstrated only minor differences in the ability to predict drug resistance. The results show that FMCA appear to report drug interactions in samples from patients with AML in accordance with clinical experience. Furthermore, testing single agents as a substitute for drug combinations may be adequate for detection of clinical drug resistance to combination therapy in AML.

  14. Laboratory determination of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumor cells from patients with leukemia, using a fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Kristensen, J; Sandberg, C; Nygren, P

    1992-01-21

    An automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein was employed for chemotherapeutic-drug-sensitivity testing of tumor-cell suspensions from patients with leukemia. Fluorescence was linearly related to cell number, and reproducible measurements of drug sensitivity could be performed using fresh or cryopreserved leukemia cells. A marked heterogeneity with respect to chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity was observed for a panel of cytotoxic drugs tested in 43 samples from 35 patients with treated or untreated acute and chronic leukemia. For samples obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic and acute myelocytic leukemia, sensitivity profiles for standard drugs corresponded to known clinical activity and the assay detected primary and acquired drug resistance. Individual in vitro/in vivo correlations indicated high specificity with respect to the identification of drug resistance. The results suggest that the FMCA may be a simple and rapid method for in vivo-representative determinations of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumor cells obtained from patients with leukemia.

  15. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  16. Absorbance and fluorometric sensing with capillary wells microplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Han Yen; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Neild, Adrian; Wah Ng, Tuck; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-01-01

    Detection and readout from small volume assays in microplates are a challenge. The capillary wells microplate approach [Ng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008)] offers strong advantages in small liquid volume management. An adapted design is described and shown here to be able to detect, in a nonimaging manner, fluorescence and absorbance assays minus the error often associated with meniscus forming at the air-liquid interface. The presence of bubbles in liquid samples residing in microplate wells can cause inaccuracies. Pipetting errors, if not adequately managed, can result in misleading data and wrong interpretations of assay results; particularly in the context of high throughput screening. We show that the adapted design is also able to detect for bubbles and pipetting errors during actual assay runs to ensure accuracy in screening.

  17. Absorbance and fluorometric sensing with capillary wells microplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Han Yen; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Neild, Adrian; Wah Ng, Tuck [Laboratory for Optics, Acoustics, and Mechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Liew, Oi Wah [Cardiovascular Biomarkers Laboratory, Cardiovascular Research Institute, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609 (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Detection and readout from small volume assays in microplates are a challenge. The capillary wells microplate approach [Ng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008)] offers strong advantages in small liquid volume management. An adapted design is described and shown here to be able to detect, in a nonimaging manner, fluorescence and absorbance assays minus the error often associated with meniscus forming at the air-liquid interface. The presence of bubbles in liquid samples residing in microplate wells can cause inaccuracies. Pipetting errors, if not adequately managed, can result in misleading data and wrong interpretations of assay results; particularly in the context of high throughput screening. We show that the adapted design is also able to detect for bubbles and pipetting errors during actual assay runs to ensure accuracy in screening.

  18. Swallowable fluorometric capsule for wireless triage of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, A; Ryou, M; Thompson, C C; Westervelt, R M

    2015-12-07

    Real-time detection of gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major challenge because there does not yet exist a minimally invasive technology that can both i) monitor for blood from an active hemorrhage and ii) uniquely distinguish it from blood left over from an inactive hemorrhage. Such a device would be an important tool for clinical triage. One promising solution, which we have proposed previously, is to inject a fluorescent dye into the blood stream and to use it as a distinctive marker of active bleeding by monitoring leakage into the gastrointestinal tract with a wireless fluorometer. This paper reports, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a swallowable, wireless capsule with a built-in fluorometer capable of detecting fluorescein in blood, and intended for monitoring gastrointestinal bleeding in the stomach. The embedded, compact fluorometer uses pinholes to define a microliter sensing volume and to eliminate bulky optical components. The proof-of-concept capsule integrates optics, low-noise analog sensing electronics, a microcontroller, battery, and low power Zigbee radio, all into a cylindrical package measuring 11 mm × 27 mm and weighing 10 g. Bench-top experiments demonstrate wireless fluorometry with a limit-of-detection of 20 nM aqueous fluorescein. This device represents a major step towards a technology that would enable simple, rapid detection of active gastrointestinal bleeding, a capability that would save precious time and resources and, ultimately, reduce complications in patients.

  19. A homogeneous fluorometric assay platform based on novel synthetic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar-Schara, Goenuel; Krab, Ivo M.; Yi, Guohua; Su, Wei Wen

    2007-01-01

    Novel synthetic recombinant sensor proteins have been created to detect analytes in solution, in a rapid single-step 'mix and read' noncompetitive homogeneous assay process, based on modulating the Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) property of the sensor proteins upon binding to their targets. The sensor proteins comprise a protein scaffold that incorporates a specific target-capturing element, sandwiched by genetic fusion between two molecules that form a FRET pair. The utility of the sensor proteins was demonstrated via three examples, for detecting an anti-biotin Fab antibody, a His-tagged recombinant protein, and an anti-FLAG peptide antibody, respectively, all done directly in solution. The diversity of sensor-target interactions that we have demonstrated in this study points to a potentially universal applicability of the biosensing concept. The possibilities for integrating a variety of target-capturing elements with a common sensor scaffold predict a broad range of practical applications

  20. Algae-Based Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoyang, Cai

    2018-03-01

    Our civilization is facing a series of environmental problems, including global warming and climate change, which are caused by the accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. This article will briefly analyze the current global warming problem and propose a method that we apply algae cultivation to absorb carbon and use shellfish to sequestrate it. Despite the importance of decreasing CO2 emissions or developing carbon-free energy sources, carbon sequestration should be a key issue, since the amount of carbon dioxide that already exists in the atmosphere is great enough to cause global warming. Algae cultivation would be a good choice because they have high metabolism rates and provides shellfish with abundant food that contains carbon. Shellfish’s shells, which are difficult to be decomposed, are reliable storage of carbon, compared to dead organisms like trees and algae. The amount of carbon that can be sequestrated by shellfish is considerable. However, the sequestrating rate of algae and shellfish is not high enough to affect the global climate. Research on algae and shellfish cultivation, including gene technology that aims to create “super plants” and “super shellfish”, is decisive to the solution. Perhaps the baton of history will shift to gene technology, from nuclear physics that has lost appropriate international environment after the end of the Cold War. Gene technology is vital to human survival.

  1. Fluorometric method for the determination of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gregory L.; Lazrus, Allan L.

    1986-01-01

    The fluorometric gas-phase hydrogen peroxide procedure is based on the technique used by Lazrus et. al. for the determination of H2O2 in the liquid phase. The analytical method utilizes the reaction of H2O2 with horseradish peroxidase and p-hydroxphenylacetic acid (POPHA) to form the fluorescent dimer of POPHA. The analytical reaction responds stoichiometrically to both H2O2 and some organic hydroperoxides. To discriminate H2O2 from organic hydroperoxides, catalase is used to preferentially destroy H2O2. Using a dual-channel flow system the H2O2 concentration is determined by difference.

  2. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  3. A high throughput biochemical fluorometric method for measuring lipid peroxidation in HDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Kelesidis

    Full Text Available Current cell-based assays for determining the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL have limitations. We report here the development of a new, robust fluorometric cell-free biochemical assay that measures HDL lipid peroxidation (HDLox based on the oxidation of the fluorochrome Amplex Red. HDLox correlated with previously validated cell-based (r = 0.47, p<0.001 and cell-free assays (r = 0.46, p<0.001. HDLox distinguished dysfunctional HDL in established animal models of atherosclerosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV patients. Using an immunoaffinity method for capturing HDL, we demonstrate the utility of this novel assay for measuring HDLox in a high throughput format. Furthermore, HDLox correlated significantly with measures of cardiovascular diseases including carotid intima media thickness (r = 0.35, p<0.01 and subendocardial viability ratio (r = -0.21, p = 0.05 and physiological parameters such as metabolic and anthropometric parameters (p<0.05. In conclusion, we report the development of a new fluorometric method that offers a reproducible and rapid means for determining HDL function/quality that is suitable for high throughput implementation.

  4. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Biswajit, E-mail: bdeychem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235 (India); Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-04-15

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  5. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Biswajit; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  6. Fast fluorometric flow injection analysis of formaldehyde in atmospheric water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.; Dasgupta, P.K.

    1987-06-01

    Formaldehyde can be determined in aqueous solution at a rate of 45 samples/h with a small sample requirement (100 ..mu..L). The fluorescence of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine formed upon reaction of formaldehyde with ammonium acetate and 2,4-pentanedione (25 s, 95 /sup 0/C) is monitored with a filter fluorometer. The detection limit is 0.1 ..mu..M (3 ..mu..g/L) or 10 pmol of HCHO. The response is linear up to 3.3 ..mu..M (100 ..mu..g/L), the departure from linearity at 0.33 mM is 21%, but high levels are satisfactorily determined with a second-order calibration equation. Interference from S(IV) has been investigated in detail and completely eliminated by addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ before rendering the sample alkaline. There are no effects from commonly occurring metal ions and anions; the method is very selective to formaldehyde compared to other carbonyl compounds. A S(IV)-containing preservative has been formulated for the stabilization of low concentrations of HCHO. Results are presented for fogwater samples. 8 figures, 41 references.

  7. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  8. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2017-12-05

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO.sub.2) and water or bine into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation.

  9. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  10. Mechanisms of Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soil is one of the several strategies of reducing the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Of the two components, soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC), SOC is an important control of edaphic properties and processes. In addition to off-setting part of the anthropogenic emissions, enhancing SOC concentration to above the threshold level (~1.5-2.0%) in the root zone has numerous ancillary benefits including food and nutritional security, biodiversity, water quality, among others. Because of its critical importance in human wellbeing and nature conservancy, scientific processes must be sufficiently understood with regards to: i) the potential attainable, and actual sink capacity of SOC and SIC, ii) permanence of the C sequestered its turnover and mean residence time, iii) the amount of biomass C needed (Mg/ha/yr) to maintain and enhance SOC pool, and to create a positive C budget, iv) factors governing the depth distribution of SOC, v) physical, chemical and biological mechanisms affecting the rate of decomposition by biotic and abiotic processes, vi) role of soil aggregation in sequestration and protection of SOC and SIC pool, vii) the importance of root system and its exudates in transfer of biomass-C into the SOC pools, viii) significance of biogenic processes in formation of secondary carbonates, ix) the role of dissolved organic C (DOC) in sequestration of SOC and SIC, and x) importance of weathering of alumino-silicates (e.g., powered olivine) in SIC sequestration. Lack of understanding of these and other basic processes leads to misunderstanding, inconsistencies in interpretation of empirical data, and futile debates. Identification of site-specific management practices is also facilitated by understanding of the basic processes of sequestration of SOC and SIC. Sustainable intensification of agroecosystems -- producing more from less by enhancing the use efficiency and reducing losses of inputs, necessitates thorough

  11. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  12. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  13. Extraction/fluorometric determination of uranium with rhodamine B and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Tuzuki, Satoshi; Jin, Jiye.

    1990-01-01

    A method for the fluorometric determination of uranium, based on a solvent extraction of an ion associate formed between Rhodamine B cation and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone(TTA)-metal chelate anion with benzene, is described. The procedure for the construction of the calibration curve is as follows. Varying amounts of uranium standard solution and 2 ml of 2 M ammonium acetate buffer solution are mixed. The solution is adjusted at pH 6.0 and 10 ml of 0.3 % Rhodamine B are added. It is then shaken for 5 min with 10 ml of 0.01 M TTA benzene solution. The fluoresence of the organic phase is measured at 545 nm (excitation) and 570 nm (emission) for uranyl-TTA-Rhodamine B complex. The fluorescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of uranyl ion in the range of 0.05 ppm ot 1 ppm. (author)

  14. Uranium leaching analysis (IAEA method) and total uranium determination in caldasite by the fluorometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardela, I.A.; Fujimori, K.

    1980-10-01

    Caldasite is a radioactive mineral known mostly for its high radioactive content (U and Th). It is found only at the Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Complex, States of Minas Gerais. Samples colected at Campos do Serrote, Taquari and Brigrada located in the alkaline complex were submitted to the fluorometric method of uranium analysis. The results show a good precision and close agreement with those obtained with gamma ray spectroscopy. IAEA uranium leaching analysis has also been applied to this mineral, but only 0,4% of the total content was dissolved. The uranium leaching was more intense on the samples that have smaller equivalent uranium than total uranium and it may be attributed to a higher range Rn gas escape from this mineral. (Author) [pt

  15. Fluorometric assay for phenotypic differentiation of drug-resistant HIV mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinchang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Kabashima, Tsutomu; Yin, Sheng; Dragusha, Shpend; El-Mahdy, Ahmed F. M.; Ejupi, Valon; Shibata, Takayuki; Kai, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Convenient drug-resistance testing of viral mutants is indispensable to effective treatment of viral infection. We developed a novel fluorometric assay for phenotypic differentiation of drug-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus-I protease (HIV-PR) which uses enzymatic and peptide-specific fluorescence (FL) reactions and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of three HIV-PR substrates. This assay protocol enables use of non-purified enzyme sources and multiple substrates for the enzymatic reaction. In this study, susceptibility of HIV mutations to drugs was evaluated by selective formation of three FL products after the enzymatic HIV-PR reaction. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the present HPLC-FL method could be an alternative to current phenotypic assays for the evaluation of HIV drug resistance. PMID:25988960

  16. Carbon sequestration in the agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Středa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of amount CO2 is possible by carbon sequestration to the soil. Fixation potential of EU–15 agricultural land is c. 16–19 mil t C . year−1. Amount and composition of post–harvest residues is essential for carbon soil sequestration. Long–term yield series of the most planted crops (winter wheat – Triticum aestivum, spring barley – Hordeum vulgare, corn and silage maize – Zea mays, winter rape – Brassica napus, potatoes – Solanum tuberosum, sugar beet – Beta vulgaris, alfalfa – Medicago sativa, red clover – Trifolium pratense, white mustard – Sinapis alba and fiddleneck – Phacelia tanacetifolia in various agroecological conditions and growing technologies were used for carbon balance calculation. The carbon balances were calculated for main crop rotations of maize, sugar beet, cereal and potato production regions (24 crop rotations. The calculations were realized for following planting varieties: traditional, commercial, ecological and with higher rate of winter rape. All chosen crop rotations (except seven have positive carbon balance in the tillage system. Amount of fixed carbon might be increases about 30% by the use of no–tillage system. Least amount of carbon is fixed by potatoes, high amount by cereals, alfalfa and sugar beet. For a short time (months the crops sequestration of carbon is relatively high (to 4.4 t . ha−1 . year−1 or to 5.7 t . ha−1 . year−1 for no–tillage system. From the long time viewpoint (tens of years the data of humified carbon in arable soil (max 400 kg C . ha−1 . year−1 are important. Maximal carbon deficit of chosen crop rotation is 725 kg C . year−1.

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  18. A case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Minoru; Kambayashi, TakayukiF; Okubo, Shinichi

    1983-01-01

    A 41 year-old male was admitted to our hospital, complaining of slight fever, dry cough and general fatigue. On auscultation, bubbling rales were audible at the mid to lower portion of left posterior chest. Plain chest roentgenogram showed multiple cystic shadows with an air-fluid level in the left lower lobe. An abnormal finger-like shadow, which extended from the left hemidiaphragm to the multiple cysts, was found on lateral chest tomogram. Bronchogram revealed cystic dilatation of left B6 and B10. Computed tomogram with contrast enhancement demonstrated multiple cysts and an abnormal round-shaped structure, consisted of high density material, in the left lower lung. At the level of 12 mm below the round-shaped structure, an abnormal finger-like structure contiguous to the thoracic descending aorta was demonstrated. The density of these abnormal structures was 80 Hounsfield units, which was the same as that of the descending aorta. Thoracic aortogram disclosed an abnormal artery arising from the thoracic descending aorta, just above the left hemidiaphragm, which proceeded to the left lower lung horizontally, and extended to superior direction and divided into multiple branches. These vessels drained into the left atrium via left lower pulmonary vein. Diagnosis of intralobar pulmonary sequestration was confirmed by operation and consequently, the sequestered lung and the abnormal artery were successfully removed. It is emphasized that computed tomography with contrast enhancement is useful to detect the abnormal artery of pulmonary sequestration and that this method should be used to evaluate the vascular relationship of lung lesions. (author)

  19. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  20. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  1. Biochar production for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, J.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the use of agricultural biomass for biochar production and its storage in a landfill to sequester carbon. Capturing the energy from biomass that would otherwise decay, is among the many options available to mitigate the impact of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with fossil fuel consumption. Biochar is a solid fuel which can be produced from agricultural biomass such as wheat and barley straw. This organic solid can be produced by slow pyrolysis of straw. A conceptual techno-economic model based on actual data was used to estimate the cost of producing biochar from straw in a centralized plant. The objectives of the study were to estimate the overall delivered cost of straw to the charcoal production plant; estimate the transportation costs of charcoal to the landfill site; estimate the cost of landfill; and estimate the overall cost of carbon sequestration through a charcoal landfill. According to preliminary results, the cost of carbon sequestration through this pathway is greater than $50 per tonne of carbon dioxide.

  2. Pyrenebutanoate as a dynamic protein modifier for fluorometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, 7-8 (2002), s. 1090-1095 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : pyrenebutanoate * dynamic protein modifier * CZE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  3. Conventional and first derivative synchronous fluorometric determination of ethamsylate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. Application to stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Fathalla; El-Brashy, Amina; El-Enany, Nahed; Tolba, Manar

    2011-07-01

    Two simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrofluorometric methods were developed for the determination of ethamsylate (ETM). Method I is based on measuring the native fluorescence of ethamsylate in water at 354 nm after excitation at 302 nm. The calibration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-1 μg/mL for ETM with limits of detection and quantitation of 7.9 and 26 ng/mL, respectively. Method II involved synchronous and first derivative synchronous fluorometric methods for the simultaneous determination of ethamsylate (ETM) and hydroquinone (HQ) which is considered as an impurity and/or acidic degradation product. The synchronous fluorescence of both the drug and its impurity were measured in methanol at Δ λ of 40 nm. The peak amplitudes ((1)D) were estimated at 293.85 or 334.17 nm for ETM and at 309.05 nm for HQ. Good linearity was obtained for ETM over the ranges 0.1-1.4 μg/mL and 0.1-1.0 μg/mL at 293.85 and 334.17 nm, respectively. For HQ, the calibration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.01-0.14 μg/mL at 309.05 nm. Limits of detection were 20, 2.01 ng/mL and limits of quantitation were 60, 6.7 ng/mL for ETM and HQ by method II, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied to commercial ampoules and tablets. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the reference method. Method I was utilized to study the stability of ETM and its degradation kinetics using peroxide. The apparent first-order rate constant, half-life times and activation energy of the degradation process were calculated. Method I was further extended to the in-vitro and in-vivo determination of ETM in spiked and real plasma samples. The mean% recoveries were 99.57 ± 3.85 and 89.39 ± 5.93 for spiked and real human plasma, respectively. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  4. Occurrence and sequestration of toxins in food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, D

    1998-11-01

    Animals may acquire toxicity by absorbing toxic compounds from their food, e.g. from plants or other animals. Sequestration and accumulation of toxins may provide protection from predators, which learn to avoid this prey because of unpleasant experiences such as bitter taste. This is a common phenomenon in marine as well as in terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, toxins may enter food chains where they accumulate reaching high, often lethal concentrations. Palytoxin which had been primarily detected in marine zoanthids (Palythoa sp.), occurs also in a wide range of other animals, e.g. in sponges, corals, shellfish, polychaetes and crustaceans, but also in fish, which feed on crustaceans and zoanthids as well. These animals exhibit a high resistance to the toxin's action. The mechanisms which protect the Na+, K+-ATPase of their cell membranes, the primary target of palytoxin, is unknown. Sequestration of the toxin by other animals may cause health problems due to food poisoning.

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  6. Enzymatic-fluorometric analyses for glutamine, glutamate and free amino groups in protein-free plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Fernández, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    This Technical Research Communication describes new analytical methods for free, unbound glutamic acid and glutamine in protein-free blood plasma and milk and introduces the use of quantitation of free amino groups in the same matrices for descriptive and analytical purposes. The present enzymatic......-fluorometric methods are easily performed within one working day, allowing for ‘high throughput’ assays of animal trials. These assays could support and enable further studies in lactation physiology with the objective of improved metabolic health....

  7. Safe and quick carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiano, M.

    2016-01-01

    Geological sequestration of carbon dioxyde is considered as an important tool to fight global warming but long term safety is an essential issue due to the risk of accidental leakages. The CarbFix experimentation has shown the possibility to turn hundreds tons of CO 2 into inert carbonated rocks in less than 2 years. This CO 2 injection took place in basaltic rocks. Basaltic rocks allows an adequate diffusion of the gas because of its porosity and favors the acido-base chemical reaction that turns CO 2 into inert and stable carbonates. This experiment was performed with CO 2 dissolved in water in order to limit leaks, basaltic layers being naturally cracked, and to accelerate the formation of carbonates by dissolving the metal ions coming from the rocks. The important quantity of water required for this technique, limits its use to coastal sites. (A.C.)

  8. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  9. Studies on enhancing carbon sequestration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Garten, C.T.; Post, W.M.; West, T.O.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ecosystems are leading to an understanding of the factors and mechanisms that affect the inputs to and outputs from soils and how these might be manipulated to enhance C sequestration. Both the quantity and the quality of soil C inputs influence C storage and the potential for C sequestration. Changes in tillage intensity and crop rotations can also affect C sequestration by changing the soil physical and biological conditions and by changing the amounts and types of organic inputs to the soil. Analyses of changes in soil C and N balances are being supplemented with studies of the management practices needed to manage soil carbon and the implications for fossil-fuel use, emission of other greenhouse gases (such as N 2 O and CH 4 ), and impacts on agricultural productivity. The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) was created in 1999 to perform fundamental research that will lead to methods to enhance C sequestration as one component of a C management strategy. Research to date at one member of this consortium, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has focused on C sequestration in soils and we begin here to draw together some of the results

  10. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  11. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  12. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, James G.M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Harrison, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • F chrysotile (mol/m 2 /s) = 10 −0.21pH−10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO 2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO 2 . Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: F Mg =-0.22pH-10.02;F Si =-0.19pH-10.37;F chrysotile =-0.21pH-10.57 where F Mg , F Si , and F chrysotile are the log 10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m 2 /s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO 2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO 2 . Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  14. Carbon sequestration research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  15. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  16. Technological Development in Carbon Sequestration at Petrobras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Branco, R.; Vazquez Sebastian, G.; Murce, T.; Cunha, P.; Dino, R.; Sartori Santarosa, C.

    2007-07-01

    Petrobras defined, in its mission, the intention to act in a safe and profitable way, with social and environmental responsibility. In its vision, the company decided to be an oil and energy company, taking into account climate change mitigation. These changes were partially caused, without the company's knowledge, for many years, by the burning of fossil fuels. Among many technologies available for this mitigation, carbon sequestration is the one that, in a short space of time, can avoid the collapse of earth's climate. In order to meet this carbon sequestration challenge, there has been established, at CENPES, three strategies for its technological development: (i) establishment of a Systemic Project for Carbon Sequestration within the scope of the Environmental Technology Program - PROAMB; (ii) creation of a Group of Carbon Sequestration Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - formation of team and qualification program, which includes the realization of the International Seminar on Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change at Petrobras in October 2006; and (iii) Implementation of the Technological Network of Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation. (auth)

  17. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  18. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  19. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    Desert Creek zone reservoir, Gothic seal, and overlying aquifers, (4) characterizing the depositional environments and diagenetic events that produced significant reservoir heterogeneity, (5) describing the geochemical, petrographic, and geomechanical properties of the seal to determine the CO2 or hydrocarbon column it could support, and (6) evaluating the production history to compare primary production from vertical and horizontal wells, and the effects of waterflood and wateralternating- gas flood programs. The field monitoring demonstrations were conducted by various Partners including New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, University of Utah, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cambridge Geosciences. The monitoring tests are summarized in Chapters 8 through 12, and includes (1) interwell tracer studies during water- and CO2-flood operations to characterize tracer behavoirs in anticipation of CO2-sequestration applications, (2) CO2 soil flux monitoring to measure background levels and variance and assess the sensitivity levels for CO2 surface monitoring, (3) testing the continuous monitoring of self potential as a means to detect pressure anomalies and electrochemical reaction due to CO2 injection, (4) conducting time-lapse vertical seismic profiling to image change near a CO2 injection well, and (5) monitoring microseismicity using a downhole string of seismic receivers to detect fracture slip and deformation associated with stress changes. Finally, the geologic modeling and numerical simulation study was conducted by researcher at the University of Utah. Chapter 13 summarizes their efforts which focused on developing a site-specific geologic model for Aneth to better understand and design CO2 storage specifically tailored to oil reservoirs.

  20. Status and potential of terrestrial carbon sequestration in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood products to estimate the net current annual C sequestration in West Virginia. Several management options within these components were simulated using a...

  1. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Resources Management; Mohn, W.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and consumption of methane (CH{sub 4}) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N{sub 2}O production and CH{sub 4} oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N{sub 2}O emission and CH{sub 4} oxidation in forest soils. The actual N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity.

  2. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F.; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S.; Mohn, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) and consumption of methane (CH 4 ) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N 2 O production and CH 4 oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N 2 O emission and CH 4 oxidation in forest soils. The actual N 2 O, CO 2 , and CH 4 fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity

  3. Comparative Study of the New Colorimetric VITEK 2 Yeast Identification Card versus the Older Fluorometric Card and of CHROMagar Candida as a Source Medium with the New Card

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertine, C. L.; Rivera, M.; Rohan, S. M.; Larone, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    The new VITEK 2 colorimetric card was compared to the previous fluorometric card for identification of yeast. API 20C was considered the “gold standard.” The new card consistently performed better than the older card. Isolates from CHROMagar Candida plates were identified equally as well as those from Sabouraud dextrose agar.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  5. Bile acid sequestrants : more than simple resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, Carolien; Groen, Albert K.; Brufau, Gemma

    Purpose of review Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The last decade, bile acids are emerging as integrated regulators of metabolism via induction of various signal transduction pathways. Consequently, BAS treatment may exert

  6. DOE Ocean Carbon Sequestration Research Workshop 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Chavez, Francisco [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst. (MBARI), Moss Landing, CA (United States); Maltrud, Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Eric [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Arrigo, Kevin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics; Barry, James [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst. (MBARI), Moss Landing, CA (United States); Carmen, Kevin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bishop, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bleck, Rainer [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gruber, Niki [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Erickson, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kennett, James [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tagliabue, Alessandro [Lab. of Climate and Environmental Sciences (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Paytan, Adina [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Repeta, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst. (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA (United States); Yager, Patricia L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Marshall, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gnanadesikan, Anand [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab. (GFDL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-11

    The purpose of this proposal was to fund a workshop to bring together the principal investigators of all the projects that were being funded under the DOE ocean carbon sequestration research program. The primary goal of the workshop was to interchange research results, to discuss ongoing research, and to identify future research priorities. In addition, we hoped to encourage the development of synergies and collaborations between the projects and to write an EOS article summarizing the results of the meeting. Appendix A summarizes the plan of the workshop as originally proposed, Appendix B lists all the principal investigators who were able to attend the workshop, Appendix C shows the meeting agenda, and Appendix D lists all the abstracts that were provided prior to the meeting. The primary outcome of the meeting was a decision to write two papers for the reviewed literature on carbon sequestration by iron fertilization, and on carbon sequestration by deep sea injection and to examine the possibility of an overview article in EOS on the topic of ocean carbon sequestration.

  7. Carbon sequestration in wood and paper products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Geraldine A. Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Recognition that increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere will affect the global climate has spurred research into reduction global carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. The main nonhuman sources of atmospheric CO2 are animal respiration and decay of biomass. However, increases in atmospheric levels are...

  8. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  9. Temporal Considerations of Carbon Sequestration in LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Salazar; Richard Bergman

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for carbon sequestration in LCA illustrates the limitations of a single global warming characterization factor. Typical cradle-to-grave LCA models all emissions from end-of-life processes and then characterizes these flows by IPCC GWP (100-yr) factors. A novel method estimates climate change impact by characterizing annual emissions with the IPCC GHG forcing...

  10. The role of reforestation in carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, L. E.; Walters, B. F.; Hofmeister, K.; Perry, C. H.; Mishra, U.; Domke, G. M.; Swanston, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States (U.S.), the maintenance of forest cover is a legal mandate for federally managed forest lands. Reforestation is one option for maintaining forest cover on managed or disturbed lands, and as a land use change can increase forest cover on previously non-forested lands, enhancing carbon (C)-based ecosystem services and functions such as the production of woody biomass for forest products and the mitigation of atmospheric CO2 pollution and climate change. Nonetheless, multiple assessments indicate that reforestation in the U.S. lags behind its potential, with continued ecosystem services and functions at risk if reforestation is not increased. In this context, there is need for multiple independent analyses that quantify the role of reforestation in C sequestration. Here, we report the findings of a large-scale data synthesis aimed at four objectives: 1) estimate C storage in major pools in forest and other land cover types; 2) quantify sources of variation in C pools; 3) compare the impacts of reforestation and afforestation on C pools; 4) assess whether results hold or diverge across ecoregions. Our data-driven analysis provides four key inferences regarding reforestation and other land use impacts on C sequestration. First, soils are the dominant C pool under all land cover types in the U.S., and spatial variation in soil C pool sizes has less to do with land cover than with other factors. Second, where historically cultivated lands are being reforested, topsoils are sequestering significant amounts of C, with the majority of reforested lands yet to reach sequestration capacity (relative to forested baseline). Third, the establishment of woody vegetation delivers immediate to multi-decadal C sequestration benefits in biomass and coarse woody debris pools, with two- to three-fold C sequestration benefits during the first several decades following planting. Fourth, opportunities to enhance C sequestration through reforestation vary among

  11. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners

  12. International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter H. Israelsson; E. Eric Adams

    2007-06-30

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. The evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration were documented in almost 100 papers and reports, including 18 peer-reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. These efforts were summarized in our project report issued January 2005 and covering the period August 23, 1998-October 23, 2004. An accompanying CD contained electronic copies of all the papers and reports. This report focuses on results of a two-year sub-task to update an environmental assessment of acute marine impacts resulting from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. [6] and Caulfield et al. [20] to assess mortality to zooplankton, but uses updated information concerning bioassays, an updated modeling approach and three modified injection scenarios: a point release of negatively buoyant solid CO{sub 2} hydrate particles from a moving ship; a long, bottom-mounted diffuser discharging buoyant liquid CO{sub 2} droplets; and a stationary point release of hydrate particles forming a sinking plume. Results suggest that in particular the first two discharge modes could be

  13. Epigenetic reversion of breast carcinoma phenotype is accompaniedby DNA sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandal, Tone; Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Spencer, Virginia A.; Folberg,Robert; Bissell, Mina J.; Maniotis, Andrew J.

    2006-07-19

    The importance of microenvironment and context in regulation of tissue-specific genes is finally well established. DNA exposure to, or sequestration from, nucleases can be used to detect differences in higher order chromatin structure in intact cells without disturbing cellular or tissue architecture. To investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and tumor phenotype, we utilized an established 3-D assay where normal and malignant human breast cells can be easily distinguished by the morphology of the structures they make (acinus-like vs tumor-like, respectively). We show that these phenotypes can be distinguished also by sensitivity to AluI digestion where the malignant cells are resistant to digestion relative to non-malignant cells. Reversion of the T4-2 breast cancer cells by either cAMP analogs, or a phospatidylinositol 3-kinase (P13K) inhibitor not only reverted the phenotype, but also the chromatin sensitivity to AluI. By using different cAMP-analogs, we show that the cAMP-induced phenotypic reversion, polarization, and shift in DNA organization act through a cAMP-dependent-protein-kinase A-coupled signaling pathway. Importantly, inhibitory antibody to fibronectin also reverted the malignant phenotype, polarized the acini, and changed chromatin sequestration. These experiments show not only that modifying the tumor microenvironment can alter the organization of tumor cells but also that architecture of the tissues and the global chromatin organization are coupled and yet highly plastic.

  14. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  15. Decarbonization and sequestration for mitigating global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    2000-01-01

    Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO 2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO 2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO 2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO 2 from power generation plants and sequestration in the ocean represents one possibility of making a major impact on reducing CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper will briefly review the progress made in ocean disposal and present some alternative schemes. (author)

  16. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    2000-08-23

    The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

  17. Response comment: Carbon sequestration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2016-01-01

    Martian atmospheric pressure has important implications for the past and present habitability of the planet, including the timing and causes of environmental change. The ancient Martian surface is strewn with evidence for early water bound in minerals (e.g., Ehlmann and Edwards, 2014) and recorded in surface features such as large catastrophically created outflow channels (e.g., Carr, 1979), valley networks (Hynek et al., 2010; Irwin et al., 2005), and crater lakes (e.g., Fassett and Head, 2008). Using orbital spectral data sets coupled with geologic maps and a set of numerical spectral analysis models, Edwards and Ehlmann (2015) constrained the amount of atmospheric sequestration in early Martian rocks and found that the majority of this sequestration occurred prior to the formation of the early Hesperian/late Noachian valley networks (Fassett and Head, 2011; Hynek et al., 2010), thus implying the atmosphere was already thin by the time these surface-water-related features were formed.

  18. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-31

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  19. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Miranda, Bruno Jose de Pinho; Caramel, Juliana Mauro; Jauregui, Gustavo Federico; Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas dos

    2001-01-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old patient with repeated lung infections. Chest x-rays showed a mass in the posterior basal segment of the right lung. Angio tomography and 3D reconstructions showed a blood supply coming from the descending aorta. The analysis of the surgical specimen confirmed the occurrence of intra lobar pulmonary sequestration with a cavitation filled with mucus. (author)

  20. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  1. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes

    KAUST Repository

    Macreadie, Peter I.

    2017-03-10

    Australia\\'s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia\\'s tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha-1 (range 14-963 Mg OC ha-1). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha-1 yr-1. Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia\\'s 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr-1, with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes.

  2. Possible impacts of sequestration on federal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. federal research and development (R&D) activities could be reduced by up to $57.5 billion, or 8.4%, through 2017 because of automatic reductions in U.S. federal funding, referred to as sequestration, that are set to begin in January 2013 under the 2011 Budget Control Act. That is according to a 27 September analysis by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). If defense R&D is pulled from the equation, sequestration could cut nondefense R&D by $50.8 billion, or 17.2% through that same time period, according to AAAS. Under an equal allocation scenario, the Department of Energy could lose $4.6 billion for R&D over that time period, the National Science Foundation could lose $2.1 billion for R&D, and NASA could lose $3.5 billion, according to the analysis, which also notes that states could be hit hard by decreased federal R&D spending. Congressional leaders currently are looking into how to avoid sequestration. For more information, see http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2012/0928sequester.shtml.

  3. A novel dendrochronological approach reveals drivers of carbon sequestration in tree species of riparian forests across spatiotemporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Isaak; Kowarik, Ingo; Cherubini, Paolo; Cierjacks, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Aboveground carbon (C) sequestration in trees is important in global C dynamics, but reliable techniques for its modeling in highly productive and heterogeneous ecosystems are limited. We applied an extended dendrochronological approach to disentangle the functioning of drivers from the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation), the lithosphere (sedimentation rate), the hydrosphere (groundwater table, river water level fluctuation), the biosphere (tree characteristics), and the anthroposphere (dike construction). Carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass of riparian Quercus robur L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. was modeled (1) over time using boosted regression tree analysis (BRT) on cross-datable trees characterized by equal annual growth ring patterns and (2) across space using a subsequent classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on cross-datable and not cross-datable trees. While C sequestration of cross-datable Q. robur responded to precipitation and temperature, cross-datable F. excelsior also responded to a low Danube river water level. However, CART revealed that C sequestration over time is governed by tree height and parameters that vary over space (magnitude of fluctuation in the groundwater table, vertical distance to mean river water level, and longitudinal distance to upstream end of the study area). Thus, a uniform response to climatic drivers of aboveground C sequestration in Q. robur was only detectable in trees of an intermediate height class and in taller trees (>21.8m) on sites where the groundwater table fluctuated little (≤0.9m). The detection of climatic drivers and the river water level in F. excelsior depended on sites at lower altitudes above the mean river water level (≤2.7m) and along a less dynamic downstream section of the study area. Our approach indicates unexploited opportunities of understanding the interplay of different environmental drivers in aboveground C sequestration. Results may support species-specific and

  4. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential

  5. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  6. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration: a masquarader in tuberculosis prevalent population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, A.; Iqbal, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intra pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by malformation of pulmonary tissue having no connection to normal tracheobronchial tree and pulmonary arteries. This is a case history of 20 years old man initially misdiagnosed as Tuberculosis and later diagnosis of intra-lobar pulmonary sequestration was confirmed. There are few reports of this rare disorder globally and we are reporting the first case of Intrapulmonary Sequestration in Pakistan. (author)

  7. Inclusion of fluorophores in cyclodextrins: a closer look at the fluorometric determination of association constants by linear and nonlinear fitting procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    The author discusses methods for the fluorometric determination of affinity constants by linear and nonlinear fitting methods. This is outlined in particular for the interaction between cyclodextrins and several anesthetic drugs including benzocaine. Special emphasis is given to the limitations of certain fits, and the impact of such studies on enzyme-substrate interactions are demonstrated. Both the experimental part and methods of analysis are well suited for students in an advanced lab.

  8. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing

  9. Pryce type I sequestration: no mosquito shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayan; Malempati, Amaresh Rao; Nemani, Lalita

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with congenital dual arterial supply to an otherwise normal left lower lobe, causing hyperperfusion lung injury. In addition to near normal pulmonary arterial supply, the lower lobe of the left lung received a systemic arterial supply from the descending thoracic aorta. The patient was successfully managed by surgical ligation of the systemic arterial supply without lobectomy. We discuss when to defer lobectomy in Pryce type I sequestration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.

    2006-01-01

    Trapping part of the world CO 2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO 2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO 2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  11. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-06-22

    An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

  12. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the

  13. Imaging approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, J.D.; Guo, Q.Y.; Chen, C.X.; Chen, L.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the characteristic features of pulmonary sequestration (PS), to evaluate the usefulness of various imaging modalities, and to find a rational approach to accurate diagnosis. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients with PS proved by operation and pathology were reviewed retrospectively. Plain chest films were done in all patients, bronchography in 3, sonography in 14, CT in 6 (including CT angiography in 1 case), MR in 8 (including MR angiography in 1 case) and aortography in 12 (including DSA in 1 case). Results: Plain chest films demonstrated a solid mass in 14 patients and a cystic mass in 10. Bronchograms showed displacement of adjacent bronchi with no filling of contrast medium within the lesion in 2 cases, while another case had a blind intermediate portion of the right bronchus (hypoplasia of middle and lower lobes associated with extralobar sequestration). Sonography demonstrated a solid lung mass in 12 cases and a solid mass with cystic areas in 2, and detected vessel-like structures within the mass or in its surroundings in 12. Doppler analysis showed arterial spectral wave confirming a feeding artery. CT revealed a solid mass in all patients, a mass with low density area in 4, and emphysema surrounding the mass in 3. MR imaging depicted anomalous arteries in all patients and venous drainage in 4 cases. Aortography demonstrated anomalous systemic arterial supply to the PS in all patients. In this series, 21 cases (87.5%) were correctly diagnosed preoperatively by the imaging modalities. Conclusion: Plain chest films can provide a diagnostic due to PS. Sonography, CT and MR are helpful for showing arterial blood supply and for making a definite diagnosis. We recommend a rational imaging approach for the diagnosis of PS. (orig.)

  14. In vitro evaluation of new anticancer drugs, exemplified by vinorelbine, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay on human tumor cell lines and patient biopsy cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridborg, H; Nygren, P; Dhar, S; Csoka, K; Kristensen, J; Larsson, R

    1996-09-01

    The feasibility of combined studies on a cell-line panel and primary cultures of patient tumor cells in the preclinical evaluation of new anticancer drugs was evaluated in a study of the activity and cross-resistance pattern in vitro of the new semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine (Vrb). The activity of Vrb was investigated in ten cell lines representing different resistance mechanisms and in a total of 256 fresh human tumor samples, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Resistance to Vrb in the cell lines was associated with expression of the multidrug resistance-mediating P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and by a recently described tubulin-associated mechanism, while the cell lines with topoisomerase II- and glutathion-associated resistance did not show decreased sensitivity to the drug. Cross-resistance to vincristine (Vcr) and other tubulin-active agents was high in cell lines as well as in patient cells. As with most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, Vrb was more active in hematological than in solid tumor samples. Among the solid tumors investigated, the highest in vitro response rates were observed in ovarian cancer (27%), sarcoma (25%), non-small cell lung cancer (21%) and bladder cancer (20%), while no response was observed in renal or colorectal cancer. Compared to Vcr, Vrb appeared to be slightly more active in solid tumors and slightly less active in hematological tumors. The results show that although Vrb displays a high degree of cross-resistance to Vcr and other tubulin-active drugs, some difference in the activity spectrum could be detected and that the drug is sensitive to multiple mechanisms of resistance. The results also suggest that leukemias, ovarian cancer, sarcoma and bladder cancer are possible further targets for Vrb. The combination of studies on a cell-line panel and patient tumor cells from a broad spectrum of diagnoses to evaluate a new drug seems feasible and may give

  15. Modelisation du stock de biomasse et dynamique de sequestration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Jatropha curcas, séquestration, carbone, Bénin, Afrique de l'Ouest. English Title: Biomass stock modeling and dynamics of mineral and carbon sequestration of Jatropha curcas L. under different soil types in Benin. English Abstract. In West Africa, carbon sequestration function of Jatropha curcas shrubs and their ...

  16. Sequestration of arsenic in ombrotrophic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Taylor, Kevin; Polya, David; Evans, Martin; Allott, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands can be important stores of arsenic but we are lacking spectroscopic evidence of the sequestration pathways of this toxic metalloid in peatland environments. This study reports on the solid-phase speciation of anthropogenically-derived arsenic in atmospherically contaminated peat from the Peak District National Park (UK). Surface and sub-surface peat samples were analysed by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy on B18 beamline at Diamond Light Source (UK). The results suggest that there are contrasting arsenic sequestration mechanisms in the peat. The bulk arsenic speciation results, in combination with strong arsenic-iron correlations at the surface, suggest that iron (hydr)oxides are key phases for the immobilisation of arsenic at the peat surface. In contrast, the deeper peat samples are dominated by arsenic sulphides (arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment). Given that these peats receive inputs solely from the atmosphere, the presence of these sulphide phases suggests an in-situ authigenic formation. Redox oscillations in the peat due to a fluctuating water table and an abundant store of legacy sulphur from historic acid rain inputs may favour the precipitation of arsenic sequestering sulphides in sub-surface horizons. Oxidation-induced loss of these arsenic sequestering sulphur species by water table drawdown has important implications for the mobility of arsenic and the quality of waters draining peatlands.

  17. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

    2008-01-01

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO 2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO 2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO 2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  19. A case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Takuo; Hongo, Minoru; Okubo, Shinichi; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Matsuoka, Ken; Soga, Naoko; Kono, Jun; Kusama, Shozo

    1985-01-01

    A 57-year-old female was admitted to our hospital, complaining of hemoptysis. On auscultation, moist rales were audible at the lower portion of left posterior chest. Plain chest roentgenogram showed a round shadow in the left lower lung field. Computed tomography with contrast enhancement revealed an abnormal structure which was contiguous to a strand structure. Dynamic scanning demonstrated opacification of the strand structure and that of the greater part of the abnormal structure during peak opacification of the descending aorta. A part of the abnormal structure was opacified during the same phase as the opacification of the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. A diagnosis of intralobar pulmonary sequestration associated with pulmonary arterio-venous malformation was confirmed by thoracic aortography and left pulmonary arteriography. The hemoptysis was found to be caused by chronic bronchitis. It was emphasized that dynamic computed tomography is very useful to diagnose intralobar pulmonary sequestration and to assess the presence of pulmonary arterio-venous malformation. In addition, it is of particular interest that this case cannot be assigned to any category of Pryce's classification although it resembles both type I and IV. (author)

  20. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggini, Roberto; Servili, Maurizio; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

    2006-04-19

    Hydrophilic phenols are the most abundant natural antioxidants of virgin olive oil (VOO), in which tocopherols and carotenes are also present. The prevalent classes of hydrophilic phenols found in VOO are phenyl alcohols, phenolic acids, secoiridoids such as the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol or (p-hydroxypheny1)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA or p-HPEA-EDA) and an isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), lignans such as (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and (+)-pinoresinol, and flavonoids. A new method for the analysis of VOO hydrophilic phenols by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the use of a fluorescence detector (FLD) has been proposed and compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by the HPLC analysis utilizing a diode array detector (DAD) and a FLD. Results show that the most important classes of phenolic compounds occurring in VOO can be evaluated using HPLC direct injection. The efficiency of the new method, as compared to the liquid-liquid extraction, was higher to quantify phenyl alcohols, lignans, and 3,4-DHPEA-EA and lower for the evaluation of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  1. Cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoka, K; Larsson, R; Tholander, B; Gerdin, E; de la Torre, M; Nygren, P

    1994-08-01

    The automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein by viable cells after a 72-hr culture period in microtiter plates. The FMCA was adopted for chemosensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma. Thirty-seven samples of solid tumors and malignant effusions were obtained from 35 patients at diagnosis or relapse. Tumor cells from solid samples and effusions were prepared by enzymatic digestion and centrifugation, respectively, followed by Percoll or Ficoll purification. The fluorescence was proportional to the number of cells/well and considerably higher in tumor cells than in contaminating normal cells. The effect of up to 19 cytotoxic drugs was successfully assessed in 70% of the samples and there was a good correlation between drug sensitivity data reported by the FMCA and the DiSC assay performed in parallel. The overall drug sensitivity pattern in vitro corresponded well to the clinical experience. The effect of cisplatin varied considerably between patients and resistance was found also in cases not previously exposed to cytotoxic drugs. The FMCA is a rapid and simple method that seems to report clinically relevant cytotoxic drug sensitivity data in ovarian carcinomas. In the future, this method may contribute to optimizing chemotherapy by assisting in individualized drug selection and new drug development.

  2. In vitro determination of cytotoxic drug response in ovarian carcinoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, K; Tholander, B; Gerdin, E; de la Torre, M; Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1997-09-17

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), a short-term in vitro assay based on the concept of total tumor cell kill, was used for testing the cytotoxic drug sensitivity of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma. A total of 125 fresh specimens was obtained, 98 (78%) of which were analyzed successfully. Data from 45 patients were available for clinical correlations. The FMCA appeared to yield clinically relevant cytotoxic drug sensitivity data for ovarian carcinoma as indicated by a comparison with tumor samples obtained from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or kidney carcinoma. Considering the most active single agent in vitro actually given in vivo, and using the median drug activity among all ovarian carcinoma samples as a cut-off, the sensitivity of the assay and its specificity were 75 and 52%, respectively. Cross-resistance in vitro was frequently observed between standard drugs but not between standard drugs and Taxol. Ten percent of the specimens showed an extreme resistance for at least 4 of 6 of the drugs investigated.

  3. A rapid fluorometric method for semiautomated determination of cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation of human tumor cell lines in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1989-01-01

    A fluorometric method for the determination of cellular growth and cytotoxicity of human tumor cell lines in 96-well microculture plates is described. The assay is based on the combined use of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342 and the fluorogenic substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Hoechst 33342 undergoes a dramatic enhancement of fluorescence when specifically intercalated with cellular DNA, whereas the FDA fluorescence is dependent on cellular hydrolysis of the non-fluorescent substrate into its fluorescent product. Fluorescence from both dyes was linearly related to the density of freshly seeded cells (6 x 10(3)-1 x 10(5)/well) and correlated well with physical cell count of cells under normal culture conditions as well as in response to the vinca alkaloid vincristine. However, the amount of FDA fluorescence produces and retained by the cultures was clearly dependent on the fraction of intact and viable cells, whereas the fluorescence reported by Hoechst 33342 was not. The assay was found to be simple, reliable and many samples could be analysed in a short period of time with minimal waste of cells and biological reagents. Apart from giving an estimate of cell density, the protocol described also provides a separate index of viability which in certain situations may be of importance for distinguishing between cytocidal and cytostatic drug actions. The method may be well suited for several applications, including the large scale screening for antitumor activity of compounds with potential cytocidal or cytostatic actions.

  4. Acute splenic sequestration in a pregnant woman with homozygous sickle-cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bastos Maia

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Homozygous (SS sickle-cell anemia complicated by acute splenic sequestration in adults is a rare event, and it has never been reported during pregnancy. CASE REPORT A 25-year-old woman with homozygous (SS sickle-cell disease was hospitalized at 32 weeks' of gestation presenting weakness, abdominal pain, fever and hemoglobin of 2.4 g/dl. Abnormal fetal heart rate was detected by means of cardiotocography, and 5 units of packed red cells were transfused. Cesarean was performed at 37 weeks. Both mother and baby were discharged in a good general condition. CONCLUSION This case report demonstrates the importance of immediate blood transfusion for treatment of fetal distress in cases of splenic sequestration during pregnancy. This treatment is essential for avoiding maternal and fetal complications.

  5. Acute splenic sequestration in a pregnant woman with homozygous sickle-cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carolina Bastos; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Igai, Ana Maria Kondo; Fonseca, Guilherme Hencklain; Gualandro, Sandra Menosi; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Homozygous (SS) sickle-cell anemia complicated by acute splenic sequestration in adults is a rare event, and it has never been reported during pregnancy. A 25-year-old woman with homozygous (SS) sickle-cell disease was hospitalized at 32 weeks' of gestation presenting weakness, abdominal pain, fever and hemoglobin of 2.4 g/dl. Abnormal fetal heart rate was detected by means of cardiotocography, and 5 units of packed red cells were transfused. Cesarean was performed at 37 weeks. Both mother and baby were discharged in a good general condition. This case report demonstrates the importance of immediate blood transfusion for treatment of fetal distress in cases of splenic sequestration during pregnancy. This treatment is essential for avoiding maternal and fetal complications.

  6. Sequestrated thrombolysis: Comparative evaluation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Lysis of a thrombus is a function of the local concentration of thrombolytic enzymes. This study was designed to determine in a porcine model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) whether perithrombic sequestration of small volumes of a concentrated enzyme solution can accelerate the process of thrombolysis.Methods: DVT was induced in both hind limbs using a previously described technique (n=32). Thirty minutes later the animal was heparinized and unilateral thrombolysis was attempted using 8 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA); saline was administered in the opposite leg. For conventional high-volume infusion (CI) (n=5) rt-PA (0.067 mg/ml) was infused at l ml/min. For sequestrated thrombolysis the external iliac vein was endoluminally occluded, and rt-PA (0.25 mg/ml) administered either for proximal injection (ST-P) (n=5). as a bolus every 3 min through a microcatheter placed via the balloon catheter, or for transthrombic injection (ST-T) (n=5), as a bolus every 3 min through a Katzen wire in the balloon catheter. At autopsy, the thrombus mass in the iliofemoral veins was measured, and the extent of residual thrombosis in the venous tributaries graded at four sites. From these data a thrombolysis score was calculated.Results: One pig died before thrombolysis could be performed. Only with ST-T was residual thrombus mass in the test limb normalized to control, residual thrombus index (RTF), consistently less than unity. The median RTI of this group was 0.50 (range 0.39-0.97) compared with 1.22 (0.64-1.38) for ST-P and 0.88 (0.37-1.13) for CI. Compared with contralateral controls, a lower grade of residual thrombosis in tributaries was observed in test limbs at more venous sites with ST-T (8/20; 95% confidence interval 5-13) and ST-P (9/20; confidence interval 5-13) than with CI (2/20; confidence interval 0-5) (p=0.04). A trend toward lower thrombolysis scores was observed with ST-T (p=0.08). Systemic fibrinogenolysis was not observed in any of

  7. CO{sub 2} sequestration; Sequestration du CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2008-04-15

    The carbon dioxide is the main gas associated to the human activity, generating consequences on the greenhouse effect. By the use of fossil fuels, the human activity generates each year, about 26 milliards of tons. Only the half of theses releases is absorbed by the nature, the rest reinforces the greenhouse effect. To reduce the emissions two actions are proposed: a better energy consumption and the development of technologies which do not produce, or weakly, greenhouse effect gases. Another way is studied: the carbon sequestration and geological storage. This document details the different technologies of sequestration, the transport and the underground storage. It discusses also the economical and legislative aspects, providing examples and projects. (A.L.B.)

  8. Carbon Sequestration and Optimal Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, Andre; Rouge, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We present an endogenous growth model in which the use of a non-renewable natural resource generates carbon-dioxide emissions that can be partly sequestered. This approach breaks with the systematic link between resource use and pollution emission. The accumulated stock of remaining emissions has a negative impact on household utility and corporate productivity. While sequestration quickens the optimal extraction rate, it can also generate higher emissions in the short run. It also has an adverse effect on economic growth. We study the impact of a carbon tax: the level of the tax has an effect in our model, its optimal level is positive, and it can be interpreted ex post as a decreasing ad valorem tax on the resource

  9. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  11. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  12. Exploration of public acceptance regarding CO2 underground sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, M.; Tokushige, K.; Mori, Y.; Furukawa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms for gaining public acceptance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) aquifer sequestration were investigated through the use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. The study was performed as part of a CO 2 sequestration technology promotion project in Japan. The questionnaire portion of the study was conducted to determine public opinions and the extent of public awareness of CO 2 sequestration technologies. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students majoring in environmental sociology. Participants were provided with newspaper articles related to CO 2 sequestration. The focus group study was conducted to obtain qualitative results to complement findings from the questionnaire survey. Results of the survey suggested that many participants were not particularly concerned about global warming, and had almost no knowledge about CO 2 sequestration. The opinions of some students were influenced by an awareness of similar types of facilities located near their homes. Attitudes were also influenced by the newspaper articles provided during the focus group sessions. However, many older participants did not trust information presented to them in newspaper format. Results suggested that many people identified afforestation as an alternative technology to CO 2 sequestration, and tended to think of CO 2 in negative terms as it contributed to global warming. Some participants assumed that CO 2 was harmful. The majority of respondents agreed with the development of CO 2 sequestration technologies as part of a program of alternative emissions abatement technologies. The provision of detailed information concerning CO 2 sequestration did not completely remove anxieties concerning the technology's potential negative impacts. It was concluded that a confident communications strategy is needed to persuade Japanese residents of the need to implement CO 2 sequestration technologies. 11 refs., 2 figs

  13. PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Alexander; Campana, Pietro Elia; Lind, Mårten; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel model for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture is developed. • We consider the water-food-energy-climate nexus to assess carbon sequestration. • Using water for carbon sequestration should be assessed critically. • Co-benefits of carbon sequestration should be included in the assessment. • Moisture feedback is part of the nexus model. - Abstract: This paper suggests a novel model for analysing carbon sequestration activities in dry land agriculture considering the water-food-energy-climate nexus. The paper is based on our on-going studies on photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. Two carbon sequestration projects are analysed in terms of their water productivity and carbon sequestration potential. It is concluded that the economic water productivity, i.e. how much water that is needed to produce an amount of grass, of grassland restoration is low and that there is a need to include several of the other co-benefits to justify the use of water for climate change mitigation. The co-benefits are illustrated in a nexus model including (1) climate change mitigation, (2) water availability, (3) downstream water impact, (4) energy security, (5) food security and (6) moisture recycling. We argue for a broad approach when analysing water for carbon sequestration. The model includes energy security and food security together with local and global water concerns. This makes analyses of dry land carbon sequestration activities more relevant and accurate. Without the nexus approach, the co-benefits of grassland restoration tend to be diminished

  14. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  15. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-17

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  16. [Research methods of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.

  17. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Sander, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1) quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) processing and allometric models, (2) quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3) mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration. PMID:26317530

  18. Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring and Performance Assessment of CO2 Sequestration in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta-Gupta, Akhil [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Carbon dioxide sequestration remains an important and challenging research topic as a potentially viable approach for mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases on global warming (e.g., Chu and Majumdar, 2012; Bryant, 2007; Orr, 2004; Hepple and Benson, 2005; Bachu, 2003; Grimston et al., 2001). While CO2 can be sequestered in oceanic or terrestrial biomass, the most mature and effective technology currently available is sequestration in geologic formations, especially in known hydrocarbon reservoirs (Barrufet et al., 2010; Hepple and Benson, 2005). However, challenges in the design and implementation of sequestration projects remain, especially over long time scales. One problem is that the tendency for gravity override caused by the low density and viscosity of CO2. In the presence of subsurface heterogeneity, fractures and faults, there is a significant risk of CO2 leakage from the sequestration site into overlying rock compared to other liquid wastes (Hesse and Woods, 2010; Ennis-King and Patterson, 2002; Tsang et al., 2002). Furthermore, the CO2 will likely interact chemically with the rock in which it is stored, so that understanding and predicting its transport behavior during sequestration can be complex and difficult (Mandalaparty et al., 2011; Pruess et al., 2003). Leakage of CO2 can lead to such problems as acidification of ground water and killing of plant life, in addition to contamination of the atmosphere (Ha-Duong, 2003; Gasda et al., 2004). The development of adequate policies and regulatory systems to govern sequestration therefore requires improved characterization of the media in which CO2 is stored and the development of advanced methods for detecting and monitoring its flow and transport in the subsurface (Bachu, 2003).

  19. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Sander, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1) quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) processing and allometric models, (2) quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3) mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  20. Superflux chlorophyll-a analysis: An assessment of variability in results introduced prior to fluorometric analysis. [chesapeake bay and shelf regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, S. J.; Rutledge, C. K.; Robertson, C. N.

    1981-01-01

    Several experiments were undertaken to identify variability in results that came from procedural differences in the processing of chlorophyll samples prior to fluorometric analysis. T-tests on group means indicated that significant differences (alpha = 0.05) in phaeopigment a concentrations did result in samples not initially screened, but not in the chlorophyll a concentrations. Highly significant differences (alpha = 0.001) in group means were found in samples which were held in acetone after filtering as compared to unfiltered seawater samples held for the same period. No difference in results was found between the 24-hour extraction and samples which were processed immediately.

  1. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Peter; Esposito, Richard; Theodorou, Konstantinos; Hannon, Michael; Lamplugh, Aaron; Ellison, Kirk

    2013-06-30

    Work under the project entitled "Geologic Sequestration Training and Research," was performed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Company from December 1, 2009, to June 30, 2013. The emphasis was on training of students and faculty through research on topics central to further development, demonstration, and commercialization of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). The project had the following components: (1) establishment of a laboratory for measurement of rock properties, (2) evaluation of the sealing capacity of caprocks, (3) evaluation of porosity, permeability, and storage capacity of reservoirs, (4) simulation of CO{sub 2} migration and trapping in storage reservoirs and seepage through seal layers, (5) education and training of students through independent research on rock properties and reservoir simulation, and (6) development of an advanced undergraduate/graduate level course on coal combustion and gasification, climate change, and carbon sequestration. Four graduate students and one undergraduate student participated in the project. Two were awarded Ph.D. degrees for their work, the first in December 2010 and the second in August 2013. A third graduate student has proposed research on an advanced technique for measurement of porosity and permeability, and has been admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. The fourth graduate student is preparing his proposal for research on CCUS and solid waste management. The undergraduate student performed experimental measurements on caprock and reservoir rock samples and received his B.S.M.E. degree in May 2012. The "Caprock Integrity Laboratory," established with support from the present project, is fully functional and equipped for measurement of porosity, permeability, minimum capillary displacement pressure, and effective permeability to gas in the presence of wetting phases. Measurements are made at ambient temperature and under reservoir conditions, including supercritical CO{sub 2

  2. Physical and Biological Regulation of Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. T.; Callaway, J.

    2017-12-01

    The rate of carbon sequestration in tidal marshes is regulated by complex feedbacks among biological and physical factors including the rate of sea-level rise (SLR), biomass production, tidal amplitude, and the concentration of suspended sediment. We used the Marsh Equilibrium Model (MEM) to explore the effects on C-sequestration across a wide range of permutations of these variables. C-sequestration increased with the rate of SLR to a maximum, then down to a vanishing point at higher SLR when marshes convert to mudflats. An acceleration in SLR will increase C-sequestration in marshes that can keep pace, but at high rates of SLR this is only possible with high biomass and suspended sediment concentrations. We found that there were no feasible solutions at SLR >13 mm/yr for permutations of variables that characterize the great majority of tidal marshes, i.e., the equilibrium elevation exists below the lower vertical limit for survival of marsh vegetation. The rate of SLR resulting in maximum C-sequestration varies with biomass production. C-sequestration rates at SLR=1 mm/yr averaged only 36 g C m-2 yr-1, but at the highest maximum biomass tested (5000 g/m2) the mean C-sequestration reached 399 g C m-2 yr-1 at SLR = 14 mm/yr. The empirical estimate of C-sequestration in a core dated 50-years overestimates the theoretical long-term rate by 34% for realistic values of decomposition rate and belowground production. The overestimate of the empirical method arises from the live and decaying biomass contained within the carbon inventory above the marker horizon, and overestimates were even greater for shorter surface cores.

  3. The biodiversity cost of carbon sequestration in tropical savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Rodolfo C. R.; Hoffmann, William A.; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Pilon, Natashi A.; Rossatto, Davi R.; Durigan, Giselda

    2017-01-01

    Tropical savannas have been increasingly viewed as an opportunity for carbon sequestration through fire suppression and afforestation, but insufficient attention has been given to the consequences for biodiversity. To evaluate the biodiversity costs of increasing carbon sequestration, we quantified changes in ecosystem carbon stocks and the associated changes in communities of plants and ants resulting from fire suppression in savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. ...

  4. Torsed pulmonary sequestration presenting as a painful chest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ricki; Carver, Terrence W.; Rivard, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality that can be divided into intralobar or extralobar types. Both types are characterized by pulmonary tissue that does not communicate with the bronchial tree or pulmonary arteries and typically has its arterial supply arising from the descending aorta. We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with extralobar sequestration who presented with torsion causing abdominal pain and pleuritic chest pain. (orig.)

  5. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  6. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  7. A new rhodamine B based fluorometric chemodosimeter for Cu2+ ion in aqueous and cellular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempahanumakkagaari, Suresh Kumar; Thippeswamy, Ramakrishnappa; Malingappa, Pandurangappa

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective fluorescent chemo dosimeter rhodamine B phenyl hydrazide (RBPH) for Cu 2+ was proposed. This probe is non fluorescent and colorless but exhibits fluorescent enhancement at 580 nm and displayed color change from colorless to pink for Cu 2+ in the pH range 1–6. Fluorescence microscope experimental results reveals that this chemo sensor is cell permeable and can be used for fluorescence imaging of Cu 2+ ions in living cells. This probe can detect Cu 2+ with good linear relationships from 10 to 100 nM with r=0.99971 then limit of detection was found to be 0.015 nM with ±0.91% RSD at 10 nM concentrations. -- Highlights: • The new sensitive, highly selective fluorescent chemodosimeter for Cu 2+ based on spirolactam ring opening process has been proposed. • The probe posse’s excellent cell permeability and it has been applied for fluorescence imaging of Cu 2+ ions in MCF-7 cell lines. • The protocol has been successfully applied for copper determination in blood and urine samples

  8. Synthesis of peptide templated copper nanoclusters for fluorometric determination of Fe(III) in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ting; Ouyang, Jiang; Hu, Lanshuang; Guo, Linyan; Yang, Minghui; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Copper nanoclusters (Cu-NCs) were prepared by reducing CuCl 2 with ascorbic acid in the presence of the short peptide template Cys-Cys-Cys-Asp-Leu. They were characterized by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Cu-NCs have a size of ∼2 nm, can be well dispersed in water and are photostable. Their fluorescence (peaking at 425 nm under 365-nm excitation) is quenched by Fe(III) ions. Based on this finding, a sensitive and selective fluorescence assay for the detection of Fe(III) was developed. Under optimized conditions and a pH value of 2.0, the assay displays a linear response in the 0.05 to 30 μM Fe(III) concentration range, with a detection limit of 20 nM based on an S/N ratio of 3. The assay was successfully applied to the determination of Fe(III) in spiked human serum where is gave recoveries that ranged from 96.2 % to 98.3 %. (author)

  9. Aptamer-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for simultaneous fluorometric determination of oxytetracycline and kanamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Changbin; Lu, Chunxia; Tang, Zonggui; Chen, Xia; Wang, Guohong; Sun, Fengxia

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a method for the simultaneous detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) and kanamycin (KMY) using aptamers acting as both recognition and separation elements, and complementary oligonucleotides labeled with a green emitting fluorophore (carboxyfluorescein, FAM) and a yellow emitting fluorophore (carboxy-X-rhodamine, ROX), respectively, as signal labels. An OTC aptamer and a KMY aptamer were immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via avidin-biotin chemistry. The aptamers preferentially bind their respective targets and thereby cause the upconcentration of analytes. However, in their absence they bind fluorescently-tagged complementary oligonucleotide later added to the reaction system. This cause the NPs to become fluorescent, with emission peaks located at 520 and 608 nm, respectively. The effects of the concentration of avidin, aptamer, complementary oligonucleotide, incubation temperature and incubation time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linear relationships were obtained in the range of 1–50 ng∙mL −1 for OTC and KMY, with limits of detection of 0.85 ng∙mL −1 and 0.92 ng∙mL −1 , respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of pork, milk, and honey samples spiked with OTC and MKY. Recoveries ranged from 76.5 to 94.7 % and 77.8 to 93.1 %, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was <10.0 %. (author)

  10. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration: Analysis of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration at Three Contaminated Sites Remediated and Revitalized with Soil Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides EPA's analysis of the data to determine carbon sequestration rates at three diverse sites that differ in geography/location, weather, soil properties, type of contamination, and age.

  11. CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketzer, Marcelo [Brazilian Carbon Storage Research Center (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the importance of the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} is outlined for the reduction of gas discharges of greenhouse effect; then the principles of CO{sub 2} storage in geologic formations are reviewed; afterwards, the analogs for the CO{sub 2} storage are commented, such as the storage of the acid gas, the natural gas storage and the natural CO{sub 2} deposits. Also it is spoken on the CO{sub 2} storage in coal, in water-bearing saline deposits and in oil fields, and finally the subject of the safety and monitoring of the CO{sub 2} storage is reviewed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se expone la importancia de la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} para la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero; luego se tratan los principios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en formaciones geologicas; despues se comentan los analogos para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} como el almacenamiento del gas acido, el almacenamiento de gas natural y los yacimientos naturales de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se habla sobre el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en carbon, acuiferos salinos y yacimientos petroliferos y por ultimo se toca el tema de la seguridad y monitoreo del almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  12. Carbon sequestration R&D overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Justine [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the author discusses over the technological options for the handling of carbon. He shows the objectives and challenges of the program of carbon sequestration of the Department of Energy of the United States, as well as a table with the annual CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States; a graph with the world-wide capacity of CO{sub 2} geologic storage and a listing with the existing projects of CCS at the moment in the world. [Spanish] En esta presentacion el autor platica sobre las opciones tecnologicas para el manejo del carbono. Muestra los objetivos y retos del programa de secuestro de carbono del Departamento de Energia de los Estados Unidos, asi como una tabla con las emisiones anuales de CO{sub 2} en los Estados Unidos; un grafico con la capacidad mundial de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en el subsuelo y un listado con los proyectos de CCS existentes actualmente en el mundo.

  13. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  14. Carbon Capture and Sequestration- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akash; Vyas, Savita

    2017-08-01

    The Drastic increase of CO2 emission in the last 30 years is due to the combustion of fossil fuels and it causes a major change in the environment such as global warming. In India, the emission of fossil fuels is developed in the recent years. The alternate energy sources are not sufficient to meet the values of this emission reduction and the framework of climate change demands the emission reduction, the CCS technology can be used as a mitigation tool which evaluates the feasibility for implementation of this technology in India. CCS is a process to capture the carbon dioxide from large sources like fossil fuel station to avoid the entrance of CO2 in the atmosphere. IPCC accredited this technology and its path for mitigation for the developing countries. In this paper, we present the technologies of CCS with its development and external factors. The main goal of this process is to avoid the release the CO2 into the atmosphere and also investigates the sequestration and mitigation technologies of carbon.

  15. The economics of soil C sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and of our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  16. Alliance for Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research & Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Hilary [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics Jackson School of Geosciences

    2013-12-31

    The Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education (STORE) Alliance at The University of Texas at Austin completed its activity under Department of Energy Funding (DE-FE0002254) on September 1, 2013. The program began as a partnership between the Institute for Geophysics, the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Department at UT. The initial vision of the program was to promote better understanding of CO2 utilization and storage science and engineering technology through programs and opportunities centered on training, outreach, research and technology transfer, and education. With over 8,000 hrs of formal training and education (and almost 4,500 of those hours awarded as continuing education credits) to almost 1,100 people, STORE programs and activities have provided benefits to the Carbon Storage Program of the Department of Energy by helping to build a skilled workforce for the future CCS and larger energy industry, and fostering scientific public literacy needed to continue the U.S. leadership position in climate change mitigation and energy technologies and application. Now in sustaining mode, the program is housed at the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and benefits from partnerships with the Gulf Coast Carbon Center, TOPCORP and other programs at the university receiving industry funding.

  17. HIV internalization into oral and genital epithelial cells by endocytosis and macropinocytosis leads to viral sequestration in the vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasen, Aizezi; Herrera, Rossana; Rosbe, Kristina; Lien, Kathy; Tugizov, Sharof M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we showed that HIV-1 is sequestered, i.e., trapped, in the intracellular vesicles of oral and genital epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 sequestration in vesicles of polarized tonsil, foreskin and cervical epithelial cells. HIV-1 internalization into epithelial cells is initiated by multiple entry pathways, including clathrin-, caveolin/lipid raft-associated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Inhibition of HIV-1 attachment to galactosylceramide and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and virus endocytosis and macropinocytosis reduced HIV-1 sequestration by 30–40%. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) were expressed on the apical surface of polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. However, TIM-1-associated HIV-1 macropinocytosis and sequestration were detected mostly in tonsil epithelial cells. Sequestered HIV-1 was resistant to trypsin, pronase, and soluble CD4, indicating that the sequestered virus was intracellular. Inhibition of HIV-1 intraepithelial sequestration and elimination of vesicles containing virus in the mucosal epithelium may help in the prevention of HIV-1 mucosal transmission. PMID:29277006

  18. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shufang; Yang Jinghe; Wu Xia; Wang Fei; Wang Feng; Jia Zhen

    2006-01-01

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10 -9 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10 -8 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10 -7 -2.0x10 -5 g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10 -9 , 9.8x10 -9 and 2.1x10 -8 g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied

  19. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  20. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN{sup -}) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ{sub abs}=148 nm, Δλ{sub em}= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ{sub em}= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  1. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In; Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN"-) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ_a_b_s=148 nm, Δλ_e_m= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ_e_m= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  2. Making carbon dioxide sequestration feasible: Toward federal regulation of CO2 sequestration pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Joel; Endemann, Buck

    2010-01-01

    As the United States moves closer to a national climate change policy, it will have to focus on a variety of factors affecting the manner in which the country moves toward a future with a substantially lower carbon footprint. In addition to encouraging renewable energy, smart grid, clean fuels and other technologies, the United States will need to make substantial infrastructure investments in a variety of industries. Among the significant contributors to the current carbon footprint in the United States is the use of coal as a major fuel for the generation of electricity. One of the most important technologies that the United States can employ to reduce its carbon footprint is to sequester the carbon dioxide ('CO 2 ') from coal-fired power plants. This article focuses on the legal and policy issues surrounding a critical piece of the necessary sequestration infrastructure: CO 2 pipelines that will carry CO 2 from where it is removed from fuel or waste gas streams to where it will be sequestered. Ultimately, this article recommends developing a federally regulated CO 2 pipeline program to foster the implementation of carbon sequestration technology.

  3. Supercritical CO 2 -philic nanoparticles suitable for determining the viability of carbon sequestration in shale

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. A fracture spacing less than a decimeter is probably required for the successful sequestration of CO2 in shale. Tracer experiments using inert nanoparticles could determine if a fracturing this intense has been achieved. Here we describe the synthesis of supercritical CO2-philic nanoparticles suitable for this application. The nanoparticles are ~50 nm in diameter and consist of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and silica (SiO2) cores functionalized with a fluorescent polymeric corona. The nanoparticles stably disperse in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and are detectable to concentrations of 10 ppm. This journal is

  4. Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Wen, Ding; Zhu, Jianxing; Tang, Xuli; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Hu, Huifeng; Huang, Mei; Yu, Guirui

    2017-04-01

    Forests store a large part of the terrestrial vegetation carbon (C) and have high C sequestration potential. Here, we developed a new forest C sequestration (FCS) model based on the secondary succession theory, to estimate vegetation C sequestration capacity in China's forest vegetation. The model used the field measurement data of 3161 forest plots and three future climate scenarios. The results showed that logistic equations provided a good fit for vegetation biomass with forest age in natural and planted forests. The FCS model has been verified with forest biomass data, and model uncertainty is discussed. The increment of vegetation C storage in China's forest vegetation from 2010 to 2050 was estimated as 13.92 Pg C, while the average vegetation C sequestration rate was 0.34 Pg C yr -1 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.28-0.42 Pg C yr -1 , which differed significantly between forest types. The largest contributor to the increment was deciduous broadleaf forest (37.8%), while the smallest was deciduous needleleaf forest (2.7%). The vegetation C sequestration rate might reach its maximum around 2020, although vegetation C storage increases continually. It is estimated that vegetation C sequestration might offset 6-8% of China's future emissions. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between vegetation C sequestration rate and C emission rate in different provinces of China, suggesting that developed provinces might need to compensate for undeveloped provinces through C trade. Our findings will provide valuable guidelines to policymakers for designing afforestation strategies and forest C trade in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Comans, Rob N.J.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO 2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a basic design was made for the major process equipment, and total investment costs were estimated with the help of the publicly available literature and a factorial cost estimation method. Finally, the sequestration costs were determined on the basis of the depreciation of investments and variable and fixed operating costs. Estimated costs are 102 and 77 EUR/ton CO 2 net avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. For wollastonite, the major costs are associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption for grinding and compression (54 and 26 EUR/ton CO 2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters in the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio in the carbonation reactor and the possible value of the carbonated product. The sequestration costs for steel slag are significantly lower due to the absence of costs for the feedstock. Although various options for potential cost reduction have been identified, CO 2 sequestration by current aqueous carbonation processes seems expensive relative to other CO 2 storage technologies. The permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO 2 by mineral carbonation may justify higher costs, but further cost reductions are required, particularly in view of (current) prices of CO 2 emission rights. Niche applications of mineral carbonation with a solid residue such as steel slag as feedstock and/or a useful carbonated product hold the best prospects for an economically feasible CO 2 sequestration process. (author)

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-01-01

    In order to plan for potential CO(sub 2) mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO(sub 2) mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO(sub 2) sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO(sub 2) and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO(sub 2) sequestration, including captured CO(sub 2) storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO(sub 2) sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO(sub 2) sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO(sub 2). No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO(sub 2) sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO(sub 2) sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget

  7. A cell-free fluorometric high-throughput screen for inhibitors of Rtt109-catalyzed histone acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme L Dahlin

    Full Text Available The lysine acetyltransferase (KAT Rtt109 forms a complex with Vps75 and catalyzes the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56ac in the Asf1-H3-H4 complex. Rtt109 and H3K56ac are vital for replication-coupled nucleosome assembly and genotoxic resistance in yeast and pathogenic fungal species such as Candida albicans. Remarkably, sequence homologs of Rtt109 are absent in humans. Therefore, inhibitors of Rtt109 are hypothesized as potential and minimally toxic antifungal agents. Herein, we report the development and optimization of a cell-free fluorometric high-throughput screen (HTS for small-molecule inhibitors of Rtt109-catalyzed histone acetylation. The KAT component of the assay consists of the yeast Rtt109-Vps75 complex, while the histone substrate complex consists of full-length Drosophila histone H3-H4 bound to yeast Asf1. Duplicated assay runs of the LOPAC demonstrated day-to-day and plate-to-plate reproducibility. Approximately 225,000 compounds were assayed in a 384-well plate format with an average Z' factor of 0.71. Based on a 3σ cut-off criterion, 1,587 actives (0.7% were identified in the primary screen. The assay method is capable of identifying previously reported KAT inhibitors such as garcinol. We also observed several prominent active classes of pan-assay interference compounds such as Mannich bases, catechols and p-hydroxyarylsulfonamides. The majority of the primary active compounds showed assay signal interference, though most assay artifacts can be efficiently removed by a series of straightforward counter-screens and orthogonal assays. Post-HTS triage demonstrated a comparatively small number of confirmed actives with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. This assay, which utilizes five label-free proteins involved in H3K56 acetylation in vivo, can in principle identify compounds that inhibit Rtt109-catalyzed H3K56 acetylation via different mechanisms. Compounds discovered via this assay or adaptations thereof could

  8. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  9. Treatment for unstable pulmonary sequestration injury in patient with severe blunt trauma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Sakiko; Okada, Yohei; Arai, Yusuke; Ishii, Wataru; Iiduka, Ryoji

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital malformation characterized by nonfunctioning tissue not communicating with the tracheobronchial tree. As the blood pressure in the artery feeding the sequestrated lung tissue is higher than that in the normal pulmonary artery, the risk of massive hemorrhage in pulmonary sequestration is high. We herein present the first case of a severe blunt trauma patient with unstable pulmonary sequestration injury. The mechanism of pulmonary sequestration injury is vastly different than that of injury to normal lung. We suggest that proximal feeding artery embolization should be performed before surgical intervention in patients with massive hemorrhage of pulmonary sequestration due to severe chest trauma.

  10. Pulmonary sequestration: diagnosis with three dimensional reconstruction using spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Yongkang; Zhao Shaohong; Cai Zulong; Yang Li; Zhao Hong; Zhang Ailian; Huang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of three dimensional (3D) reconstruction using spiral CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration. Methods: Ten patients with pulmonary sequestration were analyzed. The diagnoses were confirmed by angiography in 2 patients, by operation in 2 patients, and by CT angiography in 6 patients. All patients were examined with Philips SR 7000 or GE Lightspeed Plus scanner. CT images were transferred to a workstation and 3D reconstruction was performed. All images were reviewed and analyzed by two radiologists. Results: Among 10 patients, the pulmonary sequestration was in the right lower lobe in 1 patient and in the left lower lobe in 9 patients. Anomalous systemic arteries originated from thoracic aorta in 8 patients and from celiac artery in 2 patients. On plain CT scan, there were 4 patients with patchy opacities, 3 patients with hilar mass accompanying vascular engorgement and profusion in adjacent parenchyma, 2 patients with finger-like appendage surrounded by hyper-inflated lung, and 1 patient with lung mass-like lesion. Enhanced CT revealed anomalous systemic arteries in 9 patients and drainage vein in 7 patients. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and curvilinear reconstruction could depict the abnormal systemic artery and drainage vein in sequestration. Surface shadow display (SSD) and volume rendering (VR) could delineate the anomalous systemic artery. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction with enhanced spiral CT can depict anomalous systemic artery and drainage vein and it is the first method of choice in diagnosing pulmonary sequestration

  11. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. [Seagrass ecosystems: contributions to and mechanisms of carbon sequestration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guang-Long; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Li, Zong-Shan; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The ocean's vegetated habitats, in particular seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, each capture and store a comparable amount of carbon per year, forming the Earth's blue carbon sinks, the most intense carbon sinks on the planet. Seagrass meadows, characterized by high primary productivity, efficient water column filtration and sediment stability, have a pronounced capacity for carbon sequestration. This is enhanced by low decomposition rates in anaerobic seagrass sediments. The carbon captured by seagrass meadows contributes significantly to the total blue carbon. At a global scale, seagrass ecosystems are carbon sink hot spots and have profound influences on the global carbon cycle. This importance combined with the many other functions of seagrass meadows places them among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, seagrasses are declining globally at an alarming rate owing to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, making them also among the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. The role of coastal systems in carbon sequestration has received far too little attention and thus there are still many uncertainties in evaluating carbon sequestration of global seagrass meadows accurately. To better assess the carbon sequestration of global seagrass ecosystems, a number of scientific issues should be considered with high priorities: 1) more accurate measurements of seagrass coverage at national and global levels; 2) more comprehensive research into species- and location-specific carbon sequestration efficiencies; 3) in-depth exploration of the effects of human disturbance and global climate change on carbon capture and storage by seagrass ecosystems.

  13. Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowles, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Most policy and much research concerning the application of biomass to reduce global warming gas emissions has concentrated either on increasing the Earth's reservoir of biomass or on substituting biomass for fossil fuels, with or without CO 2 sequestration. Suggested approaches entail varied risks of impermanence, delay, high costs, and unknowable side-effects. An under-researched alternative approach is to extract from biomass black (elemental) carbon, which can be permanently sequestered as mineral geomass and may be relatively advantageous in terms of those risks. This paper reviews salient features of black carbon sequestration and uses a high-level quantitative model to compare the approach with the alternative use of biomass to displace fossil fuels. Black carbon has been demonstrated to produce significant benefits when sequestered in agricultural soil, apparently without bad side-effects. Black carbon sequestration appears to be more efficient in general than energy generation, in terms of atmospheric carbon saved per unit of biomass; an exception is where biomass can efficiently displace coal-fired generation. Black carbon sequestration can reasonably be expected to be relatively quick and cheap to apply due to its short value chain and known technology. However, the model is sensitive to several input variables, whose values depend heavily on local conditions. Because characteristics of black carbon sequestration are only known from limited geographical contexts, its worldwide potential will not be known without multiple streams of research, replicated in other contexts. (author)

  14. Naked eye and smartphone applicable detection of toxic mercury ions using fluorescent carbon nanodots

    OpenAIRE

    BAÇ, BURCU; GENÇ, RÜKAN

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan passivated carbon nanodots (C-Dots$_{CHIT})$ were synthesized from expired molasses via a simple and green thermal synthesis procedure. As-synthesized C-Dots were nitrogen-doped (NC-Dots$_{CHIT})$ by posttreatment with liquid ammonia and used as nanoprobes for fluorometric detection of mercury ions (Hg(II)$_{aq.})$. Fluorescence response of NC-Dots$_{CHIT}$ in the presence of mercury was evaluated and compared with that of the polyethylene glycol passivated C-Dots$_{PEG}$. This sensi...

  15. Pulmonary sequestrations of the upper lobe in children: Three presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Bernard, C.; Didier, F.; Bretagne, M.C.; Gautry, P.; Olive, D.; Prevot, J.; Pernot, C.; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy; Hopital des Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestrations are congenital abnormalities where nonfunctioning lung tissue receives its vascular supply from the systemic circulation (thoracic or abdominal aorta). It is necessary to establish the diagnosis in childhood when the lesions are uncomplicated. The authors present three cases of sequestration of the apex (2 extralobar and 1 atypical) with the main clinical and radiological features. Sequestrations in the upper lobe are rare, and the usual site is the left lower lobe. Plain X-rays show a dense opacity, sometimes with an air-fluid level: angiography is currently the best mean for definitive diagnosis; however, computed tomography will probably be very useful in the future. Differential diagnosis includes tumours of the superior mediastinum (neurogenic tumours, digestive duplication, bronchogenic cysts, pheochromocytoma and hydatid cysts). (orig.) [de

  16. Micromotor-Based Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Towards Mobile Microscrubbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Murat; Singh, Virendra V; Kaufmann, Kevin; Uygun, Deniz A; de Oliveira, Severina D S; Wang, Joseph

    2015-10-26

    We describe a mobile CO2 scrubbing platform that offers a greatly accelerated biomimetic sequestration based on a self-propelled carbonic anhydrase (CA) functionalized micromotor. The CO2 hydration capability of CA is coupled with the rapid movement of catalytic micromotors, and along with the corresponding fluid dynamics, results in a highly efficient mobile CO2 scrubbing microsystem. The continuous movement of CA and enhanced mass transport of the CO2 substrate lead to significant improvements in the sequestration efficiency and speed over stationary immobilized or free CA platforms. This system is a promising approach to rapid and enhanced CO2 sequestration platforms for addressing growing concerns over the buildup of greenhouse gas. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  18. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  19. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Durrant, Marie [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  20. Environmental Externalities of Geological Carbon Sequestration Effects on Energy Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-03-01

    Geological carbon sequestration seems one of the promising options to address, in the near term, the global problem of climate change, since carbon sequestration technologies are in principle available today and their costs are expected to be affordable. Whereas extensive technological and economic feasibility studies rightly point out the large potential of this 'clean fossil fuel' option, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the detrimental environmental externalities that the sequestering of CO2 underground could entail. This paper assesses what the relevance might be of including these external effects in long-term energy planning and scenario analyses. Our main conclusion is that, while these effects are generally likely to be relatively small, carbon sequestration externalities do matter and influence the nature of future world energy supply and consumption. More importantly, since geological carbon storage (depending on the method employed) may in some cases have substantial external impacts, in terms of both environmental damage and health risks, it is recommended that extensive studies are performed to quantify these effects. This article addresses three main questions: (1) What may energy supply look like if one accounts for large-scale CO2 sequestration in the construction of long-term energy and climate change scenarios; (2) Suppose one hypothesizes a quantification of the external environmental costs of CO2 sequestration, how do then these supposed costs affect the evolution of the energy system during the 21st century; (3) Does it matter for these scenarios whether carbon sequestration damage costs are charged directly to consumers or, instead, to electricity producers?

  1. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Hasselquist, Niles J; Bach, Lisbet H; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    It is proposed that carbon (C) sequestration in response to reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition in boreal forests accounts for a large portion of the terrestrial sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While studies have helped clarify the magnitude by which Nr deposition enhances C sequestration by forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of long-term experimental studies evaluating how soil C pools respond. We conducted a long-term experiment, maintained since 1996, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden to understand how atmospheric Nr deposition affects soil C accumulation, soil microbial communities, and soil respiration. We hypothesized that soil C sequestration will increase, and soil microbial biomass and soil respiration will decrease, with disproportionately large changes expected compared to low levels of N addition. Our data showed that the low N addition treatment caused a non-significant increase in the organic horizon C pool of ~15% and a significant increase of ~30% in response to the high N treatment relative to the control. The relationship between C sequestration and N addition in the organic horizon was linear, with a slope of 10 kg C kg(-1) N. We also found a concomitant decrease in total microbial and fungal biomasses and a ~11% reduction in soil respiration in response to the high N treatment. Our data complement previous data from the same study system describing aboveground C sequestration, indicating a total ecosystem sequestration rate of 26 kg C kg(-1) N. These estimates are far lower than suggested by some previous modeling studies, and thus will help improve and validate current modeling efforts aimed at separating the effect of multiple global change factors on the C balance of the boreal region. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Development and validation of a testing protocol for carbon sequestration using a controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Carbon footprints, carbon credits and associated carbon sequestration techniques are rapidly becoming part : of how environmental mitigation business is conducted, not only in Texas but globally. Terrestrial carbon : sequestration is the general term...

  3. CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.K.

    2002-01-31

    ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.

  4. Fluorometric Analysis of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Yue; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of fluorometry in an experiment where the fluorescence of riboflavin is specifically quenched when titrated with riboflavin-binding protein. The amount of riboflavin, required by all organisms, in an unknown solution and the dissociation constant of the vitamin-protein complex can be determined using this method. (KR)

  5. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA [monitoring, verification, and accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  6. 75 FR 75059 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide AGENCY... greenhouse gas monitoring and reporting from facilities that conduct geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide...

  7. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of the Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop... Fossil Energy-Carbon Sequestration Program will be holding a joint workshop on Common Research Themes for...-- http://www.geothermal.energy.gov . DATES: The Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint...

  8. Fluorometric titration approach for calibration of quantity of binding site of purified monoclonal antibody recognizing epitope/hapten nonfluorescent at 340 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolan; Hu, Xiaolei; Xu, Bangtian; Wang, Xin; Qin, Jialin; He, Chenxiong; Xie, Yanling; Li, Yuanli; Liu, Lin; Liao, Fei

    2014-06-17

    A fluorometric titration approach was proposed for the calibration of the quantity of monoclonal antibody (mcAb) via the quench of fluorescence of tryptophan residues. It applied to purified mcAbs recognizing tryptophan-deficient epitopes, haptens nonfluorescent at 340 nm under the excitation at 280 nm, or fluorescent haptens bearing excitation valleys nearby 280 nm and excitation peaks nearby 340 nm to serve as Förster-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) acceptors of tryptophan. Titration probes were epitopes/haptens themselves or conjugates of nonfluorescent haptens or tryptophan-deficient epitopes with FRET acceptors of tryptophan. Under the excitation at 280 nm, titration curves were recorded as fluorescence specific for the FRET acceptors or for mcAbs at 340 nm. To quantify the binding site of a mcAb, a universal model considering both static and dynamic quench by either type of probes was proposed for fitting to the titration curve. This was easy for fitting to fluorescence specific for the FRET acceptors but encountered nonconvergence for fitting to fluorescence of mcAbs at 340 nm. As a solution, (a) the maximum of the absolute values of first-order derivatives of a titration curve as fluorescence at 340 nm was estimated from the best-fit model for a probe level of zero, and (b) molar quantity of the binding site of the mcAb was estimated via consecutive fitting to the same titration curve by utilizing such a maximum as an approximate of the slope for linear response of fluorescence at 340 nm to quantities of the mcAb. This fluorometric titration approach was proved effective with one mcAb for six-histidine and another for penicillin G.

  9. Quantification of the sequestration of indium 111 labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.; Picard, N.; Dufour, V.; Rain, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method is proposed for an accurate quantification of the splenic and/or hepatic sequestration of the 111 In-labelled platelets. It could be allow a better prediction of the efficiency of splenectomy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura [fr

  10. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  11. The effect of soil fauna on carbon sequestration in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Pižl, Václav; Kaneda, Satoshi; Šimek, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2008) ISSN 1029-7006. [EGU General Assembly 2008. 13.04.2008-18.04.2008, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil fauna * carbon sequestration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration : An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  13. Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration in the newborn - a congenital malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin, S.; Haegerstrand, I.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Intralobar sequestration (ILS) has been suggested to be an acquired lesion. However, we have observed several young infants who had ILS. Objectives. Since this fact seems to indicate a congenital origin, we reviewed our experience. Material and methods. A retrospective review of bronchopulmonary sequestration from the Departments of Radiology and Pathology in Lund between 1964 and 1997. Results. We identified seven infants or young children with a diagnosis of intralobar sequestration. In each patient, the ILS was present before recurrent infection developed. Five had chest X-rays as neonates, one at 3 months and one at 11 months of age. All but one showed an abnormality on their first chest X-ray, consistent with sequestration. Six of the ILS were verified at angiography; all seven were surgically removed. Two of the children with ILS also had congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). Three children had both ILS and scimitar syndrome. Conclusions. The fact that ILS was present in seven newborn and young infants indicates that this lesion is, at least in some patients, a congenital malformation. (orig.)

  14. Pulmonary sequestration with histologic changes of cystic adenomatoid malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, C.; Filiatrault, D.; Russo, P.

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) are two infrequent congenital pulmonary diseases. The combination of these two entities is rare. We report a case where the antenatal ultrasonography showed a left pulmonary mass suggesting CCAM. The US done after birth revealed an aberrant vascularisation. Pathologic examination confirmed the association of both lesions. (orig.)

  15. Cost Evaluation of CO2 Sequestration by Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a

  16. Metal ion sequestration: An exciting dimension for molecularly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of a tight binding macrocyclic ligand to complex a metal ion so that this serves as receptee on the Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) receptor as described here affords a sequestration route for a targeted metal ion, with potential for environmental remediation and restoration applications. Ethylene glycol ...

  17. Mayamontana coccolobae (Basidiomycota), a new sequestrate taxon from Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; James M. Trappe; D. Jean Lodge

    2007-01-01

    A new semi-hypogeous, sequestrate genus and species in the Basidiomycota is described from the Maya Mountains of Belize, where it was fruiting in association with Coccoloba belizensis. Mayamontana coccolobae is characterized by small, bright orange basidiomata with a friable, loculate, red-orange to red gleba and bilaterally...

  18. Climate change and carbon sequestration opportunities on national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Deal

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation globally accounts for about 20 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. One of the major forestry challenges in the United States is reducing the loss of forest land from development. Foresters have a critical role to play in forest management and carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and forestry can be part of the solution. A recent...

  19. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  20. Using Biomass to Improve Site Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce J. Stokes; Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The future demands on forest lands are a concern because of reduced productivity, especially on inherently poor sites, sites with long-depleted soils, or those soils that bear repeated, intensive short rotations. Forests are also an important carbon sink and, when well managed, can make even more significant contributions to sequestration and to reduction of greenhouse...

  1. Diagnosis of arterial sequestration using multidetector CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: lihuiminphd@163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Background: Arterial sequestration is a rare congenital disorder. The diagnostic evaluation of this condition using multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) has not been described previously. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristic features of this disorder and to assess the use of MDCT in visualizing the characteristic anatomic features. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of seven patients with anomalous systemic blood supply to left lower lobe of the lung. All the patients had undergone MDCT angiography. To evaluate the lung parenchyma, bronchial branching pattern, and vascular anatomy, four series of images were systematically reconstructed as follows: contiguous transverse CT scans viewed at mediastinal and pulmonary window settings, oblique coronal and sagittal maximum intensity projections (MIP), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), and three-dimensional volume-rendered images (VR) of airway and thoracic vascular structures. Results: All 7 cases had isolated and tortuous arterial anatomy from the descending thoracic aorta to the basal segment of the left lower lobe; however, variable distribution of branches was observed. Characteristic findings of anomalous systemic arterial (ASA) supply were distinct from those seen in other pulmonary sequestration syndromes and were well visualized by the use of noninvasive MDCT. Conclusion: Complex CT findings allow clear imaging of arterial sequestration and the ASA blood supply; MDCT angiography has demonstrated its value and accuracy in diagnosing this condition, obviating the use of digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for the diagnosis of arterial sequestration.

  2. Diagnosis of arterial sequestration using multidetector CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Background: Arterial sequestration is a rare congenital disorder. The diagnostic evaluation of this condition using multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) has not been described previously. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristic features of this disorder and to assess the use of MDCT in visualizing the characteristic anatomic features. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of seven patients with anomalous systemic blood supply to left lower lobe of the lung. All the patients had undergone MDCT angiography. To evaluate the lung parenchyma, bronchial branching pattern, and vascular anatomy, four series of images were systematically reconstructed as follows: contiguous transverse CT scans viewed at mediastinal and pulmonary window settings, oblique coronal and sagittal maximum intensity projections (MIP), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), and three-dimensional volume-rendered images (VR) of airway and thoracic vascular structures. Results: All 7 cases had isolated and tortuous arterial anatomy from the descending thoracic aorta to the basal segment of the left lower lobe; however, variable distribution of branches was observed. Characteristic findings of anomalous systemic arterial (ASA) supply were distinct from those seen in other pulmonary sequestration syndromes and were well visualized by the use of noninvasive MDCT. Conclusion: Complex CT findings allow clear imaging of arterial sequestration and the ASA blood supply; MDCT angiography has demonstrated its value and accuracy in diagnosing this condition, obviating the use of digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for the diagnosis of arterial sequestration.

  3. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  5. Carbon sequestration potential for forage and pasture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland soils represent a large reservoir of organic and inorganic carbon. Regionally, grasslands are annual CO2 sources or sinks depending on crop and soil management, current soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and climate. Land management changes (LMC) impact SOC sequestration rate, the du...

  6. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: science for enhancement and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred M. Post; James E. Amonette; Richard Birdsey; Charles T. Jr. Garten; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Philip Jardine; Julie Jastrow; Rattan Lal; Gregg. Marland

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can...

  7. La foret classee d'Atakpame: diversite, typologie, sequestration de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the woodlands diversity in Atakpamé classified forest (FCA) of Togo and their potential carbon sequestration. The FCA, an important production source of diversified products and very useful for riparian populations survival is weakened. FCA is subject to various anthropogenic pressures that affect ...

  8. Microbial Contribution to Organic Carbon Sequestration in Mineral Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil productivity and sustainability are dependent on soil organic matter (SOM). Our understanding on how organic inputs to soil from microbial processes become converted to SOM is still limited. This study aims to understand how microbes affect carbon (C) sequestration and the formation of recalcit...

  9. ESTIMATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY RUSSIAN FORESTS: GEOSPATIAL ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Malysheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Сategories of carbon sequestration assessment for Russian forests are identified by GIS toolkit. Those are uniform by bioclimatic and site-specific conditions strata corresponding to modern version of bioclimatic forest district division. Stratification of forests at early stage substantially reduces the ambiguity of the evaluation because phytomass conversion sequestration capacity and expansion factor dependent on site-specific condition for calculating of forest carbon sink are absolutely necessary. Forest management units were linked to strata. Biomass conversion and expansion factor for forest carbon sink assessment linked to the strata were recalculated for forest management units. All operations were carried out with GIS analytical toolkit due to accessible functionalities. Units for forest carbon storage inventory and forest carbon balance calculation were localized. Production capacity parameters and forest carbon sequestration capacity have been visualized on maps complied by ArcGIS. Based on spatially-explicit information, we have found out that the greatest annual rates of forest’s carbon accumulation in Russian forests fall into mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of European-Ural part of Russia to Kaliningrad, Smolensk and Briansk Regions, coniferous-deciduous forests close to the boundary of Khabarovsk Region and Primorskij Kray in the Far East, as well as separate forest management units of Kabardino-Balkariya NorthCaucasian mountain area. The geospatial visualization of carbon sequestration by Russian forests and carbon balance assessment has been given.

  10. Regulating forest rotation to increase CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, P.; Kristroem, B.

    1999-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the optimal forest rotation age increases considerably if the benefits of CO{sub 2} sequestration are included in rotation decisions. While these studies provide some guidelines for managing public forests, private forest owners may not choose the socially optimal rotation age. This paper discusses a regulation measure to increase CO{sub 2} sequestration in privately owned forests. The regulation problem is treated as a sequential game, where the regulator chooses a subsidy scheme and forest owners respond by changing rotation ages. A private forest owner receives a subsidy at the time of harvesting if he/she changes the rotation age towards the socially optimal one. The subsidy is proportional to the associated change in timber yield. The forest owner`s objective is to maximize the net present value of after-tax timber production profits and subsidies. The regulator`s decision problem is to find the subsidy rate that maximizes the net benefits of implementing the policy (the net of increased CO{sub 2} sequestration benefits, subsidy costs, and changes in forestry taxation income). Empirical results for Swedish examples show that the optimal subsidy rate is sensitive to the marginal benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the social discount rate, and site quality. The optimal subsidy rate is found to be significantly lower than the marginal benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration. With the proposed subsidy scheme, private forest owners will choose rotation ages longer than the Faustmann rotation, but significantly shorter than the socially optimal rotation age 21 refs, 6 tabs. Arbetsrapport 272

  11. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO 2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO 2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO 2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO 2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2 absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  13. Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shengke; Xie, Ruohan; Wang, Haixin; Hu, Yan; Hou, Dandi; Liao, Xingcheng; Brown, Patrick H.; Yang, Hongxia; Lin, Xianyong; Labavitch, John M.; Lu, Lingli

    2017-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.

  14. Expression of Anion Exchanger 1 Sequestrates p16 in the Cytoplasm in Gastric, Colonic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Shen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available p16INK4A (p16 binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, negatively regulates cell growth. Recent studies have led to an understanding of additional biologic functions for p16; however, the detailed mechanisms involved are still elusive. In this article, we show an unexpected expression of anion exchanger 1 (AEi in the cytoplasm in poorly, moderately differentiated gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma cells, in its interaction with p16, thereby sequestrating the protein in the cytoplasm. Genetic alterations of p16, AEi were not detectable. Forced expression of AEi in these cells sequestrated more p16 in the cytoplasm, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of AEi in the cells induced the release of p16 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, leading to cell death, growth inhibition of tumor cells. By analyzing tissue samples obtained from patients with gastric, colonic cancers, we found that 83.33% of gastric cancers, 56.52% of colonic cancers coexpressed AEi, p16 in the cytoplasm. We conclude that AEi plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma, that p16 dysfunction is a novel pathway of carcinogenesis.

  15. Treatment for unstable pulmonary sequestration injury in patient with severe blunt trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko Hiraki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case: Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital malformation characterized by nonfunctioning tissue not communicating with the tracheobronchial tree. As the blood pressure in the artery feeding the sequestrated lung tissue is higher than that in the normal pulmonary artery, the risk of massive hemorrhage in pulmonary sequestration is high. We herein present the first case of a severe blunt trauma patient with unstable pulmonary sequestration injury. Outcome and conclusion: The mechanism of pulmonary sequestration injury is vastly different than that of injury to normal lung. We suggest that proximal feeding artery embolization should be performed before surgical intervention in patients with massive hemorrhage of pulmonary sequestration due to severe chest trauma. Keywords: Blunt trauma, Coil embolization, Massive hemorrhage, Pulmonary sequestration

  16. Absence of erythrocyte sequestration and lack of multicopy gene family expression in Plasmodium falciparum from a splenectomized malaria patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bachmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To avoid spleen-dependent killing mechanisms parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE of Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients have the capacity to bind to endothelial receptors. This binding also known as sequestration, is mediated by parasite proteins, which are targeted to the erythrocyte surface. Candidate proteins are those encoded by P. falciparum multicopy gene families, such as var, rif, stevor or PfMC-2TM. However, a direct in vivo proof of IE sequestration and expression of multicopy gene families is still lacking. Here, we report on the analysis of IE from a black African immigrant, who received the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder and subsequently underwent splenectomy. Three weeks after surgery, the patient experienced clinical falciparum malaria with high parasitemia and circulating developmental parasite stages usually sequestered to the vascular endothelium such as late trophozoites, schizonts or immature gametocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, when isolated from the patient, the infected erythrocytes were incapable to bind to various endothelial receptors in vitro. Moreover, the parasites failed to express the multicopy gene families var, A-type rif and stevor but expression of B-type rif and PfMC-2TM genes were detected. In the course of in vitro cultivation, the parasites started to express all investigated multicopy gene families and concomitantly developed the ability to adhere to endothelial receptors such as CD36 and ICAM-1, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This case strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite surface proteins such as PfEMP1, A-type RIFIN or STEVOR are involved in interactions of infected erythrocytes with endothelial receptors mediating sequestration of mature asexual and immature sexual stages of P. falciparum. In contrast, multicopy gene families coding for B-type RIFIN and PfMC-2TM proteins may not be involved in sequestration, as these genes were

  17. Red cell survival and sequestration in acute intermittent porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawalkha, P.L.; Soni, S.G.; Agrawal, V.K.; Misra, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Life span and sequestration of red cells have been studied in twenty one proved cases of acute intermittent porphyria of different age and sex group from Bikaner District, Rajasthan State (India). Chromium-51 labelled red cells were used in the study and the excess count method of Bughe Jones and Szur was used to calculate the index of sequestration. The mean apparent half survival time of erythrocytes in the control subjects was 25.9 +- 2.9 (S.D.) days and the same in the prophyria patients was 27.0 +- 3.8 days. This shows that the life span of red cells is normal in both the patient and the control. Excess destruction of red blood cells was found to take place in either spleen or liver in the disease and no excess accumulation of erythrocytes occurred over spleen as compared to liver. (M.G.B.)

  18. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  19. Trace metal mobilization in an experimental carbon sequestration scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Virginia [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Kaszuba, John [University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY. 82070 (United States); Univeristy of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources, Larmaie, WY. 82070 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. Hydrothermal experiments investigate the release of harmful metals from two zones of a sequestration injection reservoir: at the cap-rock-reservoir boundary and deeper within the reservoir, away from the cap-rock. In both systems, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn behave in a similar manner, increasing in concentration with injection, but subsequently decreasing in concentration over time. SEM images and geochemical models indicate initial dissolution of minerals and precipitation of Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates, metal sulfides (i.e. Fe, As, Ag, and Co sulfides), and anhydrite in both systems. The results suggest that Ba, Cu, and Zn will not be contaminants of concern, but Pb, Fe, and As may require careful attention. (authors)

  20. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in VIT University campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, A. Mary; SteffySelcia, S.; Devi, Keerthana

    2017-11-01

    The present study addresses carbon storage and sequestration by trees grown in VIT University campus, Vellore. Approximately twenty trees were selected from Woodstockarea. The above ground biomass and below ground biomass were calculated. The above ground biomass includes non-destructive anddestructive sampling. The Non-destructive method includes the measurement of height of thetree and diameter of the tree. The height of the tree is calculated using Total Station instrument and diameter is calculated using measuring tape. In the destructive method the weight of samples (leaves) and sub-samples (fruits, flowers) of the tree were considered. To calculate the belowground biomass soil samples are taken and analyzed. The results obtained were used to predict the carbon storage. It was found that out of twenty tree samples Millingtonia hortensis which is commonly known as Cork tree possess maximum carbon storage (14.342kg/tree) and carbon sequestration (52.583kg/tree) respectively.

  1. Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum - the way forward for CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The June 2003 issue of Ecoal briefly outlined events at the inaugural meeting of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) held in Northern Virginia, USA between 23 and 25 June. This featured details on the CSLF Charter, the structure of the Forum, and specific coal industry recommendations to the CSLF. This report provides a more detailed account of issues covered at and arising from the meeting. 2 figs.

  2. The value of carbon sequestration and storage in coastal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in coastal margin habitats. Changes in UK coastal habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of coastal habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If coastal habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capacity of the coastal habitats both to sequester and store CO2 will be significantly reduced, with a reduction in value of around £0.25 billion UK sterling (2000-2060; 3.5% discount rate). If loss-trends due to sea level rise or land reclamation worsen, this loss in value will be greater. This case study provides valuable site specific information, but also highlights global issues regarding the quantification and valuation of carbon sequestration and storage. Whilst our ability to value ecosystem services is improving, considerable uncertainty remains. If such ecosystem valuations are to be incorporated with confidence into national and global policy and legislative frameworks, it is necessary to address this uncertainty. Recommendations to achieve this are outlined.

  3. Biochar for soil fertility and natural carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Rutherford, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Biochar is charcoal (similar to chars generated by forest fires) that is made for incorporation into soils to increase soil fertility while providing natural carbon sequestration. The incorporation of biochar into soils can preserve and enrich soils and also slow the rate at which climate change is affecting our planet. Studies on biochar, such as those cited by this report, are applicable to both fire science and soil science.

  4. Technological learning for carbon capture and sequestration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, Keywan; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.; Schrattenholzer, Leo; Hounshell, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes potentials of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCT) in a set of long-term energy-economic-environmental scenarios based on alternative assumptions for technological progress of CCT. In order to get a reasonable guide to future technological progress in managing CO 2 emissions, we review past experience in controlling sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from power plants. By doing so, we quantify a 'learning curve' for CCT, which describes the relationship between the improvement of costs due to accumulation of experience in CCT construction. We incorporate the learning curve into the energy-modeling framework MESSAGE-MACRO and develop greenhouse gas emissions scenarios of economic, demographic, and energy demand development, where alternative policy cases lead to the stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) by the end of the 21st century. We quantify three types of contributors to the carbon emissions mitigation: (1) demand reductions due to the increased price of energy, (2) fuel switching primarily away from coal, and (3) carbon capture and sequestration from fossil fuels. Due to the assumed technological learning, costs of the emissions reduction for CCT drop rapidly and in parallel with the massive introduction of CCT on the global scale. Compared to scenarios based on static cost assumptions for CCT, the contribution of carbon sequestration is about 50% higher in the case of learning, resulting in cumulative sequestration of CO 2 ranging from 150 to 250 billion (10 9 ) tons with carbon during the 21st century. Also, carbon values (tax) across scenarios (to meet the 550 ppmv carbon concentration constraint) are between 2% and 10% lower in the case of learning for CCT by 2100. The results illustrate that assumptions on technological change are a critical determinant of future characteristics of the energy system, indicating the importance of long-term technology policies in

  5. Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration: A case and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar U

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital abnormality of the lower respiratory tract, seen mostly in children but often in adults. The term implies a mass of lung tissue that has no function and lacks normal communication with the rest of the tracheobronchial tree. Case: A 40-year-old man presented with acute onset of left flank pain for 4 hours. He was born in Yemen and emigrated to the US in 1998; at that time, he had been tested for tuberculosis which was negative. In this admission, he met systemic inflammatory response (SIRS criteria and had basilar crackles in the left lower lobe of the lung. CT scan revealed a cavitary lesion with air-fluid level in the left lower lobe airspace. There was systemic arterial blood supply to this region arising off the celiac axis. He was diagnosed with an infected intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration and underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection. On follow up 3 months later, he was doing well. Discussion: Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly of a mass of lung tissue, which can have cystic changes and is a very important differential diagnosis of cavities in the lung. Confirmation of diagnosis is by visualization of a systemic vessel supplying sequestrated pulmonary, and this is accomplished by contrast-enhanced CT scan, MRI or invasive angiography. Conclusion: The delay in diagnosis in our patient was due to falling prey to anchoring and availability biases and chasing the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a patient from Yemen with a lower lobe cavitation.

  6. Molecular and Metabolic Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Marine Thrombolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of my dissertation project has been to examine the molecular processes underlying carbon sequestration in lithifying microbial ecosystems, known as thrombolitic mats, and assess their feasibility for use in bioregenerative life support systems. The results of my research and education efforts funded by the Graduate Student Researchers Program can be summarized in four peer-reviewed research publication, one educational publication, two papers in preparation, and six research presentations at local and national science meetings (see below for specific details).

  7. Potential Hydrogeomechanical Impacts of Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, B. J.; Haerer, D.; Han, W.; Heath, J.; Morse, J.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term sequestration of anthropogenic "greenhouse gases" such as CO2 is a proposed approach to managing climate change. Deep brine reservoirs in sedimentary basins are possible sites for sequestration, given their ubiquitous nature. We used a mathematical sedimentary basin model, including coupling of multiphase CO2-groundwater flow and rock deformation, to evaluate residence times in possible brine reservoir storage sites, migration patterns and rates away from such sites, and effects of CO2 injection on fluid pressures and rock strain. Study areas include the Uinta and Paradox basins of Utah, the San Juan basin of New Mexico, and the Permian basin of west Texas. Regional-scale hydrologic and mechanical properties, including the presence of fracture zones, were calibrated using laboratory and field data. Our initial results suggest that, in general, long-term (~100 years or more) sequestration in deep brine reservoirs is possible, if guided by robust structural and hydrologic data. However, specific processes must be addressed to characterize and minimize risks. In addition to CO2 migration from target sequestration reservoirs into other reservoirs or to the land surface, another environmental issue is displacement of brines into freshwater aquifers. We evaluated the potential for such unintended aquifer contamination by displacement of brines out of adjacent sealing layers such as marine shales. Results suggest that sustained injection of CO2 may incur significant brine displacement out of adjacent sealing layers, depending on the injection history, initial brine composition, and hydrologic properties of both reservoirs and seals. Model simulations also suggest that as injection-induced overpressures migrate, effective stresses may follow this migration under some conditions, as will associated rock strain. Such "strain migration" may lead to induced or reactivated fractures or faults, but can be controlled through reservoir engineering.

  8. Environmental non-government organizations' perceptions of geologic sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha; Farrell, Alexander E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been influential in shaping public perceptions of environmental problems, their causes and potential solutions. Over the last decade, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a potentially important technological response to climate change. In this paper we investigate how leading US NGOs perceive geologic sequestration, a potentially controversial part of CCS. We examine how and why their perceptions and strategies might differ, and if and how they plan to shape public perceptions of geologic sequestration. We approach these questions through semi-structured interviews with representatives from a range of NGOs, supplemented by content analysis of their documents. We find that while all the NGOs are committed to combating climate change, their views on CCS as a mitigation strategy vary considerably. We find that these views are correlated with NGOs' histories of activism and advocacy, as well as with their sources of funding. Overall, most of these NGOs accept the necessity of geologic sequestration, while only a small fraction do not

  9. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  10. CT imaging of splenic sequestration in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, S.; Piomelli, S.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Berdon, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    Pooling of blood in the spleen is a frequent occurrence in children with sickle cell diseases, particularly in the first few years of life, resulting in what is termed ''splenic sequestration crisis.'' The spectrum of severity in this syndrome is wide, ranging from mild splenomegaly to massive enlargement, circulatory collapse, and even death. The diagnosis is usually clinical, based on the enlargement of the spleen with a drop in hemoglobin level by >2 g/dl, and it is rare that imaging studies are ordered. However, in the patient who presents to the emergency department with non-specific findings of an acute abdomen, it is important to recognize the appearance of sequestration on imaging studies. We studied seven patients utilizing contrast-enhanced CT scans and found two distinct patterns - multiple, peripheral, non-enhancing low-density areas or large, diffuse areas of low density in the majority of the splenic tissue. Although radiological imaging is not always necessary to diagnose splenic sequestration, in those situations where this diagnosis is not immediately obvious, it makes an important clarifying contribution. (orig.)

  11. Community perceptions of carbon sequestration: insights from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, many energy experts have supported carbon sequestration as a viable technological response to climate change. Given the potential importance of sequestration in US energy policy, what might explain the views of communities that may be directly impacted by the siting of this technology? To answer this question, we conducted focus groups in two communities who were potentially pilot project sites for California's DOE-funded West Coast Regional Partnership (WESTCARB). We find that communities want a voice in defining the risks to be mitigated as well as the justice of the procedures by which the technology is implemented. We argue that a community's sense of empowerment is key to understanding its range of carbon sequestration opinions, where 'empowerment' includes the ability to mitigate community-defined risks of the technology. This sense of empowerment protects the community against the downside risk of government or corporate neglect, a risk that is rarely identified in risk assessments but that should be factored into assessment and communication strategies.

  12. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of arterial sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the characteristic features on MSCT angiography of arterial sequestration. Methods: The MSCT images of 5 patients with arterial sequestration were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MSCT contrast-enhanced angiography. 3D rendering was made to evaluate the lung parenchyma, bronchial system, and vascular anatomy. Results: All 5 cases demonstrated the anomalous systemic artery (ASA) as an isolated and tortuous artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta, taking a sigmoid course and running along with airway, entering the basal segments of the left lowed lobe. The inferior pulmonary vein (IPV) was significantly engorged. The typical AS was diagnosed in 4 patients. Its ASA intercrossed with the IPV and two branches entering segments 7 and 8 over the IPV, and two branches entering segments 9 and 10 under the IPV. The volume of involved lung shrunk with the artery markedly engorged. A characteristic avascular section was found between the pulmonary artery supplying area and the ASA supplying area, and the bronchi did not accompany the arteries. One was diagnosed atypical AS because of coexistence with bronchial atresia. Conclusion: The arterial sequestration had characteristic MSCT findings. The typical type can be definitely diagnosed, but the atypical type needs further three-dimensional analysis. (authors)

  14. Mesoscale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Letellier, Bruce C; Pasqualini, Donatella; Pawar, Rajesh J; Wolfsberg, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    We explore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) at the meso-scale, a level of study between regional carbon accounting and highly detailed reservoir models for individual sites. We develop an approach to CO(2) sequestration site screening for industries or energy development policies that involves identification of appropriate sequestration basin, analysis of geologic formations, definition of surface sites, design of infrastructure, and analysis of CO(2) transport and storage costs. Our case study involves carbon management for potential oil shale development in the Piceance-Uinta Basin, CO and UT. This study uses new capabilities of the CO(2)-PENS model for site screening, including reservoir capacity, injectivity, and cost calculations for simple reservoirs at multiple sites. We couple this with a model of optimized source-sink-network infrastructure (SimCCS) to design pipeline networks and minimize CCS cost for a given industry or region. The CLEAR(uff) dynamical assessment model calculates the CO(2) source term for various oil production levels. Nine sites in a 13,300 km(2) area have the capacity to store 6.5 GtCO(2), corresponding to shale-oil production of 1.3 Mbbl/day for 50 years (about 1/4 of U.S. crude oil production). Our results highlight the complex, nonlinear relationship between the spatial deployment of CCS infrastructure and the oil-shale production rate.

  15. Biophysical risks to carbon sequestration and storage in Australian drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Rachael H; Sinclair, Jennifer; Eldridge, David J; Ramp, Daniel

    2018-02-15

    Carbon abatement schemes that reduce land clearing and promote revegetation are now an important component of climate change policy globally. There is considerable potential for these schemes to operate in drylands which are spatially extensive. However, projects in these environments risk failure through unplanned release of stored carbon to the atmosphere. In this review, we identify factors that may adversely affect the success of vegetation-based carbon abatement projects in dryland ecosystems, evaluate their likelihood of occurrence, and estimate the potential consequences for carbon storage and sequestration. We also evaluate management strategies to reduce risks posed to these carbon abatement projects. Identified risks were primarily disturbances, including unplanned fire, drought, and grazing. Revegetation projects also risk recruitment failure, thereby failing to reach projected rates of sequestration. Many of these risks are dependent on rainfall, which is highly variable in drylands and susceptible to further variation under climate change. Resprouting vegetation is likely to be less vulnerable to disturbance and have faster recovery rates upon release from disturbance. We conclude that there is a strong impetus for identifying management strategies and risk reduction mechanisms for carbon abatement projects. Risk mitigation would be enhanced by effective co-ordination of mitigation strategies at scales larger than individual abatement project boundaries, and by implementing risk assessment throughout project planning and implementation stages. Reduction of risk is vital for maximising carbon sequestration of individual projects and for reducing barriers to the establishment of new projects entering the market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  17. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, Erhun; Gunalay, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost–benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO 2 . Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: ► Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. ► It moderates the problem of global warming. ► It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. ► This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  18. CO2 sequestration using principles of shell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jang, Young-Nam [CO2 Sequestration Research Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Hyun; Lim, Kyoung-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Kwan [Energy Conservation Research Department of Clean Energy System Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The biomimetic sequestration of carbon dioxide to reduce the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere is introduced in this paper. Bivalve shells are used as a good model of CO2 sequestration in this paper, because the shell is derived from the calcium ions and CO2 in seawater. Carbonic anhydrase, hemocyte from diseased shell (HDS) and extrapallial fluid (EFP) are involved in shell formation. This paper compares the soluble protein extracted from Crassostrea gigas with bovine carbonic anhydrase II in terms of their ability to promote CO2 hydration and the production of calcium precipitates. The result demonstrates that HDS has more functional groups to bind calcium ions in aqueous systems, and a different process of calcium precipitation, than does bovine carbonic anhydrase II. To understand molecular weight and secondary protein structure, mass-spectroscopic analysis (MALDI-TOF) and circular dichroism (CD) analysis were used. With regard to EPF, EPF related to shell formation is composed of several fractions and plays a role in sequestration of CO2.

  19. Global patterns of aboveground carbon stock and sequestration in mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO C.D. ESTRADA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1 and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1 showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area. On the global scale, carbon stock increases toward the equator (R²=0.22 and is dependent on 13 climatic parameters, which can be integrated in the following predictive equation: Carbon Stock in AGB = -16.342 + (8.341 x Isothermality + (0.021 x Annual Precipitation [R²=0.34; p < 0.05]. It was shown that almost 70% of carbon stock variability is explained by age. Carbon stock and sequestration also vary according to physiographic types, indicating the importance of hydroperiod and edaphic parameters to the local variability of carbon stock. By demonstrating the contribution of local and regional-global factors to carbon stock, this study provides information to the forecast of the effects of future climate changes and local anthropogenic forcings on this ecosystem service.

  20. In-Situ MVA of CO2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D. [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Capability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a long period of time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak, in a timely manner, in order to implement proper remediation activities. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2 . This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered as the basis for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. PDGs were installed, and therefore were considered in the numerical model, at the injection well and an observation well. Upon completion of the history matching process, high frequency pressure data from PDGs were generated using the history matched numerical model using different CO2 leakage scenarios. Since pressure signal behaviors were too complicated to de-convolute using any existing mathematical formulations, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced for this purpose. An Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS) was developed as the result of this effort using the machine learning and pattern recognition technologies. The ILDS

  1. Mycorrhizae Alter Toxin Sequestration and Performance of Two Specialist Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Meier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multitrophic species interactions are shaped by both top-down and bottom-up factors. Belowground symbionts of plants, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, can alter the strength of these forces by altering plant phenotype. For example, AMF-mediated changes in foliar toxin and nutrient concentrations may influence herbivore growth and fecundity. In addition, many specialist herbivores sequester toxins from their host plants to resist natural enemies, and the extent of sequestration varies with host plant secondary chemistry. Therefore, by altering plant phenotype, AMF may affect both herbivore performance and their resistance to natural enemies. We examined how inoculation of plants with AMF influences toxin sequestration and performance of two specialist herbivores feeding upon four milkweed species (Asclepias incarnata, A. curassavica, A. latifolia, A. syriaca. We raised aphids (Aphis nerii and caterpillars (Danaus plexippus on plants for 6 days in a fully factorial manipulation of milkweed species and level of AMF inoculation (zero, medium, and high. We then assessed aphid and caterpillar sequestration of toxins (cardenolides and performance, and measured defensive and nutritive traits of control plants. Aphids and caterpillars sequestered higher concentrations of cardenolides from plants inoculated with AMF across all milkweed species. Aphid per capita growth rates and aphid body mass varied non-linearly with increasing AMF inoculum availability; across all milkweed species, aphids had the lowest performance under medium levels of AMF availability and highest performance under high AMF availability. In contrast, caterpillar survival varied strongly with AMF availability in a plant species-specific manner, and caterpillar growth was unaffected by AMF. Inoculation with AMF increased foliar cardenolide concentrations consistently among milkweed species, but altered aboveground biomasses and foliar phosphorous concentrations in a plant

  2. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  3. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  4. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  5. Prediction of individual patient response to chemotherapy by the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) using drug specific cut-off limits and a Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1993-01-01

    The semiautomated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein in microtiter plates, has been used for determination of cytotoxic drug resistance of tumor cells from patients with hematological and solid tumors. In the present study we describe a calibration procedure based on statistically derived cut-off limits and assay-predicted response probabilities using Bayes' theorem. Test results at a specified drug concentration were divided into three categories: low, intermediate or extreme drug resistance (LDR, IDR and EDR, respectively) using the median and median +1 standard deviation as the cut-off limits. When correlated with clinical outcome, LDR samples showed a higher response rate than expected, IDR a lower and EDR samples no response at all. The sensitivity and specificity of the test, using the median as cut-off limit, were 0.92 and 0.69 respectively. By fitting these test characteristics to a statistical model based on Bayes' theorem it is possible to calculate response probabilities for each individual patient taking into consideration not only the test characteristics and the particular assay result, but also the clinical and patient specific characteristics influencing the pre-test probability of response. EDR predicts clinical drug resistance with high specificity and is also observed in tumor types with high response rate.

  6. Feasibility of the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Kristensen, J; Jonsson, B; Sundström, C; Lönnerholm, G; Kreuger, A; Larsson, R

    1992-11-01

    The automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was used for chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity testing of fresh and cryopreserved tumor cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis and relapse. The technique success rate was 87% for fresh and 81% for cryopreserved samples. Up to 16 different cytotoxic drugs were routinely tested, but neither asparaginase nor methotrexate produced dose-response related cell kill. FMCA data showed good correlation to the well established Disc assay and the drug sensitivity reported by the FMCA was in good agreement with known clinical activity. Samples from children and initial ALL tended to be more drug sensitive than those from adults and ALL at relapse, respectively. For 36 samples clinical outcome was correlated to the quartile position in comparison to all other samples for the most in vitro active drug actually given to the patient. For patients with samples in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles, the probabilities of complete remission were 89, 57, 38, and 0%, respectively. Using the median value as cut-off line, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 87 and 62%, respectively. It is concluded that the FMCA with a minimum of effort and with high success rate report clinically relevant drug sensitivity profiles for ALL.

  7. In vitro drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Hagberg, H; Glimelius, B; Sundström, C; Kristensen, J; Christiansen, I; Larsson, R

    1994-01-01

    Tumor cell drug sensitivity is an important determinant of chemotherapy response. Its measurement in vitro would aid in therapy individualization and new drug development. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on production by viable cells of fluorescent fluorescein after 3 days of culture, was used for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of 73 samples of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The technical success rate was 92%, and FMCA data showed good correlation to the Disc assay. NHL samples were considerably more drug sensitive than were samples from in vivo resistant tumors. There was no obvious difference in drug sensitivity for high- vs. low-grade or untreated vs. previously treated low-grade NHL. For 26 patients, clinical outcome was correlated to in vitro response giving a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 48%, respectively. Cross-resistance between standard drugs was frequent in vitro. Resistance modulators potentiated the effect of vincristine and doxorubicin in 10-29% of the samples, most frequently from previously treated patients. The FMCA seems to report clinically relevant drug sensitivity data for NHL, and thus it could serve as a tool for optimization of chemotherapy in the future.

  8. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.14.18.1) in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present

  9. Treatment of Pulmonary Sequestrations by Means of Endovascular Embolization: Future or Fashion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Diks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare malformation of the lower respiratory tract. Several methods of treatment have been described since the first publication. We present two cases of female adult patients with bronchopulmonary sequestration. In the first patient an unsuccessful attempt to treat the bronchopulmonary sequestration by means of arterial embolization is described. She was subsequently treated by means of surgical resection, which was the primary treatment for the second patient. Although endovascular techniques are becoming promising, in our opinion surgical resection remains the unique treatment for bronchopulmonary sequestration.

  10. Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers and formations: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration in geologic media is one among many emerging strategies to reduce atmospheric emissions of anthropogenic CO2. This chapter looks at the potential of deep saline aquifers – based on their capacity and close proximity to large point sources of CO2 – as repositories for the geologic sequestration of CO2. The petrochemical characteristics which impact on the suitability of saline aquifers for CO2 sequestration and the role of coupled geochemical transport models and numerical tools in evaluating site feasibility are also examined. The full-scale commercial CO2 sequestration project at Sleipner is described together with ongoing pilot and demonstration projects.

  11. ANALYSIS OF URBAN FOREST CARBON SEQUESTRATION CAPACITY: A CASE STUDY OF ZENGDU, SUIZHOU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing is an important content of forest ecosystem serving in city. Analysis of forest ecosystem carbon sequestration capacity can provide scientific reference for urban forest management strategies. Taking Zengdu of Suizhou as an example, CITYGREEN model was applied to calculate the carbon sequestration benefits of urban forest ecosystem in this paper. And the carbon sequestration potential of urban forest ecosystem following the returning of farmland to forest land is also evaluated. The results show that forest area, percent tree cover, and the structure of forest land were the major factors reflecting regional carbon sequestration capacity.

  12. Carbon Sequestration and Forest Management at DoD Installations: An Exploratory Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barker, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    .... The primary purpose of this report is to explore the influence of management practices such as tree harvesting, deforestation, and reforestation on carbon sequestration potential by DOD forests...

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    In the face of the environmental challenges presented by the acceleration of global warming, carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, may provide a vital option to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, while meeting the world's energy demands. To operate on a global scale, carbon sequestration would require thousands of geologic repositories that could accommodate billions of tons of carbon dioxide per year. In order to reach such capacity, various types of geologic reservoirs should be considered, including unconventional reservoirs such as volcanic rocks, fractured formations, and moderate-permeability aquifers. Unconventional reservoirs, however, are characterized by complex pore structure, high heterogeneity, and intricate feedbacks between physical, chemical and mechanical processes, and their capacity to securely store carbon emissions needs to be confirmed. In this dissertation, I present my contribution toward the understanding of geophysical, geochemical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of continental basalts and fractured sedimentary formations in the context of their carbon storage capacity. The data come from two characterization projects, in the Columbia River Flood Basalt in Washington and the Newark Rift Basin in New York, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration. My work focuses on in situ analysis using borehole geophysical measurements that allow for detailed characterization of formation properties on the reservoir scale and under nearly unaltered subsurface conditions. The immobilization of injected CO2 by mineralization in basaltic rocks offers a critical advantage over sedimentary reservoirs for long-term CO2 storage. Continental flood basalts, such as the Columbia River Basalt Group, possess a suitable structure for CO2 storage, with extensive reservoirs in the interflow zones separated by massive impermeable

  14. Surface monitoring of microseismicity at the Decatur, Illinois, CO2 sequestration demonstration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, Joern; Hickman, Stephen H.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2015-01-01

    provides an adequate event detection threshold. The formation targeted for injection is the Mount Simon Sandstone, which is laterally extensive, has high porosity and permeability and has the potential to host future CCS projects due to its favorable hydrologic characteristics and proximity to industrial sources of CO2 (Birkholzer and Zhou, 2009). At Decatur, CO2, a byproduct of ethanol production at the Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) facility, is compressed to supercritical state and injected at 2.1 km depth into the 460 m thick Mount Simon Sandstone. This sandstone has varying properties, ranging from the lower, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone with high permeability and porosity, to the middle and upper Mount Simon, which consist of planar, cross-bedded layers of varied permeability and porosity (Leetaru and Freiburg, 2014). The changes in permeability and porosity within the Mount Simon Sandstone, due to depositional and diagenetic differences, create horizontal baffles, which inhibit vertical flow and restrict the injected CO2 to remain near the injection horizon (Bowen et al., 2011). The lowest portion of the Mount Simon Sandstone overlying the Precambrian rhyolite basement is the Pre-Mount Simon interval, generally  carbon dioxide was injected at a rate of ∼1000 metric tons per day until November 2014 (Finley et al., 2011, 2013). ADM manages the Illinois Industrial CCS (ICCS) project, which will inject ∼3000 metric tons/day into a second injection well starting in the summer of 2015. The USGS began monitoring microseismicity with a 13- station seismic network at Decatur in July 2013 (Fig. 1). This network provides good detection capabilities and azimuthal (focal sphere) coverage for microseismicity with moment magnitudes (Mw) above about −0:5. Here, we report on 19 months of microseismicity monitoring at the Decatur CO2 sequestration site, which permits a detailed look at the evolution and character of injection-induced seismicity.

  15. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  16. Carbon sequestration in sinks. An overview of potential and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H.

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the resumed climate negotiations in Bonn in July this year, it was thought that an agreement on the unresolved crunch issues of the Kyoto Protocol was unrealistic. This was primarily due to the US withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, and the failure of the previous climate negotiations that stranded mainly because of disagreement on the inclusion of land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) activities. The LULUCF issue is controversial in the climate negotiations, but an agreement has now been reached. This paper explores the possible contribution of LULUCF activities in promoting greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A survey on the literature of the potential and cost of LULUCF activities is therefore central. Analysis of the recent climate negotiations is also important. It is clear that the potential for carbon sequestration is large, but there are large variations in the estimates as factors such as land availability and the rate of carbon uptake complicate the calculations. There are also variations in the costs estimates, and economic analysis of LULUCF projects are not easily compared as no standard method of analysis has emerged and come into wide use. Despite the difficulties in comparing the costs of carbon sequestration, it is clear that it is a relatively inexpensive measure. Even though the potential for carbon sequestration is large, its role in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is limited by the Kyoto Protocol. The recent climate negotiations in Bonn and Marrakesh have specified the modalities, rules and guidelines relating to LULUCF activities. One of the main outcomes is that Japan, Canada and Russia are allowed large inclusions of sinks in their GHG emission accounts. (author)

  17. Carbon sequestration in sinks. An overview of potential and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolshus, Hans H.

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the resumed climate negotiations in Bonn in July this year, it was thought that an agreement on the unresolved crunch issues of the Kyoto Protocol was unrealistic. This was primarily due to the US withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, and the failure of the previous climate negotiations that stranded mainly because of disagreement on the inclusion of land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) activities. The LULUCF issue is controversial in the climate negotiations, but an agreement has now been reached. This paper explores the possible contribution of LULUCF activities in promoting greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A survey on the literature of the potential and cost of LULUCF activities is therefore central. Analysis of the recent climate negotiations is also important. It is clear that the potential for carbon sequestration is large, but there are large variations in the estimates as factors such as land availability and the rate of carbon uptake complicate the calculations. There are also variations in the costs estimates, and economic analysis of LULUCF projects are not easily compared as no standard method of analysis has emerged and come into wide use. Despite the difficulties in comparing the costs of carbon sequestration, it is clear that it is a relatively inexpensive measure. Even though the potential for carbon sequestration is large, its role in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is limited by the Kyoto Protocol. The recent climate negotiations in Bonn and Marrakesh have specified the modalities, rules and guidelines relating to LULUCF activities. One of the main outcomes is that Japan, Canada and Russia are allowed large inclusions of sinks in their GHG emission accounts. (author)

  18. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2005-12-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar pressure, 100C, and a particle size of <38 μm. The two must important factors determining the reaction rare are particle size (<2 mm to <38 μm) and reaction temperature (25-225C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step, The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zona during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism

  19. Reaction mechanisms for enhancing carbon dioxide mineral sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Karalee Ann

    Increasing global temperature resulting from the increased release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is one of the greatest problems facing society. Nevertheless, coal plants remain the largest source of electrical energy and carbon dioxide gas. For this reason, researchers are searching for methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere from the combustion of coal. Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide reacted in electrolyte solutions at 185°C and 2200 psi with olivine (magnesium silicate) has been shown to produce environmentally benign carbonates. However, to make this method feasible for industrial applications, the reaction rate needs to be increased. Two methods were employed to increase the rate of mineral sequestration: reactant composition and concentration were altered independently in various runs. The products were analyzed with complete combustion for total carbon content. Crystalline phases in the product were analyzed with Debye-Scherrer X-ray powder diffraction. To understand the reaction mechanism, single crystals of San Carlos Olivine were reacted in two solutions: (0.64 M NaHCO3/1 M NaCl) and (5.5 M KHCO3) and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to study the surface morphology, atomic crystalline structure, composition and amorphous structure. From solution chemistry studies, it was found that increasing the activity of the bicarbonate ion increased the conversion rate of carbon dioxide to magnesite. The fastest conversion, 60% conversion in one hour, occurred in a solution of 5.5 M KHCO3. The reaction product particles, magnesium carbonate, significantly increased in both number density and size on the coupon when the bicarbonate ion activity was increased. During some experiments reaction vessel corrosion also altered the mineral sequestration mechanism. Nickel ions from vessel

  20. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  1. Summary Report on CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadharajan, C.; Birkholzer, J.; Kraemer, S.; Porse, S.; Carroll, S.; Wilkin, R.; Maxwell, R.; Bachu, S.; Havorka, S.; Daley, T.; Digiulio, D.; Carey, W.; Strasizar, B.; Huerta, N.; Gasda, S.; Crow, W.

    2012-02-15

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) jointly hosted a workshop on “CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration and Water Resources” in Berkeley, June 1–2, 2011. The focus of the workshop was to evaluate R&D needs related to geological storage of CO{sub 2} and potential impacts on water resources. The objectives were to assess the current status of R&D, to identify key knowledge gaps, and to define specific research areas with relevance to EPA’s mission. About 70 experts from EPA, the DOE National Laboratories, industry, and academia came to Berkeley for two days of intensive discussions. Participants were split into four breakout session groups organized around the following themes: Water Quality and Impact Assessment/Risk Prediction; Modeling and Mapping of Area of Potential Impact; Monitoring and Mitigation; Wells as Leakage Pathways. In each breakout group, participants identified and addressed several key science issues. All groups developed lists of specific research needs; some groups prioritized them, others developed short-term vs. long-term recommendations for research directions. Several crosscutting issues came up. Most participants agreed that the risk of CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration sites that are properly selected and monitored is expected to be low. However, it also became clear that more work needs to be done to be able to predict and detect potential environmental impacts of CO{sub 2} storage in cases where the storage formation may not provide for perfect containment and leakage of CO{sub 2}–brine might occur.

  2. Highly selective and sensitive macrocycle-based dinuclear foldamer for fluorometric and colorimetric sensing of citrate in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhaman, Md Mhahabubur; Hasan, Mohammad H; Alamgir, Azmain; Xu, Lihua; Powell, Douglas R; Wong, Bryan M; Tandon, Ritesh; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2018-01-10

    The selective detection of citrate anions is essential for various biological functions in living systems. A quantitative assessment of citrate is required for the diagnosis of various diseases in the human body; however, it is extremely challenging to develop efficient fluorescence and color-detecting molecular probes for sensing citrate in water. Herein, we report a macrocycle-based dinuclear foldamer (1) assembled with eosin Y (EY) that has been studied for anion binding by fluorescence and colorimetric techniques in water at neutral pH. Results from the fluorescence titrations reveal that the 1·EY ensemble strongly binds citrate anions, showing remarkable selectivity over a wide range of inorganic and carboxylate anions. The addition of citrate anions to the 1·EY adduct led to a large fluorescence enhancement, displaying a detectable color change under both visible and UV light in water up to 2 μmol. The biocompatibility of 1·EY as an intracellular carrier in a biological system was evaluated on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HF) cells, showing an excellent cell viability. The strong binding properties of the ensemble allow it to be used as a highly sensitive, detective probe for biologically relevant citrate anions in various applications.

  3. Methods and apparatus for measuring small leaks from carbon dioxide sequestration facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jr., David D.; Herndon, Scott C.

    2018-01-02

    In one embodiment, a CO.sub.2 leak detection instrument detects leaks from a site (e.g., a CO.sub.2 sequestration facility) using rapid concentration measurements of CO.sub.2, O.sub.2 and optionally water concentration that are achieved, for example, using laser spectroscopy (e.g. direct absorption laser spectroscopy). Water vapor in the sample gas may not be removed, or only partially removed. The sample gas may be collected using a multiplexed inlet assembly from a plurality of locations. CO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 concentrations may be corrected based on the water concentration. A resulting dataset of the CO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 concentrations is analyzed over time intervals to detect any changes in CO.sub.2 concentration that are not anti-correlated with O.sub.2 concentration, and to identify a potential CO.sub.2 leak in response thereto. The analysis may include determining eddy covariance flux measurements of sub-surface potential carbon.

  4. CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND PLANT COMMUNITY DYNAMICS FOLLOWING REFORESTATION OF TROPICAL PASTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHENDEE L. SILVER; LARA M. KUEPPERS; ARIEL E. LUGO; REBECCA OSTERTAG; VIRGINIA MATZEK

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of abandoned cattle pastures to secondary forests and plantations in the tropics has been proposed as a means to increase rates of carbon (C) sequestration from the atmosphere and enhance local biodiversity. We used a long-term tropical reforestation project (55–61 yr) to estimate rates of above- and belowground C sequestration and to investigate the impact...

  5. Carbon sequestration in the U.S. forest sector from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Woodbury; James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory data supplemented with data from intensive research sites and models were used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration rates in U.S. forests, including effects of land use change. Data on the production of wood products and emission from decomposition were used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration rates in wood products and landfills. From...

  6. Assessing net carbon sequestration on urban and community forests of northern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Mark J. Ducey; Linda S. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Urban and community forests play an important role in the overall carbon budget of the USA. Accurately quantifying carbon sequestration by these forests can provide insight for strategic planning to mitigate greenhouse gas effects on climate change. This study provides a new methodology to estimate net forest carbon sequestration (FCS) in urban and community lands of...

  7. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  8. Yield and soil carbon sequestration in grazed pastures sown with two or five forage species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing plant species richness is often associated with an increase in productivity and associated ecosystem services such as soil C sequestration. In this paper we report on a nine-year experiment to evaluate the relative forage production and C sequestration potential of grazed pastures sown to...

  9. Soil carbon sequestration potential in semi-arid grasslands in the conservation reserve program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the USA plays a major role in carbon (C) sequestration to help mitigate rising CO2 levels and climate change. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region contains N900.000 ha enrolled in CRP, but a regionally specific C sequestration rate has not been studied, and...

  10. Options for accounting carbon sequestration in German forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim; Koehl, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Bormann, Kristin; Rueter, Sebastian; Elsasser, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background The Accra climate change talks held from 21–27 August 2008 in Accra, Ghana, were part of an ongoing series of meetings leading up to the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. During the meeting a set of options for accounting carbon sequestration in forestry on a post-2012 framework was presented. The options include gross-net and net-net accounting and approaches for establishing baselines. Results This article demonstrates the embedded consequences of Accra Accounting Options for the case study of German national GHG accounting. It presents the most current assessment of sequestration rates by forest management for the period 1990 – 2007, provides an outlook of future emissions and removals (up to the year 2042) as related to three different management scenarios, and shows that implementation of some Accra options may reverse sources to sinks, or sinks to sources. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the importance of elaborating an accounting system that would prioritize the climate convention goals, not national preferences. PMID:19650896

  11. The biodiversity cost of carbon sequestration in tropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rodolfo C R; Hoffmann, William A; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Pilon, Natashi A; Rossatto, Davi R; Durigan, Giselda

    2017-08-01

    Tropical savannas have been increasingly viewed as an opportunity for carbon sequestration through fire suppression and afforestation, but insufficient attention has been given to the consequences for biodiversity. To evaluate the biodiversity costs of increasing carbon sequestration, we quantified changes in ecosystem carbon stocks and the associated changes in communities of plants and ants resulting from fire suppression in savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. Fire suppression resulted in increased carbon stocks of 1.2 Mg ha -1 year -1 since 1986 but was associated with acute species loss. In sites fully encroached by forest, plant species richness declined by 27%, and ant richness declined by 35%. Richness of savanna specialists, the species most at risk of local extinction due to forest encroachment, declined by 67% for plants and 86% for ants. This loss highlights the important role of fire in maintaining biodiversity in tropical savannas, a role that is not reflected in current policies of fire suppression throughout the Brazilian Cerrado. In tropical grasslands and savannas throughout the tropics, carbon mitigation programs that promote forest cover cannot be assumed to provide net benefits for conservation.

  12. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (???20-35%) and SOM (???65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  13. Offsetting China's CO2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was about 1 Pg/yr, which may surpass that of the U.S. (1.84 Pg C) by 2020. Terrestrial C pool of China comprises about 35 to 60 Pg in the forest and 120 to 186 Pg in soils. Soil degradation is a major issue affecting 145 Mha by different degradative processes, of which 126 Mha are prone to accelerated soil erosion. Similar to world soils, agricultural soils of China have also lost 30 to 50% or more of the antecedent soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Some of the depleted SOC pool can be re-sequestered through restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices. The latter include conversion of upland crops to multiple cropping and rice paddies, adoption of integrated nutrient management (INM) strategies, incorporation of cover crops in the rotations cycle and adoption of conservation-effective systems including conservation tillage. A crude estimated potential of soil C sequestration in China is 119 to 226 Tg C/y of SOC and 7 to 138 Tg C/y for soil inorganic carbon (SIC) up to 50 years. The total potential of soil C sequestration is about 12 Pg, and this potential can offset about 25% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in China

  14. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-04-16

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1) and 4.5 × 10(8)kg CO2 y(-1), respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 10(9) kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths.

  15. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-06-11

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  16. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  17. Sequestration of carbon dioxide and production of biomolecules using cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendar, Ganta; Singh, Sunita; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu; Chandra Ghanta, Kartik; Dutta, Susmita; Dutta, Abhishek

    2018-07-15

    A cyanobacterial strain, Synechococcus sp. NIT18, has been applied to sequester CO 2 using sodium carbonate as inorganic carbon source due to its efficiency of CO 2 bioconversion and high biomass production. The biomass obtained is used for the extraction of biomolecules - protein, carbohydrate and lipid. The main objective of the study is to maximize the biomass and biomolecules production with CO 2 sequestration using cyanobacterial strain cultivated under different concentrations of CO 2 (5-20%), pH (7-11) and inoculum size (5-12.5%) within a statistical framework. Maximum sequestration of CO 2 and maximum productivities of protein, carbohydrate and lipid are 71.02%, 4.9 mg/L/day, 6.7 mg/L/day and 1.6 mg/L/day respectively, at initial CO 2 concentration: 10%, pH: 9 and inoculum size: 12.5%. Since flue gas contains 10-15% CO 2 and the present strain is able to sequester CO 2 in this range, the strain could be considered as a useful tool for CO 2 mitigation for greener world. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid separation and identification of the subtypes of swine and equine influenza A viruses by electromigration techniques with UV and fluorometric detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Kubíček, O.; Kubesová, Anna; Rosenbergová, K.; Kubíčková, Z.; Šlais, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 14 (2011), s. 3010-3015 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : influenza viruses * capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) * capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.230, year: 2011

  19. G quadruplex-based FRET probes with the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) sequence designed for the efficient fluorometric detection of the potassium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoishi, Satoru; Nojima, Takahiko; Galezowska, Elzbieta; Juskowiak, Bernard; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2006-11-01

    The dual-labeled oligonucleotide derivative, FAT-0, carrying 6- carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) labels at the 5' and 3' termini of the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) sequence 5'-GGT TGG TGT GGT TGG-3', and its derivatives, FAT-n (n=3, 5, and 7) with a spacer at the 5'-end of a TBA sequence of T(m)A (m=2, 4, and 6) have been designed and synthesized. These fluorescent probes were developed for monitoring K(+) concentrations in living organisms. Circular dichroism, UV-visible absorption, and fluorescence studies revealed that all FAT-n probes could form intramolecular tetraplex structures after binding K(+). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and quenching results are discussed taking into account dye-dye contact interactions. The relationship between the fluorescence behavior of the probes and the spacer length in FAT-n was studied in detail and is discussed.

  20. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R Pierce

    Full Text Available Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02 and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2 = 0.99, ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  1. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S; Crawford, Erin L; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6) actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  2. Ocean carbon sequestration by fertilization: An integrated bioeochemical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, N.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gnandesikan, A.

    2005-05-31

    Under this grant, the authors investigated a range of issues associated with the proposal to fertilize the ocean with nutrients (such as iron) in order to increase the export of organic matter from the ocean's near surface waters and consequently increase the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are several critical scientific questions that have the potential to be make-or-break issues for this proposed carbon sequestration mechanism: (1) If iron is added to the ocean, will export of organic carbon from the surface actually occur? Clearly, if no export occurs, then there will be no sequestration. (2) if iron fertilization does lead to export of organic carbon from the surface of the ocean, how much CO{sub 2} will actually be removed from the atmosphere? Even if carbon is removed from the surface of the ocean, this does not guarantee that there will be significant removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, since the CO{sub 2} may be supplied by a realignment of dissolved inorganic carbon within the ocean. (3) What is the time scale of any sequestration that occurs? If sequestered CO{sub 2} returns to the atmosphere on a relatively short time scale, iron fertilization will not contribute significantly to slowing the growth of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (4) Can the magnitude of sequestration be verified? If verification is extremely difficult or impossible, this option is likely to be viewed less favorably. (5) What unintended consequences might there be from fertilizing the ocean with iron? If these are severe enough, they will be a significant impact on policy decisions. Most research on carbon sequestration by fertilization has focused on the first of these issues. Although a number of in situ fertilization experiments have successfully demonstrated that the addition of iron leads to a dramatic increase in ocean productivity, the question of whether this results in enhanced export remains an open one. The primary focus of the research was on the

  3. Investigating hydrogen peroxide in rainwater of a typical midsized city in tropical Brazil using a novel application of a fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramboni, C.; Crispim, C. P.; Toledo, J. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the effect of public policies related to vehicle emissions on the lower tropospheric concentrations of H2O2 in a typical midsized city in tropical Brazil. The concentrations of H2O2, SO42-, and NO3- in rainwater samples were determined from 2014 to 2017 in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto in São Paulo State. A fluorometric method, based on the formation of a highly fluorescent product (2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescein, DCF), was adapted and optimized for the measurement of H2O2 in natural water samples including seawater. The method was highly specific, accurate and sensitive (LOD = 2 nmol L-1). Its main advantage compared to others, was that the fluorophore remained stable for at least 48 h, offering a longer time interval in which to perform the analysis and therefore facilitating fieldwork. Concentrations of H2O2 in rainwater ranged from 5.8 to 96 μmol L-1, with VWM of 28.6 ± 1.4 μmol L-1 (n = 77). Solar radiation appeared to have a greater impact on production than on consumption of H2O2. The annual VWM concentrations of H2O2 in rainwater were negatively correlated with sulfate (at pH important factors affecting the concentration of H2O2 in the atmosphere. This work expands the current records available for the Southern Hemisphere, where there is a considerable paucity of information regarding temporal production and loss of atmospheric H2O2.

  4. Fluorometric determination of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) by solvent extraction of the ternary complex composed of metal ion, 8-hydroxy-5-quinolinesulfonic acid, and methyltrioctylammonium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yukihiro; Kataoka, Masamitsu; Kambara, Tomihito

    1982-01-01

    A fluorometric micro determination of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) using the formation of metal-8-hydroxy-5-quinolinesulfonic acid-capriquat (methyltrioctylammonium) ternary complex is described. These complexes are easily extracted into chloroform phase and the extract emits a strong fluorescence. Spectra of aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) ternary complexes have the excitation maximum at 396 nm and 400 nm, and emission maximum at 501 nm and 524 nm, respectively. Fluorescence intensity of the aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) ternary complexes extracted into chloroform showed the constant and maximum values in the pH range of aqueous phase from 5.3 to 8.5 and 8.1 to 8.5, respectively. The calibration curves for aluminium (III) and cadmium (II) show good proportionality int the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.0 and 1.0 to 50.0 μg, respectively. The relative standard deviation observed with four measurements was found to be 1.8% for 0.5 μg of aluminium (III) and 1.1% for 10.0 μg of cadmium (II). The effect of diverse ions is studied and a 25-fold amount of Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) in weight gave errors, however, the interferences were easily eliminated by the addition of appropriate masking agent. In the determination of cadmium (II), an equal amount of Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Fe(III) and twice amount of Al(III) gave negative errors, however, the interference of Fe(III) and Al(III) were also eliminated as above. (author)

  5. Tailings and mineral carbonation : the potential for atmospheric CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, H.A. [Lorax Environmental Services Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, H.E. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering; Lee, C.A. [Dillon Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration includes geological storage, ocean storage, organic storage, and mineral storage (mineral carbonation). This presentation discussed tailings and mineral carbonation and the potential for atmospheric CO{sub 2} sequestration. In particular, it outlined CO{sub 2} sequestration and presented a history of investigations. The Ekati Diamond Mine was discussed with particular reference to its location, geology, and processing. Other topics that were presented included mineralogy; water chemistry; modeling results; and estimates of annual CO{sub 2} sequestration. Conclusions and implications were also presented. It was concluded that ore processing at mines with ultramafic host rocks have the potential to partially offset CO{sub 2} emissions. In addition, it was found that existing tailings at ultramafic deposits may be viable source materials for CO{sub 2} sequestration by mineral carbonation. tabs., figs.

  6. Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration with large aberrant vessel presenting as recurrent pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomani, A.Z.; Toori, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation of the lower respiratory tract comprising of a nonfunctioning lung tissue mass that lacks normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree. The diagnosis may be easily missed as many of the symptoms of bronchopulmonary sequestration overlap with that of other pulmonary diseases. Bronchopulmonary sequestration can be complicated by recurrent infections, hemorrhage and malignant transformation and, therefore, needs to be timely diagnosed and resected to decrease both morbidity and mortality. A high degree of suspicion in the differential diagnosis helps diagnose the positive cases. The parenchymal abnormalities associated with bronchopulmonary sequestration are best visualized using computed tomography, although their appearance is variable. We report the case of a 14 years old boy with intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration with the sole manifestation of recurrent pneumonias. (author)

  7. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration: review of six cases, including one bilateral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Pacheco, E.M. de; Cazerta, N.M.G.; Marins, J.L.C.; Prando, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration: review of six cases, including one bilateral. Pulmonary sequestration is an uncommon disorder consisting of aberrant pulmonary tissue that has no normal connection with the bronchial tree or with the pulmonary arteries, but is supplied by a systemic artery which usually arises from the aorta. Six cases of pulmonary sequestration are presented and the radiological manifestation of this rare congenital disorder are discussed. These sequestrations were intralobar/unilateral in four patients, extralobar/unilateral in one and extralobar/bilateral in the other patient. Special attention is given to the extremely uncommon bilateral sequestration. To our knowledge only four cases of this form of disease has been described in the literature. (author) [pt

  8. Simulating carbon sequestration using cellular automata and land use assessment for Karaj, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Ali; Pourebrahim, Sharareh; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin

    2018-06-01

    Carbon sequestration has been proposed as a means of slowing the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases. This study used observed and simulated land use/cover changes to investigate and predict carbon sequestration rates in the city of Karaj. Karaj, a metropolis of Iran, has undergone rapid population expansion and associated changes in recent years, and these changes make it suitable for use as a case study for rapidly expanding urban areas. In particular, high quality agricultural space, green space and gardens have rapidly transformed into industrial, residential and urban service areas. Five classes of land use/cover (residential, agricultural, rangeland, forest and barren areas) were considered in the study; vegetation and soil samples were taken from 20 randomly selected locations. The level of carbon sequestration was determined for the vegetation samples by calculating the amount of organic carbon present using the dry plant weight method, and for soil samples by using the method of Walkley and Black. For each area class, average values of carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil samples were calculated to give a carbon sequestration index. A cellular automata approach was used to simulate changes in the classes. Finally, the carbon sequestration indices were combined with simulation results to calculate changes in carbon sequestration for each class. It is predicted that, in the 15 year period from 2014 to 2029, much agricultural land will be transformed into residential land, resulting in a severe reduction in the level of carbon sequestration. Results from this study indicate that expansion of forest areas in urban counties would be an effective means of increasing the levels of carbon sequestration. Finally, future opportunities to include carbon sequestration into the simulation of land use/cover changes are outlined.

  9. Assessment of the colorimetric and fluorometric assays for alkaline phosphatase activity in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, V; Hill, Art; Warriner, K; Griffiths, M; Odumeru, J

    2008-09-01

    Raw milk is a well-established vehicle for the carriage of human pathogens, and many regulatory bodies have consequently mandated compulsory pasteurization as a food safety intervention. The residual activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has historically been used to verify the adequacy of pasteurization of cow's milk. However, there is uncertainty on how the current ALP standards and methods of analysis can be applied to sheep's and goat's milk, which naturally contain different levels of the enzyme than that found in cow's milk. The official ALP methods applied in Canada (colorimetric assay; MFO-3) and in the United States (Fluorophos) were assessed for their ability to detect enzyme activity in raw and pasteurized milk derived from cows, sheep, and goats. The detection limit and the limit of quantitation were 0.8 and 2.02 microg/ml phenol, respectively, for the MFO-3 method and 43 and 85 mU/liter, respectively, for the Fluorophos method. The average ALP levels in raw goat's, cow's, and sheep's milk were 165, 1,562, and 3,512 microg/ml phenol, respectively. Raw milk detection limits, which correspond to raw milk phosphatase levels, were 0.051, 0.485, and 0.023% in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, respectively, for the MFO-3 method and 0.007, 0.070, and 0.004%, respectively, for the Fluorophos method. Although both methods can be used for ALP determination in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, the Fluorophos assay was superior to the colorimetric MFO-3 method based on sensitivity and time required to complete the analysis.

  10. Anthropogenic Impacts on Biological Carbon Sequestration in the Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, N.

    2016-02-01

    The well-known biological mechanism for carbon sequestration in the ocean is the biological pump (BP) which is driven by primary production initially in the surface water and then dependent on particulate organic carbon sinking process in the water column. In contrast microbial carbon pump (MCP) depends on microbial transformation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to refractory DOC (RDOC).Although the BP and the MCP are distinct mechanisms, they are intertwined. Both mechanisms should be considered regarding maximum sequestration of carbon in the ocean. Recent studies have showed that excess nutrients could facilitate the uptake of DOC and enhance both bacterial production and respiration. Bacterial growth efficiency increases with increasing nitrogen concentration to certain levels and then decreases thereafter, while the remaining DOC in the water usually decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration, suggesting that excess nitrogen could simulate uptake of DOC in the environment and thus have negative impacts on the ocean DOC storage.This is somehow against the case of the BP which is known to increase with increasing availability of nutrients. Another responsible factor is the nature of algal products. If it is labile, the organic carbon cannot be preserved in the environment.On top of that, labile organic carbon has priming effects for river discharged semi-labile DOC for bacterial respiration.That is, labile organic matter will become the incubator for bacteria. While bacteria respire DOC into CO2, they consume oxygen, and finally result in hypoxia. Under anoxic condition, anaerobic bacteria successively work on the rest of the organic carbon and produce harmful gasses such as methane and H2S. Such story did have happened during geological events in the history of the earth. The above processes not only result in ecological disasters but also reduce the capacity of carbon sequestration in the ocean. To achieve maximum carbon sinks, both BP and MCP should

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Colorado's Lands: A Spatial and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, N.; Brazeau, A.; Browning, K.; Meier, R.

    2017-12-01

    Managing landscapes to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration has significant potential to mitigate climate change. While a previous carbon baseline assessment in Colorado has been published (Conant et al, 2007), our study pulls from the existing literature to conduct an updated baseline assessment of carbon stocks and a unique review of carbon policies in Colorado. Through a multi-level spatial analysis based in GIS and informed by a literature review, we established a carbon stock baseline and ran four land use and carbon stock projection scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. We identified 11 key policy recommendations for improving Colorado's carbon stocks, and evaluated each using Bardach's policy matrix approach (Bardach, 2012). We utilized a series of case studies to support our policy recommendations. We found that Colorado's lands have a carbon stock of 3,334 MMT CO2eq, with Forests and Woodlands holding the largest stocks, at 1,490 and 774 MMT CO2eq respectively. Avoided conversion of all Grasslands, Forests, and Wetlands in Colorado projected over 40 years would increase carbon stocks by 32 MMT CO2eq, 1,053 MMT CO2eq, and 36 MMT CO2eq, respectively. Over the 40-year study period, Forests and Woodlands areas are projected to shrink while Shrublands and Developed areas are projected to grow. Those projections suggest sizable increases in area of future wildfires and development in Colorado. We found that numerous policy opportunities to sequester carbon exist at different jurisdictional levels and across land cover types. The largest opportunities were found in state-level policies and policies impacting Forests, Grasslands, and Wetlands. The passage of statewide emission reduction legislation has the highest potential to impact carbon sequestration, although political and administrative feasibility of this option are relatively low. This study contributes to the broader field of carbon sequestration literature by examining the nexus of carbon stocks

  12. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data

  13. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also...... been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao......), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...

  14. Animals as an indicator of carbon sequestration and valuable landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szyszko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of the assessment of a landscape with the use of succession development stages, monitored with the value of the Mean Individual Biomass (MIB of carabid beetles and the occurrence of bird species are discussed on the basis of an example from Poland. Higher variability of the MIB value in space signifies a greater biodiversity. Apart from the variability of MIB, it is suggested to adopt the occurrence of the following animals as indicators, (in the order of importance, representing underlying valuable landscapes: black stork, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, wolf, crane and white stork. The higher number of these species and their greater density indicate a higher value of the landscape for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration. All these indicators may be useful to assess measures for sustainable land use.

  15. CO2 capture and sequestration: the association's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the opinion of the FNE (France Nature Environnement), a French association involved in the protection of the environment, about the idea of developing technologies enabling the capturing and sequestrating of carbon dioxide. It outlines that industries are considering such technologies as the adequate solution as they would allow a development of activities while limiting greenhouse gas releases. But the FNE has an opposite point of view; advantages and limitations of this technology are thus discussed (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions but with an increase of energy consumption, industrial hazards, mobilization of large financial resources). The principles under which such technologies could be used and financed in some specific situations and under precise conditions are then discussed. Notably, it stresses the importance of a limitation of public financing, of participation and communication, of judicial guarantees

  16. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, M.A. (Environmental Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Meganck, R.A. (United Nations Environment Programme for the Wider Caribbean, Kingston (Jamaica))

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO[sub 2] in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: Carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: Preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry. 89 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Fluid characterization for miscible EOR projects and CO2 sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2007-01-01

    Accurate performance prediction of miscible enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) projects or CO, sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs relies in part on the ability of an equation-of-state (EOS) model to adequately represent the properties of a wide range of mixtures of the resident fluid...... in the data reduction and demonstrate that for some gas/oil systems, swelling tests do not contribute to a more accurate prediction of multicontact miscibility. Finally, we report on the impact that use of EOS models based on different characterization procedures can have on recovery predictions from dynamic...... and the injected fluid(s). The mixtures that form when gas displaces oil in a porous medium will, in many cases, differ significantly from compositions created in swelling tests and other standard pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) experiments. Multicontact experiments (e.g., slimtube displacements) are often used...

  18. Carbon sequestration in a re-established wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Olsen, Jesper

    , it was brought back to its original meandering course (between Brobyværk and Lyndelse, 4.6 km of straight channel were remeandered to 6 km of natural channel with 16 meander bows) and 125 ha of wetlands were restored. One of the expected benefits of this operation is the increased sequestration of carbon...... does not yield the time of deposition, but rather indicate the source of the carbon. A complicating factor are reservoir ages of plants contributing to the sediment organic matter. Therefore, we also radiocarbon dated aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Surprisingly, not only aquatic, but also meadow...... plants such as soft rush, rough bluegrass and meadowsweet have considerable reservoir effects. CO2 from decaying vegetation seems to be an important carbon source for some meadow plants, mimicking a canopy effect in the open land....

  19. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Effect of bile acid sequestrants on glycaemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David Peick; Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk

    2012-01-01

    of hypercholesterolaemia: colestipol, cholestyramine and colesevelam. The BAS colestimide/colestilan is used in Japan. Colesevelam was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of T2DM. We plan to provide a systematic review with meta-analysis of the glucose-lowering effect of BASs with the aim to evaluate......In addition to the lipid-lowering effect of bile acid sequestrants (BASs), they also lower blood glucose and, therefore, could be beneficial in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Three oral BASs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment...... their potential as glucose-lowering agents in patients with T2DM....

  1. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods

  2. Carbon Nanodots as Dual-Mode Nanosensors for Selective Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Long; Su, Li-Xia; Zang, Jin-Hao; Li, Xin-Jian; Lou, Qing; Shan, Chong-Xin

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product of oxidase-based enzymatic reactions, such as glucose/glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction. Therefore, the probing of generated H2O2 for achieving the detection of various carbohydrates and their oxidases is very significative. Herein, we report one kind of dual-emission carbon nanodots (CDs) that can serve as novel dual-mode nanosensors with both fluorometric and colorimetric output for the selective detection of H2O2. The dual-model nanosensors are established only by the undecorated dual-emission CDs, where significant fluorometric and colorimetric changes are observed with the addition of different concentrations of H2O2 in the CD solution, which benefit to the achievement of the naked-eye detection for H2O2. The mechanism of the nanosensors can be attributed to the fact that the external chemical stimuli like hydroxyl radicals from H2O2 bring about the change of surface properties and the aggregation of CDs, which dominate the emission and absorption of CDs. The constructed dual-mode nanosensors exhibit good biocompatibility and high selectivity toward H2O2 with a linear detection range spanning from 0.05 to 0.5 M and allow the detection of H2O2 as low as 14 mM.

  3. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  5. Distribution characteristics of liquid sequestration in rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin LI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of organs with liquid sequestration during fluid resuscitation in rats with sepsis. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (n=10, sepsis group (n=10, crystalloid group (n=10, albumin group (n=10, and artificial colloid (HAES group (n=10. The sepsis model was reproduced by cecal ligation and puncture. The mean arterial pressure was monitored with carotid artery intubation. Twelve hours after fluid infusion by micro-infusion pump via the femoral vein, tissues from the heart, liver, lungs, kidney (right, and small intestine were harvested to observe the pathological changes and calculate the tissue water content. Results The water content of every visceral tissue was higher in the sepsis group than in the control group (P < 0.05; the water content in the heart, liver, and lung tissues was higher in the albumin group than in the crystalloid group (P < 0.05. The water content in both albumin and crystalloid groups was higher than that in the sepsis group (P < 0.05. Moreover, the water content in the heart, liver, and lungs in the HAES group was lower than that in the crystalloid and albumin groups (P < 0.05. Cellular injuries were more severe in the heart, liver, and lungs than in the intestine and kidney in the crystalloid group and albumin group under electron-microscope. Conclusion Liquid sequestration exists mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver of rats with sepsis during fluid resuscitation. The phenomenon is less evident in the kidney and small intestine. Artificial colloid can reduce capillary leak with a good volume expansion effect.

  6. Geomechanical Response of Jointed Caprock During CO2 Geological Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 refers to the injection of supercritical CO2 into deep reservoirs trapped beneath a low-permeability caprock formation. Maintaining caprock integrity during the injection process is the most important factor for a successful injection. In this work we evaluate the potential for jointed caprock during injection scenarios using coupled three-dimensional multiphase flow and geomechanics modeling. Evaluation of jointed/fractured caprock systems is of particular concern to CO2 sequestration because creation or reactivation of joints (mechanical damage) can lead to enhanced pathways for leakage. In this work, we use an equivalent continuum approach to account for the joints within the caprock. Joint's aperture and non-linear stiffness of the caprock will be updated dynamically based on the effective normal stress. Effective permeability field will be updated based on the joints' aperture creating an anisotropic permeability field throughout the caprock. This feature would add another coupling between the solid and fluid in addition to basic Terzaghi's effective stress concept. In this study, we evaluate the impact of the joint's orientation and geometry of caprock and reservoir layers on geomechanical response of the CO2 geological systems. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.; Mladenoff, David J.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2009-01-01

    One-third of net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere since 1850 are the result of land-use change, primarily from the clearing of forests for timber and agriculture, but quantifying these changes is complicated by the lack of historical data on both former ecosystem conditions and the extent and spatial configuration of subsequent land use. Using fine-resolution historical survey records, we reconstruct pre-EuroAmerican settlement (1850s) forest carbon in the state of Wisconsin, examine changes in carbon after logging and agricultural conversion, and assess the potential for future sequestration through forest recovery. Results suggest that total above-ground live forest carbon (AGC) fell from 434 TgC before settlement to 120 TgC at the peak of agricultural clearing in the 1930s and has since recovered to approximately 276 TgC. The spatial distribution of AGC, however, has shifted significantly. Former savanna ecosystems in the south now store more AGC because of fire suppression and forest ingrowth, despite the fact that most of the region remains in agriculture, whereas northern forests still store much less carbon than before settlement. Across the state, continued sequestration in existing forests has the potential to contribute an additional 69 TgC. Reforestation of agricultural lands, in particular, the formerly high C-density forests in the north-central region that are now agricultural lands less optimal than those in the south, could contribute 150 TgC. Restoring historical carbon stocks across the landscape will therefore require reassessing overall land-use choices, but a range of options can be ranked and considered under changing needs for ecosystem services. PMID:19369213

  8. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration costs are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change.

  9. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration conts are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change

  10. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the terbium (III)-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-15

    It is found that in hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer of pH=8.00, proteins can enhance the fluorescence of terbium (III) (Tb{sup 3+})-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of proteins is proposed. The experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 4.0x10{sup -9}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.5x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0x10{sup -8}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 0.5, 0.8 and 2.0ng/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  11. The impact of CO2 on shallow groundwater chemistry: observations at a natural analog site and implications for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fessenden, Julianna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kanjorski, Nancy [NON LANL; Koning, Dan [NM BUREAU OF GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES; Pawar, Rajesh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a natural analog study of risks associated with carbon sequestration, impacts of CO{sub 2} on shallow groundwater quality have been measured in a sandstone aquifer in New Mexico, USA. Despite relatively high levels of dissolved CO{sub 2}, originating from depth and producing geysering at one well, pH depression and consequent trace element mobility are relatively minor effects due to the buffering capacity of the aquifer. However, local contamination due to influx of saline waters in a subset of wells is significant. Geochemical modeling of major ion concentrations suggests that high alkalinity and carbonate mineral dissolution buffers pH changes due to CO{sub 2} influx. Analysis oftrends in dissolved trace elements, chloride, and CO2 reveal no evidence of in-situ trace element mobilization. There is clear evidence, however, that As, U, and Pb are locally co-transported into the aquifer with CO{sub 2}-rich saline water. This study illustrates the role that local geochemical conditions will play in determining the effectiveness of monitoring strategies for CO{sub 2} leakage. For example, if buffering is significant, pH monitoring may not effectively detect CO2 leakage. This study also highlights potential complications that CO{sub 2}carrier fluids, such as saline waters, pose in monitoring impacts ofgeologic sequestration.

  12. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, M.C. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  13. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  14. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litynski, John T; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G; Mahoney, Christopher; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the technology, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote carbon sequestration in different regions of the nation. The objectives of the Characterization Phase (Phase I) were to characterize the geologic and terrestrial opportunities for carbon sequestration; to identify CO(2) point sources within the territories of the individual partnerships; to assess the transportation infrastructure needed for future deployment; to evaluate CO(2) capture technologies for existing and future power plants; and to identify the most promising sequestration opportunities that would need to be validated through a series of field projects. The Characterization Phase was highly successful, with the following achievements: established a national network of companies and professionals working to support sequestration deployment; created regional and national carbon sequestration atlases for the United States and portions of Canada; evaluated available and developing technologies for the capture of CO(2) from point sources; developed an improved understanding of the permitting requirements that future sequestration activities will need to address as well as defined the gap in permitting requirements for large scale deployment of these technologies; created a raised awareness of, and support for, carbon sequestration as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option, both within industry and among the general public; identified the most promising carbon sequestration opportunities for future field tests; and established protocols for project implementation, accounting, and management. Economic evaluation was started and is continuing and will be a factor in project selection. During the

  15. Mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process were investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid to solid ratio and agitation power. The carbonation reaction

  16. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve

  17. A new look at ocean carbon remineralization for estimating deepwater sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, L.; Legendre, L.; Reygondeau, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    provinces, where these estimates range between -50 and +100% of the commonly used globally uniform remineralization value. We apply the regionalized values to satellite-derived estimates of upper ocean POC export to calculate regionalized and ocean-wide deep carbon fluxes and sequestration. The resulting....... These results stress that variable remineralization and sequestration depth should be used to model ocean carbon sequestration and feedback on the atmosphere......The "biological carbon pump" causes carbon sequestration in deep waters by downward transfer of organic matter, mostly as particles. This mechanism depends to a great extent on the uptake of CO2 by marine plankton in surface waters and subsequent sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) through...

  18. [Computed tomography semiotics of osteonecrosis and sequestration in chronic hematogenic osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iachkova, G V; Mitina, Iu L

    2007-01-01

    Based on the data of computed tomography, radiography and densitometry in 39 patients the authors describe in detail the signs of osteonecrosis and sequestration of different localization and extension.

  19. Carbon Sequestration in Dryland and Irrigated Agroecosystems: Quantification at Different Scales for Improved Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shashi B. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Cassman, Kenneth G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Arkebauer, Timothy J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Hubbard, Kenneth G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Knops, Johannes M. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Suyker, Andrew E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-09-14

    The overall objective of this research is to improve our basic understanding of the biophysical processes that govern C sequestration in major rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems in the north-central USA.

  20. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): site of platelet sequestration and results of splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, L.; Guarini, A.; Motta, M.R.; Bachetti, G.; Tura, S.; Isacchi, G.; Ciccone, F.; Lattarini, C.; Mazzucconi, M.G.; Mandelli, F.; Baccarani, M.

    1981-01-01

    51 Cr-platelet kinetics study was performed in 197 patients with chronic ITP after corticosteroid therapy had failed to induce a long lasting remission. The incidence of splenic, spleno-hepatic, hepatic and diffuse platelet sequestration site was 58%, 17%, 6% and 19%, respectively. Splenic and spleno-hepatic sequestration sites were more frequent in patients less than 30 years old and in patients with a platelet count lower than 50 x 10 9 /l. 111 patients were splenectomized shortly after the study. Normalization of the platelet count was obtained more frequently in patients with splenic and spleno-hepatic sequestration than in the others. Labelled platelet sequestration site was the best predictor of the outcome of splenectomy. Platelet kinetics is a non-invasive investigation that should be performed early after the diagnosis of chronic ITP in all patients eligible for splenectomy. (author)

  1. Soil carbon sequestration is a climate stabilization wedge: comments on Sommer and Bossio (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Aguilera, Eduardo

    2015-04-15

    Sommer and Bossio (2014) model the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils (croplands and grasslands) during the next 87 years, concluding that this process cannot be considered as a climate stabilization wedge. We argue, however, that the amounts of SOC potentially sequestered in both scenarios (pessimistic and optimistic) fulfil the requirements for being considered as wedge because in both cases at least 25 GtC would be sequestered during the next 50 years. We consider that it is precisely in the near future, and meanwhile other solutions are developed, when this stabilization effort is most urgent even if after some decades the sequestration rate is significantly reduced. Indirect effects of SOC sequestration on mitigation could reinforce the potential of this solution. We conclude that the sequestration of organic carbon in agricultural soils as a climate change mitigation tool still deserves important attention for scientists, managers and policy makers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Second generation CO2 FEP analysis: Cassifcarbon sequestration scenario identification framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yavuz, F.T.; Tilburg, T. van; Pagnier, H.

    2008-01-01

    A novel scenario analysis framework has been created, called Carbon Sequestration Scenario Identification Framework (CASSIF). This framework addresses containment performance defined by the three major categories: well, fault and seal integrity. The relevant factors that influence the integrity are

  3. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai; Yan, Mi; Allen, Rebecca; Salama, Amgad; Lu, Ligang; Jordan, Kirk E.; Sun, Shuyu; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems

  4. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  5. Consequences of co-benefits for the efficient design of carbon sequestration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Kling, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The social efficiency of private carbon markets that also included trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration with significant associated co-benefits were considered. Three topics related to the presence of co-benefits that sequester carbon were examined: (1) the consequences of co-benefits from carbon sinks and carbon abatement technology on the efficiency of carbon markets; (2) the efficient supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits when there is spatial heterogeneity; and (3) the consequences of the presence of a carbon market when there is also a government supported conservation program. Co-benefits from carbon sinks and abatement were considered in relation to the socially efficient level of sequestration. The supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits were then considered when fields differed in their potential to provide carbon and other environmental benefits. An empirical example of the economic characteristics of carbon sequestration and co-benefits in the Upper Mississippi River Basin was presented, in which the sequestration practice of land retirement with planting of perennial grasses was examined. Two sets of figures were used to illustrate the relationship between the cost of carbon sequestration and its marginal co-benefits: the marginal cost and the marginal co-benefits of carbon sequestration in a carbon market; and the marginal cost of carbon sequestration under a policy designed to maximize a bundle of environmental benefits. It was demonstrated that the relationship between carbon and its associated co-benefits will affect the efficiency of policy instruments designed for carbon sequestration. It was recommended that policy-makers consider that there are already a multitude of existing conservation programmes that result in significant carbon sequestration in many countries, and that nascent carbon markets are emerging in countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The efficient level and location of carbon

  6. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yizhong [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chyu, Minking [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Qing-Ming [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  7. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  8. MBNL Sequestration by Toxic RNAs and RNA Misprocessing in the Myotonic Dystrophy Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Goodwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For some neurological disorders, disease is primarily RNA mediated due to expression of non-coding microsatellite expansion RNAs (RNAexp. Toxicity is thought to result from enhanced binding of proteins to these expansions and depletion from their normal cellular targets. However, experimental evidence for this sequestration model is lacking. Here, we use HITS-CLIP and pre-mRNA processing analysis of human control versus myotonic dystrophy (DM brains to provide compelling evidence for this RNA toxicity model. MBNL2 binds directly to DM repeat expansions in the brain, resulting in depletion from its normal RNA targets with downstream effects on alternative splicing and polyadenylation. Similar RNA processing defects were detected in Mbnl compound-knockout mice, highlighted by dysregulation of Mapt splicing and fetal tau isoform expression in adults. These results demonstrate that MBNL proteins are directly sequestered by RNAexp in the DM brain and introduce a powerful experimental tool to evaluate RNA-mediated toxicity in other expansion diseases.

  9. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  10. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  11. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir K Bharti

    Full Text Available A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO. The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC, however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  12. Development of an Intelligent Monitoring System for Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Jeong, H.; Xu, W.; Hovorka, S. D.; Zhu, T.; Templeton, T.; Arctur, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    To provide stakeholders timely evidence that GCS repositories are operating safely and efficiently requires integrated monitoring to assess the performance of the storage reservoir as the CO2 plume moves within it. As a result, GCS projects can be data intensive, as a result of proliferation of digital instrumentation and smart-sensing technologies. GCS projects are also resource intensive, often requiring multidisciplinary teams performing different monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) tasks throughout the lifecycle of a project to ensure secure containment of injected CO2. How to correlate anomaly detected by a certain sensor to events observed by other devices to verify leakage incidents? How to optimally allocate resources for task-oriented monitoring if reservoir integrity is in question? These are issues that warrant further investigation before real integration can take place. In this work, we are building a web-based, data integration, assimilation, and learning framework for geologic carbon sequestration projects (DIAL-GCS). DIAL-GCS will be an intelligent monitoring system (IMS) for automating GCS closed-loop management by leveraging recent developments in high-throughput database, complex event processing, data assimilation, and machine learning technologies. Results will be demonstrated using realistic data and model derived from a GCS site.

  13. Individual-Based Allometric Equations Accurately Measure Carbon Storage and Sequestration in Shrublands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W.H. Mason

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have quantified uncertainty in forest carbon (C storage estimation, but there is little work examining the degree of uncertainty in shrubland C storage estimates. We used field data to simulate uncertainty in carbon storage estimates from three error sources: (1 allometric biomass equations; (2 measurement errors of shrubs harvested for the allometry; and (3 measurement errors of shrubs in survey plots. We also assessed uncertainty for all possible combinations of these error sources. Allometric uncertainty had the greatest independent effect on C storage estimates for individual plots. The largest error arose when all three error sources were included in simulations (where the 95% confidence interval spanned a range equivalent to 40% of mean C storage. Mean C sequestration (1.73 Mg C ha–1 year–1 exceeded the margin of error produced by the simulated sources of uncertainty. This demonstrates that, even when the major sources of uncertainty were accounted for, we were able to detect relatively modest gains in shrubland C storage.

  14. Optimization of a Time-Lapse Gravity Network for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appriou, D.; Strickland, C. E.; Ruprecht Yonkofski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate what could be a comprehensive and optimal state of the art gravity monitoring network that would meet the UIC class VI regulation and insure that 90% of the CO2 injected remain underground. Time-lapse gravity surveys have a long history of effective applications of monitoring temporal density changes in the subsurface. For decades, gravity measurements have been used for a wide range of applications. The interest of time-lapse gravity surveys for monitoring carbon sequestration sites started recently. The success of their deployment in such sites depends upon a combination of favorable conditions, such as the reservoir geometry, depth, thickness, density change over time induced by the CO2 injection and the location of the instrument. In most cases, the density changes induced by the CO2 plume in the subsurface are not detectable from the surface but the use of borehole gravimeters can provide excellent results. In the framework of the National Assessment and Risk Partnership (NRAP) funded by the Department of Energy, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the gravity monitoring of a CO2 storage site has been assessed using multiple synthetic scenarios implemented on a community model developed for the Kimberlina site (e.g., fault leakage scenarios, borehole leakage). The Kimberlina carbon sequestration project was a pilot project located in southern San Joaquin Valley, California, aimed to safely inject 250,000 t CO2/yr for four years. Although the project was cancelled in 2012, the site characterization efforts resulted in the development of a geologic model. In this study, we present the results of the time-lapse gravity monitoring applied on different multiphase flow and reactive transport models developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (i.e., no leakage, permeable fault zone, wellbore leakage). Our monitoring approach considers an ideal network, consisting of multiple vertical and horizontal instrumented

  15. An equity assessment of introducing uncertain forest carbon sequestration in EU climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Münnich Vass, Miriam; Elofsson, Katarina; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Large emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to cause major environmental problems in the future. European policy makers have therefore declared that they aim to implement cost-efficient and fair policies to reduce carbon emissions. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the cost of the EU policies for 2020 can be reduced through the inclusion of carbon sequestration as an abatement option while equity is also improved. The assessment is done by numerical calculations using a chance-constrained partial equilibrium model of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and national effort-sharing targets, where forest sequestration is introduced as an uncertain abatement option. Fairness is evaluated by calculation of Gini-coefficients for six equity criteria to policy outcomes. The estimated Gini-coefficients range between 0.11 and 0.32 for the current policy, between 0.16 and 0.66 if sequestration is included and treated as certain, and between 0.19 and 0.38 when uncertainty about sequestration is taken into account and policy-makers wish to meet targets with at least 90 per cent probability. The results show that fairness is reduced when sequestration is included and that the impact is larger when sequestration is treated as certain. - Highlights: • We model EU's CO 2 emission reduction targets to 2020 for the 27 member states. • We assess the equity of including forest carbon sequestration in EU policy with six equity criteria. • A stochastic partial equilibrium model is used, in which abatement cost is minimised. • Current burden sharing within the EU is quite fair when compared with current income inequality. • The abatement cost is reduced and inequality increased when including sequestration

  16. Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L; Johnson, Nils; McCoy, Sean T; Turner, Peter A; Mach, Katharine J

    2018-05-08

    Capture and permanent geologic sequestration of biogenic CO 2 emissions may provide critical flexibility in ambitious climate change mitigation. However, most bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies are technically immature or commercially unavailable. Here, we evaluate low-cost, commercially ready CO 2 capture opportunities for existing ethanol biorefineries in the United States. The analysis combines process engineering, spatial optimization, and lifecycle assessment to consider the technical, economic, and institutional feasibility of near-term carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Our modeling framework evaluates least cost source-sink relationships and aggregation opportunities for pipeline transport, which can cost-effectively transport small CO 2 volumes to suitable sequestration sites; 216 existing US biorefineries emit 45 Mt CO 2 annually from fermentation, of which 60% could be captured and compressed for pipeline transport for under $25/tCO 2 A sequestration credit, analogous to existing CCS tax credits, of $60/tCO 2 could incent 30 Mt of sequestration and 6,900 km of pipeline infrastructure across the United States. Similarly, a carbon abatement credit, analogous to existing tradeable CO 2 credits, of $90/tCO 2 can incent 38 Mt of abatement. Aggregation of CO 2 sources enables cost-effective long-distance pipeline transport to distant sequestration sites. Financial incentives under the low-carbon fuel standard in California and recent revisions to existing federal tax credits suggest a substantial near-term opportunity to permanently sequester biogenic CO 2 This financial opportunity could catalyze the growth of carbon capture, transport, and sequestration; improve the lifecycle impacts of conventional biofuels; support development of carbon-negative fuels; and help fulfill the mandates of low-carbon fuel policies across the United States. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. CO2 geological sequestration: state of art in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Bencini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a wide scenario on the state of art in Italy and abroad of industrial CO 2 geological sequestration, with particular attention to Weyburn Project. Geochemical monitoring techniques are described, mentioning also geophysical monitoring techniques for CO 2 injected into the soil. Critical choices and objections in Italy to a complete use of clean fossil fuels, hydrogen carrier, clean coal technologies: all of these approaches require geological sequestration of CO 2 [it

  18. How sequestration cuts affect primary care physicians and graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bindiya; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    On April 1, 2013, sequestration cuts went into effect impacting Medicare physician payments, graduate medical education, and many other healthcare agencies. The cuts range from 2% to 5%, affecting various departments and organizations. There is already a shortage of primary care physicians in general, not including rural or underserved areas, with limited grants for advanced training. The sequestration cuts negatively impact the future of many primary care physicians and hinder the care many Americans will receive over time.

  19. Analysis of ex situ processes of CO2 sequestration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, S.; Bourgeois, F.; Baranger, P.; Durst, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to bring quantitative elements to evaluate the validation of the CO 2 mineral sequestration to limit the greenhouse effect gases. This analysis aims to calculate the CO 2 accounting of the system (internal energy production balance the energy expend) sequestrated CO 2 and produced CO 2 . The first part detailed the possible experimental solutions. Then two carbonation processes, direct and indirect, have been chosen of the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  20. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1).

  1. Dynamics and climate change mitigation potential of soil organic carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rolf; Bossio, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    When assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and its climate change (CC) mitigation potential at global scale, the dynamic nature of soil carbon storage and interventions to foster it should be taken into account. Firstly, adoption of SOC-sequestration measures will take time, and reasonably such schemes could only be implemented gradually at large-scale. Secondly, if soils are managed as carbon sinks, then SOC will increase only over a limited time, up to the point when a new SOC equilibrium is reached. This paper combines these two processes and predicts potential SOC sequestration dynamics in agricultural land at global scale and the corresponding CC mitigation potential. Assuming that global governments would agree on a worldwide effort to gradually change land use practices towards turning agricultural soils into carbon sinks starting 2014, the projected 87-year (2014-2100) global SOC sequestration potential of agricultural land ranged between 31 and 64 Gt. This is equal to 1.9-3.9% of the SRES-A2 projected 87-year anthropogenic emissions. SOC sequestration would peak 2032-33, at that time reaching 4.3-8.9% of the projected annual SRES-A2 emission. About 30 years later the sequestration rate would have reduced by half. Thus, SOC sequestration is not a C wedge that could contribute increasingly to mitigating CC. Rather, the mitigation potential is limited, contributing very little to solving the climate problem of the coming decades. However, we deliberately did not elaborate on the importance of maintaining or increasing SOC for sustaining soil health, agro-ecosystem functioning and productivity; an issue of global significance that deserves proper consideration irrespectively of any potential additional sequestration of SOC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FEASIBILITY OF LARGE-SCALE OCEAN CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Brewer; Dr. James Barry

    2002-09-30

    We have continued to carry out creative small-scale experiments in the deep ocean to investigate the science underlying questions of possible future large-scale deep-ocean CO{sub 2} sequestration as a means of ameliorating greenhouse gas growth rates in the atmosphere. This project is closely linked to additional research funded by the DoE Office of Science, and to support from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The listing of project achievements here over the past year reflects these combined resources. Within the last project year we have: (1) Published a significant workshop report (58 pages) entitled ''Direct Ocean Sequestration Expert's Workshop'', based upon a meeting held at MBARI in 2001. The report is available both in hard copy, and on the NETL web site. (2) Carried out three major, deep ocean, (3600m) cruises to examine the physical chemistry, and biological consequences, of several liter quantities released on the ocean floor. (3) Carried out two successful short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Izuo Aya and colleagues (NMRI, Osaka, Japan) to examine the fate of cold (-55 C) CO{sub 2} released at relatively shallow ocean depth. (4) Carried out two short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Costas Tsouris, ORNL, to field test an injection nozzle designed to transform liquid CO{sub 2} into a hydrate slurry at {approx}1000m depth. (5) In collaboration with Prof. Jill Pasteris (Washington University) we have successfully accomplished the first field test of a deep ocean laser Raman spectrometer for probing in situ the physical chemistry of the CO{sub 2} system. (6) Submitted the first major paper on biological impacts as determined from our field studies. (7) Submitted a paper on our measurements of the fate of a rising stream of liquid CO{sub 2} droplets to Environmental Science & Technology. (8) Have had accepted for publication in Eos the first brief account of the laser Raman spectrometer success. (9) Have had two

  3. Potential for iron oxides to control metal releases in CO2 sequestration scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.M.; Roy, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for the release of metals into groundwater following the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface during carbon sequestration projects remains an open research question. Changing the chemical composition of even the relatively deep formation brines during CO2 injection and storage may be of concern because of the recognized risks associated with the limited potential for leakage of CO2-impacted brine to the surface. Geochemical modeling allows for proactive evaluation of site geochemistry before CO2 injection takes place to predict whether the release of metals from iron oxides may occur in the reservoir. Geochemical modeling can also help evaluate potential changes in shallow aquifers were CO2 leakage to occur near the surface. In this study, we created three batch-reaction models that simulate chemical changes in groundwater resulting from the introduction of CO2 at two carbon sequestration sites operated by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). In each of these models, we input the chemical composition of groundwater samples into React??, and equilibrated them with selected mineral phases and CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The model then simulated the kinetic reactions with other mineral phases over a period of up to 100 years. For two of the simulations, the water was also at equilibrium with iron oxide surface complexes. The first model simulated a recently completed enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project in south-central Illinois in which the MGSC injected into, and then produced CO2, from a sandstone oil reservoir. The MGSC afterwards periodically measured the brine chemistry from several wells in the reservoir for approximately two years. The sandstone contains a relatively small amount of iron oxide, and the batch simulation for the injection process showed detectable changes in several aqueous species that were attributable to changes in surface complexation sites. After using the batch reaction

  4. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott; Parris, Thomas; Damico, James; Okwen, Roland; McKaskle, Ray; Monson, Charles; Goodwin, Jonathan; Beck, E; Berger, Peter; Butsch, Robert; Garner, Damon; Grube, John; Hackley, Keith; Hinton, Jessica; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Korose, Christopher; Mehnert, Edward; Monson, Charles; Roy, William; Sargent, Steven; Wimmer, Bracken

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design an injection well and three monitoring wells was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A continuous injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6-0.7 tonne/day (0.66-0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at

  5. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.; McIlvried, H.G.; Mahoney, C.; Srivastava, R.D. [US DOE, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2008-01-15

    This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. During the Validation Phase, the seven regional partnerships will put the knowledge learned during the Characterization Phase into practice through field tests that will validate carbon sequestration technologies that are best suited to their respective regions of the country. These tests will verify technologies developed through DOE's core R&D effort and enable implementation of CO{sub 2} sequestration on a large scale, should that become necessary. Pilot projects will have a site-specific focus to test technology; assess formation storage capacity and injectivity; validate and refine existing CO{sub 2} formation models used to determine the transport and fate of CO{sub 2} in the formation; demonstrate the integrity of geologic seals to contain CO{sub 2}; validate monitoring, mitigation, and verification (MMV) technologies; define project costs and compare costs of alternatives; assess potential operational and long-term storage risks; address regulatory requirements; and engage and evaluate public acceptance of sequestration technologies. Field validation tests involving both sequestration in geologic formations and terrestrial sequestration are being developed. The results from the Validation Phase will help to confirm the estimates made during the Characterization Phase and will be used to update the regional atlases and NatCarb.

  6. Maintenance of a living understory enhances soil carbon sequestration in subtropical orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha(-1), suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale.

  7. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration in oil sands tailings streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.; Afara, M.; Namsechi, B.; Demko, B.; Wong, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as an oil sands tailings process aid and investigated its role in maximizing recycle water availability by rapid consolidation of the transition zone. The potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration was also investigated. CO{sub 2} composite tailings (CT) pilot plants were discussed and the results of cylinder tests and water chemistry analyses were presented. Issues related to physical entrapment, ionic trapping, and mineral trapping were discussed. The study showed that carbonic acid lowers pH, dissolving calcite and dolomite. Aluminum hydroxide groups on the clay surface reacted to produce water and Al{sup 3+} and Na+. Increased bicarbonate and calcium resulted in precipitated calcite. The reduction of a transition zone from 6 to 3 meters increased the available recycle water by 15 mm{sup 3} in a 5 km{sup 2} recycle water pond. Optimum CO{sub 2} additions to whole tailings are now being investigated. tabs., figs.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery & carbon sequestration building on successful experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Fred [BEPC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken of the experiences in the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the companies Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) and Dakota Gasification Company (DGC); their by-products are mentioned and what these companies are making to control the CO{sub 2} emissions. Their challenges to compress CO{sub 2} are presented and how they have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions in the DGC of the 2000 to the 2008; how they use CO{sub 2} to enhance the oil recovery and which are their challenges in the CO{sub 2} transport. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de las experiencias en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} en las empresas Basin Electic Power Cooperative (BEPC) y Dakota Gasification Campany (DGC); se mencionan sus subproductos y que estan haciendo estas empresas para controlar las emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se presentan sus retos para comprimir CO{sub 2} y como han reducido las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en la DGC del 2000 al 2008; como utilizan el CO{sub 2} para mejorar la recuperacion de petroleo y sus cuales son retos en el transporte de CO{sub 2}.

  10. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats have been identified as important carbon sinks. In contrast to angiosperm-based habitats such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangroves, marine macroalgae have largely been excluded from discussions of marine carbon sinks. Macroalgae are the dominant primary producers in the coastal zone, but they typically do not grow in habitats that are considered to accumulate large stocks of organic carbon. However, the presence of macroalgal carbon in the deep sea and sediments, where it is effectively sequestered from the atmosphere, has been reported. A synthesis of these data suggests that macroalgae could represent an important source of the carbon sequestered in marine sediments and the deep ocean. We propose two main modes for the transport of macroalgae to the deep ocean and sediments: macroalgal material drifting through submarine canyons, and the sinking of negatively buoyant macroalgal detritus. A rough estimate suggests that macroalgae could sequester about 173 TgC yr â '1 (with a range of 61-268 TgC yr â '1) globally. About 90% of this sequestration occurs through export to the deep sea, and the rest through burial in coastal sediments. This estimate exceeds that for carbon sequestered in angiosperm-based coastal habitats.

  11. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Sequestration Enhances In Vivo Cartilage Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Medeiros Da Cunha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for cartilage repair still has unsatisfactory clinical outcomes because of inter-donor variability and poor cartilage quality formation. Re-differentiation of monolayer-expanded human chondrocytes is not easy in the absence of potent morphogens. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF plays a master role in angiogenesis and in negatively regulating cartilage growth by stimulating vascular invasion and ossification. Therefore, we hypothesized that its sole microenvironmental blockade by either VEGF sequestration by soluble VEGF receptor-2 (Flk-1 or by antiangiogenic hyperbranched peptides could improve chondrogenesis of expanded human nasal chondrocytes (NC freshly seeded on collagen scaffolds. Chondrogenesis of several NC donors was assessed either in vitro or ectopically in nude mice. VEGF blockade appeared not to affect NC in vitro differentiation, whereas it efficiently inhibited blood vessel ingrowth in vivo. After 8 weeks, in vivo glycosaminoglycan deposition was approximately two-fold higher when antiangiogenic approaches were used, as compared to the control group. Our data indicates that the inhibition of VEGF signaling, independently of the specific implementation mode, has profound effects on in vivo NC chondrogenesis, even in the absence of chondroinductive signals during prior culture or at the implantation site.

  13. Still needed data for successful deep CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, Gene C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite chemical knowledge about CO 2 that extends back centuries, some data bases are still evolving that are needed to predict even the sub-critical CO 2 behavior down the geothermal gradient's P- and T-values which will be encountered in sequestration utilizing deep mines and wells. These needed data include IR-spectral interpretations of CO 2 molecular structure as P and T change; the unraveling of the Joule Thomson coefficient (heating or cooling?) that changes algebraic polarity around 10 6 Pa; more exact equations of state (EOS) that correlate to potential CO 2 polarity changes in molecular structure; newer EOS than those that have currently been derived by templating directly measured data; and focus is needed on the EOS-derived properties, like fugacity. Also, natural analogues like (1) the carbonate stability in metamorphic silicate-carbonation facies and (2) Lake Nyos aqueous geochemistry with concern about the potential redox-equilibria-predicted presence of CO (and graphite), as well as CO 2 . (authors)

  14. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2016-09-12

    Vegetated coastal habitats have been identified as important carbon sinks. In contrast to angiosperm-based habitats such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangroves, marine macroalgae have largely been excluded from discussions of marine carbon sinks. Macroalgae are the dominant primary producers in the coastal zone, but they typically do not grow in habitats that are considered to accumulate large stocks of organic carbon. However, the presence of macroalgal carbon in the deep sea and sediments, where it is effectively sequestered from the atmosphere, has been reported. A synthesis of these data suggests that macroalgae could represent an important source of the carbon sequestered in marine sediments and the deep ocean. We propose two main modes for the transport of macroalgae to the deep ocean and sediments: macroalgal material drifting through submarine canyons, and the sinking of negatively buoyant macroalgal detritus. A rough estimate suggests that macroalgae could sequester about 173 TgC yr â \\'1 (with a range of 61-268 TgC yr â \\'1) globally. About 90% of this sequestration occurs through export to the deep sea, and the rest through burial in coastal sediments. This estimate exceeds that for carbon sequestered in angiosperm-based coastal habitats.

  15. Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Regulatory Gap Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln Davies; Kirsten Uchitel; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2012-04-30

    Though a potentially significant climate change mitigation strategy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) remains mired in demonstration and development rather than proceeding to full-scale commercialization. Prior studies have suggested numerous reasons for this stagnation. This Report seeks to empirically assess those claims. Using an anonymous opinion survey completed by over 200 individuals involved in CCS, it concludes that there are four primary barriers to CCS commercialization: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability risks, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. These results largely confirm previous work. They also, however, expose a key barrier that prior studies have overlooked: the need for comprehensive, rather than piecemeal, CCS regulation. The survey data clearly show that the CCS community sees this as one of the most needed incentives for CCS deployment. The community also has a relatively clear idea of what that regulation should entail: a cooperative federalism approach that directly addresses liability concerns and that generally does not upset traditional lines of federal-state authority.

  16. Ocean Fertilization for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    The ocean is a major sink for both preindustrial and anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Both physically and biogeochemically driven pumps, termed the solubility and biological pump, respectively Fig.5.1) are responsible for the majority of carbon sequestration in the ocean's interior [1]. The solubility pump relies on ocean circulation - specifically the impact of cooling of the upper ocean at high latitudes both enhances the solubility of carbon dioxide and the density of the waters which sink to great depth (the so-called deepwater formation) and thereby sequester carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (Fig.5.1). The biological pump is driven by the availability of preformed plant macronutrients such as nitrate or phosphate which are taken up by phytoplankton during photosynthetic carbon fixation. A small but significant proportion of this fixed carbon sinks into the ocean's interior in the form of settling particles, and in order to maintain equilibrium carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred across the air-sea interface into the ocean (the so-called carbon drawdown) thereby decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Fig.5.1).Fig.5.1

  17. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  18. Potential and economics of CO{sub 2} sequestration; Sequestration du CO{sub 2}: faisabilite et cout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Ducroux, R. [Centre d' Initiative et de Recherche sur l' Energie et l' Environnement, CIRENE, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2}. Some techniques could be used to reduced CO{sub 2} emission and stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO{sub 2} emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO{sub 2} (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} and to review the various options for CO{sub 2} sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO{sub 2} emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO{sub 2} emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO{sub 2} is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon

  19. Quantitative Estimation of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Three Land Use Types (Orchard, Paddy Rice and Forest in a Part of Ramsar Lands, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zakieh pahlavan yali

    2017-02-01

    was done by collecting 15 samples with the total number of 45 samples. Soil sampling (at the 0-100 cm depth was carried out following determination of points on map. Some of soil features (i.e., Soil structure, Bulk density ,Texture, Acidity, CEC, total Nitrogen and Organic Carbon were measured in the laboratory. Then, the ANOVA and Duncan tests were employed due to statistical analysis using of SPSS software package. Also The map of carbon sequestration was prepared using of GIS approach. Results and Discussion :According to obtained results, the amounts of SCS were imposed by different land uses as non-significant. The amounts of SCS were found in forest (4532.35 ton/ha, orchard (2997.66 ton/ha and paddy rice (2682.55 ton/ha land use, respectively. The differences may be resulted from the variation among the ecosystem types and plant species. Forests are located in wetlands in the high forest and agricultural land more organic carbon levels (0 to 20 cm, but non-significant difference was observed in the soil depth in these areas. The Increased amount of carbon sequestration in the Orchard of the Paddy Rice can be interpreted due to long-term use of fertilizer in the orchards. In Paddy Rice of study due to deep plowing, results showed more decline of organic matter and the loss of carbon from soils.In addition, the maximumtotal nitrogen, organic and sequestrated carbon in top soil (0-10cm depth were detected in forest (866.968 ton/ha,whereas the least amount dedicated in paddy rice (393.4 ton/ha land uses. Four classes of detected soil in the study area were included AlfiSols, Inceptisols, Entisols and Mollisols Conclusions: We found no significant differences in terms of carbon sequestration in land use due to the impact of climate, annually high rainfall and washing clay seems logical. The plant communities in forest ecosystems can become more capable to absorb and retain carbon than other vegetation cover. Agriculture and farming operations are due to dispersion

  20. Non-radiometric immunoassays fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of thyroid function in normal and hypothyroid dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, M.M.; Larsson, C.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Medica]. E-mail: marciajerico@hotmail.com; Mendonca, B.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina . Lab. de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular; Otsuka, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Hospital Veterinario; Maganin Junior, A. [Canil da Policia Militar do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    We proposed the comparison of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in thyroid function evaluation of normal (n=50) and hypothyroid dogs (n=9). T4 and FT4 serum concentrations were measured in basal conditions and 6 h after TRH stimulation (200 mug/IV). All our reference values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The reference values for basal T4 in healthy dogs were 0.50 to 2.35 mug/dL (FIA), 0.50 to 2.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.35 to 0.74 mug/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.37 mug/dL (FIA), >= 0,26 mug/dL (FEIA) and >= 0.40 mug/dL (RIA). Basal FT4 values in healthy dogs were 0.65 to 2.20 ng/dL (FIA), 0.38 to 1.43 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0.10 to 1.24 ng/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.30 ng/dL (FIA), >= 0.77 ng/dL (FEIA) and >=0.50 ng/dL (RIA). In hypothyroid dogs, the mean +- SD for T4 in basal conditions and after TRH were 0.24 +- 0.20 mug/dL and 0.26 +- 0.20 mug/dL (FIA), 0.27 +- 0.12 mug/dL and 0.32 +- 0.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.19 +- 0.30 mug/dL and 0,24 +- 0.09 mug/dL (RIA), respectively. In the same group the mean +- SD basal FT4 values and after TRH were 0.28 +- 0.33 ng/dL and 0.28 +- 0.39 ng/dL (FIA), 0,12 +- 0.26 ng/dL and 0.23 +- 0.56 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0,15 +- 0,15 ng/dL and 0,17 +- 0,28 ng/dL (RIA), respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the normal and hypothyroid groups (Kruskall-Wallis test) were observed in the three methods and between basal and stimulated values in normal dogs (Wilcoxon test), by the three methods. The best sensitivity for diagnosing hypothyroidism was obtained through T4 values (100%), and the best specificity through FT4 values (100%), both determined by FIA after TRH stimulation. We conclude that T4 and FT4 measured by fluoroimmunoassay after TRH stimulation can be an excellent alternative. (author)

  1. Non-radiometric immunoassays (fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of thyroid function in normal and hypothyroid dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerico, M.M.; Larsson, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    We proposed the comparison of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in thyroid function evaluation of normal (n=50) and hypothyroid dogs (n=9). T4 and FT4 serum concentrations were measured in basal conditions and 6 h after TRH stimulation (200 mug/IV). All our reference values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The reference values for basal T4 in healthy dogs were 0.50 to 2.35 mug/dL (FIA), 0.50 to 2.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.35 to 0.74 mug/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.37 mug/dL (FIA), >= 0,26 mug/dL (FEIA) and >= 0.40 mug/dL (RIA). Basal FT4 values in healthy dogs were 0.65 to 2.20 ng/dL (FIA), 0.38 to 1.43 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0.10 to 1.24 ng/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.30 ng/dL (FIA), >= 0.77 ng/dL (FEIA) and >=0.50 ng/dL (RIA). In hypothyroid dogs, the mean +- SD for T4 in basal conditions and after TRH were 0.24 +- 0.20 mug/dL and 0.26 +- 0.20 mug/dL (FIA), 0.27 +- 0.12 mug/dL and 0.32 +- 0.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.19 +- 0.30 mug/dL and 0,24 +- 0.09 mug/dL (RIA), respectively. In the same group the mean +- SD basal FT4 values and after TRH were 0.28 +- 0.33 ng/dL and 0.28 +- 0.39 ng/dL (FIA), 0,12 +- 0.26 ng/dL and 0.23 +- 0.56 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0,15 +- 0,15 ng/dL and 0,17 +- 0,28 ng/dL (RIA), respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the normal and hypothyroid groups (Kruskall-Wallis test) were observed in the three methods and between basal and stimulated values in normal dogs (Wilcoxon test), by the three methods. The best sensitivity for diagnosing hypothyroidism was obtained through T4 values (100%), and the best specificity through FT4 values (100%), both determined by FIA after TRH stimulation. We conclude that T4 and FT4 measured by fluoroimmunoassay after TRH stimulation can be an excellent alternative. (author)

  2. Advances in Geological CO{sub 2} Sequestration and Co-Sequestration with O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe A; O& #x27; Connor, William K.; Ideker, J.H.

    2012-10-28

    The injection of CO{sub 2} for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and sequestration in brine-bearing formations for long term storage has been in practice or under investigation in many locations globally. This study focused on the assessment of cement wellbore seal integrity in CO{sub 2}- and CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-saturated brine and supercritical CO{sub 2} environments. Brine chemistries (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}) at various saline concentrations were investigated at a pressure of 28.9 MPa (4200 psi) at both 50{degree}C and 85{degree}C. These parameters were selected to simulate downhole conditions at several potential CO{sub 2} injection sites in the United States. Class H portland cement is not thermodynamically stable under these conditions and the formation of carbonic acid degrades the cement. Dissociation occurs and leaches cations, forming a CaCO{sub 3} buffered zone, amorphous silica, and other secondary minerals. Increased temperature affected the structure of C-S-H and the hydration of the cement leading to higher degradation rates.

  3. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  4. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2): Pump Canyon CO2-ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO 2 sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO 2 -enhanced coalbed methane (CO 2 /ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO 2 was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO 2 movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO 2 . In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO 2 fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO 2 . Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the results of the different MVA techniques.

  5. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  6. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  7. Sequestration of Soil Carbon as Secondary Carbonates (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA Abstract World soils, the major carbon (C) reservoir among the terrestrial pools, contain soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC). The SIC pool is predominant in soils of arid and semi-arid regions. These regions cover a land area of about 4.9x109 ha. The SIC pool in soils containing calcic and petrocalcic horizons is estimated at about 695-748 Pg (Pg = 1015 g = 1 gigaton) to 1-m depth. There are two types of carbonates. Lithogenic or primary carbonates are formed from weathering of carbonaceous rocks. Pedogenic or secondary carbonates are formed by dissolution of CO2 in the soil air to form carbonic acid and precipitation as carbonates of Ca+2 or Mg+2. It is the availability of Ca+2 or Mg+2 from outside the ecosystem that is essential to sequester atmospheric CO2. Common among outside sources of Ca+2 or Mg+2 are irrigation water, aerial deposition, sea breeze, fertilizers, manure and other amendments. The decomposition of SOC and root respiration may increase the partial pressure of CO2 in the soil air and lead to the formation of HCO_3^- upon dissolution in H20. Precipitation of secondary carbonates may result from decreased partial pressure of CO2 in the sub-soil, increased concentration of Ca+2, Mg+2 and HCO_3^- in soil solution, and decreased soil moisture content by evapotranspiration. Transport of bicarbonates in irrigated soils and subsequent precipitation above the ground water (calcrete), activity of termites and other soil fauna, and management of urban soils lead to formation of secondary carbonates. On a geologic time scale, weathering of silicate minerals and transport of the by-products into the ocean is a geological process of sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Factors affecting formation of secondary carbonates include land use, and soil and crop management including application of biosolids, irrigation and the quality of irrigation water

  8. Mobilization of Trace Metals in an Experimental Carbon Sequestration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, V.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO2 into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The potential for leakage from these systems requires an understanding of how injection reservoirs interact with the overlying potable aquifers. Hydrothermal experiments were performed to evaluate metal mobilization and mechanisms of release in a carbonate storage reservoir and at the caprock-reservoir boundary. Experiments react synthetic Desert Creek limestone and/or Gothic Shale, formations in the Paradox Basin, Utah, with brine that is close to equilibrium with these rocks. A reaction temperature of 1600C accelerates the reaction kinetics without changing in-situ water-rock reactions. The experiments were allowed to reach steady state before injecting CO2. Changes in major and trace element water chemistry, dissolved carbon and sulfide, and pH were tracked throughout the experiments. CO2 injection decreases the pH by 1 to 2 units; concomitant mineral dissolution produces elevated Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the brine. Concentrations subsequently decrease to approximately steady state values after 120-330 hours, likely due to mineral precipitation as seen in SEM images and predicted by geochemical modeling. In experiments that emulate the caprock-reservoir boundary, final Fe (0.7ppb), an element of secondary concern for the EPA, and Pb (0.05ppb) concentrations exceed EPA limits, whereas Ba (0.140ppb), Cu (48ppb), and Zn (433ppb) values remain below EPA limits. In experiments that simulate deeper reservoir conditions, away from the caprock boundary, final Fe (3.5ppb) and Pb (0.017ppb) values indicate less mobilization than seen at the caprock-reservoir boundary, but values still exceed EPA limits. Barium concentrations always remain below the EPA limit of 2ppb, but are more readily mobilized in experiments replicating deeper reservoir conditions. In both systems, transition elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn behave in a

  9. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  10. Diaphyseal sequestration of the metacarpal and metatarsal bone in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsbrunner, G.; Steiner, A.; Martig, J.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1993 ten cows with diaphyseal sequestration of the metacarpal or metatarsal bone were brought to the Clinic for Food Animals and Horses, University of Bern. History, clinical and radiographic findings at admission, therapy, and clinical and radiographic short- and longterm results were evaluated retrospectively. Six animals had a history of trauma. The metatarsal bone (n = 9) was much more frequently affected than the metacarpal bone (n = 1). Lameness was slight in seven cases and intermediate in three cases. Soft tissue swelling was present in all cases, and fistula formation in eight cases. Sequestrectomy was performed in nine cases, the exuberant new bone circumferentially removed in three of these cases, and the skin primarily closed in all nine cases treated surgically. One animal with a small sequestrum, showing no fistula formation, was treated conservatively. Four to 44 months after surgery, interviews with the owners by telephone revealed that the recovery had been satisfactory in all ten cases. At the same time period, clinical and radiographic examinations of the six animals that were still alive were performed by a veterinarian additionally. Normal limb function had been restored in all six animals, although the affected limb was clearly distinctable from the unaffected contralateral limb, because of its increased diameter. From the results of this study we concluded that longterm prognosis after sequestrectomy is favourable; primary wound closure can be attempted with good success. Cosmetically promising results, however, can only be achieved, if sequestrectomy is performed early enough in the course of the disease or if the exuberant new bone is surgically removed

  11. Sequestration of phosphorus by acid mine drainage floc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, P.R.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Solubilization and transport of phosphorus (P) to the water environment is a critical environmental issue. Flocs resulting from neutralizing acid mine drainage (AMD) were tested as a possible lowcost amendment to reduce the loss of soluble P from agricultural fields and animal wastewater. Flocs were prepared by neutralizing natural and synthetic solutions of AMD with limestone, lime, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide. Phosphorus sequestration was tested in three distinct environments: water, soil, and manure storage basins. In water, flocs prepared from AMD adsorbed 10 to 20 g P kg-1 dry floc in equilibrium with 1 mg L-1 soluble P. Similar results were observed for both Fe-based and A1-based synthetic flocs. A local soil sample adsorbed about 0.1 g P kg-1, about two orders of magnitude less. The AMD-derived flocs were mixed with a highP soil at 5 to 80 g floc kg-1 soil, followed by water and acid (Mehlich1) extractions. All flocs performed similarly. About 70% of the waterextractable P was sequestered by the floc when applied at a rate of 20 g floc kg-1 soil, whereas plant-available P only decreased by about 30%. Under anaerobic conditions simulating manure storage basins, all AMD flocs reduced soluble P by greater than 95% at a rate of 0.2 g floc g-1 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) manure. These findings indicate that AMD flocs could be an effective agent for preventing soluble P losses from soil and manure to the water environment, while at the same time decreasing the costs associated with AMD treatment.

  12. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  13. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-05-05

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report we present data that show the spatial distribution of carbon in mine soils. Soil carbon data from deep soil pits from grassland minelands located in Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia were analyzed to determine the vertical distribution and variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) down to a 2-m depth. Regression analyses were used to describe and model the distribution by soil depth of C(wt%), BD{sub fines}(g cm{sup -3}), and fines (vol%) in mine soils. The volume of excavated mine soil samples was transformed in terms of costs of digging and sampling, including sample collection and preparation, and C(wt%) analysis, in order to determine the maximum cost-effective depth (MCD) for carbon inventorying on the mined sites analyzed. Based on the horizontal variation of SOC(g m{sup -2}), we determined the sampling intensity required to achieve a desired accuracy of the amount of sequestered SOC(g m{sup -2}) at certain probability levels. The MCD and sampling intensity measurements were used to determine the minimum detectable difference (MDD) of SOC(g m{sup -2}) between two consecutive carbon inventories. We also proposed a method to determine the minimum number of years before a future C inventory event is carried out so that the measured SOC(g m{sup -2}) differences were greater than MDD. We used geostatistical analyses procedures to determine spatial dependence predictability of surface SOC(g m{sup -2}) data on the minelands analyzed. Kriging techniques were used to create surface SOC(g m{sup -2}) maps for the sites in Ohio and West Virginia. The average C sequestration rate in the surface soil layer for the Ohio (age 9) sites was estimated at 124 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, and it was

  14. [Greenhouse gas emissions, carbon leakage and net carbon sequestration from afforestation and forest management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo Jie; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiao Ke; Liu, Wei Wei

    2017-02-01

    Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation and concentration of CO 2 reduction in the atmosphere. Forest management, especially afforestation and forest protection, could increase carbon stock of forests significantly. Carbon sequestration rate of afforestation ranges from 0.04 to 7.52 t C·hm -2 ·a -1 , while that of forest protection is 0.33-5.20 t C·hm -2 ·a -1 . At the same time, greenhouse gas (GHG) is generated within management boundary due to the production and transportation of the materials consumed in relevant activities of afforestation and forest management. In addition, carbon leakage is also generated outside boundary from activity shifting, market effects and change of environments induced by forest management. In this review, we summarized the definition of emission sources of GHG, monitoring methods, quantity and rate of greenhouse gas emissions within boundary of afforestation and forest management. In addition, types, monitoring methods and quantity of carbon leakage outside boundary of forest management were also analyzed. Based on the reviewed results of carbon sequestration, we introduced greenhouse gas emissions within boundary and carbon leakage, net carbon sequestration as well as the countervailing effects of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon leakage to carbon sequestration. Greenhouse gas emissions within management boundary counteract 0.01%-19.3% of carbon sequestration, and such counteraction could increase to as high as 95% considering carbon leakage. Afforestation and forest management have substantial net carbon sequestration benefits, when only taking direct greenhouse gas emissions within boundary and measurable carbon leakage from activity shifting into consideration. Compared with soil carbon sequestration measures in croplands, afforestation and forest management is more advantageous in net carbon sequestration and has better prospects for application in terms of net mitigation potential. Along with the

  15. [Regional and global estimates of carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-09-01

    As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and global climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest carbon sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of carbon sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest carbon stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the carbon sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the carbon stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its carbon sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the carbon stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its carbon sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the carbon stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, carbon sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories

  16. A simulation method for the rapid screening of potential depleted oil reservoirs for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Le Gallo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases emission is a growing concern of many industries. The oil and gas industry has a long commercial practice of gas injection, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and gas storage. Using a depleted oil or gas reservoir for CO 2 storage has several interesting advantages. The long-term risk analysis of the CO 2 behavior and its impact on the environment is a major concern. That is why the selection of an appropriate reservoir is crucial to the success of a sequestration operation. Our modeling study, based on a synthetic reservoir, quantifies uncertainties due to reservoir parameters in order to establish a set of guidelines to select the most appropriate depleted reservoirs. Several production and sequestration scenarios are investigated in order to quantify key parameter for CO 2 storage. The influence of parameters such as API gravity, heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parson coefficient), pressure support (water injection) and cap rock integrity are analyzed. Estimation of sequestration capacity is proposed through a sequestration factor (SF) estimated for different reservoir production drives. Multiple regression relationships were developed, allowing SF estimation. CO 2 sequestration optimization highlights the best clean oil recovery strategy (CO 2 injection and/or oil production)

  17. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  18. Hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in saline solution: sequestration of nutrients on carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nover

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, feasibility of selected nutrient sequestration during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC was tested for three different HTC temperatures (180, 230, and 300 °C. To study the nutrient sequestration in solid from liquid solution, sugar and salt solutions were chosen as HTC feedstock. Glucose was used as carbohydrate source and various salts e.g., ammonium hydrophosphate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, and anhydrous ferric chloride were used as source of nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium, and iron, respectively. Solid hydrochar was extensively characterized by means of elemental, ICP-OES, SEM-EDX, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR to determine nutrients’ sequestration as well as hydrochar quality variation with HTC temperatures. The spherical mesoporous hydrochars produced during HTC have low surface area in the range of 1.0–3.5 m2 g−1. Hydrochar yield was increased about 10% with the increase of temperature from 180 °C to 300 °C. Nutrient sequestration was also increased with HTC temperature. In fact, around 71, 31, and 23 wt% nitrogen, iron, and phosphorus were sequestered at 300 °C, respectively. Potassium sequestration was very low throughout the HTC and maximum 5.2% was observed in solid during HTC.

  19. Energy consumption and net CO2 sequestration of aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2006-12-01

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in dependence of various process variables using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. For wollastonite, the maximum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency within the ranges of process conditions studied was 75% at 200C, 20 bar CO2, and a particle size of <38μm. The main energy-consuming process steps were the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2 feed. At these process conditions, a significantly lower efficiency was determined for steel slag (69%), mainly because of the lower Ca content of the feedstock. The CO2 sequestration efficiency might be improved substantially for both types of feedstock by, e.g., reducing the amount of process water applied and further grinding of the feedstock. The calculated energetic efficiencies warrant a further assessment of the (energetic) feasibility of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation on the basis of a pilot-scale process

  20. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  1. Sequestration of organochlorine pesticides in soils of distinct organic carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Na; Yang Yu; Tao Shu; Liu Yan; Shi Kelu

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, five soil samples with organic carbon contents ranging from 0.23% to 7.1% and aged with technical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) for 15 months were incubated in a sealed chamber to investigate the dynamic changes of the OCP residues. The residues in the soils decreased over the incubation period and finally reached a plateau. Regression analysis showed that degradable fractions of OCPs were negatively correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) except for α-HCH, while no correlation was found between degradation rate and SOC, which demonstrated that SOC content determines the OCP sequestration fraction in soil. Analysis of the ratio of DDT and its primary metabolites showed that, since it depends on differential sequestration among them, magnitude of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT is not a reliable criterion for the identification of new DDT sources. - Research highlights: → Soil organic carbon content determines the OCP sequestration fraction in soil. → Magnitude of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT is not a reliable criterion for the identification of new DDT sources. → The more hydrophobic compounds have relatively higher sequestration fractions in soils with SOC contents >2%. → DDD may have higher sorption by soil organic matter than DDE. - The effect of soil organic matter on the sequestration of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDTs) in soils was investigated in an innovative microcosm chamber.

  2. Balancing Methane Emissions and Carbon Sequestration in Tropical/Subtropical Coastal Wetlands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsch, W. J.; Schafer, K. V.; Cabezas, A.; Bernal, B.

    2016-02-01

    Wetlands are estimated to emit about 20 to 25 percent of current global CH4 emissions, or about 120 to 180 Tg-CH4 yr-1. Thus, in climate change discussions concerning wetlands, these "natural emissions" often receive the most attention, often overshadowing the more important ecosystem services that wetlands provide, including carbon sequestration. While methane emissions from coastal wetlands have generally been described as small due to competing biogeochemical cycles, disturbance of coastal wetlands, e.g., the introduction of excessive freshwater fluxes or substrate disturbance, can lead to much higher methane emission rates. Carbon sequestration is a more positive carbon story about wetlands and coastal wetlands in particular. The rates of carbon sequestration in tropical/subtropical coastal wetlands, mainly mangroves, are in the range of 100 to 200 g-C m-2 yr-1, two to ten times higher rates than in the more frequently studied northern peatlands. This function of coastal wetlands has significant international support now for mangrove conservation and it is referred to in the literature and popular press as blue carbon. This presentation will summarize what we know about methane emissions and carbon sequestration in tropical/subtropical coastal wetlands, how these rates compare with those in non-tropical and/or inland wetlands, and a demonstration of two or three models that compare methane fluxes with carbon dioxide sequestration to determine if wetlands are net sinks of radiative forcing. The presentation will also present a global model of carbon with an emphasis on wetlands.

  3. Does the site of platelet sequestration predict the response to splenectomy in adult patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navez, Julie; Hubert, Catherine; Gigot, Jean-François; Navez, Benoit; Lambert, Catherine; Jamar, François; Danse, Etienne; Lannoy, Valérie; Jabbour, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy is the only potentially curative treatment for chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in adults. However, one-third of the patients relapse without predictive factors identified. We evaluate the predictive value of the site of platelet sequestration on the response to splenectomy in patients with ITP. Eighty-two consecutive patients with ITP treated by splenectomy between 1992 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Platelet sequestration site was studied by (111)Indium-oxinate-labeled platelets in 93% of patients. Response to splenectomy was defined at last follow-up as: complete response (CR) for platelet count (PC) ≥100 × 10(9)/L, response (R) for PC≥30 × 10(9)/L and splenectomy was performed in 81 patients (conversion rate of 16%), and open approach in one patient. Median follow-up was 57 months (range, 1-235). Platelet sequestration study was performed in 93% of patients: 50 patients (61%) exhibited splenic sequestration, 9 (11%) hepatic sequestration and 14 patients (17%) mixed sequestration. CR was obtained in 72% of patients, R in 25% and NR in 4% (two with splenic sequestration, one with hepatic sequestration). Preoperative PC, age at diagnosis, hepatic sequestration and male gender were significant for predicting CR in univariate analysis, but only age (HR = 1.025 by one-year increase, 95% CI [1.004-1.047], p = 0.020) and pre-operative PC (HR = 0.112 for > 100 versus splenectomy was independent of the site of platelet sequestration in patients with ITP. Pre-operative platelet sequestration study in these patients cannot be recommended.

  4. Towards spatial assessment of carbon sequestration in peatlands: spectroscopy based estimation of fractional cover of three plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schaepman-Strub

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands accumulated large carbon (C stocks as peat in historical times. Currently however, many peatlands are on the verge of becoming sources with their C sequestration function becoming sensitive to environmental changes such as increases in temperature, decreasing water table and enhanced nitrogen deposition. Long term changes in vegetation composition are both, a consequence and indicator of future changes in C sequestration. Spatial continuous accurate assessment of the vegetation composition is a current challenge in keeping a close watch on peatland vegetation changes. In this study we quantified the fractional cover of three major plant functional types (PFTs; Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, and ericoid shrubs in peatlands, using field spectroscopy reflectance measurements (400–2400 nm on 25 plots differing in PFT cover. The data was validated using point intercept methodology on the same plots. Our results showed that the detection of open Sphagnum versus Sphagnumcovered by vascular plants (shrubs and graminoids is feasible with an R2 of 0.81. On the other hand, the partitioning of the vascular plant fraction into shrubs and graminoids revealed lower correlations of R2 of 0.54 and 0.57, respectively. This study was based on a dataset where the reflectance of all main PFTs and their pure components within the peatland was measured at local spatial scales. Spectrally measured species or plant community abundances can further be used to bridge scaling gaps up to canopy scale, ultimately allowing upscaling of the C balance of peatlands to the ecosystem level.

  5. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, Gordon; Huang, Yaping

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  6. Sequestration of plant secondary metabolites by insect herbivores: molecular mechanisms and ecological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Matthias; Robert, Christelle Am

    2016-04-01

    Numerous insect herbivores can take up and store plant toxins as self-defense against their own natural enemies. Plant toxin sequestration is tightly linked with tolerance strategies that keep the toxins functional. Specific transporters have been identified that likely allow the herbivore to control the spatiotemporal dynamics of toxin accumulation. Certain herbivores furthermore possess specific enzymes to boost the bioactivity of the sequestered toxins. Ecologists have studied plant toxin sequestration for decades. The recently uncovered molecular mechanisms in combination with transient, non-transgenic systems to manipulate insect gene expression will help to understand the importance of toxin sequestration for food-web dynamics in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Gasification Biochar on Soil Carbon Sequestration, Soil Quality and Crop Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika

    and pot and field experiments was used to study the effect of straw and wood biochar on carbon sequestration, soil quality and crop growth. Overall, the biochar amendment improved soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth and showed a potential for soil carbon sequestration without having any......New synergies between agriculture and the energy sector making use of agricultural residues for bioenergy production and recycling recalcitrant residuals to soil may offer climate change mitigation potential through the substitution of fossil fuels and soil carbon sequestration. However, concerns...... have been raised about the potential negative impacts of incorporating bioenergy residuals (biochar) in soil and increasing the removal of crop residues such as straw, possibly reducing important soil functions and services for maintaining soil quality. Therefore, a combination of incubation studies...

  9. An economic evaluation of carbon emission and carbon sequestration for the forestry sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.

    1995-01-01

    Forestry is an important sector in Malaysia. The long term development of the forestry sector will definitely affect the future amounts of carbon sequestration and emission of the country. This paper evaluates various forestry economic options that contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The analysis shows that, although forest plantation could sequester the highest amount of carbon per unit area, natural forests which are managed for sustainable timber production are the cheapest option for per-unit area carbon sequestrated. In evaluating forest options to address the issues of carbon sequestration and emission, the paper proposes that it should be assessed as an integral part of overall long term forestry development of the country which takes into account the future demands for forestry goods and services, financial resources, technology and human resource development. (Author)

  10. Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

    2007-02-22

    The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  13. Disruption of brain mitochondrial calcium sequestration by methylmercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, P.C.; Atchison, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    In vitro effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on Ca2+ transport and respiratory control of mitochondria isolated from rat forebrain were examined to determine whether MeHg disrupted sequestration of Ca2+ by neuronal mitochondria. Uptake of 45Ca2+ by mitochondria and release of 45Ca2+ from preloaded mitochondria were measured in the presence and absence of ATP. Release of 45Ca2+ from preloaded mitochondria by MeHg was measured in the presence and absence of ruthenium red (RR), a putative inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake uniporter. During incubation intervals ranging from 10 sec to 5 min, 10 microM MeHg reduced mitochondrial uptake of 45Ca2+ by about 50% and 100 microM MeHg completely prevented 45Ca2+ uptake. These effects of MeHg occurred in both the presence and absence of ATP. Exposure of mitochondria preloaded with 45Ca2+ to either 10 microM or 100 microM MeHg for 10 sec resulted in increased efflux of 45Ca2+ of 10% and 65%, respectively, in both the absence and presence of ATP. Loading mitochondria with 45Ca2+ in the presence of 20 microM RR reduced total uptake of 45Ca2+ and greatly attenuated MeHg-induced release of 45Ca2+ from mitochondria. RR did not inhibit the effects of MeHg on Ca2+ release by merely preventing the binding of MeHg to mitochondria because RR did not alter mitochondrial binding of methyl[203Hg]. The ratio of state 3 to state 4 respiration (respiratory control ratio) was measured as a means of assessing functional integrity of isolated mitochondria in the absence and presence of MeHg. Control ratios of from 3 to 5 were only marginally reduced by 2 microM MeHg but were greatly reduced by 10 and 20 microM MeHg

  14. Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils: a potential carbon trading opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Annette L.; Murphy, Brian; Rawson, Andrew; Wilson, Brian; Singh, Bhupinderpal; Young, Rick; Grange, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Emissions trading schemes emerging in Australia and internationally create a market mechanism by which release of greenhouse gases incurs a cost, and implementation of abatement measures generates a financial return. There is growing interest amongst Australian landholders in emissions trading based on sequestration of carbon in soil through modified land management practices. Intensively cropped soils have low carbon content, due to disturbance, erosion and regular periods of minimal organic matter input. Because cropping soils in Australia have lost a substantial amount of carbon there is significant potential to increase carbon stocks through improved land management practices. Evidence from long term trials and modelling indicates that modified cropping practices (direct drilling, stubble retention, controlled traffic) have limited impact on soil carbon (0 to +2 tC02e ha-' year1) whereas conversion from cropping to pasture gives greater increases. Small-increases in soil carbon over large areas can contribute significantly to mitigation of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, increase in soil organic matter will improve soil health, fertility and resilience. However, the inclusion of soil carbon offsets in an emissions trading scheme cannot occur until several barriers are overcome. The first relates to credibility. Quantification of the extent to which specific land management practices can sequester carbon in different environments will provide the basis for promotion of the concept. Current research across Australia is addressing this need. Secondly, cost-effective and accepted methods of estimating soil carbon change must be available. Monitoring soil carbon to document change on a project scale is not viable due to the enormous variability in carbon stocks on micro and macro scales. Instead estimation of soil carbon change could be undertaken through a combination of baseline measurement to assess the vulnerability of soil carbon

  15. Simplified Predictive Models for CO2 Sequestration Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; RaviGanesh, Priya; Schuetter, Jared; Mooney, Douglas; He, Jincong; Durlofsky, Louis

    2014-05-01

    We present results from an ongoing research project that seeks to develop and validate a portfolio of simplified modeling approaches that will enable rapid feasibility and risk assessment for CO2 sequestration in deep saline formation. The overall research goal is to provide tools for predicting: (a) injection well and formation pressure buildup, and (b) lateral and vertical CO2 plume migration. Simplified modeling approaches that are being developed in this research fall under three categories: (1) Simplified physics-based modeling (SPM), where only the most relevant physical processes are modeled, (2) Statistical-learning based modeling (SLM), where the simulator is replaced with a "response surface", and (3) Reduced-order method based modeling (RMM), where mathematical approximations reduce the computational burden. The system of interest is a single vertical well injecting supercritical CO2 into a 2-D layered reservoir-caprock system with variable layer permeabilities. In the first category (SPM), we use a set of well-designed full-physics compositional simulations to understand key processes and parameters affecting pressure propagation and buoyant plume migration. Based on these simulations, we have developed correlations for dimensionless injectivity as a function of the slope of fractional-flow curve, variance of layer permeability values, and the nature of vertical permeability arrangement. The same variables, along with a modified gravity number, can be used to develop a correlation for the total storage efficiency within the CO2 plume footprint. In the second category (SLM), we develop statistical "proxy models" using the simulation domain described previously with two different approaches: (a) classical Box-Behnken experimental design with a quadratic response surface fit, and (b) maximin Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) based design with a Kriging metamodel fit using a quadratic trend and Gaussian correlation structure. For roughly the same number of

  16. Limits on carbon sequestration in arid blue carbon ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M; Kauffman, J Boone; Crooks, Stephen; Fourqurean, James W; Glavan, Jane; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Data Initiative. These carbon stock data supported two objectives: to quantify carbon stocks and infer sequestration capacity in arid blue carbon ecosystems, and to explore the potential to incorporate blue carbon science into national reporting and planning documents. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is

  18. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong eWu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-d old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: 1 salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; 2 Contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the salt sensor; 3 No significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant group in either transition or elongation zones; 4 The overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signalling, and sequestration in wheat root. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  19. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Hoehn, Robert E.; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m −2 of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m −2 of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). -- Highlights: •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes. •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban and community areas is estimated at 1.36 billion tonnes. •Net carbon sequestration in U.S. urban areas varies by state and is estimated at 18.9 million tonnes per year. •Overlap between U.S. forest and urban forest carbon estimates is between 247 million and 303 million tonnes. -- Field and tree cover measurements reveal carbon storage and sequestration by trees in U.S. urban and community areas

  20. Carbon sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany derived from stable soil organic carbon saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Hübner, Rico; Spörlein, Peter; Geuß, Uwe; Hangen, Edzard; Reischl, Arthur; Schilling, Bernd; von Lützow, Margit; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-02-01

    Sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) in soils through improved management of forest and agricultural land is considered to have high potential for global CO2 mitigation. However, the potential of soils to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) in a stable form, which is limited by the stabilization of SOC against microbial mineralization, is largely unknown. In this study, we estimated the C sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany by calculating the potential SOC saturation of silt and clay particles according to Hassink [Plant and Soil 191 (1997) 77] on the basis of 516 soil profiles. The determination of the current SOC content of silt and clay fractions for major soil units and land uses allowed an estimation of the C saturation deficit corresponding to the long-term C sequestration potential. The results showed that cropland soils have a low level of C saturation of around 50% and could store considerable amounts of additional SOC. A relatively high C sequestration potential was also determined for grassland soils. In contrast, forest soils had a low C sequestration potential as they were almost C saturated. A high proportion of sites with a high degree of apparent oversaturation revealed that in acidic, coarse-textured soils the relation to silt and clay is not suitable to estimate the stable C saturation. A strong correlation of the C saturation deficit with temperature and precipitation allowed a spatial estimation of the C sequestration potential for Bavaria. In total, about 395 Mt CO2 -equivalents could theoretically be stored in A horizons of cultivated soils - four times the annual emission of greenhouse gases in Bavaria. Although achieving the entire estimated C storage capacity is unrealistic, improved management of cultivated land could contribute significantly to CO2 mitigation. Moreover, increasing SOC stocks have additional benefits with respect to enhanced soil fertility and agricultural productivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural and afforestation farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha- 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha- 1 year- 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.

  2. Carbon sequestration index as a determinant for climate change mitigation: Case study of Bintan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.'an J.; Afdal; Prayudha, Bayu; Dharmawan, I. W. E.; Irawan, Andri; Abimanyu, Haznan; Meirinawati, Hanny; Surinati, Dewi; Syukri, Agus F.; Yuliana, Chitra I.; Yuniati, Putri I.

    2018-02-01

    The increase of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the global carbon cycle altering the atmospheric system and initiates the climate changes. There are two ways to mitigate these changes, by maintaining the greenhouse gasses below the carbon budget and by conserving the marine and terrestrial vegetation for carbon sequestration. These two strategies become variable to the carbon sequestration index (CSI) that represents the potential of a region in carbon sequestration, according to its natural capacity. As a study case, we conducted carbon sequestration research in Bintan region (Bintan Island and its surrounding), Riau Archipelago province. This research was aimed to assess the CSI and its possibility for climate change mitigation. We observed carbon sequestration of seagrass meadows and mangrove, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission (correlated to population growth, the increase of vehicles), and CSI. Bintan region has 125,849.9 ha of vegetation area and 14,879.6 ha of terrestrial and marine vegetation area, respectively. Both vegetation areas are able to sequester 0.262 Tg C yr-1 in total and marine vegetation contributes about 77.1%. Total CO2 emission in Bintan region is up to 0.273 Tg C yr-1, produced by transportation, industry and land use sectors. Therefore, CSI of the Bintan region is 0.98, which is above the global average (i.e. 0.58). This value demonstrates that the degree of sequestration is comparable to the total carbon emission. This result suggests that Bintan’s vegetation has high potential for reducing greenhouse gas effects.

  3. A new fluorescent pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate probe: A chemodosimeter to detect Hg2+ in pure aqueous medium and in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vikram; Srivastava, Priyanka; PrakashVerma, Shiv; Misra, Arvind; Das, Parimal; Singh, Nanhai

    2014-01-01

    A new pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate based fluorescent chemodosimeter, potassium (pyren-1-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)dithiocarbamate (L1) has been designed and synthesized. The chemodosimeter shows high selectivity and sensitivity (5.2 ppb) for Hg 2+ in pure aqueous medium in which emission intensity was quenched by ≈80% due to the formation of new cyclized species, 1. The probe behaves as a chemodosimeter for Hg 2+ ions and forms Hg 2+ triggered cyclised imidazoline species with approximate detection time of 50 s and exhibits both colorimetric and fluorometric changes on detection of Hg 2+ ion. Color of the probe (L1) changed from green to colorless visible to the naked eye and from green to dark blue upon the addition of Hg 2+ ions under UV light. The Hg 2+ triggered cyclization reaction was confirmed by spectral data analysis and a single crystal structure determination of the cyclised entity 2 obtained from the model compound potassium benzyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) dithiocarbamate (L2). L1 finds its application for detection of Hg 2+ ions on paper strips, and in BSA (bovine serum albumin) medium. L1 is also applicable for the monitoring of Hg 2+ ion in NIH3T3 live cells. - Highlights: • Efficient chemodosimeter to detect Hg 2+ ions in pure aqueous medium. • Hg 2+ triggered cyclisation and formation of imidazoline species. • Probe exhibit both colorimetric and fluorometric changes • Probe is applicable to detect Hg 2+ in live cells and on cellulose paper strips

  4. LBNL deliverable to the Tricarb carbon sequestration partnership: Final report on experimental and numerical modeling activities for the Newark Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pester, Nick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Saldi, Giuseppe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beyer, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, Jim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Knauss, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This report presents findings for hydrological and chemical characteristics and processes relevant to large-scale geologic CO2 sequestration in the Newark Basin of southern New York and northern New Jersey. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the Tri-Carb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration — comprising Sandia Technologies, LLC; Conrad Geoscience; and Schlumberger Carbon Services.

  5. Total soil C and N sequestration in a grassland following 10 years of free air CO2 enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van C.; Boots, B.; Graaff, de M.A.; Harris, D.; Blum, H.; Six, J.

    2006-01-01

    Soil C sequestration may mitigate rising levels of atmospheric CO2. However, it has yet to be determined whether net soil C sequestration occurs in N-rich grasslands exposed to long-term elevated CO2. This study examined whether N-fertilized grasslands exposed to elevated CO2 sequestered additional

  6. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  7. Quantifying carbon sequestration in forest plantations by modeling the dynamics of above and below ground carbon pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive pine plantation management may provide opportunities to increase carbon sequestration in the Southeastern United States. Developing management options that increase fiber production and soil carbon sequestration require an understanding of the biological and edaphic processes that control soil carbon turnover. Belowground carbon resides primarily in three...

  8. Carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: An assessment of its harvest potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Ning; King, Anthony W.; Zaitchik, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A carbon sequestration strategy has recently been proposed in which a forest is actively managed, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition. The forest serves as a ‘carbon scrubber’ or ‘carbon remover’ that provides continuous sequestration (negative ...... to be managed this way on half of the world’s forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity.We recommendWHS be considered part of the portfolio of climate mitigation and adaptation options that needs further research....

  9. Capture and geological sequestration of CO2: fighting against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to take up the global warming challenge, a set of emergency measures is to be implemented: energy saving, clean transportation systems, development of renewable energy sources.. CO 2 sequestration of massive industrial emission sources inside deep geologic formations is another promising solution, which can contribute to the division by two of the world CO 2 emissions between today and 2050. The CO 2 capture and sequestration industry is developing. Research projects and pilot facilities are on the increase over the world. Their aim is to warrant the efficiency and security of this technology over the centuries to come. (J.S.)

  10. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Jennifer Pc; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2010-09-08

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

  11. Ecosystem Controls on C & N Sequestration Following Afforestation of Agricultural Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.A. Paul, S.J. Morris, R.T. Conant

    2013-03-05

    In our project, we proposed to continue analysis of our available soil samples and data, and to develop new studies to answer the following objectives: Objective 1) Broaden field based studies of ecosystem C and N compartments to enhance current understanding of C and N sequestration and dynamics. Objective 2) Improve our understanding of mechanism controlling C and N stabilization and dynamics. Objective 3) Investigate the interrelated role of soil temperature and organism type and activity as controlling mechanism in SOC dynamics and sequestration.

  12. Splenectomy versus conservative management for acute sequestration crises in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Remmington, Tracey

    2015-09-07

    Acute splenic sequestration crises are a complication of sickle cell disease, with high mortality rates and frequent recurrence in survivors of first attacks. Splenectomy and blood transfusion, with their consequences, are the mainstay of long-term management used in different parts of the world. This is a 2015 update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2013. To assess whether splenectomy (total or partial), to prevent acute splenic sequestration crises in people with sickle cell disease, improved survival and decreased morbidity in people with sickle cell disease, as compared with regular blood transfusions. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Additional trials were sought from the reference lists of the trials and reviews identified by the search strategy.Date of the most recent search: 10 June 2015. All randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing splenectomy (total or partial) to prevent recurrence of acute splenic sequestration crises with no treatment or blood transfusions in people with sickle cell disease. No trials of splenectomy for acute splenic sequestration were found. No trials of splenectomy for acute splenic sequestration were found. Splenectomy, if full, will prevent further sequestration and if partial, may reduce the recurrence of acute splenic sequestration crises. However, there is a lack of evidence from trials showing that splenectomy improves survival and decreases morbidity in people with sickle cell disease. There is a need for a well-designed, adequately-powered, randomized controlled trial to assess the benefits and risks of splenectomy compared to transfusion programmes, as a means of improving survival and decreasing mortality from acute splenic

  13. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kenneth

    Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments

  14. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoback, Mark D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kovscek, Anthony R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wilcox, Jennifer [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  15. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  16. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lundberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory scale experiment was set up to test the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as well as ageing of the La–P complex formed during phosphorus (P) sequestration by a La modified clay (Phoslock®). Short term (7 days) P adsorption studies revealed a significant negative effect of added...... DOC on the P sequestration of Phoslock®, whereas a long-term P adsorption experiment revealed that the negative effect of added DOC was reduced with time. The reduced P binding efficiency is kinetic, as evident from solid-state 31P magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, who showed that the P...

  17. Carbon sequestration from boreal wildfires via Pyrogenic Carbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Preston, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    allowed, for the first time, quantifying the whole range of PyC components found in-situ immediately after a typical boreal forest fire. The fire examined had a fireline intensity of ~8000 kw/m, which is typical of boreal fires in NW Canada and we found that more than 18% of the fuel consumed was converted to PyC. This rate by far exceeds previous estimates (1-3%) and suggests that PyC production has indeed been substantially underestimated. As boreal forests are the world's largest terrestrial biome and contain half of the forest ecosystem C with a third its net primary productivity being consumed by fire every year, our findings could imply that PyC production from wildfires is a potential carbon sequestration mechanism of sufficient magnitude that warrants inclusion in boreal and perhaps global C budget estimations.

  18. Comprehensive, Quantitative Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepinski, James

    2013-09-30

    A Quantitative Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (QFMEA) was developed to conduct comprehensive, quantitative risk assessments on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and sequestration or use in deep saline aquifers, enhanced oil recovery operations, or enhanced coal bed methane operations. The model identifies and characterizes potential risks; identifies the likely failure modes, causes, effects and methods of detection; lists possible risk prevention and risk mitigation steps; estimates potential damage recovery costs, mitigation costs and costs savings resulting from mitigation; and ranks (prioritizes) risks according to the probability of failure, the severity of failure, the difficulty of early failure detection and the potential for fatalities. The QFMEA model generates the necessary information needed for effective project risk management. Diverse project information can be integrated into a concise, common format that allows comprehensive, quantitative analysis, by a cross-functional team of experts, to determine: What can possibly go wrong? How much will damage recovery cost? How can it be prevented or mitigated? What is the cost savings or benefit of prevention or mitigation? Which risks should be given highest priority for resolution? The QFMEA model can be tailored to specific projects and is applicable to new projects as well as mature projects. The model can be revised and updated as new information comes available. It accepts input from multiple sources, such as literature searches, site characterization, field data, computer simulations, analogues, process influence diagrams, probability density functions, financial analysis models, cost factors, and heuristic best practices manuals, and converts the information into a standardized format in an Excel spreadsheet. Process influence diagrams, geologic models, financial models, cost factors and an insurance schedule were developed to support the QFMEA model. Comprehensive, quantitative risk assessments

  19. The role of old forests and big trees in forest carbon sequestration in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew N. Gray

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Recent research has indicated that large trees in general, and old-growth forests in particular, sequester substantial amounts of C annually. C sequestration rates are thought to peak and decline with stand age but the timing and controls are not well-understood. The objectives of this study...

  20. Where is the carbon? Carbon sequestration potential from private forestland in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Brian C. Murray; D. Evan Mercer

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty surrounding the future supply of timber in the southern United States prompted the question, “Where is all the wood?” (Cubbage et al. 1995). We ask a similar question about the potential of southern forests to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sequestering carbon. Because significant carbon sequestration potential occurs on individual nonindustrial...

  1. Right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; McCauley, Roy; Westra, Sjirk; Baba, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary aplasia and bronchopulmonary foregut malformations in which a patent communication between the foregut and the pulmonary system is present are rare congenital abnormalities. Pulmonary aplasia associated with a pulmonary sling is an even rarer abnormality. We report a unique case of right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus diagnosed by multidetector helical CT. (orig.)

  2. INSURER SEQUESTRATION OF THE DEBTOR’S IMMOVABLE PROPERTY IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE GRADINARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Insurer sequestration is the insurance measure that the creditor resorts to and that is applicable if the object of the litigation is the payment of a sum of money and that consists of the unavailability of the debtor-defendant’s sequestrable movable or immovable property, until the final (irrevocable decision given in the main trial in order to profit from the property when the creditor will obtain a writ of execution. In this regard, there are the provisions of Article 591 paragraph 1 thesis I of the Civil Procedure Code: “A creditor who does not have the writ of execution, but whose claim is proven by written act and is exigible, may request the setting up of an insurer sequestration of the debtor’s movable and immovable property, if he proves that he took legal action”. Thus, the provisions of article 907 are understood by reference to the provisions of article 591 paragraph 1 thesis I art.591 of the Civil Procedure Code, in that: in business, the insurer sequestration may also be set up on the debtor’s immovable property.

  3. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an

  4. Thrombin Production and Human Neutrophil Elastase Sequestration by Modified Cellulosic Dressings and Their Electrokinetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Prevost

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing. Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze. A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration.

  5. Soil organic matter formation and sequestration across a forested floodplain chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Wigginton; B. Graeme Lockaby; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Successional changes in soil organic matter formation and carbon sequestration across a forested floodplain chronosequence were studied at the Savannah river site, National Environmental Research Park, SC, US. Four floodplain sites were selected for study, three of which are in various stages of recovery from impact due to thermal effluent discharge. The fourth is a...

  6. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density

  7. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  8. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; López-Senespleda, E.; Bravo, F.; Río, M. Del

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silviculture systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems), silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition), afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change

  9. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silvicultural systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems, silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition, afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change

  10. Encapsulation and solid state sequestration of gases by calix[6]arene-based molecular containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavendomme, Roy; Ajami, Daniela; Moerkerke, Steven; Wouters, Johan; Rissanen, Kari; Luhmer, Michel; Jabin, Ivan

    2017-06-13

    Two calix[6]arene-based molecular containers were synthesized in high yields. These containers can encapsulate small guests through a unique "rotating door" complexation process. The sequestration of greenhouse gases is clearly demonstrated. They can be stored in the solid state for long periods and released via dissolution of the inclusion complex.

  11. Carbonation of steel slag for CO2 sequestration: Leaching of products and reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, steel slag samples were carbonated to a varying extent. Leaching experiments and geochemical modeling were used to identify solubility-controlling processes of

  12. Supercritical Fluid Behavior at Nanoscale Interfaces: Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Geologic Formations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cole, D.R.; Chialvo, A. A.; Rother, G.; Vlček, Lukáš; Cummings, P. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 90, 17-18 (2010), s. 2329-2363 ISSN 1478-6435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sequestration * nanostructures * supercritical CO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2010

  13. Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Visser, Andre; Richardson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    it is metabolized at a rate comparable to the carbon delivered by sinking detritus. This “lipid pump” has not been included in previous estimates of the deep-ocean carbon sequestration, which are based on either measurements of sinking fluxes of detritus, or estimates of new primary production. Unlike other...

  14. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Oren; David S. Ellsworth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Nathan Phillips; Brent E. Ewers; Chris Maier; Karina V.R. Schafer; Heather McCarthy; George Hendrey; Steven G. McNulty; Gabriel G. Katul

    2001-01-01

    Northern mid-latitude forests are a large terrestrial carbon sink. Ignoring nutrient limitations, large increases in carbon sequestration from carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization are expected in these forests. Yet, forests are usually relegated to sites of moderate to poor fertility, where tree growth is often limited by nutrient supply, in...

  16. Calcium silicates synthesised from industrial residues with the ability for CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Flórez, Victor; Santos, Alberto; López, Antonio; Moriña, Isabel; Esquivias, Luis

    2014-12-01

    This work explored several synthesis routes to obtain calcium silicates from different calcium-rich and silica-rich industrial residues. Larnite, wollastonite and calcium silicate chloride were successfully synthesised with moderate heat treatments below standard temperatures. These procedures help to not only conserve natural resources, but also to reduce the energy requirements and CO2 emissions. In addition, these silicates have been successfully tested as carbon dioxide sequesters, to enhance the viability of CO2 mineral sequestration technologies using calcium-rich industrial by-products as sequestration agents. Two different carbon sequestration experiments were performed under ambient conditions. Static experiments revealed carbonation efficiencies close to 100% and real-time resolved experiments characterised the dynamic behaviour and ability of these samples to reduce the CO2 concentration within a mixture of gases. The CO2 concentration was reduced up to 70%, with a carbon fixation dynamic ratio of 3.2 mg CO2 per g of sequestration agent and minute. Our results confirm the suitability of the proposed synthesis routes to synthesise different calcium silicates recycling industrial residues, being therefore energetically more efficient and environmentally friendly procedures for the cement industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Burkitt lymphoma expresses oncofetal chondroitin sulfate without being a reservoir for placental malaria sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbaek, Mette Ø; Bento Ayres Pereira, Marina Maria; Clausen, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    in other non-malignant tissues and thus VAR2CSA generally facilitates parasite sequestration and accumulation in pregnant women. In this study, we show that the specific receptor for VAR2CSA, the oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS), is likewise present in BL tissue and cell lines. We therefore explored...

  18. Forest management and carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean region: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; López-Senespleda, E.; Bravo, F.; Río, M. Del

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To review and acknowledge the value of carbon sequestration by forest management in the Mediterranean area. Material and methods: We review the main effects of forest management by comparing the effects of silviculture systems (even-aged vs. uneven-aged stands, coppice systems, agroforestry systems), silvicultural options (thinning, rotation period, species composition), afforestation, harvesting, fire impact or effects of shrub layer on carbon sequestration in the Mediterranean area. Main results: We illustrate as forest management can clearly improve forest carbon sequestration amounts. We conclude that forest management is an effective way to maintain and enhance high carbon sequestration rates in order to cope with climate change and provision of ecosystem services. We also think that although much effort has been put into this topic research, there are still certain gaps that must be dealt with to increase our scientific knowledge and in turn transfer this knowledge to forest practitioners in order to achieve sustainable management aimed at mitigating climate change. Research highlights: It is important to underline the importance of forests in the carbon cycle as this role can be enhanced by forest managers through sustainable forest management. The effects of different management options or disturbances can be critical as regards mitigating climate change. Understanding the effects of forest management is even more important in the Mediterranean area, given that the current high climatic variability together with historical human exploitation and disturbance events make this area more vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

  19. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  20. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  1. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J.

    2015-01-01

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands’ contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency’s land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  2. Monitoring and economic factors affecting the economic viability of afforestation for carbon sequestration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Loza-Balbuena, Isabel; Ford-Robertson, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first step towards achieving the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and aims among others to promote 'the protection and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs'. To encourage afforestation for carbon sequestration a project must be economically viable. This study uses a model to analyse the impact on project viability of a range of carbon monitoring options, international carbon credit value and discount rate, applied to a Pinus radiata afforestation project in New Zealand. Monitoring carbon in conjunction with conventional forest inventory shows the highest return. Long-term average carbon accounting has lower accounting costs, compared to annual and 5 yearly accounting, as monitoring is only required every 5-10 years until the long-term average is attained. In this study we conclude that monitoring soil carbon stocks is not economically feasible using any of the accounting methods, when carbon is valued at US$ 10/t. This conclusion may be relevant to forest carbon sequestration projects elsewhere in the world and suggests care is needed in selecting the appropriate carbon monitoring options to avoid the risk that costs could be higher than any monetary benefits from terrestrial carbon sequestration. This would remove any commercial incentive to afforest for carbon sequestration reasons and severely limit the use of forest sinks as part of any package of measures addressing the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC

  3. Sequestration, tissue distribution and developmental transmission of cyanogenic glucosides in a specialist insect herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Olsen, Carl Erik; Pentzold, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Considering the staggering diversity of bioactive natural products present in plants, insects are only able to sequester a small number of phytochemicals from their food plants. The mechanisms of how only some phytochemicals are sequestered and how the sequestration process takes place remains la...

  4. Laboratory investigations into the reactive transport module of carbon dioxide sequestration and geochemical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidaryan, E. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Masjidosolayman Branch; Enayati, M.; Mokhtari, B. [Iranian Offshore Oil Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Over long time periods, geological sequestration in some systems shows mineralization effects or mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide, converting the carbon dioxide to a less mobile form. However, a detailed investigation of these geological systems is needed before disposing of carbon dioxide into these formations. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs and underground aquifers are proposed candidates for carbon dioxide injection. This paper presented an experimental investigation into the reactive transport module for handling aquifer sequestration of carbon dioxide and modeling of simultaneous geochemical reactions. Two cases of laboratory carbon dioxide sequestration experiments, conducted for different rock systems were modeled using the fully coupled geochemical compositional simulator. The relevant permeability relationships were compared to determine the best fit with the experimental results. The paper discussed the theory of modeling; geochemical reactions and mineral trapping of carbon dioxide; and application simulator for modeling including the remodeling of flow experiments. It was concluded that simulated changes in porosity and permeability could mimic experimental results to some extent. The study satisfactorily simulated the results of experimental observations and permeability results could be improved if the Kozeny-Carman equation was replaced by the Civan power law. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs.

  5. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  6. Carbon sequestration potential in agroforestry system in India: an analysis for carbon project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, R.; Sanjeev, K.; Chauhan, D. K.; Tripathi, Abishek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2016), s. 631-644 ISSN 0167-4366 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Agroforestry * Biophysical and practical potential * Carbon sequestration * Poplar based agroforestry * Institutional mechanism Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  7. A model to calculate effects of atmospheric deposition on soil acidification, eutrophication and carbon sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Reinds, Gert Jan; Posch, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Triggered by the steep decline in sulphur deposition in Europe and North America over the last decades, research and emission reduction policies have shifted from acidification to the effects of nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change on plant species diversity and carbon (C) sequestration in

  8. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J

    2015-10-13

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands' contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency's land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  10. Carbon sequestration resulting from bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand F. Nero; Richard P. Maiers; Janet C. Dewey; Andrew J. Londo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing abandonment of marginal agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) and rising global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels create a need for better options of achieving rapid afforestation and enhancing both below and aboveground carbon sequestration. This study examines the responses of six mixtures of bottomland hardwood species...

  11. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (pcarbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon sequestration potential of forest land: Management for products and bioenergy versus preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deusen, P.

    2010-01-01

    A 40 year projection of potential carbon sequestration is based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from the state of Georgia. The objective is to compare carbon sequestration under a sustainable management strategy versus a preservation strategy. FIA plots are projected ahead in time with hotdeck matching. This matches each subject plot with another plot from the database that represents the subject plot at a future time. The matched plot sequences are used to provide input data to a harvest scheduling program to generate a management strategy for the state. The sequestration from the management strategy is compared with a preservation strategy that involves no harvesting. Harvested wood is assumed to go into products with various half life decay rates. Carbon sequestration is increased as increasing proportions go into wood for energy, which is treated like a product with an infinite half life. Therefore, the harvested carbon does not return immediately to the atmosphere. Public land and land close to cities is assumed to be unavailable, and all other private land is assumed to be accessible. The results are presented as gigatonnes of CO 2 equivalent to make them directly comparable to US annual carbon emissions. The conclusion is that forest management will sequester more above-ground carbon than preservation over a 40 year period if the wood is used for products with an average half life greater than 5 years.

  13. Estimating long-term carbon sequestration patterns in even- and uneven-aged southern pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration has become an increasingly important consideration for forest management in North America, and has particular potential in pine-dominated forests of the southern United States. Using existing literature on plantations and long-term studies of naturally regenerated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated stands on...

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  15. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  16. Deep horizons: Soil Carbon sequestration and storage potential in grassland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Schulte, Rogier; Lanigan, Gary J.; Byrne, Kenneth A.; Reidy, Brian; Creamer, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) enhances soil fertility, holding nutrients in a plant-available form. It also improves aeration and water infiltration. Soils are considered a vital pool for C (Carbon) sequestration, as they are the largest pool of C after the oceans, and contain 3.5 more C than the atmosphere. SOC models and inventories tend to focus on the top 30 cm of soils, only analysing total SOC values. Association of C with microaggregates (53-250 μm) and silt and clay (40 °C. Through a wet sieving procedure, four aggregate sizes were isolated: large macroaggregates (>2000 μm); macroaggregates (250-2000 μm); microaggregates and silt & clay. Organic C associated to each aggregate fraction was analysed on a LECO combustion analyser. Sand-free C was calculated for each aggregate size. For all soil types, 84% of the SOC located in the first 30 cm was contained inside macroaggregates and large macroaggregates. Given that this fraction has a turnover time of 1 to 10 years, sampling at that depth only provides information on the labile fraction in soil, and does not consider the longer term C sequestration potential. Only when looking at the whole profile, two clear trends could be observed: 1) soils with a clay increase at depth had most of their C located in the silt and clay fractions, which indicate their enhanced C sequestration capacity, 2) free-draining soils had a bigger part of their SOC located in the macroaggregate fractions. These results indicate that current C inventories and models that focus on the top 30 cm, do not accurately measure soil C sequestration potential in soils, but rather the more labile fraction. However, at depth soil forming processes have been identified as a major factor influencing C sequestration potential in soils. This has a major impact in further quantifying and sustaining C sequestration into the future. Soils with a high sequestration potential at depth need to be managed to enhance the residence time to contribute to future

  17. Potential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change by irrigation of grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Alexander; Campana, Pietro Elia; Lind, Mårten; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A generic method for climate change mitigation feasibility of PVWPS is developed. • Restoration of degraded lands in China has large climate change mitigation potential. • PV produces excess electricity included in the mitigation potential of the system. • The benefit is higher than if the PV were to produce electricity for the grid only. - Abstract: The climate change mitigation potential of irrigation powered by a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) to restore degraded grasslands has been investigated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. The purpose of this study is to develop a generic and simple method to estimate the climate change mitigation benefit of a PVWPS. The possibility to develop carbon credits for the carbon offset markets has also been studied comparing carbon sequestration in grasslands to other carbon sequestration projects. The soil carbon sequestration following irrigation of the grassland is calculated as an annual increase in the soil organic carbon pool. The PVWPS can also generate an excess of electricity when irrigation is not needed and the emissions reductions due to substitution of grid electricity give additional climate change mitigation potential. The results from this study show that the carbon sequestration and emissions reductions benefits per land area using a PVWPS for irrigating grasslands are comparable to other carbon sequestration options such as switching to no-till practice. Soil carbon in irrigated grasslands is increased with over 60% relative to severely degraded grasslands and if nitrogen fixing species are introduced the increase in soil organic carbon can be almost 80%. Renewable electricity generation by the PVWPS will further increase the mitigation benefit of the system with 70–90%. When applying the methodology developed in this paper to a case in Qinghai, China

  18. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration - Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO 2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO 2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO 2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO 2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO 2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO 2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO 2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO 2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO 2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO 2 and CH 4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of Δ f G 298 o and/or log K r,298 o are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log K r,T o or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist

  19. Rif1 Binding and Control of Chromosome-Internal DNA Replication Origins Is Limited by Telomere Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Zhang, Xu; Lemmens, Laure; Shyian, Maksym; Albert, Benjamin; Follonier, Cindy; Nunes, Jose Manuel; Lopes, Massimo; Shore, David; Mattarocci, Stefano

    2018-04-24

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere-binding protein Rif1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in control of DNA replication timing by promoting PP1-dependent dephosphorylation of replication initiation factors. However, ScRif1 binding outside of telomeres has never been detected, and it has thus been unclear whether Rif1 acts directly on the replication origins that it controls. Here, we show that, in unperturbed yeast cells, Rif1 primarily regulates late-replicating origins within 100 kb of a telomere. Using the chromatin endogenous cleavage ChEC-seq technique, we robustly detect Rif1 at late-replicating origins that we show are targets of its inhibitory action. Interestingly, abrogation of Rif1 telomere association by mutation of its Rap1-binding module increases Rif1 binding and origin inhibition elsewhere in the genome. Our results indicate that Rif1 inhibits replication initiation by interacting directly with origins and suggest that Rap1-dependent sequestration of Rif1 increases its effective concentration near telomeres, while limiting its action at chromosome-internal sites. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of Double-Difference Seismic Tomography to Carbon Sequestration Monitoring at the Aneth Oil Field, Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Ripepi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA of sequestered CO2. A total of 1211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 23 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the likelihood of detecting a CO2 plume with an unfavorable event and receiver arrangement. In tests involving artificially modeled ray paths through a velocity model, ideal event and receiver arrangements clearly show velocity reductions. When incorporating the unfavorable event and station locations from the Aneth Unit into synthetic models, the ability to detect velocity reductions is greatly diminished. Using the actual, recorded travel times, the Aneth Unit results show differences between a synthetic baseline model and the travel times obtained in the field, but the differences do not clearly indicate a region of injected CO2. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage, and a more detailed baseline velocity model.