WorldWideScience

Sample records for sequentially emitted clicks

  1. Hearing sensation levels of emitted biosonar clicks in an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhai Li

    Full Text Available Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28, and -22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation.

  2. Synthesis of unsymmetric bipyridine-Pt(II) -alkynyl complexes through post-click reaction with emission enhancement characteristics and their applications as phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongguang; Tsang, Daniel Ping-Kuen; Chan, Carmen Ka-Man; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-10-13

    Two unsymmetric bipyridine-platinum(II)-alkynyl complexes have been synthesised by a post-click reaction. These metal complexes are found to exhibit emission enhancement properties. The photoluminescence quantum yield can be significantly increased from 0.03 in solution to 0.72 in solid-state thin films. Efficient solution-processable organic light-emitting diodes have been fabricated by utilizing these complexes as phosphorescent dopants. A high external quantum efficiency of up to 5.8% has been achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of Sequential Dexter Energy Transfer in High Efficient Phosphorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Single Emissive Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; You, Seung Il; Kim, Nam Ho; Yoon, Ju-An; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhu, Fu Rong; Kim, Woo Young

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report our effort to realize high performance single emissive layer three color white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) through sequential Dexter energy transfer of blue, green and red dopants. The PHOLEDs had a structure of; ITO(1500 Å)/NPB(700 Å)/mCP:Firpic-x%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-y%(300 Å)/TPBi(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å). The dopant concentrations of FIrpic, Ir(ppy)3 and Ir(piq)3 were adjusted and optimized to facilitate the preferred energy transfer processes attaining both the best luminous efficiency and CIE color coordinates. The presence of a deep trapping center for charge carriers in the emissive layer was confirmed by the observed red shift in electroluminescent spectra. White PHOLEDs, with phosphorescent dopant concentrations of FIrpic-8.0%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-0.5% in the mCP host of the single emissive layer, had a maximum luminescence of 37,810 cd/m2 at 11 V and a luminous efficiency of 48.10 cd/A at 5 V with CIE color coordinates of (0.35, 0.41).

  4. Click bait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Jonas Nygaard; Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    and curiosity so the readers click (or tap on) the headline and read on. In this article, we map the use of forward-referring headlines in online news journalism by conducting an analysis of 100,000 headlines from 10 different Danish news websites. The results show that commercialization and tabloidization seem...

  5. Regioselective Sequential Modification of Chitosan via Azide-Alkyne Click Reaction: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Atif; Katas, Haliza; Samsudin, Siti Noradila; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the attention of researchers has been drawn toward the synthesis of chitosan derivatives and their nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, chitosan derivatives with different azides and alkyne groups were synthesized using click chemistry, and these were further transformed into nanoparticles by using the ionotropic gelation method. A series of chitosan derivatives was successfully synthesized by regioselective modification of chitosan via an azide-alkyne click reaction. The amino moieties of chitosan were protected during derivatization by pthaloylation and subsequently unblocked at the end to restore their functionality. Nanoparticles of synthesized derivatives were fabricated by ionic gelation to form complexes of polyanionic penta-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and cationic chitosan derivatives. Particle size analysis showed that nanoparticle size ranged from 181.03 ± 12.73 nm to 236.50 ± 14.32 nm and had narrow polydispersity index and positive surface charge. The derivatives and corresponding nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities against three gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all derivatives ranged from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for bacteria and 188 to1500 µg/mL for fungi and was lower than that of native chitosan. The nanoparticles with MIC ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mLfor bacteria and 94 to 750 µg/mL for fungi exhibited higher activity than the chitosan derivatives. Chitosan O-(1-methylbenzene) triazolyl carbamate and chitosan O-(1-methyl phenyl sulfide) triazolyl carbamate were the most active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The hemolytic assay on erythrocytes and cell viability test on two different cell lines (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells V79 and Human hepatic cell line WRL68) demonstrated the safety; suggesting that these derivatives could be used in future

  6. Estimation of environmental mobility of heavy metals using a sequential leaching of particulate material emitted from an opencast chrome mine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeykioe, R. [Meri-Lappi Institute, Centre for Environmental Technology, University of Oulu, Kemi (Finland); Peraemaeki, P.; Kuokkanen, T. [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry, Oulu (Finland); Vaelimaeki, I. [Suomen Ympaeristoepalvelu Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    A four-stage sequential leaching procedure was applied to assess the bioavailability and environmental mobility of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cd) in total suspended particulate (TSP) material emitted from an opencast chrome mine complex (Kemi, Northern Finland). TSP material was collected on glass fibre filters by a high-volume sampler, and a sequential leaching procedure was used to determine the distribution of heavy metals between the water-soluble fraction (H{sub 2}O), environmentally mobile fraction (CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}), the fraction bound to carbonate and oxides (HONH{sub 3}Cl + CH{sub 3}COOH), and the fraction bound to silicates and organic matter, that is the environmentally immobile fraction (HNO{sub 3} + HF + HCl). The sequential leaching procedure was also applied to the certified reference materials VKI (QC Loam Soil A) and PACS-2 (Marine Sediment) to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the leaching procedure. The heavy metals were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentrations of metals in the water-soluble fraction (H{sub 2}O) decreased in the order Fe >Cu >Cr >Ni >Cd, and in the environmentally mobile fraction (CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}) in the order Cu >Fe >Ni >Cr >Cd. (orig.)

  7. "Click" i polymerer 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    "Click"-reaktioner til fremstilling af ledende polymerer med funktionelle håndtag og bipolymermaterialer......"Click"-reaktioner til fremstilling af ledende polymerer med funktionelle håndtag og bipolymermaterialer...

  8. Synthesis of Diblock Codendrimer by Double Click Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Seung Choul; Ji, Won Ho [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sungho [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyeon [Gachon Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Efficient double click methods for the synthesis of diblock codendrimers were developed. The synthetic strategy involved the sequential click reactions between an alkyne and an azide. The short core building block, 1,4-diazidobutane, was chosen to serve as the azide functionalities for dendrimer growth via click reactions with the alkyne-functionalized PAMAM dendrons as hydrophilic dendron and alkyne-functionalized Frechet-type dendrons as hydrophobic dendron. The structure of diblock codendrimers was confirmed by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and GPC analysis.

  9. Synthesis of Diblock Codendrimer by Double Click Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Seung Choul; Ji, Won Ho; Jin, Sungho; Kim, Ji Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Efficient double click methods for the synthesis of diblock codendrimers were developed. The synthetic strategy involved the sequential click reactions between an alkyne and an azide. The short core building block, 1,4-diazidobutane, was chosen to serve as the azide functionalities for dendrimer growth via click reactions with the alkyne-functionalized PAMAM dendrons as hydrophilic dendron and alkyne-functionalized Frechet-type dendrons as hydrophobic dendron. The structure of diblock codendrimers was confirmed by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and GPC analysis

  10. Think Before You Click

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Be aware of what attachments you open and what Internet programs you agree to download, the simple click of a mouse can be enough to introduce a virus at CERN and cause widespread damage. Modern viruses are a serious threat to our computers and networks. CERN limits the security risks that these programs pose through the use of its firewall, by constantly updating its anti-virus software, by detecting un-patched security holes, and by blocking many dangerous attachments as they pass through e-mail gateways, but these defenses do not guarantee 100% security. Our habits of clicking "ok" automatically on the Internet and opening attachments without thinking, are the behaviors that modern viruses are using to get past our security protections. Viruses can sit on the Internet waiting for us to activate them as we surf the web. Many of us simply click 'ok' when presented with dialogue boxes and this is exactly what the virus wants: clicking can be enough to download and infect our computers. Viruses can travel as...

  11. Recording and quantification of ultrasonic echolocation clicks from free-ranging toothed whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Toothed whales produce short, ultrasonic clicks of high directionality and source level to probe their environment acoustically. This process, termed echolocation, is to a large part governed by the properties of the emitted clicks. Therefore derivation of click source parameters from free......-ranging animals is of increasing importance to understand both how toothed whales use echolocation in the wild and how they may be monitored acoustically. This paper addresses how source parameters can be derived from free-ranging toothed whales in the wild using calibrated multi-hydrophone arrays and digital...... of discrete versions of toothed whale clicks that are meaningful in a biosonar context....

  12. AutoClickChem: click chemistry in silico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D Durrant

    Full Text Available Academic researchers and many in industry often lack the financial resources available to scientists working in "big pharma." High costs include those associated with high-throughput screening and chemical synthesis. In order to address these challenges, many researchers have in part turned to alternate methodologies. Virtual screening, for example, often substitutes for high-throughput screening, and click chemistry ensures that chemical synthesis is fast, cheap, and comparatively easy. Though both in silico screening and click chemistry seek to make drug discovery more feasible, it is not yet routine to couple these two methodologies. We here present a novel computer algorithm, called AutoClickChem, capable of performing many click-chemistry reactions in silico. AutoClickChem can be used to produce large combinatorial libraries of compound models for use in virtual screens. As the compounds of these libraries are constructed according to the reactions of click chemistry, they can be easily synthesized for subsequent testing in biochemical assays. Additionally, in silico modeling of click-chemistry products may prove useful in rational drug design and drug optimization. AutoClickChem is based on the pymolecule toolbox, a framework that may facilitate the development of future python-based programs that require the manipulation of molecular models. Both the pymolecule toolbox and AutoClickChem are released under the GNU General Public License version 3 and are available for download from http://autoclickchem.ucsd.edu.

  13. AutoClickChem: click chemistry in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Jacob D; McCammon, J Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Academic researchers and many in industry often lack the financial resources available to scientists working in "big pharma." High costs include those associated with high-throughput screening and chemical synthesis. In order to address these challenges, many researchers have in part turned to alternate methodologies. Virtual screening, for example, often substitutes for high-throughput screening, and click chemistry ensures that chemical synthesis is fast, cheap, and comparatively easy. Though both in silico screening and click chemistry seek to make drug discovery more feasible, it is not yet routine to couple these two methodologies. We here present a novel computer algorithm, called AutoClickChem, capable of performing many click-chemistry reactions in silico. AutoClickChem can be used to produce large combinatorial libraries of compound models for use in virtual screens. As the compounds of these libraries are constructed according to the reactions of click chemistry, they can be easily synthesized for subsequent testing in biochemical assays. Additionally, in silico modeling of click-chemistry products may prove useful in rational drug design and drug optimization. AutoClickChem is based on the pymolecule toolbox, a framework that may facilitate the development of future python-based programs that require the manipulation of molecular models. Both the pymolecule toolbox and AutoClickChem are released under the GNU General Public License version 3 and are available for download from http://autoclickchem.ucsd.edu.

  14. Click synthesis of PET radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Kuang Chunxiang

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on synthesis radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET). The recent years witnessed applications of click chemistry to PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis,because of its distinctive advantages including high speed,yield and stereospecificity under mild conditions. Synthesis of 18 F-labeled and 11 C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and intermediates via click chemistry are reviewed. The future trend of click chemistry for the synthesis of PET radiopharmaceutical is prospected. (authors)

  15. Near-Infrared Emitting CuInSe2/CuInS2 Dot Core/Rod Shell Heteronanorods by Sequential Cation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The direct synthesis of heteronanocrystals (HNCs) combining different ternary semiconductors is challenging and has not yet been successful. Here, we report a sequential topotactic cation exchange (CE) pathway that yields CuInSe2/CuInS2 dot core/rod shell nanorods with near-infrared luminescence. In our approach, the Cu+ extraction rate is coupled to the In3+ incorporation rate by the use of a stoichiometric trioctylphosphine-InCl3 complex, which fulfills the roles of both In-source and Cu-extracting agent. In this way, Cu+ ions can be extracted by trioctylphosphine ligands only when the In–P bond is broken. This results in readily available In3+ ions at the same surface site from which the Cu+ is extracted, making the process a direct place exchange reaction and shifting the overall energy balance in favor of the CE. Consequently, controlled cation exchange can occur even in large and anisotropic heterostructured nanocrystals with preservation of the size, shape, and heterostructuring of the template NCs into the product NCs. The cation exchange is self-limited, stopping when the ternary core/shell CuInSe2/CuInS2 composition is reached. The method is very versatile, successfully yielding a variety of luminescent CuInX2 (X = S, Se, and Te) quantum dots, nanorods, and HNCs, by using Cd-chalcogenide NCs and HNCs as templates. The approach reported here thus opens up routes toward materials with unprecedented properties, which would otherwise remain inaccessible. PMID:26449673

  16. Cloning and characterization of luciferase from a Fijian luminous click beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Luminous click beetle is distributed almost exclusively in Central and South America with a single genus in Melanesia. Among these click beetles, the description of Melanesian species has been fragmentary, and its luciferase gene and phylogenetic relation to other click beetles still remain uncertain. We collected a living luminous click beetle, Photophorus jansonii in Fiji. It emits green-yellow light from two spots on the pronotum and has no ventral luminous organ. Here, we cloned a luciferase gene from this insect by RT-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity of ~85% to the luciferases derived from other click beetle species. The luciferase of the Fijian click beetle was produced as a recombinant protein to characterize its biochemical properties. The Km for D-luciferin and ATP were 173 and 270 μm, respectively. The luciferase was pH-insensitive and the spectrum measured at pH 8.0 showed a peak at 559 nm, which was in the range of green-yellow light as seen in the luminous spot of the living Fijian click beetle. The Fijian click beetle luciferase was assigned to the Elateridae clade by a phylogenetic analysis, but it made a clearly different branch from Pyrophorus group examined in this study. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Sperm whale clicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bertel; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T.

    2000-01-01

    . A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a cross-section of 1 m is expected to generate high-intensity, directional sounds. This prediction from the Norris and Harvey theory is not supported by published data for sperm whale clicks ~source levels of 180 dB re 1 mPa and little, if any......In sperm whales ~Physeter catodon L. 1758! the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey @in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 ~1972!, pp. 397–417# ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex......, directionality!. Either the theory is not borne out or the data is not representative for the capabilities of the sound-generating mechanism. To increase the amount of relevant data, a five-hydrophone array, suspended from three platforms separated by 1 km and linked by radio, was deployed at the slope...

  18. Linking Metal Ions via Inorganic Click (iClick) Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veige, Adam [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-11-17

    This final report discusses the major objectives of the project, a discussion of the objectives achieved, a discussion of the objectives that failed, and finally, a discussion of future directions given the new knowledge obtained. This one-year seed project (with one year no-cost extension) contained three objectives: A) Expand the scope of iClick synthesis beyond AuI/AuI reactions. B) Elucidate a CuI-catalyzed iClick reaction. C) Synthesize and characterize tri- and tetra-metallic complexes as models for metallopolymers. Objectives A and C were achieved, whereas only parts of objective B were achieved.

  19. Intense Ultrasonic clicks from echolocating toothed whales do not elicit anti-predator responses or debilitate the squid Loligo pealeii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Maria; Hanlon, Roger; Tyack, Peter

    2007-01-01

    an evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to develop a mechanism for detecting and evading sound-emitting toothed whale predators. Ultrasonic detection has evolved in some insects to avoid echolocating bats, and it can be hypothesized that cephalopods might have evolved similar ultrasound detection...... as an anti-predation measure. We test this hypothesis in the squid Loligo pealeii in a playback experiment using intense echolocation clicks from two squid-eating toothed whale species. Twelve squid were exposed to clicks at two repetition rates (16 and 125 clicks per second) with received sound pressure...... levels of 199-226dBre1μPa (pp) mimicking the sound exposure from an echolocating toothed whale as it approaches and captures prey. We demonstrate that intense ultrasonic clicks do not elicit any detectable anti-predator behaviour in L. pealeii and that clicks with received levels up to 226dBre1μPa (pp...

  20. Cows, clicks, ciphers, and satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Tyler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The social network game Farmville, which allows players to grow crops, raise animals, and produce a variety of goods, proved enormously successful within a year of its launch in 2009, attracting 110 million Facebook users. However, the game has been criticised for its mindless mechanics, which require little more than repeated clicking on its colourful icons. By way of parody, Ian Bogost’s Cow Clicker permits its players to simply click on a picture of a cow once every six hours. In this essay I extend Bogost’s critique and suggest that Cow Clicker highlights not just the soulless inanity of Farmville gameplay but also the paucity of that game’s portrayal of the painful reality of a dairy cow’s punishing daily existence and untimely end.

  1. Vocal reporting of echolocation targets: dolphins often report before click trains end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S H; Elsberry, W R; Blackwood, D J; Kamolnick, T; Todd, M; Carder, D A; Chaplin, Monica; Cranford, T W

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) wore opaque suction cups over their eyes while stationing behind an acoustically opaque door. This put the dolphins in a known position and orientation. When the door opened, the dolphin clicked to detect targets. Trainers specified that Dolphin S emit a whistle if the target was a 7.5 cm water filled sphere, or a pulse burst if the target was a rock. S remained quiet if there was no target. Dolphin B whistled for the sphere. She remained quiet for rock and for no target. Thus, S had to choose between three different responses, whistle, pulse burst, or remain quiet. B had to choose between two different responses, whistle or remain quiet. S gave correct vocal responses averaging 114 ms after her last echolocation click (range 182 ms before and 219 ms after the last click). Average response for B was 21 ms before her last echolocation click (range 250 ms before and 95 ms after the last click in the train). More often than not, B began her whistle response before her echolocation train ended. The findings suggest separate neural pathways for generation of response vocalizations as opposed to echolocation clicks. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  2. AZIDE-ALKYNE CLICK POLYMERIZATION: AN UPDATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kun Li; Jing-zhi Sun; An-jun Qin; Ben Zhong Tang

    2012-01-01

    The great achievements of click chemistry have encouraged polymer scientists to use this reaction in their field.This review assembles an update of the advances of using azide-alkyne click polymerization to prepare functional polytriazoles (PTAs) with linear and hyperbranched structures.The Cu(Ⅰ)-mediated click polymerization furnishes 1,4-regioregular PTAs,whereas,the metal-free click polymerization of propiolates and azides produces PTAs with 1,4-regioisomer contents up to 90%.The PTAs display advanced functions,such as aggregation-induced emission,thermal stability,biocompatibility and optical nonlinearity.

  3. The ZeroAccess Auto-Clicking and Search-Hijacking Click Fraud Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    payloads and instead began distributing Bitcoin miners and click fraud modules.3 From a technical perspective, the primary click fraud malware used in...this era operated in the indiscriminate “auto-clicking” fashion we describe in Section 5. Alongside the click fraud and Bitcoin payloads, ZeroAccess

  4. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  5. Luminescent zinc(ii) and copper(i) complexes for high-performance solution-processed monochromic and white organic light-emitting devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, device performances, and computational details. CCDC 1054456, 1400003 and 1400004. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03161j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; So, Gary Kwok-Ming; To, Wai-Pong; Chen, Yong; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Ma, Chensheng; Guan, Xiangguo; Chang, Xiaoyong; Kwok, Wai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of luminescent tetranuclear zinc(ii) complexes of substituted 7-azaindoles and a series of luminescent copper(i) complexes containing 7,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate ligand are described. These complexes are stable towards air and moisture. Thin film samples of the luminescent copper(i) complexes in 2,6-dicarbazolo-1,5-pyridine and zinc(ii) complexes in poly(methyl methacrylate) showed emission quantum yields of up to 0.60 (for Cu-3) and 0.96 (for Zn-1), respectively. Their photophysical properties were examined by ultrafast time-resolved emission spectroscopy, temperature dependent emission lifetime measurements and density functional theory calculations. Monochromic blue and orange solution-processed OLEDs with these Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as light-emitting dopants have been fabricated, respectively. Maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.55% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.16, 0.19) were accomplished with the optimized Zn-1-OLED while these values were, respectively 15.64% and (0.48, 0.51) for the optimized Cu-3-OLED. Solution-processed white OLEDs having maximum EQE of 6.88%, CIE coordinates of (0.42, 0.44), and colour rendering index of 81 were fabricated by using these luminescent Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as blue and orange light-emitting dopant materials, respectively. PMID:29142704

  6. Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilization followed a typical selective traffic enforcement program (STEP) sequence, involving paid media, earned media, and enforcement. A nationally representative telephone survey indicated that the mobilizatio...

  7. Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The 201 Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilization followed a typical elective traffic enforcement program TEP) sequence, involving paid media, earned media, and enforcement. A nationally representative telephone survey indicated that the mobilization wa...

  8. Click Spam Prevention Model for Online Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Zingirian; Michele Benini

    2018-01-01

    This paper shows a vulnerability of the pay-per-click accounting of Google Ads and proposes a statistical tradeoff-based approach to manage this vulnerability. The result of this paper is a model to calculate the overhead cost per click necessary to protect the subscribers and a simple algorithm to implement this protection. Simulations validate the correctness of the model and the economical applicability.

  9. Click chemistry for the conservation of cellular structures and fluorescent proteins: ClickOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschberger, Anna; Niehörster, Thomas; Sauer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, are known to cause structural damage not only in living, but also in fixed, cells. Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click chemistry) is known to produce ROS. Therefore, fluorescence imaging of cellular structures, such as the actin cytoskeleton, remains challenging when combined with click chemistry protocols. In addition, the production of ROS substantially weakens the fluorescence signal of fluorescent proteins. This led us to develop ClickOx, which is a new click chemistry protocol for improved conservation of the actin structure and better conservation of the fluorescence signal of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins. Herein we demonstrate that efficient oxygen removal by addition of an enzymatic oxygen scavenger system (ClickOx) considerably reduces ROS-associated damage during labeling of nascent DNA with ATTO 488 azide by Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. Standard confocal and super-resolution fluorescence images of phalloidin-labeled actin filaments and GFP/yellow fluorescent protein-labeled cells verify the conservation of the cytoskeleton microstructure and fluorescence intensity, respectively. Thus, ClickOx can be used advantageously for structure preservation in conventional and most notably in super-resolution microscopy methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Functionalization of chitosan by click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaburu-Yilmaz, Catalina Natalia; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Yilmaz, Onur

    2017-12-01

    Chitosan modification represents a challenge nowadays. The variety of compounds which can be obtained with various architectures and different functionalities made it attractive to be used in fields like pharmacy and material science. Presents study deals with the chemical modification of chitosan by using click chemistry technique. The study adopted the approach of clicking azidated chitosan with a synthesized alkyne terminated polymer i.e. poly N isopropylacrylamide with thermoresponsive properties. Structures were confirmed by the FT-IR and HNMR spectra. Thermal characterization was performed showing different thermal behaviour with the chemical modification. The final synthesized graft copolymer can play important role within pharmaceutical formulations carrying drugs for topical or oral treatments.

  11. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  12. Unsupervised Learning (Clustering) of Odontocete Echolocation Clicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    develop methods for clustering of marine mammal echolocation clicks to learn about species assemblages where little or no prior knowledge exists about... Mexico or the Atlanic. 2 APPROACH Acoustic encounters with odontocetes are detected automatically and noise-corrected cepstral features...Estmation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring (DCLDE). KL divergence maps were created for all known species, but the sperm whale

  13. Computer Security: one click and BOOM…

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Browsing the World Wide Web is not as easy as it seems… One wrong click and all your passwords (CERN, Facebook, PayPal, Amazon, etc.) could be stolen; all your activities could be clandestinely monitored (mouse movements and clicks, words typed, screenshots, microphone and webcam recordings, etc.); confidential documents could be stolen; and an attack path (a so-called back-door) into CERN could be opened…    As a result, you would have to reinstall your computer from scratch and change all your passwords! One of our colleagues learned this the hard way. One wrong click in summer 2015 permitted malicious attackers to infiltrate CERN but, fortunately, no real damage was done. Still, the cost of investigating the incident ran to several tens of thousands of Swiss francs and a lot of time was wasted trying to understand the attacker’s intent and the extent of the infiltration... With the goal of increasing more awareness of the risk of clicking on li...

  14. Conductive Polymer Functionalization by Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    Click chemistry is used to obtain new conductive polymer films based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) from a new azide functional monomer. Postpolymerization, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in DMF, using a catalyst system of CUS04 and sodium ascorbate, and different alkynes are performed...

  15. PREVENTING CLICK EVENT HIJACKING BY USER INTENTION INFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas Patil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are getting more complex and dynamic. By exploiting layout and JavaScript features of a web page, attackers can create web page objects that hijack users’ clicks. Such objects look like normal web page objects, but users’ clicks on these objects lead to unexpected browser actions, such as visiting different URLs or sending out malicious requests. We call this type of attacks click event hijacking attacks. The Facebook Clickjacking attack is an example, which puts a transparent layer containing the victim web application on top of another web page that lures users to click. While users think they click on the underlying web page, they actually click in the victim web application, resulting in unauthorized actions to the web application. In this paper, we propose a solution to mitigate the problem of click event hijacking by inferring users’ intentions. Our solution ClickGuard ensures that the browser’s behavior after a click matches the user’s original intention. The proposed solution is implemented as a Mozilla Firefox extension and evaluated its effectiveness against click event hijacking attacks.

  16. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes. Due to its abundance, the primary amine is the most convenient functional group handle in molecules for ligation to other molecules for a broad range of applications that impact all scientific fields. Because of the primary amine's central importance in synthetic chemistry, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and biology, many methods have been developed to efficiently react with primary amines, including activated carboxylic acids, isothiocyanates, Michael addition type systems, and reaction with ketones or aldehydes followed by in situ reductive amination. Herein, we introduce a new traceless, high-yield, fast click-chemistry method based on the rapid and efficient trapping of amine groups via a functionalized dialdehyde group. The click reaction occurs in mild conditions in organic solvents or aqueous media and proceeds in high yield, and the starting dialdehyde reagent and resulting dialdehyde click conjugates are stable. Moreover, no catalyst or dialdehyde-activating group is required, and the only byproduct is water. The initial dialdehyde and the resulting conjugate are both straightforward to characterize, and the reaction proceeds with high atom economy. To demonstrate the broad scope of this new click

  17. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  18. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs...... suppression is present in all CEOAEs for inter-click intervals (ICIs) less than 8 ms. The long-latency CEOAEs showed augmentation (i.e., negative suppression) for ICIs of 6-7 ms which was not reported for the short-latency CEOAE at these ICIs. A phenomenological approach is adopted here to explain both...

  19. Click it or ticket evaluation, 2008–2009 : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is a high-visibility enforcement : program to increase seat belt use. Click It or Ticket was : adopted as a national program in 2003 and is credited : with steady increases in seat belt use across the Nation. : In 2009, seat...

  20. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  1. Clicks versus Citations: Click Count as a Metric in High Energy Physics Publishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitton, Ayelet; /UC, San Diego /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    High-energy physicists worldwide rely on online resources such as SPIRES and arXiv to perform gather research and share their own publications. SPIRES is a tool designed to search the literature within high-energy physics, while arXiv provides the actual full-text documents of this literature. In high-energy physics, papers are often ranked according to the number of citations they acquire - meaning the number of times a later paper references the original. This paper investigates the correlation between the number of times a paper is clicked in order to be downloaded and the number of citations it receives following the click. It explores how physicists truly read what they cite.

  2. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation Clicks on Click-Based Population Density Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...will be applied also to other species such as sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (whose high source level assures long range detection and amplifies...improve the accuracy of marine mammal density estimation based on counting echolocation clicks, and will be applicable to density estimates obtained

  3. Predicting clicks of PubMed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed.

  4. Spectrogram analysis of low to mid frequency marine mammal clicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Larue, James P.; Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Kuczaj, Stan A.; Rayborn, Grayson H.; Walker, Christopher D.

    2004-05-01

    Previous investigators have proposed explanations for some sperm whale click structure and pointed out that the separation of individual pulses within the click might be used to determine approximately the size of the sperm whales. Recently, Mohl et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1124-1154 (2003)] have shown that echo-location click structure is highly dependent on the received angle. In data measured by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center using bottom-moored hydrophones in the northern Gulf of Mexico in the summers of 2001 and 2002, rich click structures were observed in the spectrograms of many click trains, some of which exhibit strikingly consistent spectral nulls across the train. Although this structure in the spectra could be due to propagation effects, investigations to date suggest this possibility is highly unlikely, as discussed in the next abstract. Therefore it is at least plausible that the structure could be used to identify individual animals. This is known to be a difficult problem in the case of sperm whales because of the angle dependence of at least some of their clicks. These difficulties are discussed, as is the possible use of the spectrograms of the clicks to identify individuals. [Research supported by ONR.

  5. Vocal sequential exchanges and intragroup spacing in the Northern Muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Francisco D C; Ades, César

    2004-06-01

    Sequential exchanges of vocalizations (staccatos and neighs) emitted by Northern Muriquis Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus were recorded at the Biological Station of Caratinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Staccatos and neighs containing larger proportion of short elements were preferentially produced during short-range exchanges; neighs, produced by a larger number of participants, were typical of long-range exchanges. Staccatos emitted by animals feeding in a dispersed manner contained a larger proportion of tonal elements than those emitted by muriquis feeding in a cohesive manner. Sequential exchanges seem thus to be constituted by two inter-related subsystems of calls that aid muriquis to coordinate intragroup spacing, despite the poor visibility of the habitat.

  6. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  7. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  8. Recent Advances in Click Chemistry Applied to Dendrimer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Arseneault

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the “click chemistry” concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  9. Evaluation of Kentucky's "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report was to document the results of the "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign in Kentucky. The campaign involved a combination of earned media, paid media, and enforcement. : The evaluation of the campaign included documenting th...

  10. Click Bait: You Won’t Believe What Happens Next!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this chapter is to investigate Click Bait, one of the strategies most commonly used by online news journalists aiming to make their headlines more attractive to readers. The chapter begins by studying Social Networks and the power they give marketers in spreading information. Next, a historical context to Click Bait is presented through its origins as Yellow Journalism, a 19th century journalism trend focused on hyperbolizing news headlines in order to increase sales. Finally, Click Bait is studied as the online application of techniques like Yellow Journalism. This section analyzes semantics and some of the most popular headline construction formulas. Literature on this matter concluded that the use of certain headline construction formulas yields significant increase in click-through rates. These increases could be beneficial to the publishing organization as they increase advertising impressions, but could also be detrimental, as these hyperbolic headlines may make readers feel manipulated.

  11. Applications of Azide-Based Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry in Glycobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Click chemistry is a powerful chemical reaction with excellent bioorthogonality features: biocompatible, rapid and highly specific in biological environments. For glycobiology, bioorthogonal click chemistry has created a new method for glycan non-invasive imaging in living systems, selective metabolic engineering, and offered an elite chemical handle for biological manipulation and glycomics studies. Especially the [3 + 2] dipolar cycloadditions of azides with strained alkynes and the Staudinger ligation of azides and triarylphosphines have been widely used among the extant click reactions. This review focuses on the azide-based bioorthogonal click chemistry, describing the characteristics and development of these reactions, introducing some recent applications in glycobiology research, especially in glycan metabolic engineering, including glycan non-invasive imaging, glycomics studies and viral surface manipulation for drug discovery as well as other applications like activity-based protein profiling and carbohydrate microarrays.

  12. Click It or Ticket evaluation : 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, widely publicized enforcement efforts used to improve seat belt use. Annual national mobilizations have been conducted in May every year since 2003. National and State expenditures ...

  13. Click Spam Prevention Model for On-Line Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Zingirian, Nicola; Benini, Michele

    2018-01-01

    This paper shows a vulnerability of the pay-per-click accounting of Google Ads and proposes a statistical tradeoff-based approach to manage this vulnerability. The result of this paper is a model to calculate the overhead cost per click necessary to protect the subscribers and a simple algorithm to implement this protection. Simulations validate the correctness of the model and the economical applicability.

  14. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  15. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  16. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  17. Click-coated, heparinized, decellularized vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrievska, Sashka; Cai, Chao; Weyers, Amanda; Balestrini, Jenna L; Lin, Tylee; Sundaram, Sumati; Hatachi, Go; Spiegel, David A; Kyriakides, Themis R; Miao, Jianjun; Li, Guoyun; Niklason, Laura E; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    A novel method enabling the engineering of a dense and appropriately oriented heparin-containing layer on decellularized aortas has been developed. Amino groups of decellularized aortas were first modified to azido groups using 3-azidobenzoic acid. Azide-clickable dendrons were attached onto the azido groups through "alkyne-azide" click chemistry, affording a tenfold amplification of adhesions sites. Dendron end groups were finally decorated with end-on modified heparin chains. Heparin chains were oriented like heparan sulfate groups on native endothelial cells surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesis steps, building the final heparin layered coatings. The continuity of the heparin coating was verified using fluorescent microscopy and histological analysis. The efficacy of heparin linkage was demonstrated with factor Xa anti-thrombogenic assay and platelet adhesion studies. The results suggest that oriented heparin immobilization to decellularized aortas may improve the in vivo blood compatibility of decellularized aortas and vessels. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  19. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  20. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis

    In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....

  1. Sequential Power-Dependence Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de

    2008-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike

  2. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  3. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...

  4. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haishi; Zhang Bo; Sun Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (V DIF ) between the voltage of an input capacitance (V CIN ) and a reference voltage (V REF ) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge V CIN to roughly near V REF . Then a correction loop further charges or discharges V CIN , substantially equalizing it with V REF . Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Jiang, Sun

    2012-08-01

    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (VDIF) between the voltage of an input capacitance (VCIN) and a reference voltage (VREF) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge VCIN to roughly near VREF. Then a correction loop further charges or discharges VCIN, substantially equalizing it with VREF. Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop.

  6. Ukufundisa izicuku zeziqhakancu emagameni (Teaching click clusters in words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gxowa-Dlayedwa, Ntombizodwa Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some teachers find it uninteresting and difficult to teach isiXhosa phonemes and syllables to grade one to three learners. This has a negative impact as the literacy results are low because learners’ reading and writing skills are poor. The linguistics terms featuring in the title, namely; consonants, vowels and syllables as found in words facilitate reading, and thus improve literacy standards in every language. IsiXhosa is one of the eleven official languages in South Africa. Phonemes include clicks and/or click cluster and vowels. On the other hand, there are people who are interested in learning to speak isiXhosa, but the difficulties encountered during the pronunciation of clicks discourage many of them. This study believes that the knowledge of phonemes and syllables will boost the literacy standard in isiXhosa. Therefore, the purposes of this study are to show that clicks and click clusters are found in major word categories which are in life circles. Secondly, if words are divided into segments, it becomes easy to produce them in print and reading skills. Thirdly, reading is possible in every language, and most importantly, skills are transferable. The current study therefore, argues that the knowledge of phonemes and syllables facilitates reading and creative writing skills. The data used in this study were taken from a novel written by Sidlayi (2009. Few examples have been given by the researchers themselves with an objective to clarify some ideas.

  7. Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Charles; Frontera, Biel; Sebastián, Kristian; Pau Beltran, Joan; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Gómara, Sonia; Gomila, Mikel; Escudier, Romain; Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Garau, Angels; Cañellas, Tomeu; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-04-01

    "Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click" is a research and dissemination project focused on the scientific, technological and societal approaches of the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System ({SOCIB}{www.socib.es}) in a collaboration with "la Caixa" Foundation. SOCIB aims at research excellence and the development of technology which enables progress toward the sustainable management of coastal and marine environments, providing solutions to meet the needs of society. Medclic goes one step forward and has two main goals: at the scientific level, to advance in establishing and understanding the mesoscale variability at the regional scale and its interaction, and thus improving the characterisation of the "oceanic weather" in the Mediterranean; at the outreach level: to bring SOCIB and the new paradigm of multi-platform observation in real time closer to society, through scientific outreach. SOCIB Data Centre is the core of the new multi-platform and real time oceanography and is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions and provides data in line with international standards and conventions (INSPIRE, netCDF Climate and Forecast, ldots). In addition, the Data Centre has implemented a REST web service, called Data Discovery. This service allows data generated by SOCIB to be integrated into applications developed by the Data Centre itself or by third parties, as it is the case with Medclic. Relying on this data distribution, the new web Medclic, www.medclic.es, constitutes an interactive scientific and educational area of communication that contributes to the rapprochement of the general public with the new marine and coastal observing technologies. Thanks to the Medclic web, data coming from new observing technologies in oceanography are available in real time and in one clic

  8. Synthesis of hydrogel via click chemistry for DNA electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Chiara; Sola, Laura; Elliott, Jim; Chiari, Marcella

    2017-09-01

    This work introduces a novel sieving gel for DNA electrophoresis using a classical click chemistry reaction, the copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), to cross-link functional polymer chains. The efficiency of this reaction provides, under mild conditions, hydrogels with near-ideal network connectivity and improved physical properties. Hydrogel formation via click chemistry condensation of functional polymers does not involve the use of toxic monomers and UV initiation. The performance of the new hydrogel in the separation of double stranded DNA fragments was evaluated in the 2200 TapeStation system, an analytical platform, recently introduced by Agilent that combines the advantages of CE in terms of miniaturization and automation with the simplicity of use of slab gel electrophoresis. The click gel enables addition of florescent dyes prior to electrophoresis with considerable improvement of resolution and separation efficiency over conventional cross-linked polyacrylamide gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  10. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  11. VeriClick: an efficient tool for table format verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, George; Tamhankar, Mangesh

    2012-01-01

    The essential layout attributes of a visual table can be defined by the location of four critical grid cells. Although these critical cells can often be located by automated analysis, some means of human interaction is necessary for correcting residual errors. VeriClick is a macro-enabled spreadsheet interface that provides ground-truthing, confirmation, correction, and verification functions for CSV tables. All user actions are logged. Experimental results of seven subjects on one hundred tables suggest that VeriClick can provide a ten- to twenty-fold speedup over performing the same functions with standard spreadsheet editing commands.

  12. Complex Surface Concentration Gradients by Stenciled "Electro Click Chemistry"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2010-01-01

    Complex one- or two-dimensional concentration gradients of alkynated molecules are produced on azidized conducting polymer substrates by stenciled "electro click chemistry". The latter describes the local electrochemical generation of catalytically active Cu(I) required to complete a "click...... reaction" between alkynes and azides at room temperature. A stencil on the counter electrode defines the shape and multiplicity of the gradient(s) on the conducting polymer substrate, while the specific reaction conditions control gradient steepness and the maximum concentration deposited. Biologically...

  13. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  14. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  15. Echolocation click source parameters of Australian snubfin dolphins (Orcaella heinsohni)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Freitas, Mafalda; Smith, Joshua N; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-01-01

    The Australian snubfin dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) is endemic to Australian waters, yet little is known about its abundance and habitat use. To investigate the feasibility of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for snubfin dolphins, biosonar clicks were recorded in Cygnet Bay, Australia, using a four-el...

  16. Compact Web browsing profiles for click-through rate prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Bjarne Ørum; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    In real time advertising we are interested in finding features that improve click-through rate prediction. One source of available information is the bipartite graph of websites previously engaged by identifiable users. In this work, we investigate three different decompositions of such a graph...

  17. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  18. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  19. N-PEG´ylation of chitosan via "click chemistry" reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulbokaite, R.; Ciuta, G.; Netopilík, Miloš; Makuška, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2009), s. 771-778 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chitosan * poly(ethylene glycol) * click chemistry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.461, year: 2009

  20. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface...

  1. Vocal sequential exchanges and intragroup spacing in the Northern Muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Francisco D.C.; Ades,César

    2004-01-01

    Sequential exchanges of vocalizations (staccatos and neighs) emitted by Northern Muriquis Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus were recorded at the Biological Station of Caratinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Staccatos and neighs containing larger proportion of short elements were preferentially produced during short-range exchanges; neighs, produced by a larger number of participants, were typical of long-range exchanges. Staccatos emitted by animals feeding in a dispersed manner contained a ...

  2. Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2011-11-07

    We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where non-transparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

  3. Click nucleic acid ligation: applications in biology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2012-08-21

    Biochemical strategies that use a combination of synthetic oligonucleotides, thermostable DNA polymerases, and DNA ligases can produce large DNA constructs up to 1 megabase in length. Although these ambitious targets are feasible biochemically, comparable technologies for the chemical synthesis of long DNA strands lag far behind. The best available chemical approach is the solid-phase phosphoramidite method, which can be used to assemble DNA strands up to 150 bases in length. Beyond this point, deficiencies in the chemistry make it impossible to produce pure DNA. A possible alternative approach to the chemical synthesis of large DNA strands is to join together carefully purified synthetic oligonucleotides by chemical methods. Click ligation by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne (CuAAC) reaction could facilitate this process. In this Account, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and applications of oligonucleotides prepared by click ligation. The alkyne and azide oligonucleotide strands can be prepared by standard protocols, and the ligation reaction is compatible with a wide range of chemical modifications to DNA and RNA. We have employed click ligation to synthesize DNA constructs up to 300 bases in length and much longer sequences are feasible. When the resulting triazole linkage is placed in a PCR template, various DNA polymerases correctly copy the entire base sequence. We have also successfully demonstrated both in vitro transcription and rolling circle amplification through the modified linkage. This linkage has shown in vivo biocompatibility: an antibiotic resistance gene containing triazole linkages functions in E. coli . Using click ligation, we have synthesized hairpin ribozymes up to 100 nucleotides in length and a hammerhead ribozyme with the triazole linkage located at the substrate cleavage site. At the opposite end of the length scale, click-ligated, cyclic mini-DNA duplexes have been used as models to study base pairing. Cyclic duplexes have

  4. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  5. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  6. Estimating Ads’ Click through Rate with Recurrent Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet, online advertising spreads across every corner of the world, the ads' click through rate (CTR estimation is an important method to improve the online advertising revenue. Compared with the linear model, the nonlinear models can study much more complex relationships between a large number of nonlinear characteristics, so as to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the ads’ CTR. The recurrent neural network (RNN based on Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM is an improved model of the feedback neural network with ring structure. The model overcomes the problem of the gradient of the general RNN. Experiments show that the RNN based on LSTM exceeds the linear models, and it can effectively improve the estimation effect of the ads’ click through rate.

  7. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  8. Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)

  9. Understanding Mircrobial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    chemistry , microbiology and worked with the second fellow from von Andrian lab on the immunology and microscopy. Teaching has come from several...to follow essentially any bacteria using fluorescent techniques into the host or other environments. This chemistry is also a potential method for...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0367 TITLE: Understanding Microbial Sensing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Click Chemistry PRINCIPAL

  10. "Click" saccharide/beta-lactam hybrids for lectin inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Claudio; Aizpurua, Jesus M; Balentová, Eva; Azcune, Itxaso; Santos, J Ignacio; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Cañada, Javier; Miranda, José Ignacio

    2008-06-05

    Hybrid glycopeptide beta-lactam mimetics designed to bind lectins or carbohydrate recognition domains in selectins have been prepared according to a "shape-modulating linker" design. This approach was implemented using the azide-alkyne "click" cycloaddition reaction, and as shown by NMR/MD experiments, binding of the resulting mimetics to Ulex Europaeus Lectin-1 (UEL-1) occurred after a "bent-to-extended" conformational change around a partially rotatable triazolylmethylene moiety.

  11. Optimized Cost per Click in Taobao Display Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Han; Jin, Junqi; Tan, Chang; Pan, Fei; Zeng, Yifan; Li, Han; Gai, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Taobao, as the largest online retail platform in the world, provides billions of online display advertising impressions for millions of advertisers every day. For commercial purposes, the advertisers bid for specific spots and target crowds to compete for business traffic. The platform chooses the most suitable ads to display in tens of milliseconds. Common pricing methods include cost per mille (CPM) and cost per click (CPC). Traditional advertising systems target certain traits of users and...

  12. All in the family: matrimonial mitral valve clicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desser, K B; Bokhari, S I; Benchimol, A; Romney, D

    1981-05-01

    Mitral valve clicks with or without late systolic murmurs were detected in genetically unrelated marital partners of 5 families. The first family represented 2 successive nonconsanguineous marital unions with 3 generations of mitral valve clicks. The second family included 1 natural and 2 adopted children with clinical and echographic evidence of mitral valve prolapse. The third family was comprised of asymptomatic parents, both with nonejection clicks and mitral valve prolapse, whose daughter presented 3 years previously with syncope, palpitations, and combined mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse. The fourth family had 3 members with auscultatory and ultrasonic manifestations of billowing mitral valve, whereas the fourth member had "silent mitral valve prolapse." The fifth family represented a mother with auscultatory and echographic evidence of mitral valve prolapse; her 14-year-old daughter had both mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse, whereas the son had a bicuspid aortic valve. Both children were products of a prior marriage, and her husband has symptomatic mitral valve prolapse. We conclude that matrimonial mitral valve prolapse probably reflects the purported (6--10%) prevalence of this disorder in the general population. The consequences of such marital union on progeny is currently unclear and warrants future investigation.

  13. Click rates and silences of sperm whales at Kaikoura, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Lesley A.; Dawson, Stephen M.; Jaquet, Nathalie

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of the usual click rates of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) at Kaikoura, New Zealand, confirms the potential for assessing abundance via ``click counting.'' Usual click rates over three dive cycles each of three photographically identified whales showed that 5 min averages of usual click rate did not differ significantly within dives, among dives of the same whale or among whales. Over the nine dives (n=13 728 clicks) mean usual click rate was 1.272 clicks s-1 (95% CI=0.151). On average, individual sperm whales at Kaikoura spent 60% of their time usual clicking in winter and in summer. There was no evidence that whale identity or stage of the dive recorded affects significantly the percentage of time spent usual clicking. Differences in vocal behavior among sperm whale populations worldwide indicate that estimates of abundance that are based on click rates need to based on data from the population of interest, rather than from another population or some global average.

  14. Treatment Effects of Maxillary Flat Occlusal Splints for Painful Clicking of the Temporomandibular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wen Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing therapies for symptoms related to painful clicking of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ have rarely met with complete success and predicting prognosis remains difficult. Few studies have reported the efficacy of maxillary flat occlusal splints (MFOSs for the treatment of painful clicking of the TMJ, and few studies have evaluated the predisposing factors that influence the clinical outcomes of MFOSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment efficacy of MFOSs for painful clicking of the TMJ, and to determine the factors influencing TMJ therapy with MFOSs. We conducted a retrospective study of 109 patients suffering from unilateral clicking concurrent with preauricular area pain for at least 2 months between 2004 and 2008. Seventy-five patients were treated with an MFOS, while 34 patients did not receive MFOS therapy. Clicking score, pain-free maximal mouth opening, pain score, duration of the clicking sounds, age and bruxism were recorded during treatment and involved into the reviews. The degree of joint clicking was determined by a stethoscope placed in the anterolateral area of the external auditory canal and was divided into four grades. Data were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test. Results showed statistically significant differences in treatment outcomes between the MFOS-treated and control groups in clicking index, maximal mouth opening, pain and complete remission rates of symptoms within 1 year. Furthermore, for patients treated with MFOS, there were statistically significant differences in the clinical outcomes between those with a high clicking index and those with a low index before treatment. Factors significantly correlated with successful outcomes of MFOS included nocturnal bruxism, patient age and duration of clicking. MFOSs can be used to treat patients with painful clicking of the TMJ and related symptoms. The severity of clicking, bruxism, age and duration of

  15. Framework for sequential approximate optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python

  16. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  17. Vocal sequential exchanges and intragroup spacing in the Northern Muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Francisco D.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential exchanges of vocalizations (staccatos and neighs emitted by Northern Muriquis Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus were recorded at the Biological Station of Caratinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Staccatos and neighs containing larger proportion of short elements were preferentially produced during short-range exchanges; neighs, produced by a larger number of participants, were typical of long-range exchanges. Staccatos emitted by animals feeding in a dispersed manner contained a larger proportion of tonal elements than those emitted by muriquis feeding in a cohesive manner. Sequential exchanges seem thus to be constituted by two inter-related subsystems of calls that aid muriquis to coordinate intragroup spacing, despite the poor visibility of the habitat.

  18. Deteção de anomalias em modelos de publicidade Pay-Per-Click

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Eduardo Luís da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Informática Nowadays, online advertisement is one of the most effective and profitable marketing strategies. An example of strong growth in online advertisement is the Pay-Per-Click Advertising Model where all parties are benefited. Due to the number of stakeholders and the amount of money involved, it is inevitable to find efficient methods to analyse the validity of clicks on online advertising, specifically in Pay-Per-Click. The co...

  19. Pricing of on-line advertising: pay-per-view or pay-per-click?

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the choice of pay-per-view (PPV) and price-per-click (PPC) when a web publisher is a price taker in the market for advertising banners, and the number of visits is decreasing in advertising. The main result is that the web publisher should always choose either PPV or PPC. If the click-through rate is exogenous, then the optimal amount of advertising is the same for both pricing metholds and the choice of pricing method is given by the click-through rate. If the click-through rate i...

  20. Remarks on sequential designs in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenfeld, T.

    1982-01-01

    The special merits of sequential designs are reviewed in light of particular challenges that attend risk assessment for human population. The kinds of ''statistical inference'' are distinguished and the problem of design which is pursued is the clash between Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian programs of sequential design. The value of sequential designs is discussed and the Neyman-Pearson vs. Bayesian sequential designs are probed in particular. Finally, warnings with sequential designs are considered, especially in relation to utilitarianism

  1. Efficient One-click Browsing of Large Trajectory Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    presents a novel query type called sheaf, where users can browse trajectory data sets using a single mouse click. Sheaves are very versatile and can be used for location-based advertising, travel-time analysis, intersection analysis, and reachability analysis (isochrones). A novel in-memory trajectory...... index compresses the data by a factor of 12.4 and enables execution of sheaf queries in 40 ms. This is up to 2 orders of magnitude faster than existing work. We demonstrate the simplicity, versatility, and efficiency of sheaf queries using a real-world trajectory set consisting of 2.7 million...

  2. Functionalization of PEDOT by Click Chemistry and ATRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    Poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a conductive polymer which has received increasing attention and many developments have been investigated. PEDOT has been applied in many different areas such as biosensors or polymer solar cells. This work presents a modification of PEDOT films through...... Click Chemistry with alkynes followed by activator regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to develop PEDOT films with anti‐fouling properties through application of a model system based on a crosslinked surface of polystyrene PS‐N3....

  3. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  4. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  5. Sequential logic analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a

  6. Positron emitting pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of physiology at the molecular level bridges the gap between laboratory science and clinical medicine by providing the most specific and sensitive means for imaging molecular pathways and interactions in tissues of man. PET-imaging requires the use Positron Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals (PRPs), which are radioactively labeled 'true metabolites' i.e., sugars, amino acids, fatty acids etc., essentially made of H, C, N and O which the cells in the body can metabolize. The PET-isotopes: 11 C, 15 O, 13 N and 18 F (instead of H) are cyclotron produced and are short-lived, which places several constraints on the synthesis time for the PRPs, quality control and their clinical use as compared to the conventional 99m Tc- and other SPECT-RPs widely used in nuclear medicine. There are large number of published reports showing the utility of several PRPs labeled with 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min) and 11 C (T 1/2 = 20 min). A few PRPs have been labeled with 13 N (T 1/2 = 10 min). 15 O (T 1/2 = 2min) is used mostly as H 2 15 O, C 15 or C 15 O 2 . 18 F-radiopharmaceuticals can be made at a medical cyclotron facility and sent to PET -imaging centres, which can be reached in a couple of hours. The sensitivity of PET -imaging has encouraged R and D in several other PRPs, labeled with viz., 68 Ga (generator produced, T 1/2 68 min), 124 I (cyclotron, T 1/2 4.2 d), 82 Rb (generator, T 1/2 75s), 64 Cu (cyclotron, T 1/2 12h), and 94m Tc (cyclotron, T 1/2 52 min). Due to its relevance in several diseases, particularly cancer, PET-imaging has made major scientific contribution to drug development, particularly for neurological diseases and cancer treatment. (author)

  7. Grafting of Polycaprolactone on Oxidized Nanocelluloses by Click Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the grafting of polycaprolactone diol (PCL on the surface of oxidized nanocelluloses (ONC in order to enhance the compatibility between the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibres and the hydrophobic polymer matrix. This grafting was successfully realized with a new strategy known as click chemistry. In this context, the oxidized nanocelluloses bearing alkyl groups (ONC-PR were prepared by reacting amino groups of propargylamine (PR with carboxyl groups of ONC. In parallel, PCL was converted into azido-polycaprolactone (PCL-N3 in two steps: (i tosylation of polycaprolactone (PCL-OTs and (ii conversion of PCL-OTs into PCL-N3 by nucleophilic displacement using sodium azide. Finally, ONC-PR was reacted with PCL-N3 in heterogeneous conditions through click chemistry in order to prepare polycaprolactone grafted oxidized nanocellulose (ONC-g-PCL, which could be suitable for improving the interfacial adhesion in the composite materials. The grafted samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques.

  8. Grafting of Polycaprolactone on Oxidized Nanocelluloses by Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkaddour, Abdelhaq; Jradi, Khalil; Robert, Sylvain; Daneault, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is the grafting of polycaprolactone diol (PCL) on the surface of oxidized nanocelluloses (ONC) in order to enhance the compatibility between the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibres and the hydrophobic polymer matrix. This grafting was successfully realized with a new strategy known as click chemistry. In this context, the oxidized nanocelluloses bearing alkyl groups (ONC-PR) were prepared by reacting amino groups of propargylamine (PR) with carboxyl groups of ONC. In parallel, PCL was converted into azido-polycaprolactone (PCL-N3) in two steps: (i) tosylation of polycaprolactone (PCL-OTs) and (ii) conversion of PCL-OTs into PCL-N3 by nucleophilic displacement using sodium azide. Finally, ONC-PR was reacted with PCL-N3 in heterogeneous conditions through click chemistry in order to prepare polycaprolactone grafted oxidized nanocellulose (ONC-g-PCL), which could be suitable for improving the interfacial adhesion in the composite materials. The grafted samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR) spectroscopic techniques. PMID:28348327

  9. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  10. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  11. Improving Web Page Retrieval using Search Context from Clicked Domain Names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.

    Search context is a crucial factor that helps to understand a user’s information need in ad-hoc Web page retrieval. A query log of a search engine contains rich information on issued queries and their corresponding clicked Web pages. The clicked data implies its relevance to the query and can be

  12. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in children and adolescents with gender identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, Sarah M; Menks, Willeke M; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like sounds that are produced by the inner ear in response to click-stimuli. CEOAEs generally have a higher amplitude in women compared to men and neonates already show a similar sex difference in CEOAEs. Weaker responses in males are proposed to

  13. Click-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Children and Adolescents with Gender Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, S.M.; Menks, W.M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Klink, D.T.; Bakker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like sounds that are produced by the inner ear in response to click-stimuli. CEOAEs generally have a higher amplitude in women compared to men and neonates already show a similar sex difference in CEOAEs. Weaker responses in males are proposed to

  14. An API-based search system for one click access to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Tax, Niek; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    This paper proposes a prototype One Click access system, based on previous work in the field and the related 1CLICK-2@NTCIR10 task. The proposed solution integrates methods from into a three tier algorithm: query categorization, information extraction and output generation and offers suggestions on

  15. Aiming and clicking in young children's use of the computer mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.; Reitsma, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the abilities of young children to aim and click with a computer mouse. Young children have not yet fully developed their motor skills and they are therefore more likely than adults to click next to targets on the computer screen. Because in educational software

  16. Clicking in a killer whale habitat: narrow-band, high-frequency biosonar clicks of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line A Kyhn

    Full Text Available Odontocetes produce a range of different echolocation clicks but four groups in different families have converged on producing the same stereotyped narrow band high frequency (NBHF click. In microchiropteran bats, sympatric species have evolved the use of different acoustic niches and subtly different echolocation signals to avoid competition among species. In this study, we examined whether similar adaptations are at play among sympatric porpoise species that use NBHF echolocation clicks. We used a six-element hydrophone array to record harbour and Dall's porpoises in British Columbia (BC, Canada, and harbour porpoises in Denmark. The click source properties of all porpoise groups were remarkably similar and had an average directivity index of 25 dB. Yet there was a small, but consistent and significant 4 kHz difference in centroid frequency between sympatric Dall's (137±3 kHz and Canadian harbour porpoises (141±2 kHz. Danish harbour porpoise clicks (136±3 kHz were more similar to Dall's porpoise than to their conspecifics in Canada. We suggest that the spectral differences in echolocation clicks between the sympatric porpoises are consistent with evolution of a prezygotic isolating barrier (i.e., character displacement to avoid hybridization of sympatric species. In practical terms, these spectral differences have immediate application to passive acoustic monitoring.

  17. Harbor porpoise clicks do not have conditionally minimum time bandwidth product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that odontocete clicks have minimal time frequency product given their delay and center frequency values is tested by using an in-phase averaged porpoise click compared with a pure tone weighted with the same envelope. These signals have the same delay and the same center frequency...... values but the time bandwidth product of the artificial click is only 0.76 that of the original. Therefore signals with the same parameters exist that have a lower time bandwidth product. The observation that porpoise clicks are in fact minimum phase is confirmed for porpoise clicks and this property...... is argued to be incompatible with optimal reception, if auditory filters are also minimum phase....

  18. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  19. Effect Of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted From Mobile Phone On Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential In Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone (MP) is commonly used communication tool. Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from MP may have potential health hazards. So, it was planned to study the effect of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from the mobile phone on brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in male subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. BAEPs were recorded using standard method of 10-20 system of electrode placement and sound click stimuli of specified intensity, duration and frequency.Right ear was exposed to EMW emitted from MP for about 10 min. On comparison of before and after exposure to MP in right ear (found to be dominating ear), there was significant increase in latency of II, III (p potential.

  20. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  1. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  2. Sequential Probability Ration Tests : Conservative and Robust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Shi, Wen

    2017-01-01

    In practice, most computers generate simulation outputs sequentially, so it is attractive to analyze these outputs through sequential statistical methods such as sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs). We investigate several SPRTs for choosing between two hypothesized values for the mean output

  3. Random sequential adsorption of cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  4. Assessing segmentation processes by click detection: online measure of statistical learning, or simple interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana; Gaillard, Vinciane; Cleeremans, Axel; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    Statistical learning can be used to extract the words from continuous speech. Gómez, Bion, and Mehler (Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 212-223, 2011) proposed an online measure of statistical learning: They superimposed auditory clicks on a continuous artificial speech stream made up of a random succession of trisyllabic nonwords. Participants were instructed to detect these clicks, which could be located either within or between words. The results showed that, over the length of exposure, reaction times (RTs) increased more for within-word than for between-word clicks. This result has been accounted for by means of statistical learning of the between-word boundaries. However, even though statistical learning occurs without an intention to learn, it nevertheless requires attentional resources. Therefore, this process could be affected by a concurrent task such as click detection. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which the click detection task indeed reflects successful statistical learning. Our results suggest that the emergence of RT differences between within- and between-word click detection is neither systematic nor related to the successful segmentation of the artificial language. Therefore, instead of being an online measure of learning, the click detection task seems to interfere with the extraction of statistical regularities.

  5. Comparison of echolocation clicks from geographically sympatric killer whales and long-finned pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida; Wahlberg, Magnus; Simon, Malene

    2010-01-01

    The source characteristics of biosonar signals from sympatric killer whales and long-finned pilot whales in a Norwegian fjord were compared. A total of 137 pilot whale and more than 2000 killer whale echolocation clicks were recorded using a linear four-hydrophone array. Of these, 20 pilot whale...... clicks and 28 killer whale clicks were categorized as being recorded on-axis. The clicks of pilot whales had a mean apparent source level of 196 dB re 1 lPa pp and those of killer whales 203 dB re 1 lPa pp. The duration of pilot whale clicks was significantly shorter (23 ls, S.E.¼1.3) and the centroid...... frequency significantly higher (55 kHz, S.E.¼2.1) than killer whale clicks (duration: 41 ls, S.E.¼2.6; centroid frequency: 32 kHz, S.E.¼1.5). The rate of increase in the accumulated energy as a function of time also differed between clicks from the two species. The differences in duration, frequency...

  6. A comparison of muscular activity during single and double mouse clicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Stefan; Forsman, Mikael; Hallbeck, Susan

    2005-05-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the neck/shoulder region and the upper extremities are a common problem among computer workers. Occurrences of motor unit (MU) double discharges with very short inter-firing intervals (doublets) have been hypothesised as a potential additional risk for overuse of already exhausted fibres during long-term stereotyped activity. Doublets are reported to be present during double-click mouse work tasks. A few comparative studies have been carried out on overall muscle activities for short-term tasks with single types of actions, but none on occurrences of doublets during double versus single clicks. The main purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity levels of single and double mouse clicks during a long-term combined mouse/keyboard work task. Four muscles were studied: left and right upper trapezius, right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and right flexor carpi ulnaris. Additionally, MU activity was analysed through intramuscular electromyography in the EDC muscle for a selection of subjects. The results indicate that double clicking produces neither higher median or 90th percentile levels in the trapezius and EDC muscles, nor a higher disposition for MU doublets, than does single clicking. Especially for the 90th percentile levels, the indications are rather the opposite (in the EDC significantly higher during single clicks in 8 of 11 subjects, P < 0.05). Although it cannot be concluded from the present study that double clicks are harmless, there were no signs that double clicks during computer work generally constitute a larger risk factor for WMSDs than do single clicks.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  8. Directionality of sperm whale sonar clicks and its relation to piston radiation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, K.; Møhl, Bertel

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability to sperm whales of the theory of sound radiating from a piston. The theory is applied to a physical model and to a series of sperm whale clicks. Results show that wave forms of off-axis signals can be reproduced by convolving an on-axis signal...... with the spatial impulse response of a piston. The angle of a recorded click can be estimated as the angle producing the spatial impulse response that gives the best match with the observation when convolved with the on-axis wave form. It is concluded that piston theory applies to sperm whale sonar click emission....

  9. Analysis of internet advertisement type PPC (Pay-Per-Click) in concrete firm (Cedar home)

    OpenAIRE

    Krausová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to present the features of internet advertising. The main type of advertisement in this thesis is called PPC (Pay-Per-Click). There are created and advertised advertising campaigns on concrete project.

  10. Navigation To and From a Page: Which Links Get Clicked From Where

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use Google Analytics navigation summary data to find out what page users most frequently click your Contact Us link from (Previous Page Path), or which links on your homepage are popular or unpopular (Next Page Path).

  11. Nanofabrication Yields. Hybridization and Click-Fixation of Polycyclic DNA Nanoassemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Lundberg, Erik P.; Plesa, Calin; Wilhelmsson, L. Marcus; Lincoln, Per; Brown, Tom; Nordén, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    introduced site-specific click chemistry for making and purifying robust building blocks for future modular constructs of larger assemblies. Although the present yield of this robust module was only about 10%, it demonstrates a first step toward a general

  12. A New Modular Approach to Nanoassembly: Stable and Addressable DNA Nanoconstructs via Orthogonal Click Chemistries

    KAUST Repository

    Gerrard, Simon R.; Hardiman, Claire; Shelbourne, Montserrat; Nandhakumar, Iris; Nordé n, Bengt; Brown, Tom

    2012-01-01

    chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored

  13. Pyrrolidine constrained bipyridyl-dansyl click fluoroionophore as selective Al(3+)sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Debabrata; Govindaraju, T

    2010-07-07

    A pyrrolidine constrained bipyridyl-dansyl (ionophore-fluorophore) conjugate with triazole linker was synthesised through click chemistry. The fluoroionophore serves as a selective ratiometric and colorimetric chemosensor for Al(3+) based on internal charge transfer (ICT).

  14. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  15. The Click It or Ticket evaluation, 2012 : traffic safety facts : research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are national, State, and local high-visibility enforcement (HVE) efforts designed to encourage motorists to buckle up. They have been conducted at the national level each year around Memorial Day since 2003. : ...

  16. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  17. Click-to-Chelate: Development of Technetium and Rhenium-Tricarbonyl Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Mindt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Click-to-Chelate approach is a highly efficient strategy for the radiolabeling of molecules of medicinal interest with technetium and rhenium-tricarbonyl cores. Reaction of azide-functionalized molecules with alkyne prochelators by the Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click reaction enables the simultaneous synthesis and conjugation of tridentate chelating systems for the stable complexation of the radiometals. In many cases, the functionalization of (biomolecules with the ligand system and radiolabeling can be achieved by convenient one-pot procedures. Since its first report in 2006, Click-to-Chelate has been applied to the development of numerous novel radiotracers with promising potential for translation into the clinic. This review summarizes the use of the Click-to-Chelate approach in radiopharmaceutical sciences and provides a perspective for future applications.

  18. Sequential series for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Ko

    1975-01-01

    A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)

  19. Learning of Multimodal Representations With Random Walks on the Click Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Lu, Xinyan; Song, Jun; Yan, Shuicheng; Zhang, Zhongfei Mark; Rui, Yong; Zhuang, Yueting

    2016-02-01

    In multimedia information retrieval, most classic approaches tend to represent different modalities of media in the same feature space. With the click data collected from the users' searching behavior, existing approaches take either one-to-one paired data (text-image pairs) or ranking examples (text-query-image and/or image-query-text ranking lists) as training examples, which do not make full use of the click data, particularly the implicit connections among the data objects. In this paper, we treat the click data as a large click graph, in which vertices are images/text queries and edges indicate the clicks between an image and a query. We consider learning a multimodal representation from the perspective of encoding the explicit/implicit relevance relationship between the vertices in the click graph. By minimizing both the truncated random walk loss as well as the distance between the learned representation of vertices and their corresponding deep neural network output, the proposed model which is named multimodal random walk neural network (MRW-NN) can be applied to not only learn robust representation of the existing multimodal data in the click graph, but also deal with the unseen queries and images to support cross-modal retrieval. We evaluate the latent representation learned by MRW-NN on a public large-scale click log data set Clickture and further show that MRW-NN achieves much better cross-modal retrieval performance on the unseen queries/images than the other state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Predicting user click behaviour in search engine advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaie Zanjani, Mohammad; Khadivi, Shahram

    2015-10-01

    According to the specific requirements and interests of users, search engines select and display advertisements that match user needs and have higher probability of attracting users' attention based on their previous search history. New objects such as user, advertisement or query cause a deterioration of precision in targeted advertising due to their lack of history. This article surveys this challenge. In the case of new objects, we first extract similar observed objects to the new object and then we use their history as the history of new object. Similarity between objects is measured based on correlation, which is a relation between user and advertisement when the advertisement is displayed to the user. This method is used for all objects, so it has helped us to accurately select relevant advertisements for users' queries. In our proposed model, we assume that similar users behave in a similar manner. We find that users with few queries are similar to new users. We will show that correlation between users and advertisements' keywords is high. Thus, users who pay attention to advertisements' keywords, click similar advertisements. In addition, users who pay attention to specific brand names might have similar behaviours too.

  1. Low fouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane via click chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2014-10-13

    Hydrophilic surfaces are known to be less prone to fouling. Ultrafiltration membranes are frequently prepared from rather hydrophobic polymers like polysulfone (PSU). Strategies to keep the good pore forming characteristics of PSU, but with improved hydrophilicity are proposed here. PSU functionalized with 1,2,3-triazole ring substituents containing OH groups was successfully synthesized through click chemistry reaction. The structures of the polymers were confirmed using NMR spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High thermal stability (>280°C) was observed by thermal gravimetric analysis. Elemental analysis showed the presence of nitrogen containing triazole group with different degrees of functionalization (23%, 49%, 56%, and 94%). The glass transition temperature shifted with the introduction of triazole pendant groups from 190°C (unmodified) to 171°C. Ultrafiltration membranes were prepared via phase inversion by immersion in different coagulation baths (NMP/water mixtures with volume ratios from 0/100 to 40/60). The morphologies of these membranes were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The optimized PSU bearing triazole functions membranes exhibited water permeability up to 187 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, which is 23 times higher than those prepared under the same conditions but with unmodified polysulfone (PSU; 8 L m-2 h-1 bar-1). Results of bovine serum albumin protein rejection test indicated that susceptibility to fouling decreased with the modification, due to the increased hydrophilicity, while keeping high protein rejection ratio (>99%).

  2. Pressurized transient otoacoustic emissions measured using click and chirp stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Patrick Feeney, M; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Sanford, Chris A

    2018-01-01

    Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses were measured in normal-hearing adult ears over frequencies from 0.7 to 8 kHz, and analyzed with reflectance/admittance data to measure absorbed sound power and the tympanometric peak pressure (TPP). The mean TPP was close to ambient. TEOAEs were measured in the ear canal at ambient pressure, TPP, and fixed air pressures from 150 to -200 daPa. Both click and chirp stimuli were used to elicit TEOAEs, in which the incident sound pressure level was constant across frequency. TEOAE levels were similar at ambient and TPP, and for frequencies from 0.7 to 2.8 kHz decreased with increasing positive and negative pressures. At 4-8 kHz, TEOAE levels were larger at positive pressures. This asymmetry is possibly related to changes in mechanical transmission through the ossicular chain. The mean TEOAE group delay did not change with pressure, although small changes were observed in the mean instantaneous frequency and group spread. Chirp TEOAEs measured in an adult ear with Eustachian tube dysfunction and TPP of -165 daPa were more robust at TPP than at ambient. Overall, results demonstrate the feasibility and clinical potential of measuring TEOAEs at fixed pressures in the ear canal, which provide additional information relative to TEOAEs measured at ambient pressure.

  3. Lignin-Based Materials Through Thiol-Maleimide "Click" Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Pietro; Duval, Antoine; Averous, Luc; Habibi, Youssef

    2017-03-09

    In the present report an environmentally friendly approach to transforming renewable feedstocks into value-added materials is proposed. This transformation pathway was conducted under green conditions, without the use of solvents or catalyst. First, controlled modification of lignin, a major biopolymer present in wood and plants, was achieved by esterification with 11-maleimidoundecylenic acid (11-MUA), a derivative from castor oil that contains maleimide groups, following its transformation into 11-maleimidoundecanoyl chloride (11-MUC). Different degrees of substitution were achieved by using various amounts of the 11-MUC, leading to an efficient conversion of lignin hydroxy groups, as demonstrated by 1 H and 31 P NMR analyses. These fully biobased maleimide-lignin derivatives were subjected to an extremely fast (ca. 1 min) thiol-ene "click" polymerization with thiol-containing linkers. Aliphatic and aromatic thiol linkers bearing two to four thiol groups were used to tune the reactivity and crosslink density. The properties of the resulting materials were evaluated by swelling tests and thermal and mechanical analyses, which showed that varying the degree of functionality of the linker and the linker structure allowed accurate tailoring of the thermal and mechanical properties of the final materials, thus providing interesting perspectives for lignin in functional aromatic polymers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  5. Sequential lineup presentation: Patterns and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, R C L; Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, J L; Leach, A-M; Bertrand, M I

    2009-01-01

    Sequential lineups were offered as an alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup. Sequential lineups reduce incorrect lineup selections; however, the accompanying loss of correct identifications has resulted in controversy regarding adoption of the technique. We discuss the procedure and research relevant to (1) the pattern of results found using sequential versus simultaneous lineups; (2) reasons (theory) for differences in witness responses; (3) two methodological issues; and (4) im...

  6. The Bacterial Sequential Markov Coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Nicola; Wilson, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example, leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree. Bacterial recombination is typically modeled as statistically akin to gene conversion in eukaryotes, i.e. , using the coalescent with gene conversion (CGC). However, this model can be very computationally demanding as it needs to account for the correlations of evolutionary histories of even distant loci. So, with the increasing popularity of whole genome sequencing, the need has emerged for a faster approach to model and simulate bacterial genome evolution. We present a new model that approximates the coalescent with gene conversion: the bacterial sequential Markov coalescent (BSMC). Our approach is based on a similar idea to the sequential Markov coalescent (SMC)-an approximation of the coalescent with crossover recombination. However, bacterial recombination poses hurdles to a sequential Markov approximation, as it leads to strong correlations and linkage disequilibrium across very distant sites in the genome. Our BSMC overcomes these difficulties, and shows a considerable reduction in computational demand compared to the exact CGC, and very similar patterns in simulated data. We implemented our BSMC model within new simulation software FastSimBac. In addition to the decreased computational demand compared to previous bacterial genome evolution simulators, FastSimBac provides more general options for evolutionary scenarios, allowing population structure with migration, speciation, population size changes, and recombination hotspots. FastSimBac is

  7. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  8. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  9. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.

    1993-10-01

    Irreversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) on lattices, and continuum "car parking" analogues, have long received attention as models for reactions on polymer chains, chemisorption on single-crystal surfaces, adsorption in colloidal systems, and solid state transformations. Cooperative generalizations of these models (CSA) are sometimes more appropriate, and can exhibit richer kinetics and spatial structure, e.g., autocatalysis and clustering. The distribution of filled or transformed sites in RSA and CSA is not described by an equilibrium Gibbs measure. This is the case even for the saturation "jammed" state of models where the lattice or space cannot fill completely. However exact analysis is often possible in one dimension, and a variety of powerful analytic methods have been developed for higher dimensional models. Here we review the detailed understanding of asymptotic kinetics, spatial correlations, percolative structure, etc., which is emerging for these far-from-equilibrium processes.

  10. Labeling proteins on live mammalian cells using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikić, Ivana; Kang, Jun Hee; Girona, Gemma Estrada; Aramburu, Iker Valle; Lemke, Edward A

    2015-05-01

    We describe a protocol for the rapid labeling of cell-surface proteins in living mammalian cells using click chemistry. The labeling method is based on strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) and strain-promoted inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) reactions, in which noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) bearing ring-strained alkynes or alkenes react, respectively, with dyes containing azide or tetrazine groups. To introduce ncAAs site specifically into a protein of interest (POI), we use genetic code expansion technology. The protocol can be described as comprising two steps. In the first step, an Amber stop codon is introduced--by site-directed mutagenesis--at the desired site on the gene encoding the POI. This plasmid is then transfected into mammalian cells, along with another plasmid that encodes an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA (RS/tRNA) pair that is orthogonal to the host's translational machinery. In the presence of the ncAA, the orthogonal RS/tRNA pair specifically suppresses the Amber codon by incorporating the ncAA into the polypeptide chain of the POI. In the second step, the expressed POI is labeled with a suitably reactive dye derivative that is directly supplied to the growth medium. We provide a detailed protocol for using commercially available ncAAs and dyes for labeling the insulin receptor, and we discuss the optimal surface-labeling conditions and the limitations of labeling living mammalian cells. The protocol involves an initial cloning step that can take 4-7 d, followed by the described transfections and labeling reaction steps, which can take 3-4 d.

  11. Biofunctionalization on alkylated silicon substrate surfaces via "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoting; Santos, Catherine; Zhang, Wen; Li, Yan; Kumar, Amit; Erasquin, Uriel J; Liu, Kai; Muradov, Pavel; Trautner, Barbara Wells; Cai, Chengzhi

    2010-11-24

    Biofunctionalization of silicon substrates is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and devices. Compared to conventional organosiloxane films on silicon oxide intermediate layers, organic monolayers directly bound to the nonoxidized silicon substrates via Si-C bonds enhance the sensitivity of detection and the stability against hydrolytic cleavage. Such monolayers presenting a high density of terminal alkynyl groups for bioconjugation via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, a "click" reaction) were reported. However, yields of the CuAAC reactions on these monolayer platforms were low. Also, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins on the resultant surfaces remained a major obstacle for many potential biological applications. Herein, we report a new type of "clickable" monolayers grown by selective, photoactivated surface hydrosilylation of α,ω-alkenynes, where the alkynyl terminal is protected with a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group, on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates. The TMG groups on the film are readily removed in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cu(I). Significantly, the degermanylation and the subsequent CuAAC reaction with various azides could be combined into a single step in good yields. Thus, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) with an azido tag was attached to the TMG-alkyne surfaces, leading to OEG-terminated surfaces that reduced the nonspecific adsorption of protein (fibrinogen) by >98%. The CuAAC reaction could be performed in microarray format to generate arrays of mannose and biotin with varied densities on the protein-resistant OEG background. We also demonstrated that the monolayer platform could be functionalized with mannose for highly specific capturing of living targets (Escherichia coli expressing fimbriae) onto the silicon substrates.

  12. Click strategies for single-molecule protein fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Sigrid; Tyagi, Swati; Banterle, Niccolò; Koehler, Christine; VanDelinder, Virginia; Plass, Tilman; Neal, Adrian P; Lemke, Edward A

    2012-03-21

    Single-molecule methods have matured into central tools for studies in biology. Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques, in particular, have been widely applied to study biomolecular structure and dynamics. The major bottleneck for a facile and general application of these studies arises from the need to label biological samples site-specifically with suitable fluorescent dyes. In this work, we present an optimized strategy combining click chemistry and the genetic encoding of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) to overcome this limitation for proteins. We performed a systematic study with a variety of clickable UAAs and explored their potential for high-resolution single-molecule FRET (smFRET). We determined all parameters that are essential for successful single-molecule studies, such as accessibility of the probes, expression yield of proteins, and quantitative labeling. Our multiparameter fluorescence analysis allowed us to gain new insights into the effects and photophysical properties of fluorescent dyes linked to various UAAs for smFRET measurements. This led us to determine that, from the extended tool set that we now present, genetically encoding propargyllysine has major advantages for state-of-the-art measurements compared to other UAAs. Using this optimized system, we present a biocompatible one-step dual-labeling strategy of the regulatory protein RanBP3 with full labeling position freedom. Our technique allowed us then to determine that the region encompassing two FxFG repeat sequences adopts a disordered but collapsed state. RanBP3 serves here as a prototypical protein that, due to its multiple cysteines, size, and partially disordered structure, is not readily accessible to any of the typical structure determination techniques such as smFRET, NMR, and X-ray crystallography.

  13. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  14. Sequential lineup laps and eyewitness accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steblay, Nancy K; Dietrich, Hannah L; Ryan, Shannon L; Raczynski, Jeanette L; James, Kali A

    2011-08-01

    Police practice of double-blind sequential lineups prompts a question about the efficacy of repeated viewings (laps) of the sequential lineup. Two laboratory experiments confirmed the presence of a sequential lap effect: an increase in witness lineup picks from first to second lap, when the culprit was a stranger. The second lap produced more errors than correct identifications. In Experiment 2, lineup diagnosticity was significantly higher for sequential lineup procedures that employed a single versus double laps. Witnesses who elected to view a second lap made significantly more errors than witnesses who chose to stop after one lap or those who were required to view two laps. Witnesses with prior exposure to the culprit did not exhibit a sequential lap effect.

  15. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.

    2014-12-15

    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  16. Sequential Product of Quantum Effects: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an overview for the theory of sequential products of quantum effects. We first summarize some of the highlights of this relatively recent field of investigation and then provide some new results. We begin by discussing sequential effect algebras which are effect algebras endowed with a sequential product satisfying certain basic conditions. We then consider sequential products of (discrete) quantum measurements. We next treat transition effect matrices (TEMs) and their associated sequential product. A TEM is a matrix whose entries are effects and whose rows form quantum measurements. We show that TEMs can be employed for the study of quantum Markov chains. Finally, we prove some new results concerning TEMs and vector densities.

  17. Click hydrogels, microgels and nanogels: emerging platforms for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Chen, Jing; Deng, Chao; Suuronen, Erik J; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogels, microgels and nanogels have emerged as versatile and viable platforms for sustained protein release, targeted drug delivery, and tissue engineering due to excellent biocompatibility, a microporous structure with tunable porosity and pore size, and dimensions spanning from human organs, cells to viruses. In the past decade, remarkable advances in hydrogels, microgels and nanogels have been achieved with click chemistry. It is a most promising strategy to prepare gels with varying dimensions owing to its high reactivity, superb selectivity, and mild reaction conditions. In particular, the recent development of copper-free click chemistry such as strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, radical mediated thiol-ene chemistry, Diels-Alder reaction, tetrazole-alkene photo-click chemistry, and oxime reaction renders it possible to form hydrogels, microgels and nanogels without the use of potentially toxic catalysts or immunogenic enzymes that are commonly required. Notably, unlike other chemical approaches, click chemistry owing to its unique bioorthogonal feature does not interfere with encapsulated bioactives such as living cells, proteins and drugs and furthermore allows versatile preparation of micropatterned biomimetic hydrogels, functional microgels and nanogels. In this review, recent exciting developments in click hydrogels, microgels and nanogels, as well as their biomedical applications such as controlled protein and drug release, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionic liquid syntheses via click chemistry: expeditious routes toward versatile functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Arsalan

    2018-03-25

    Since the introduction of click chemistry by K. B. Sharpless in 2001, its exploration and exploitation has occurred in countless fields of materials sciences in both academic and industrial spheres. Click chemistry is defined as an efficient, robust, and orthogonal synthetic platform for the facile formation of new carbon-heteroatom bonds, using readily available starting materials. Premier examples of click reactions are copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the thiol-X (X = ene and yne) coupling reactions to form C-N and C-S bonds, respectively. The emphasis of this review is centered on the rapidly expanding area of click chemistry-mediated synthesis of functional ionic liquids via CuAAC, thiol-X and oxime formation, and selected examples of nucleophilic ring-opening reactions, while offering some thoughts on emerging challenges, opportunities and ultimately the evolution of this field. Click chemistry offers tremendous opportunities, and introduces intriguing perspectives for efficient and robust generation of tailored task-specific ionic liquids - an important class of soft materials.

  19. The responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to ultrasound-emitting predators: stress, behavioural changes or debilitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, H.B.; Malte, H.; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2008-01-01

    A previous study has reported that Atlantic cod can be conditioned to detect ultrasonic sound pulses of high intensity. This capability has been proposed as a mean for detection and avoidance of echolocating toothed whales that emit intense ultrasonic clicks. In this study, we use acoustic...... exposed to ultrasonic clicks and echosounder pulses with received levels of more than 204 dB re. 1 µPa (pp) did not elicit flight responses as seen in ultrasound detecting Alosinae. Furthermore, we tested the debilitating effects of high intensity ultrasound on swimming cod with no detected changes...... playbacks to test the hypotheses that unconditioned cod can detect and respond to intense ultrasound from toothed whales and from echosounders. Intense ultrasound exposure of 210 dB re. 1µPa (pp) did not cause a short-term stress response in the form of bradycardia in unconditioned cod. Free-swimming cod...

  20. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Sequential Scintigraphy in Renal Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, K. zum; Harbst, H.; Schenck, P.; Franz, H. E.; Ritz, E.; Roehl, L.; Ziegler, M.; Ammann, W.; Maier-Borst, W. [Institut Fuer Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-05-15

    Based on experience gained from more than 1600 patients with proved or suspected kidney diseases and on results on extended studies with dogs, sequential scintigraphy was performed after renal transplantation in dogs. After intravenous injection of 500 {mu}Ci. {sup 131}I-Hippuran scintiphotos were taken during the first minute with an exposure time of 15 sec each and thereafter with an exposure of 2 min up to at least 16 min.. Several examinations were evaluated digitally. 26 examinations were performed on 11 dogs with homotransplanted kidneys. Immediately after transplantation the renal function was almost normal arid the bladder was filled in due time. At the beginning of rejection the initial uptake of radioactive Hippuran was reduced. The intrarenal transport became delayed; probably the renal extraction rate decreased. Corresponding to the development of an oedema in the transplant the uptake area increased in size. In cases of thrombosis of the main artery there was no evidence of any uptake of radioactivity in the transplant. Similar results were obtained in 41 examinations on 15 persons. Patients with postoperative anuria due to acute tubular necrosis showed still some uptake of radioactivity contrary to those with thrombosis of the renal artery, where no uptake was found. In cases of rejection the most frequent signs were a reduced initial uptake and a delayed intrarenal transport of radioactive Hippuran. Infarction could be detected by a reduced uptake in distinct areas of the transplant. (author)

  3. Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.

  4. Sequential water molecule binding enthalpies for aqueous nanodrops containing a mono-, di- or trivalent ion and between 20 and 500 water molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed description of the experimental and computational modeling methods. Isolation, BIRD and UVPD sequence for [Ru(NH3)6]3+·(H2O)169–171, nanoESI spectra for 2+ and 3+ ions. Detailed description of the isotope distribution simulation program. Comparison between experimental and simulated 1+, 2+ and 3+ ion isotope distributions. Wavelength dependence of the deduced sequential binding enthalpies. Comparison of experimental UVPD binding enthalpies to the liquid drop model at different temperatures. Complete list of binding enthalpies and average number of water molecules lost upon UVPD. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04957e Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, Sven; Cooper, Richard J.; DiTucci, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Sequential water molecule binding enthalpies, ΔH n,n–1, are important for a detailed understanding of competitive interactions between ions, water and solute molecules, and how these interactions affect physical properties of ion-containing nanodrops that are important in aerosol chemistry. Water molecule binding enthalpies have been measured for small clusters of many different ions, but these values for ion-containing nanodrops containing more than 20 water molecules are scarce. Here, ΔH n,n–1 values are deduced from high-precision ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) measurements as a function of ion identity, charge state and cluster size between 20–500 water molecules and for ions with +1, +2 and +3 charges. The ΔH n,n–1 values are obtained from the number of water molecules lost upon photoexcitation at a known wavelength, and modeling of the release of energy into the translational, rotational and vibrational motions of the products. The ΔH n,n–1 values range from 36.82 to 50.21 kJ mol–1. For clusters containing more than ∼250 water molecules, the binding enthalpies are between the bulk heat of vaporization (44.8 kJ mol–1) and the sublimation enthalpy of bulk ice (51.0 kJ mol–1). These values depend on ion charge state for clusters with fewer than 150 water molecules, but there is a negligible dependence at larger size. There is a minimum in the ΔH n,n–1 values that depends on the cluster size and ion charge state, which can be attributed to the competing effects of ion solvation and surface energy. The experimental ΔH n,n–1 values can be fit to the Thomson liquid drop model (TLDM) using bulk ice parameters. By optimizing the surface tension and temperature change of the logarithmic partial pressure for the TLDM, the experimental sequential water molecule binding enthalpies can be fit with an accuracy of ±3.3 kJ mol–1 over the entire range of cluster sizes. PMID:28451364

  5. A Quantitative Analysis of Pulsed Signals Emitted by Wild Bottlenose Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Luís

    Full Text Available Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, produce a wide variety of vocal emissions for communication and echolocation, of which the pulsed repertoire has been the most difficult to categorize. Packets of high repetition, broadband pulses are still largely reported under a general designation of burst-pulses, and traditional attempts to classify these emissions rely mainly in their aural characteristics and in graphical aspects of spectrograms. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of pulsed signals emitted by wild bottlenose dolphins, in the Sado estuary, Portugal (2011-2014, and test the reliability of a traditional classification approach. Acoustic parameters (minimum frequency, maximum frequency, peak frequency, duration, repetition rate and inter-click-interval were extracted from 930 pulsed signals, previously categorized using a traditional approach. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high reliability of the traditional classification approach (93.5% of pulsed signals were consistently assigned to their aurally based categories. According to the discriminant function analysis (Wilk's Λ = 0.11, F3, 2.41 = 282.75, P < 0.001, repetition rate is the feature that best enables the discrimination of different pulsed signals (structure coefficient = 0.98. Classification using hierarchical cluster analysis led to a similar categorization pattern: two main signal types with distinct magnitudes of repetition rate were clustered into five groups. The pulsed signals, here described, present significant differences in their time-frequency features, especially repetition rate (P < 0.001, inter-click-interval (P < 0.001 and duration (P < 0.001. We document the occurrence of a distinct signal type-short burst-pulses, and highlight the existence of a diverse repertoire of pulsed vocalizations emitted in graded sequences. The use of quantitative analysis of pulsed signals is essential to improve classifications and to better assess the

  6. Sequential Monte Carlo Instant Radiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Peter; Karras, Tero; Lehtinen, Jaakko

    2017-05-01

    Instant Radiosity and its derivatives are interactive methods for efficiently estimating global (indirect) illumination. They represent the last indirect bounce of illumination before the camera as the composite radiance field emitted by a set of virtual point light sources (VPLs). In complex scenes, current algorithms suffer from a difficult combination of two issues: it remains a challenge to distribute VPLs in a manner that simultaneously gives a high-quality indirect illumination solution for each frame, and to do so in a temporally coherent manner. We address both issues by building, and maintaining over time, an adaptive and temporally coherent distribution of VPLs in locations where they bring indirect light to the image. We introduce a novel heuristic sampling method that strives to only move as few of the VPLs between frames as possible. The result is, to the best of our knowledge, the first interactive global illumination algorithm that works in complex, highly-occluded scenes, suffers little from temporal flickering, supports moving cameras and light sources, and is output-sensitive in the sense that it places VPLs in locations that matter most to the final result.

  7. Integrating Click-Through and Eye-Tracking Logs for Decision-Making Process Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan PETRUSEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In current software every click of the users is logged, therefore a wealth of click-through information exists. Besides, recent technologies have made eye-tracking affordable and an alternative to other human-computer interaction means (e.g. mouse, touchscreens. A big challenge is to make sense of all this data and convert it into useful information. This paper introduces a possible solution placed in the context of decision-making processes. We show how the decision maker's activity can be traced using two means: mouse tracing (i.e. clicks and eye-tracking (i.e. eye fixations. Then, we discuss a mining approach, based on the log, which extracts a Decision Data Model (DDM. We use the DDM to determine, post-hoc, which decision strategy was employed. The paper concludes with a validation based on a controlled experiment.

  8. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  9. Sequential Generalized Transforms on Function Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Gil Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define two sequential transforms on a function space Ca,b[0,T] induced by generalized Brownian motion process. We then establish the existence of the sequential transforms for functionals in a Banach algebra of functionals on Ca,b[0,T]. We also establish that any one of these transforms acts like an inverse transform of the other transform. Finally, we give some remarks about certain relations between our sequential transforms and other well-known transforms on Ca,b[0,T].

  10. Pure Play vs. Bricks-and-Clicks: Who Reaps the Benefits of Virtual Retailing?

    OpenAIRE

    Youlong Zhuang; Albert L. Lederer

    2006-01-01

    Pure play and bricks-and-clicks represent today’s two major retailing models. The current study answers four questions comparing the two models in terms of the e-commerce benefits achieved and information systems management practices used to achieve them. It applies a Web-based survey to compare 69 pure plays to 348 bricks-and-clicks retailers in terms of the market expansion, customer service, back-end efficiency, inventory management, and cost reduction benefits reaped, as well as in term...

  11. Click chemistry based biomolecular conjugation monitoring using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirko; Kumar, Shiv; Li, Zengmin

    2016-01-01

    We describe here a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based technique for monitoring the conjugation of small molecules by the well-known click reaction between an alkyne and azido moiety on the partner molecules. The monitoring principle is based on the loss of the characteristic...... alkyne/azide Raman signal with triazole formation in the reaction as a function of time. Since these universal Raman reporter groups are specific for click reactions, this method may facilitate a broad range of applications for monitoring the conjugation efficiency of molecules in diverse areas...

  12. Click chemistry approach to functionalize two-dimensional macromolecules of graphene oxide nanosheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Kou; Hongkun He; Chao Gao

    2010-01-01

    A facile 'click chemistry' approach to functionalize 2D macromolecules of graphene oxide nanosheets with poly(ethylene glycol) of different molecular weights,polystyrene,palmitic acid and various amino acids was presented.FTIR,TGA,Raman spectroscopy,XPS,XRD,TEM,AFM and SEM were utilized to characterize the products.High degree of functionalization was achieved on the flat surfaces of graphene oxide,affording polymer-grafted 2D brushes and amino acids-immobilized nanosheets,which show improved solubility in organic solvents.The click chemistry strategy reported herein provides a facile and general method for functionalization of graphene oxide with macromolecules and desired biomolecules.

  13. Click Chemistry for the Synthesis of RGD-Containing Integrin Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Colombo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years click chemistry reactions, and in particular coppercatalyzed cycloadditions, have been used intensively for the preparation of new bioconjugate molecules and materials applicable to biomedical and pharmaceutical areas. This review will be focused on conjugates of the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp formed by means of click chemistry reactions. This sequence is a well known binding motif for specific transmembrane proteins and is involved in cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix, allowing the selective recognition of the biomolecule or polymer in which it is incorporated.

  14. Temporal suppression of long-latency click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive set of results from double click suppression experiments on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been presented by Hine and Thornton (2002) and Kapadia and Lutman (2000). They found that suppression of a click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) varied with the timing and level...... subjects showed that the nonlinear suppression effect remained on the long-latency CEOAE, indicating that both SOAEs and CEOAEs originate from the same cochlear nonlinearities, as earlier suggested by Kemp and Chum (1980). The apparent similar origin of both types of emissions implies that the same...

  15. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, randomised clinical study. Method: Sixty orthopaedic patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery under spinal ...

  16. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  17. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  18. The statistical decay of very hot nuclei: from sequential decay to multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.; Donangelo, R.; Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo; Souza, S.R.; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Lynch, W.G.; Steiner, A.W.; Tsang, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text. At low excitation energies, the compound nucleus typically decays through the sequential emission of light particles. As the energy increases, the emission probability of heavier fragments increases until, at sufficiently high energies, several heavy complex fragments are emitted during the decay. The extent to which this fragment emission is simultaneous or sequential has been a subject of theoretical and experimental study for almost 30 years. The Statistical Multifragmentation Model, an equilibrium model of simultaneous fragment emission, uses the configurations of a statistical ensemble to determine the distribution of primary fragments of a compound nucleus. The primary fragments are then assumed to decay by sequential compound emission or Fermi breakup. As the first step toward a more unified model of these processes, we demonstrate the equivalence of a generalized Fermi breakup model, in which densities of excited states are taken into account, to the microcanonical version of the statistical multifragmentation model. We then establish a link between this unified Fermi breakup / statistical multifragmentation model and the well-known process of compound nucleus emission, which permits to consider simultaneous and sequential emission on the same footing. Within this unified framework, we analyze the increasing importance of simultaneous, multifragment decay with increasing excitation energy and decreasing lifetime of the compound nucleus. (author)

  19. ``Hiss, clicks and pops'' - The enigmatic sounds of meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The improbability of sounds heard simultaneously with meteors allows the phenomenon to remain on the margins of scientific interest and research. This is unjustified, since these audibly perceived electric field effects indicate complex, inconsistent and still unresolved electric-magnetic coupling and charge dynamics; interacting between the meteor; the ionosphere and mesosphere; stratosphere; troposphere and the surface of the earth. This paper reviews meteor acoustic effects, presents illustrating reports and hypotheses and includes a summary of similar and additional phenomena observed during the 2013 February 15 asteroid fragment disintegration above the Russian district of Chelyabinsk. An augmenting theory involving near ground, non uniform electric field production of Ozone, as a stimulated geo-physical phenomenon to explain some hissing `meteor sounds' is suggested in section 2.2. Unlike previous theories, electric-magnetic field fluctuation rates are not required to occur in the audio frequency range for this process to acoustically emit hissing and intermittent impulsive sounds; removing the requirements of direct conversion, passive human transduction or excited, localised acoustic `emitters'. Links to the Armagh Observatory All-sky meteor cameras, electrophonic meteor research and full construction plans for an extremely low frequency (ELF) receiver are also included.

  20. Surface Modification of Nanoporous 1,2-Polybutadiene by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization or Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Schulte, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ATRP-grafting of hydrophilic polyacrylates and click of MPEG, the originally hydrophobic samples transformed into hydrophilic nanoporous materials. The successful modification was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements and measurements of spontaneous water uptake, while...... the morphology was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy....

  1. Functionalization of multilayer fullerenes (carbon nano-onions) using diazonium compounds and "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Kevin; Chaur, Manuel N; Echegoyen, Luis; Giordani, Silvia

    2010-02-19

    A novel versatile approach for the functionalization of multilayer fullerenes (carbon nano-onions) has been developed, which involves the facile introduction of a variety of simple functionalities onto their surface by treatment with in situ generated diazonium compounds. This approach is complemented by use of "click" chemistry which was used for the covalent introduction of more complex porphyrin molecules.

  2. Electronic health record innovations: Helping physicians - One less click at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Uta; Chen, Lu; Mehta, Parag H

    2017-09-01

    Physician burnout is becoming an epidemic, due to the pressures of being productive, an imperfect electronic health record (EHR) system, and limited face-to-face time with patients. Poor usability in EHR-user interface can force users to go through more steps (i.e. more clicks on the computer) in accomplishing a task. This increased 'click burden' is a source of frustration for physicians. In the light of increased click burden and time due to meaningful use requirements, there is a need to improve the physician's experience by creating innovations in EHR. This case study describes an attempt by physicians at NewYork-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital to enhance the EHR experience with more efficient methods of documentation, chart review, ordering and patient safety. The EHR innovations trialled in this study were: a mobile documentation application; abnormal test results auto-populated into an EHR patient summary; physician alerts to reduce inappropriate test ordering; and a system of safety alerts on a dashboard. These innovations led to decreased click burden and allowed physicians to spend less time on the computer and more time with patients. Physician-driven changes to EHR systems have the potential to streamline virtual workflows and the management of health information and to improve patient safety, reduce physician burnout and increase physician job satisfaction.

  3. 'Click' dendritic phosphines: design, synthesis, application in Suzuki coupling, and recycling by nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.C.C.; Vogt, D.; Müller, C.

    2009-01-01

    A new synthetic route towards stable molecular-weight enlarged monodentate phosphine ligands via click chemistry was developed. These ligands were applied in the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl halides and phenyl boronic acid. The supported systems show very similar activities compared

  4. EXCTRA - EXploiting the Click-TRAil : Assessing the benefits of Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, Rianne; Snijders, Chris; Matzat, Uwe; Kleingeld, Ad; Nij Bijvank, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Learning Management Systems (LMS) are being used in the majority of educational institutions to provide learning materials online. As a by-product of these systems—every click is recorded—one gets a rich amount of data about students’ online behaviour. Recently many researchers have

  5. Synthesis of a hexasaccharide partial sequence of hyaluronan for click chemistry and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bantzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the synthesis of a hexasaccharide partial sequence of hyaluronan equipped with a terminal azido moiety is reported. This hexasaccharide can be used for the attachment on surfaces by means of click chemistry and after suitable deprotection for biophysical studies.

  6. Heat-induced-radiolabeling and click chemistry: A powerful combination for generating multifunctional nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushan Yuan

    Full Text Available A key advantage of nanomaterials for biomedical applications is their ability to feature multiple small reporter groups (multimodality, or combinations of reporter groups and therapeutic agents (multifunctionality, while being targeted to cell surface receptors. Here a facile combination of techniques for the syntheses of multimodal, targeted nanoparticles (NPs is presented, whereby heat-induced-radiolabeling (HIR labels NPs with radiometals and so-called click chemistry is used to attach bioactive groups to the NP surface. Click-reactive alkyne or azide groups were first attached to the nonradioactive clinical Feraheme (FH NPs. Resulting "Alkyne-FH" and "Azide-FH" intermediates, like the parent NP, tolerated 89Zr labeling by the HIR method previously described. Subsequently, biomolecules were quickly conjugated to the radioactive NPs by either copper-catalyzed or copper-free click reactions with high efficiency. Synthesis of the Alkyne-FH or Azide-FH intermediates, followed by HIR and then by click reactions for biomolecule attachment, provides a simple and potentially general path for the synthesis of multimodal, multifunctional, and targeted NPs for biomedical applications.

  7. Freedom of Contract in Click Wrap Agreements in Malaysia and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rafiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in the communications industry, particularly over the last decade, has given rise to consumers and commercial providers who want to form their own business or contractual agreements via the Internet. The mark of such technology can be seen in a new form of contract called “click wrap.”

  8. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanová, P.; Šturala, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2015), s. 19837-19848 ISSN 1420-3049 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : click chemistry * cyclodextrin * flavin * monooxygenase * oxidation * sulfoxides * green chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/11/19667/htm

  9. Injectable dextran hydrogels fabricated by metal-free click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Zihan; Shi, Ting; Zhao, Peng; An, Kangkang; Lin, Chao; Liu, Hongwei

    2017-04-01

    Injectable dextran-based hydrogels were prepared for the first time by bioorthogonal click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering. Click-crosslinked injectable hydrogels based on cyto-compatible dextran (Mw=10kDa) were successfully fabricated under physiological conditions by metal-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition (click) reaction between azadibenzocyclooctyne-modified dextran (Dex-ADIBO) and azide-modified dextran (Dex-N 3 ). Gelation time of these dextran hydrogels could be regulated in the range of approximately 1.1 to 10.2min, depending on the polymer concentrations (5% or 10%) and ADIBO substitution degree (DS, 5 or 10) of Dex-ADIBO. Rheological analysis indicated that the dextran hydrogels were elastic and had storage moduli from 2.1 to 6.0kPa with increasing DS of ADIBO from 5 to 10. The in vitro tests revealed that the dextran hydrogel crosslinked from Dex-ADIBO DS 10 and Dex-N 3 DS 10 at a polymer concentration of 10% could support high viability of individual rabbit chondrocytes and the chondrocyte spheroids encapsulated in the hydrogel over 21days. Individual chondrocytes and chondrocyte spheroids in the hydrogel could produce cartilage matrices such as collagen and glycosaminoglycans. However, the chondrocyte spheroids produced a higher content of matrices than individual chondrocytes. This study indicates that metal-free click chemistry is effective to produce injectable dextran hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. C,N-Chelated Organotin(IV) Azides: Synthesis, Structure and Use within the Click Chemistry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, P.; Bartoš, K.; Růžičková, Z.; Cuřínová, Petra; Dušek, L.; Turek, J.; de Proft, F.; Růžička, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 7 (2016), s. 5808-5817 ISSN 1144-0546 Grant - others:FWO(BE) 12T6615N Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organotin(IV)azides * click chemistry * chelation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  11. Multi-channel services for click and mortars : Development of a design method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, L.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The rise of Internet commerce led to multiple predictions of disintermediation and the decline of physical shopping. However, a "click and mortar" approach, which combines online, offline and telephone contact, has added value for customers and for supplier profitability, as recent research

  12. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaoshan; Hwang Shiaowen; Chen Hsianhung; Lee Mengting; Shen Wenjian; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF x / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2 , but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm 2 due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2

  13. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yaoshan [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Hwang Shiaowen [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)]. E-mail: jesse@faculty.nctu.edu.tw; Chen Hsianhung [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Lee Mengting [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Shen Wenjian [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Chen, C.H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)

    2005-09-22

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF {sub x} / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm{sup 2} due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Deep Multimodal Distance Metric Learning Using Click Constraints for Image Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Yang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fei; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    How do we retrieve images accurately? Also, how do we rank a group of images precisely and efficiently for specific queries? These problems are critical for researchers and engineers to generate a novel image searching engine. First, it is important to obtain an appropriate description that effectively represent the images. In this paper, multimodal features are considered for describing images. The images unique properties are reflected by visual features, which are correlated to each other. However, semantic gaps always exist between images visual features and semantics. Therefore, we utilize click feature to reduce the semantic gap. The second key issue is learning an appropriate distance metric to combine these multimodal features. This paper develops a novel deep multimodal distance metric learning (Deep-MDML) method. A structured ranking model is adopted to utilize both visual and click features in distance metric learning (DML). Specifically, images and their related ranking results are first collected to form the training set. Multimodal features, including click and visual features, are collected with these images. Next, a group of autoencoders is applied to obtain initially a distance metric in different visual spaces, and an MDML method is used to assign optimal weights for different modalities. Next, we conduct alternating optimization to train the ranking model, which is used for the ranking of new queries with click features. Compared with existing image ranking methods, the proposed method adopts a new ranking model to use multimodal features, including click features and visual features in DML. We operated experiments to analyze the proposed Deep-MDML in two benchmark data sets, and the results validate the effects of the method.

  15. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  16. Recent developments in white light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, P. P.; Nandanwar, D. V.; Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the recent years solid state lighting based on LEDs has revolutionized lighting technology. LEDs have many advantages over the conventional lighting based on fluorescent and incandescent lamps such as mercury free, high conversion efficiency of electrical energy into light, long lifetime reliability and ability to use with many types of devices. LEDs have emerged as a new potentially revolutionary technology that could save up to half of energy used for lighting applications. White LEDs would be the most important light source in the future, so much so that this aspect had been highlighted by the Nobel committee during the award of 2014 Nobel Prize for Physics. Recent advancement in the fabrication of GaN chip capable of emitting in blue and near UV region paved way for fabrication of white LED lamps. Mainly there are two approaches used for preparing white emitting solid state lamp. In the first approach blue light (λ=450 nm) emitted from the InGaN LED chip is partially absorbed by the YAG:Ce3+ phosphor coated on it and re-emitted as yellow fluorescence. A white light can be generated by the combination of blue + yellow emission bands. These lamps are already available. But they are suffering from major drawback that their Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is low. In the second approach, white LEDs are made by coating near ultraviolet emitting (360 to 410nm) LED with a mixture of high efficiency red, green and blue emitting phosphors, analogous to the fluorescent lamp. This method yields lamps with better color rendition. Addition of a yellow emitting phosphor improves CRI further. However conversion efficiency is compromised to some extent. Further the cost of near UV emitting chip is very high compared to blue emitting chips. Thus cost and light output wise, near UV chips are much inferior to blue chips. Recently some rare earth activated oxynitrides, silicates, fluorides have emerged as an important family of luminescent materials for white LED application

  17. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  18. "Looking-at-nothing" during sequential sensorimotor actions: Long-term memory-based eye scanning of remembered target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M

    2018-03-01

    Before acting humans saccade to a target object to extract relevant visual information. Even when acting on remembered objects, locations previously occupied by relevant objects are fixated during imagery and memory tasks - a phenomenon called "looking-at-nothing". While looking-at-nothing was robustly found in tasks encouraging declarative memory built-up, results are mixed in the case of procedural sensorimotor tasks. Eye-guidance to manual targets in complete darkness was observed in a task practiced for days beforehand, while investigations using only a single session did not find fixations to remembered action targets. Here, it is asked whether looking-at-nothing can be found in a single sensorimotor session and thus independent from sleep consolidation, and how it progresses when visual information is repeatedly unavailable. Eye movements were investigated in a computerized version of the trail making test. Participants clicked on numbered circles in ascending sequence. Fifty trials were performed with the same spatial arrangement of 9 visual targets to enable long-term memory consolidation. During 50 consecutive trials, participants had to click the remembered target sequence on an empty screen. Participants scanned the visual targets and also the empty target locations sequentially with their eyes, however, the latter less precise than the former. Over the course of the memory trials, manual and oculomotor sequential target scanning became more similar to the visual trials. Results argue for robust looking-at-nothing during procedural sensorimotor tasks provided that long-term memory information is sufficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Ten normally hearing listeners used a programmable sone-potentiometer knob to adjust the level of a 1000-Hz sinusoid to match the loudness of numbers presented to them in a magnitude production task. Three different power-law exponents (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60) and a log-law with equal steps in d......B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...

  20. Evaluation of 4-[18F]fluoro-1-butyne as a radiolabeled synthon for click chemistry with azido compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Click chemistry is a useful approach for the preparation of novel radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, we evaluated 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-butyne as a radiolabeled synthon for click chemistry with azido compounds. Our results showed that nucleophilic substitution of 4-tosyloxy-1-butyne with K[ 18 F]F produces vinyl acetylene as well as 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-butyne, while the same reaction using 5-tosyloxy-1-pentyne gives exclusively 5-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-pentyne. Thus, ω-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-alkynes with chain lengths longer than four carbons may be better radiolabeled synthons for use in click chemistry.

  1. CuAAC-Based Click Chemistry in Self-Healing Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, Diana; Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2017-10-17

    Click chemistry has emerged as a significant tool for materials science, organic chemistry, and bioscience. Based on the initial concept of Barry Sharpless in 2001, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has triggered a plethora of chemical concepts for linking molecules and building blocks under ambient conditions, forming the basis for applications in autonomous cross-linking materials. Self-healing systems on the other hand are often based on mild cross-linking chemistries that are able to react either autonomously or upon an external trigger. In the ideal case, self-healing takes place efficiently at low temperatures, independent of the substrate(s) used, by forming strong and stable networks, binding to the newly generated (cracked) interfaces to restore the original material properties. The use of the CuAAC in self-healing systems, most of all the careful design of copper-based catalysts linked to additives as well as the chemical diversity of substrates, has led to an enormous potential of applications of this singular reaction. The implementation of click-based strategies in self-healing systems therefore is highly attractive, as here chemical (and physical) concepts of molecular reactivity, molecular design, and even metal catalysis are connected to aspects of materials science. In this Account, we will show how CuAAC reactions of multivalent components can be used as a tool for self-healing materials, achieving cross-linking at low temperatures (exploiting concepts of autocatalysis or internal chelation within the bulk CuAAC and systematic optimization of the efficiency of the used Cu(I) catalysts). Encapsulation strategies to separate the click components by micro- and nanoencapsulation are required in this context. Consequently, the examples reported here describe chemical concepts to realize more efficient and faster click reactions in self-healing polymeric materials. Thus, enhanced chain diffusion in (hyper

  2. Dihydroazulene photoswitch operating in sequential tunneling regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Thisted, Christine Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    to electrodes so that the electron transport goes by sequential tunneling. To assure weak coupling, the DHA switching kernel is modified by incorporating p-MeSC6H4 end-groups. Molecules are prepared by Suzuki cross-couplings on suitable halogenated derivatives of DHA. The synthesis presents an expansion of our......, incorporating a p-MeSC6H4 anchoring group in one end, has been placed in a silver nanogap. Conductance measurements justify that transport through both DHA (high resistivity) and VHF (low resistivity) forms goes by sequential tunneling. The switching is fairly reversible and reenterable; after more than 20 ON...

  3. Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyukevich, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous

  4. White organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenow, Thomas Conrad

    2011-03-22

    Three approaches were taken in order to achieve reproducible and highly efficient white OLEDs with excellent colour quality. The first approach is based on the triplet harvesting concept. Otherwise unused triplet excitons are transferred from a fluorescent to a phosphorescent emitter with a smaller triplet energy. Because a blue emitter allowing for triplet transfer to a phosphorescent green emitter was not available, a model system for a three-colour white OLED was developed and investigated. This model device consists of the fluorescent blue emitter 4P-NPD and the phosphorescent emitters Ir(dhfpy){sub 2}acac and Ir(MDQ){sub 2}acac emitting in the yellow and red region, respectively. Here, it was shown that both phosphorescent emitters are excited by triplet diffusion and not by direct charge carrier recombination. The second approach is based on a hybrid white OLED with a single emission layer. This layer is a combination of a fluorescent blue and two phosphorescent emitters in a common matrix material. Because of the above mentioned lack of a blue emitter, which allows for triplet transfer to a green phosphorescent emitter, the concentrations of all emitters were chosen in a way that exciton transfer between the emitters was suppressed. The result is a non-radiative recombination of triplet excitons on the fluorescent blue emitter and an accordingly low quantum efficiency. However, a remarkable colour stability against varying brightness was achieved with this OLED. The most successful approach is based on a stacked OLED. Here, the concept of triplet harvesting is limited to triplet transfer between a fluorescent blue and a phosphorescent red emitter. The resulting spectral gap is filled by a full phosphorescent unit comprising the emission of a green and a yellow emitter, which is stacked on top of the triplet harvesting OLED. By individually optimising both units, it was possible to reach lighting relevant luminous efficacies up to {eta}{sub {nu}}=33 lm/W at

  5. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-12-01

    Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Expedient and click synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations and DFT calculations of novel 1,5-bis(N-substituted 1,2,3‒triazole) benzodiazepinedione scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paghandeh, Hossein; Saeidian, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    A practically reliable procedure for synthesis of new 1,5-bis(N-substituted 1,2,3‒triazole) benzodiazepinedione derivatives was reported by sequential amidation, propargylation and a click azide‒alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction in a one pot fashion. The desired products were characterized by CHN analysis, 1H and 13C NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopy. Short reaction time, good yields (55-91%), mild reaction conditions and easily available and less expensive starting materials are advantages of this protocol. Natural bond orbital charge distribution and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the characterized structure of 4e have been also calculated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Li+ and Na+ ion affinities of 4e have been also investigated by DFT studies to find the applicability of these products as ligand in coordination chemistry. Sodium ion affinity of 4e was determined as 60 kJ mol-1 is less than its lithium ion affinity, indicating that the lithiation of 4e is more exothermic than the sodiation.

  7. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  8. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  9. S.M.P. SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CICIARELLI, V; LEONARD, JOSEPH

    A SEQUENTIAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM BEGINNING WITH THE BASIC FUNDAMENTALS ON THE FOURTH GRADE LEVEL IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE AN UNDERSTANDING OF OUR NUMBER SYSTEM, AND THE BASIC OPERATIONS OF WORKING WITH WHOLE NUMBERS--ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, AND DIVISION. COMMON FRACTIONS ARE TAUGHT IN THE FIFTH, SIXTH, AND SEVENTH GRADES. A…

  10. Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is

  11. Sensitivity Analysis in Sequential Decision Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet

    2017-02-01

    Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible. As a result, most MDP-based modeling studies do not examine confidence in their recommended policies. In this study, we provide an approach to estimate uncertainty and confidence in the results of sequential decision models. First, we provide a probabilistic univariate method to identify the most sensitive parameters in MDPs. Second, we present a probabilistic multivariate approach to estimate the overall confidence in the recommended optimal policy considering joint uncertainty in the model parameters. We provide a graphical representation, which we call a policy acceptability curve, to summarize the confidence in the optimal policy by incorporating stakeholders' willingness to accept the base case policy. For a cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide an approach to construct a cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which shows the most cost-effective policy as well as the confidence in that for a given willingness to pay threshold. We demonstrate our approach using a simple MDP case study. We developed a method to conduct sensitivity analysis in sequential decision models, which could increase the credibility of these models among stakeholders.

  12. Sequential models for coarsening and missingness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.; Robins, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a companion paper we described what intuitively would seem to be the most general possible way to generate Coarsening at Random mechanisms a sequential procedure called randomized monotone coarsening Counterexamples showed that CAR mechanisms exist which cannot be represented in this way Here we

  13. Sequential motor skill: cognition, perception and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Discrete movement sequences are assumed to be the building blocks of more complex sequential actions that are present in our everyday behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation address the (neuro)cognitive underpinnings of such movement sequences, in particular in relationship to the role

  14. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity

  15. A framework for sequential multiblock component methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jong, S.de

    2003-01-01

    Multiblock or multiset methods are starting to be used in chemistry and biology to study complex data sets. In chemometrics, sequential multiblock methods are popular; that is, methods that calculate one component at a time and use deflation for finding the next component. In this paper a framework

  16. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  17. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette); V. Capasso

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects

  18. Sequential spatial processes for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Capasso, V.

    2009-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to sequential spatial processes. We discuss their definition, formulate a Markov property, and indicate why such processes are natural tools in tackling high level vision problems. We focus on the problem of tracking a variable number of moving objects through a video

  19. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    maintains the flexibility of deciding sooner than the fixed sample size procedure at the price of some lower power [13, 514]. The sequential probability... markets , detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the... skimming cruise missile can yield a significant increase in the probability of raid annihilation. Furthermore, usually detection systems are

  20. STABILIZED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the motivation for, the current state-of-the-art in convergence results, and some open questions concerning the stabilized version of the sequential quadratic programming algorithm for constrained optimization. We also discuss the tools required for its local convergence analysis, globalization challenges, and extentions of the method to the more general variational problems.

  1. Truly costly sequential search and oligopolistic pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    We modify the paper of Stahl (1989) [Stahl, D.O., 1989. Oligopolistic pricing with sequential consumer search. American Economic Review 79, 700-12] by relaxing the assumption that consumers obtain the first price quotation for free. When all price quotations are costly to obtain, the unique

  2. Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be

  3. How to Read the Tractatus Sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kraft

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the unconventional features of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is its use of an elaborated and detailed numbering system. Recently, Bazzocchi, Hacker und Kuusela have argued that the numbering system means that the Tractatus must be read and interpreted not as a sequentially ordered book, but as a text with a two-dimensional, tree-like structure. Apart from being able to explain how the Tractatus was composed, the tree reading allegedly solves exegetical issues both on the local (e. g. how 4.02 fits into the series of remarks surrounding it and the global level (e. g. relation between ontology and picture theory, solipsism and the eye analogy, resolute and irresolute readings. This paper defends the sequential reading against the tree reading. After presenting the challenges generated by the numbering system and the two accounts as attempts to solve them, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s own explanation of the numbering system, anaphoric references within the Tractatus and the exegetical issues mentioned above do not favour the tree reading, but a version of the sequential reading. This reading maintains that the remarks of the Tractatus form a sequential chain: The role of the numbers is to indicate how remarks on different levels are interconnected to form a concise, surveyable and unified whole.

  4. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  5. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Poly(HEMA-co-MMA) by Utilizing Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Long Giang; Cao, Xuan Thang; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Jong Su; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2016-03-01

    The hybrid material consisting of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA-co-MMA)] was synthesized by a combination of RAFT and Click chemistry. In the primary stage, the copolymer poly(HEMA-co-MMA) was prepared by applying RAFT technique. Alkynyl side groups were incorporated onto the poly(HEMA-co-MMA) backbone by esterification reaction. Then, MWNTs-N3 was prepared by treating MWNTs with 4-azidobutylamine. The click coupling reaction between azide-functionalized MWNTs (MWNTs-N3) and the alkyne-functionalized random copolymer ((HEMA-co-MMA)-Alkyne) with the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition afforded the hybrid compound. The structure and properties of poly(MMA-co-HEMA)-g-MWNTs were investigated by FT-IR, EDX and TGA measurements. The copolymer brushes were observed to be immobilized onto the functionalized MWNTs by SEM and TEM analysis.

  7. Click polymerization for the synthesis of reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Wang, Hongquan; Dai, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Click polymerization is a powerful polymerization technique for the construction of new macromolecules with well-defined structures and multifaceted functionalities. Here, we synthesize reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug PEG- b-(PSS- g-MTX)- b-PEG containing disulfide bonds and pendant methotrexate (MTX) via two-step click polymerization followed by conjugating MTX to pendant hydroxyl. MTX content in polymeric prodrug is 13.5%. Polymeric prodrug is able to form polymeric micelles by self-assembly in aqueous solution. Polymeric micelles are spherical nanoparticles with tens of nanometers in size. Of note, polymeric micelles are reduction-responsive due to disulfide bonds in the backbone of PEG- b-(PSS- g-MTX)- b-PEG and could release pendant drugs in the presence of the reducing agents such as dl-dithiothreitol (DTT).

  8. A New Modular Approach to Nanoassembly: Stable and Addressable DNA Nanoconstructs via Orthogonal Click Chemistries

    KAUST Repository

    Gerrard, Simon R.

    2012-10-23

    Thermodynamic instability is a problem when assembling and purifying complex DNA nanostructures formed by hybridization alone. To address this issue, we have used photochemical fixation and orthogonal copper-free, ring-strain-promoted, click chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored. The complex nanostructures are stable to heat and denaturation agents and can therefore be purified and characterized. They are addressable in a sequence-specific manner by triplex formation, and they can be reversibly and selectively deconstructed. Nanostructures utilizing this orthogonal, chemical fixation methodology can be used as building blocks for nanomachines and functional DNA nanoarchitectures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. On-Surface Synthesis by Click Chemistry Investigated by STM and XPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadapoo, Sundar Raja

    2014-01-01

    Molecular synthesis is essential in the bottom-up approach of achieving highly stable nanostructures. On-surface synthesis is highly interesting from the basic science of view to improve the understanding of molecular behavior adsorbed on metal surfaces, and has potential applications such as mol......Molecular synthesis is essential in the bottom-up approach of achieving highly stable nanostructures. On-surface synthesis is highly interesting from the basic science of view to improve the understanding of molecular behavior adsorbed on metal surfaces, and has potential applications...... such as molecular electronics and surface functionalization. In this thesis, a well-defined click chemistry approach is followed, with the study of azide-alkyne cycloaddition on Cu(111) surface in UHV environment. A successful achievement of the click reaction product via on-surface synthesis has been shown, which...

  10. Solvent-resistant nanofiltration for product purification and catalyst recovery in click chemistry reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Odena, Angels; Vandezande, Pieter; Fournier, David; Van Camp, Wim; Du Prez, Filip E; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2010-01-18

    The quickly developing field of "click" chemistry would undoubtedly benefit from the availability of an easy and efficient technology for product purification to reduce the potential health risks associated with the presence of copper in the final product. Therefore, solvent-resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membranes have been developed to selectively separate "clicked" polymers from the copper catalyst and solvent. By using these solvent-stable cross-linked polyimide membranes in diafiltration, up to 98 % of the initially present copper could be removed through the membrane together with the DMF solvent, the polymer product being almost completely retained. This paper also presents the first SRNF application in which the catalyst permeates through the membrane and the reaction product is retained.

  11. Hearing impairment in children with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection based on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and brain evoked response audiometry stimulus click (BERA Click) examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airlangga, T. J.; Mangunatmadja, I.; Prihartono, J.; Zizlavsky, S.

    2017-08-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (congenital CMV) infection is a leading factor of nongenetic sensorineural hearing loss in children. Hearing loss caused by CMV infection does not have a pathognomonic configuration hence further research is needed. The development of knowledge on hearing loss caused by congenital CMV infection is progressing in many countries. Due to a lack of research in the context of Indonesia, this study assesses hearing impairment in children with congenital CMV infection in Indonesia, more specifically in the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Our objective was to profile hearing impairment in children 0-5 years of age with congenital CMV infection using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Brain Evoked Response Audiometry Stimulus Click (BERA Click) examinations. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Cipto Mangunkusum Hospital from November, 2015 to May 2016 with 27 children 0-5 years of age with congenital CMV infection. Of individual ears studied, 58.0% exhibited sensorineural hearing loss. There was a significant relationship between developmental delay and incidence of sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects with a developmental delay were 6.57 times more likely (CI 95%; 1.88-22.87) to experience sensorineural hearing loss. Congenital CMV infection has an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss in children.

  12. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  13. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  14. Emissive Ion Thruster -EMIT, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A propulsion system is proposed that is based on acceleration of ions emitted from a thin, solid-state electrochemical ceramic membrane. This technology would...

  15. Pyridine Based Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    ...) as a hole transporting/electron blocking layer. This improves the device efficiency and brightness significantly due to the charge confinement and exciplex emission at the PVK/emitting polymer interface...

  16. Magnetic poly(N-propargylacrylamide) microspheres: preparation by precipitation polymerization and use in model click reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Proks, Vladimír; Horák, Daniel; Kučka, Jan; Trchová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 22 (2011), s. 4820-4829 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500904; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801; GA ČR GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : click chemistry * magnetic * microspheres Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.919, year: 2011

  17. A New Approach for Mobile Advertising Click-Through Rate Estimation Based on Deep Belief Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie-Hao; Zhao, Zi-Qian; Shi, Ji-Yun; Zhao, Chong

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet and its business applications, mobile advertising Click-Through Rate (CTR) estimation has become a hot research direction in the field of computational advertising, which is used to achieve accurate advertisement delivery for the best benefits in the three-side game between media, advertisers, and audiences. Current research on the estimation of CTR mainly uses the methods and models of machine learning, such as linear model or re...

  18. Click & seed” approach to the biomimetic modification of material surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Proks, Vladimír; Jaroš, J.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Kučka, Jan; Popelka, Štěpán; Dvořák, P.; Hampl, A.; Rypáček, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2012), s. 1232-1242 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500904; GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biomimetic modifications * click chemistry * peptide radiolabeling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.742, year: 2012

  19. PBODL : Parallel Bayesian Online Deep Learning for Click-Through Rate Prediction in Tencent Advertising System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xun; Xue, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    We describe a parallel bayesian online deep learning framework (PBODL) for click-through rate (CTR) prediction within today's Tencent advertising system, which provides quick and accurate learning of user preferences. We first explain the framework with a deep probit regression model, which is trained with probabilistic back-propagation in the mode of assumed Gaussian density filtering. Then we extend the model family to a variety of bayesian online models with increasing feature embedding ca...

  20. Task-irrelevant expectation violations in sequential manual actions: Evidence for a “check-after-surprise” mode of visual attention and eye-hand decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Martina Foerster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking, visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search. How might task-irrelevant expectation violations in such well-practiced sequential manual actions modify attentional selection? This question was investigated by a computerized version of the number-connection test. Participants clicked on nine spatially-distributed numbered target circles in ascending order while eye movements were recorded as proxy for covert attention. Target’s visual features and locations stayed constant for 65 prechange-trials, allowing practicing the manual action sequence. Consecutively, a task-irrelevant expectation violation occurred and stayed for 20 change-trials. Specifically, action target number 4 appeared in a different font. In 15 reversion-trials, number 4 returned to the original font. During the first task-irrelevant change trial, manual clicking was slower and eye scanpaths were larger and contained more fixations. The additional fixations were mainly checking fixations on the changed target while acting on later targets. Whereas the eyes repeatedly revisited the task-irrelevant change, cursor-paths remained completely unaffected. Effects lasted for 2-3 change trials and did not reappear during reversion. In conclusion, an unexpected task-irrelevant change on a task-defining feature of a well-practiced manual sequence leads to eye-hand decoupling and a check-after-surprise mode of attentional selection.

  1. In situ click chemistry: from small molecule discovery to synthetic antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Heather D.; Lai, Bert; Lee, Su Seong; Lim, Jaehong; Nag, Arundhati; Pitram, Suresh; Rohde, Rosemary; Heath, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the fields of proteomics, molecular imaging, and therapeutics are closely linked to the availability of affinity reagents that selectively recognize their biological targets. Here we present a review of Iterative Peptide In Situ Click Chemistry (IPISC), a novel screening technology for designing peptide multiligands with high affinity and specificity. This technology builds upon in situ click chemistry, a kinetic target-guided synthesis approach where the protein target catalyzes the conjugation of two small molecules, typically through the azide–alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition. Integrating this methodology with solid phase peptide libraries enables the assembly of linear and branched peptide multiligands we refer to as Protein Catalyzed Capture Agents (PCC Agents). The resulting structures can be thought of as analogous to the antigen recognition site of antibodies and serve as antibody replacements in biochemical and cell-based applications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in ligand design through IPISC and related approaches, focusing on the improvements in affinity and specificity as multiligands are assembled by target-catalyzed peptide conjugation. We compare the IPISC process to small molecule in situ click chemistry with particular emphasis on the advantages and technical challenges of constructing antibody-like PCC Agents. PMID:22836343

  2. Protein addressing on patterned microchip by coupling chitosan electrodeposition and 'electro-click' chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Wen; Qiu, Ling; Nie, Zhen; Xiao, Ling; Payne, Gregory F; Du, Yumin

    2013-12-01

    Many applications in proteomics and lab-on-chip analysis require methods that guide proteins to assemble at surfaces with high spatial and temporal control. Electrical inputs are particularly convenient to control, and there has been considerable effort to discover simple and generic mechanisms that allow electrical inputs to trigger protein assembly on-demand. Here, we report the electroaddressing of a protein to a patterned surface by coupling two generic electroaddressing mechanisms. First, we electrodeposit the stimuli-responsive film-forming aminopolysaccharide chitosan to form a hydrogel matrix at the electrode surface. After deposition, the matrix is chemically functionalized with alkyne groups. Second, we ''electro-click' an azide-tagged protein to the functionalized matrix using electrical signals to trigger conjugation by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions. Specifically, a cathodic potential is applied to the matrix-coated electrode to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) which is required for the click reaction. Using fluorescently-labeled bovine serum albumin as our model, we demonstrate that protein conjugation can be controlled spatially and temporally. We anticipate that the coupling of polysaccharide electrodeposition and electro-click chemistry will provide a simple and generic approach to electroaddress proteins within compatible hydrogel matrices.

  3. Click chemistry for [99mTc(CO)3] labeling of Lys3-bombesin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, G.; Rivero, I.A.; Santos-Cuevas, C.L.; Sarmiento, J.I.; Arteaga de Murphy, C.; Ocampo-Garcia, B.E.; Garcia-Becerra, R.; Ordaz-Rosado, D.

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc-HYNIC labeled Lys 3 -bombesin has shown specific binding to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) over-expressed in cancer cells. Click chemistry offers an innovative functionalization strategy for biomolecules such as bombesin. The aim of this research was to apply a click chemistry approach for [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 ] labeling of Lys 3 -bombesin and to compare the in vitro MCF7 breast cancer cell uptake and biodistribution profile in mice with that of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys 3 -bombesin. The results suggest a higher lipophilicity for 99m Tc(CO) 3 -triazole-Lys 3 -bombesin which explains its higher in vivo hepatobiliary elimination. Pancreas-to-blood ratio for 99m Tc(CO) 3 -triazole-Lys 3 -bombesin was 4.46 at 3 h and both bombesin radiopharmaceuticals showed specific recognition for GRP receptors in MCF7 cancer cells. Click chemistry is a reliable approach for [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 ] labeling of Lys 3 -bombesin.

  4. Versatility of Alkyne-Modified Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate) Layers for Click Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Cantu, Erick; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Deodhar, Chaitra; Messman, Jamie M.; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, S. Michael II

    2011-01-01

    Functional soft interfaces are of interest for a variety of technologies. We describe three methods for preparing substrates with alkyne groups, which show versatility for 'click' chemistry reactions. Two of the methods have the same root: formation of thin, covalently attached, reactive interfacial layers of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via spin coating onto silicon wafers followed by reactive modification with either propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid. The amine or the carboxylic acid moieties react with the epoxy groups of PGMA, creating interfacial polymer layers decorated with alkyne groups. The third method consists of using copolymers comprising glycidyl methacrylate and propargyl methacrylate (pGP). The pGP copolymers are spin coated and covalently attached on silicon wafers. For each method, we investigate the factors that control film thickness and content of alkyne groups using ellipsometry, and study the nanophase structure of the films using neutron reflectometry. Azide-terminated polymers of methacrylic acid and 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization were attached to the alkyne-modified substrates using 'click' chemistry, and grafting densities in the range of 0.007-0.95 chains nm -2 were attained. The maximum density of alkyne groups attained by functionalization of PGMA with propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid was approximately 2 alkynes nm -3 . The alkyne content obtained by the three decorating approaches was sufficiently high that it was not the limiting factor for the click reaction of azide-capped polymers.

  5. Methoxypropylamino β-cyclodextrin clicked AC regioisomer for enantioseparations in capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yiying; Liu, Yun; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: In this paper, we demonstrate: • The click synthesis of a AC regioisomer cationic cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral selector. • The good enantioselectivities (chiral resolution over 5) for acidic racemates. • The strong chiral recognition of new CD by NMR study. • Baseline enantioseparation of some acidic racemates at CD of 0.5 mM. - Abstract: In this work, a novel methoxypropylamino β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) clicked AC regioisomer, 6 A -4-hydroxyethyl-1,2,3-triazolyl-6 C -3-methoxypropylamino β-cyclodextrin (HETz-MPrAMCD), was synthesized via nucleophilic addition and click chemistry. The chiral separation ability of this AC regioisomer cationic CD was evaluated toward 7 ampholytic and 13 acidic racemates by capillary electrophoresis. Dependence of enantioselectivity and resolution on buffer pH (5.5–8.0) and chiral selector concentration (0.5–7.5 mM) was investigated. Enantioselectivities (α ≥ 1.05) could be achieved for most analytes under optimal conditions except dansyl-DL-noreleucine and dansyl-DL-serine. The highest resolutions for 2-chloromandelic acid p-hydroxymandelic acid were 15.6 and 9.7 respectively. The inclusion complexation between HETz-MPrAMCD and each 3-phenyllactic acid enantiomer was also revealed with nuclear magnetic resonance study

  6. Methoxypropylamino β-cyclodextrin clicked AC regioisomer for enantioseparations in capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yiying; Liu, Yun; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua, E-mail: whtang@mail.njust.edu.cn

    2015-04-08

    Highlights: In this paper, we demonstrate: • The click synthesis of a AC regioisomer cationic cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral selector. • The good enantioselectivities (chiral resolution over 5) for acidic racemates. • The strong chiral recognition of new CD by NMR study. • Baseline enantioseparation of some acidic racemates at CD of 0.5 mM. - Abstract: In this work, a novel methoxypropylamino β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) clicked AC regioisomer, 6{sup A}-4-hydroxyethyl-1,2,3-triazolyl-6{sup C}-3-methoxypropylamino β-cyclodextrin (HETz-MPrAMCD), was synthesized via nucleophilic addition and click chemistry. The chiral separation ability of this AC regioisomer cationic CD was evaluated toward 7 ampholytic and 13 acidic racemates by capillary electrophoresis. Dependence of enantioselectivity and resolution on buffer pH (5.5–8.0) and chiral selector concentration (0.5–7.5 mM) was investigated. Enantioselectivities (α ≥ 1.05) could be achieved for most analytes under optimal conditions except dansyl-DL-noreleucine and dansyl-DL-serine. The highest resolutions for 2-chloromandelic acid p-hydroxymandelic acid were 15.6 and 9.7 respectively. The inclusion complexation between HETz-MPrAMCD and each 3-phenyllactic acid enantiomer was also revealed with nuclear magnetic resonance study.

  7. Conjugating folate on superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles using click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiaofang; Ge, Zhaoqiang; Pang, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Gold-coated magnetic core@shell nanoparticles, which exhibit magneto-optical properties, not only enhance the chemical stability of core and biocompatibility of surface, but also provide a combination of multimodal imaging and therapeutics. The conjugation of these tiny nanoparticles with specific biomolecules allows researchers to target the desired location. In this paper, superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with the azide group on the surface by formation of self-assembled monolayers. Folate (FA) molecules, non-immunogenic target ligands for cancer cells, are conjugated with alkyne and then immobilized on the azide-terminated Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click reaction). Myelogenous leukemia K562 cells were used as a folate receptor (FR) model, which can be targeted and extracted by magnetic field after interaction with the Fe 3 O 4 @Au–FA nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Self-assembled azide-terminated group on superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles followed by click reaction with alkyne-functionalized folate, allowing the nanoparticles target folate receptor of cancer cells. - Highlights: • Azidoundecanethiol was coated on the superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles by forming self-assembled monolayers. • Alkyne-terminated folate was synthesized from a reaction between the amine and the carboxylic acid. • Conjugation of Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles with folate was made by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry

  8. Irreversible bonding of polyimide and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based on a thiol-epoxy click reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Michelle V; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Elias, Anastasia L

    2016-01-01

    Polyimide is one of the most popular substrate materials for the microfabrication of flexible electronics, while polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most widely used stretchable substrate/encapsulant material. These two polymers are essential in fabricating devices for microfluidics, bioelectronics, and the internet of things; bonding these materials together is a crucial challenge. In this work, we employ click chemistry at room temperature to irreversibly bond polyimide and PDMS through thiol-epoxy bonds using two different methods. In the first method, we functionalize the surfaces of the PDMS and polyimide substrates with mercaptosilanes and epoxysilanes, respectively, for the formation of a thiol-epoxy bond in the click reaction. In the second method, we functionalize one or both surfaces with mercaptosilane and introduce an epoxy adhesive layer between the two surfaces. When the surfaces are bonded using the epoxy adhesive without any surface functionalization, an extremely small peel strength (<0.01 N mm −1 ) is measured with a peel test, and adhesive failure occurs at the PDMS surface. With surface functionalization, however, remarkably higher peel strengths of ∼0.2 N mm −1 (method 1) and  >0.3 N mm −1 (method 2) are observed, and failure occurs by tearing of the PDMS layer. We envision that the novel processing route employing click chemistry can be utilized in various cases of stretchable and flexible device fabrication. (paper)

  9. Timing and context of dolphin clicks during and after mine simulator detection and marking in the open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam H. Ridgway

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two dolphins carrying cameras swam in the ocean as they searched for and marked mine simulators – buried, proud or moored. As the animals swam ahead of a boat they searched the ocean. Cameras on their harness recorded continuous sound and video. Once a target was detected, the dolphins received a marker to take to the simulator's location. During search and detection, dolphins made almost continuous trains of varying interval clicks. During the marking phase, shorter click trains were interrupted by periods of silence. As the dolphins marked simulators, they often produced victory squeals – pulse bursts that vary in duration, peak frequency and amplitude. Victory squeals were produced on 72% of marks. Sometimes after marking, or at other times during their long swims, the dolphins produced click packets. Packets typically consisted of two to 10 clicks with inter-click intervals of 7-117 ms followed by a silence of 223-983 ms. Click packets appeared unrelated with searching or marking. We suggest that the packets were used to improve signal to noise ratios for locating a boat or other distant object. Victory squeals produced when marking the targets suggest to us that the dolphins know when they have succeeded in this multipart task.

  10. Universal features in sequential and nonsequential two-photon double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazourek, R.; Nagele, S.; Persson, E.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Feist, J.; Schneider, B. I.; Collins, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze two-photon double ionization of helium in both the nonsequential ((ℎ/2π)ω 2 ≅54.4 eV) and sequential ((ℎ/2π)ω>I 2 ) regime. We show that the energy spacing ΔE=E 1 -E 2 between the two emitted electrons provides the key parameter that controls both the energy and the angular distribution and reveals the universal features present in both the nonsequential and sequential regime. This universality, i.e., independence of (ℎ/2π)ω, is a manifestation of the continuity across the threshold for sequential double ionization. For all photon energies considered, the energy distribution can be described by a universal shape function that contains only the spectral and temporal information entering second-order time-dependent perturbation theory. Angular correlations and distributions are found to be more sensitive to the value of (ℎ/2π)ω. In particular, shake-up interferences have a large effect on the angular distribution. Energy spectra, angular distributions parametrized by the anisotropy parameters β j , and total cross sections presented in this paper are obtained by fully correlated time-dependent ab initio calculations.

  11. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  12. A one-sided sequential test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-04-16

    The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).

  13. Documentscape: Intertextuality, Sequentiality & Autonomy at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune; Bjørn, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic field study, this article introduces the concept of documentscape to the analysis of document-centric work practices. The concept of documentscape refers to the entire ensemble of documents in their mutual intertextual interlocking. Providing empirical data from...... a global software development case, we show how hierarchical structures and sequentiality across the interlocked documents are critical to how actors make sense of the work of others and what to do next in a geographically distributed setting. Furthermore, we found that while each document is created...... as part of a quasi-sequential order, this characteristic does not make the document, as a single entity, into a stable object. Instead, we found that the documents were malleable and dynamic while suspended in intertextual structures. Our concept of documentscape points to how the hierarchical structure...

  14. A minimax procedure in the context of sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master or a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random test item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory

  15. Applying the minimax principle to sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential mastery tests. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a nonmaster, or to continue sampling and administering another random item. The framework of minimax sequential decision theory (minimum

  16. Optimal Sequential Rules for Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Formulates sequential rules for adapting the appropriate amount of instruction to learning needs in the context of computer-based instruction. Topics include Bayesian decision theory, threshold and linear-utility structure, psychometric model, optimal sequential number of test questions, and an empirical example of sequential instructional…

  17. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016

  18. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  19. Comparing two Poisson populations sequentially: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halteman, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado monitors each of its employees for radiation exposure. Excess exposure is detected by comparing the means of two Poisson populations. A sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is proposed as a replacement for the fixed sample normal approximation test. A uniformly most efficient SPRT exists, however logistics suggest using a truncated SPRT. The truncated SPRT is evaluated in detail and shown to possess large potential savings in average time spent by employees in the monitoring process

  20. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sequential Monte Carlo with Highly Informative Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Pierre; Murray, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for sampling the posterior distribution of state-space models under highly informative observation regimes, a situation in which standard SMC methods can perform poorly. A special case is simulating bridges between given initial and final values. The basic idea is to introduce a schedule of intermediate weighting and resampling times between observation times, which guide particles towards the final state. This can always be done for continuous-...

  2. Sequential test procedures for inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; Kern, E.A.; Emeigh, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    By means of a simulation study, we investigated the appropriateness of Page's and power-one sequential tests on sequences of inventory differences obtained from an example materials control unit, a sub-area of a hypothetical UF 6 -to-U 3 O 8 conversion process. The study examined detection probability and run length curves obtained from different loss scenarios. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Sequential neural models with stochastic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraccaro, Marco; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Paquet, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    How can we efficiently propagate uncertainty in a latent state representation with recurrent neural networks? This paper introduces stochastic recurrent neural networks which glue a deterministic recurrent neural network and a state space model together to form a stochastic and sequential neural...... generative model. The clear separation of deterministic and stochastic layers allows a structured variational inference network to track the factorization of the model's posterior distribution. By retaining both the nonlinear recursive structure of a recurrent neural network and averaging over...

  4. White emission from nano-structured top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Park, Jung Jin; Park, O Ok; Im, Sang Hyuk; Chin, Byung Doo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated that white emission can be obtained from nano-structured top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TEOLEDs) based on a blue emitting layer (EML). The nano-structured TEOLEDs were fabricated on nano-patterned substrates, in which both optical micro-cavity and scattering effects occur simultaneously. Due to the combination of these two effects, the electroluminescence spectra of the nano-structured device with a blue EML exhibited not only blue but also yellow colours, which corresponded to the intrinsic emission of the EML and the resonant emission of the micro-cavity effect. Consequently, it was possible to produce white emission from nano-structured TEOLEDs without employing a multimode micro-cavity. The intrinsic emission wavelength can be varied by altering the dopant used for the EML. Furthermore, the emissive characteristics turned out to be strongly dependent on the nano-pattern sizes of the nano-structured devices. (paper)

  5. Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge; Cochrane, Cédric; Tylcz, Jean Baptiste; Betrouni, Nacim; Mortier, Laurent; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  7. Characterization of Yellow Seahorse Hippocampus kuda feeding click sound signals in a laboratory environment: an application of probability density function and power spectral density analyses

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Saran, A.K.; Kuncolienker, D.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Haris, K.; Fernandes, W.A

    based on the assumption of combinations of normal / Gaussian distributions indicate well fitted multimodal curves generated using MATLAB (Math Works Inc 2005) programs. Out of the twenty three clicks, four clicks (two clicks of 16 and 18cm male... Society of America 115: 2331-2333. Malamud BD, Turcotte DL. 1999. Self affine time series: measures of weak and strong persistence. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 80:173-196. MATLAB, Curve Fitting toolbox, Math Works Inc 2005. Available...

  8. Modification of chemical and conformational properties of natural organic matter by click chemistry as revealed by ESI-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    A click reaction is reported here for the first time as a useful technique to control the conformational stability of natural organic matter (NOM) suprastructures. Click conjugates were successfully formed between a previously butynylated NOM hydrophobic fraction and a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG)-amino chain. The click products were shown by size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) hyphenated with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) in electrospray ionization (ESI) (+), while precursors were visible in ESI (-). Despite their increase in molecular weight, HPSEC elution of click conjugates occurred after that of precursors, thus showing their departure from the NOM supramolecular association. This indicates that the click-conjugated NOM molecules were varied in their hydrophilic and cationic character and lost the capacity to accommodate in the original hydrophobic suprastructures. The most abundant product had the C16H30O5N4 formula, a click conjugate of butanoic acid, while other products were short-chained (C4-C8) linear unsaturated and hydroxylated carboxylic acids. Tandem MS revealed formation of triazole rings in clicked conjugates and their two fragmentations at the ester and the C-N alkyl-aryl bonds. The behavior of NOM molecules modified by click chemistry confirms that hydrophobicity and ionic charge of humic molecules play a pivotal role in stabilizing intermolecular forces in NOM. Moreover, the versatility of the click reaction may become useful to decorate NOM molecules with a variety of substrates, in order to alter NOM conformational and chemical properties and diversify its applications in the environment.

  9. Calorimetric measurement of strong γ emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brangier, B.; Herczeg, C.; Henry, R.

    1968-01-01

    This publication gives the principle and a description of an adiabatic calorimeter for measuring the real activity of strong gamma-emitting sources by absorbing the emitted energy in a mass of copper. Because of the difficulty of evaluating the amount self- absorption, we have built a calorimeter for measuring the self- absorption, and a description of it is given.The results of these three measurements are fairly satisfactory. The calibration and the actual measurements obtained are given with a few corrections made necessary by the design of the apparatus. The correlation of the various results is discussed. (author) [fr

  10. Full-Color LCD Microdisplay System Based on OLED Backlight Unit and Field-Sequential Color Driving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Woo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.

  11. Nanofabrication Yields. Hybridization and Click-Fixation of Polycyclic DNA Nanoassemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Lundberg, Erik P.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate the stepwise assembly of a fully addressable polycyclic DNA hexagon nanonetwork for the preparation of a four-ring system, one of the biggest networks yet constructed from tripodal building blocks. We find that the yield exhibits a distinct upper level <100%, a fundamental problem of thermodynamic DNA assembly that appears to have been overlooked in the DNA nanotechnology literature. A simplistic model based on a single step-yield parameter y can quantitatively describe the total yield of DNA assemblies in one-pot reactions as Y = yduplex n, with n the number of hybridization steps. Experimental errors introducing deviations from perfect stoichiometry and the thermodynamics of hybridization equilibria contribute to decreasing the value of yduplex (on average y = 0.96 for our 10 base pair hybridization). For the four-ring system (n = 31), the total yield is thus less than 30%, which is clearly unsatisfactory if bigger nanoconstructs of this class are to be designed. Therefore, we introduced site-specific click chemistry for making and purifying robust building blocks for future modular constructs of larger assemblies. Although the present yield of this robust module was only about 10%, it demonstrates a first step toward a general fabrication approach. Interestingly, we find that the click yields follow quantitatively a binomial distribution, the predictability of which indicates the usefulness of preparing pools of pure and robust building blocks in this way. The binomial behavior indicates that there is no interference between the six simultaneous click reactions but that step-yield limiting factors such as topological constraints and Cu(I) catalyst concentration are local and independent. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Evaluating and Optimizing Online Advertising: Forget the Click, but There Are Good Proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, Brian; Hook, Rod; Perlich, Claudia; Provost, Foster

    2015-06-01

    Online systems promise to improve advertisement targeting via the massive and detailed data available. However, there often is too few data on exactly the outcome of interest, such as purchases, for accurate campaign evaluation and optimization (due to low conversion rates, cold start periods, lack of instrumentation of offline purchases, and long purchase cycles). This paper presents a detailed treatment of proxy modeling, which is based on the identification of a suitable alternative (proxy) target variable when data on the true objective is in short supply (or even completely nonexistent). The paper has a two-fold contribution. First, the potential of proxy modeling is demonstrated clearly, based on a massive-scale experiment across 58 real online advertising campaigns. Second, we assess the value of different specific proxies for evaluating and optimizing online display advertising, showing striking results. The results include bad news and good news. The most commonly cited and used proxy is a click on an ad. The bad news is that across a large number of campaigns, clicks are not good proxies for evaluation or for optimization: clickers do not resemble buyers. The good news is that an alternative sort of proxy performs remarkably well: observed visits to the brand's website. Specifically, predictive models built based on brand site visits-which are much more common than purchases-do a remarkably good job of predicting which browsers will make a purchase. The practical bottom line: evaluating and optimizing campaigns using clicks seems wrongheaded; however, there is an easy and attractive alternative-use a well-chosen site-visit proxy instead.

  13. Hydrophobic Coatings by Thiol-Ene Click Functionalization of Silsesquioxanes with Tunable Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirè, Sandra; Bottone, Davide; Callone, Emanuela; Maniglio, Devid; Génois, Isabelle; Ribot, François

    2017-08-08

    The hydrolysis-condensation of trialkoxysilanes under strictly controlled conditions allows the production of silsesquioxanes (SSQs) with tunable size and architecture ranging from ladder to cage-like structures. These nano-objects can serve as building blocks for the preparation of hybrid organic/inorganic materials with selected properties. The SSQs growth can be tuned by simply controlling the reaction duration in the in situ water production route (ISWP), where the kinetics of the esterification reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols rules out the extent of organosilane hydrolysis-condensation. Tunable SSQs with thiol functionalities (SH-NBBs) are suitable for further modification by exploiting the simple thiol-ene click reaction, thus allowing for modifying the wettability properties of derived coatings. In this paper, coatings were prepared from SH-NBBs with different architecture onto cotton fabrics and paper, and further functionalized with long alkyl chains by means of initiator-free UV-induced thiol-ene coupling with 1-decene (C10) and 1-tetradecene (C14). The coatings appeared to homogeneously cover the natural fibers and imparted a multi-scale roughness that was not affected by the click functionalization step. The two-step functionalization of cotton and paper warrants a stable highly hydrophobic character to the surface of natural materials that, in perspective, suggests a possible application in filtration devices for oil-water separation. Furthermore, the purification of SH-NBBs from ISWP by-products was possible during the coating process, and this step allowed for the fast, initiator-free, click-coupling of purified NBBs with C10 and C14 in solution with a nearly quantitative yield. Therefore, this approach is an alternative route to get sol-gel-derived, ladder-like, and cage-like SSQs functionalized with long alkyl chains.

  14. Specific Labeling of Zinc Finger Proteins using Non-canonical Amino Acids and Copper-free Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ferracane, Dean; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation and serve as invaluable tools for gene modification and genetic engineering. Development of efficient strategies for labeling metalloproteins such as ZFPs is essential for understanding and controlling biological processes. In this work, we engineered ZFPs containing cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) motifs by metabolic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA), followed by specific protein labeling via click chemistry. We show that cyclooctyne promoted [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition with azides, known as copper-free click chemistry, provides rapid and specific labeling of ZFPs at high yields as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. We observe that the DNA-binding activity of ZFPs labeled by conventional copper-mediated click chemistry was completely abolished, whereas ZFPs labeled by copper-free click chemistry retain their sequence-specific DNA-binding activity under native conditions, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, protein microarrays and kinetic binding assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our work provides a general framework to label metalloproteins such as ZFPs by metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids followed by copper-free click chemistry. PMID:22871171

  15. Direct imaging of glycans in Arabidopsis roots via click labeling of metabolically incorporated azido-monosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Berghuis, Nathalja; Cramer, Dario; Geurts, Rene; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-10-10

    Carbohydrates, also called glycans, play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The non-template driven formation of glycans makes it impossible to image them in vivo with genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycan analogs that are metabolically incorporated by the plant into its glycans. These metabolically incorporated probes can be visualized, but techniques documented so far use toxic copper-catalyzed labeling. To further expand our knowledge of plant glycobiology by direct imaging of its glycans via this method, there is need for novel click-compatible glycan analogs for plants that can be bioorthogonally labelled via copper-free techniques. Arabidopsis seedlings were incubated with azido-containing monosaccharide analogs of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, L-fucose, and L-arabinofuranose. These azido-monosaccharides were metabolically incorporated in plant cell wall glycans of Arabidopsis seedlings. Control experiments indicated active metabolic incorporation of the azido-monosaccharide analogs into glycans rather than through non-specific absorption of the glycan analogs onto the plant cell wall. Successful copper-free labeling reactions were performed, namely an inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction using an incorporated N-acetylglucosamine analog, and a strain-promoted azide-alkyne click reaction. All evaluated azido-monosaccharide analogs were observed to be non-toxic at the used concentrations under normal growth conditions. Our results for the metabolic incorporation and fluorescent labeling of these azido-monosaccharide analogs expand the possibilities for studying plant glycans by direct imaging. Overall we successfully evaluated five azido-monosaccharide analogs for their ability to be metabolically incorporated in Arabidopsis roots and their imaging after fluorescent labeling. This expands

  16. Towards enhancing click-draw based graphical passwords using multi-touch behaviours on smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Kwok, Lam For

    2017-01-01

    Graphical passwords (GPs) are recognised as one of the potential alternatives in addressing the limitations in conventional text-based password authentication. With the rapid development of mobile devices (i.e., the increase of computing power), GP-based systems have already been implemented...... and its impact on graphical password creation is an important topic in the literature. In this paper, our interest is to investigate the influence of multi-touch behaviours on users’ habit in creating graphical passwords, especially on click-draw based GPs (shortly CD-GPS) on mobile devices...

  17. Cu-Click Compatible Triazabutadienes To Expand the Scope of Aryl Diazonium Ion Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornali, Brandon M; Kimani, Flora W; Jewett, John C

    2016-10-07

    Triazabutadienes can be used to readily generate reactive aryl diazonium ions under mild, physiologically relevant conditions. These conditions are compatible with a range of functionalities that do not tolerate traditional aryl diazonium ion generation. To increase the utility of this aryl diazonium ion releasing chemistry an alkyne-containing triazabutadiene was synthesized. The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition ("Cu-click") reaction was utilized to modify the alkyne-containing triazabutadiene and shown to be compatible with the nitrogen-rich triazabutadiene. One of the triazole products was tethered to a fluorophore, thus enabling the direct fluorescent labeling of a model protein.

  18. An Efficient and Straightforward Method for Radiolabeling of Nanoparticles with {sup 64}Cu via Click Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Eun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangmeyung [Center for Theragnosis, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Hyun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiobiotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, nanoparticles have received a great deal of interest in diagnosis and therapy applications. Since nanoparticles possess intrinsic features that are often required for a drug delivery system and diagnosis, they have potential to be used as platforms for integrating imaging and therapeutic functions, simultaneously. Intrinsic issues that are associated with theranostic nanoparticles, particularly in cancer treatment, include an efficient and straightforward radiolabeling method for understanding the in vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles to reach the tumor region, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Herein, we investigated a facile and highly efficient strategy to prepare radiolabeled nanoparticles with {sup 64}Cu via a strain-promoted azide, i.e., an alkyne cycloaddition strategy, which is often referred to as click chemistry. First, the azide (N3) group, which allows for the preparation of radiolabeled nanoparticles by copper-free click chemistry, was incorporated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). Second, the strained cyclooctyne derivative, dibenzyl cyclooctyne (DBCO) conjugated with a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator, was synthesized for preparing the pre-radiolabeled alkyne complex with {sup 64}Cu radionuclide. Following incubation with the {sup 64}Cu-radiolabeled DBCO complex (DBCO-PEG4-Lys-DOTA-{sup 64}Cu with high specific activity, 18.5 GBq/μ mol), the azide-functionalized CNPs were radiolabeled successfully with {sup 64}Cu, with a high radiolabeling efficiency and a high radiolabeling yield (>98%). Importantly, the radiolabeling of CNPs by copper-free click chemistry was accomplished within 30 min, with great efficiency in aqueous conditions. After {sup 64}Cu-CNPs were intravenously administered to tumor-bearing mice, the real time, in vivo biodistribution and tumor-targeting ability of {sup 64}Cu-CNPs were quantitatively evaluated by micro-PET images of tumor-bearing mice. These results

  19. The digital laser: on-demand laser modes with the click of a button

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Forbes_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 729 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Forbes_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The digital... laser: on-demand laser modes with the click of a button Forbes A, Ngcobo S, Burger L and Litvin IA ABSTRACT In this paper we will outline our recent advances in all-digital control of light. Importantly, we will outline how to create a so...

  20. Synthesis of click-reactive HPMA copolymers using RAFT polymerization for drug delivery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Morten F; Schaffert, D.H.; Crowley, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a versatile strategy combining reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry to synthesize well-defined, reactive copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) for drug delivery applications. A novel azide containing monomer N-(3......-azidopropyl)methacrylamide (AzMA) was synthesized and copolymerized with HPMA using RAFT polymerization to provide p(HPMA-co-AzMA) copolymers with high control of molecular weight (∼10–54 kDa) and polydispersity (≤1.06). The utility of the side-chain azide functionality by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide...

  1. Synthesis of Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers by "CLICK" Polymerization for OPV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbæk; Yu, Donghong

    The intent of this study was to utilize the Copper(I)-catalyzed Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) as a polymerization technique (“Click” Polymerization) for synthesizing novel π-conjugated low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaic applications (OPV). The chosen approach was to synthesize...... an alternating electron donating (donor, D) and electron withdrawing (acceptor, A) co-polymer. The chosen monomers were well known units, and the novelty lies in using the monomer units with the click methodology. An insoluble alternating copolymer consisting of 2,7-diazido-9,9-dioctyl-9Hflourene and 1...

  2. One-pot synthesis of Au@SiO2 catalysts: A click chemistry approach

    KAUST Repository

    Solovyeva, Vera A.

    2014-10-13

    Using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition "click" reaction, a library of triazole amphiphiles with a variety of functional polar "heads" and hydrophobic or superhydrophobic "tails" was synthesized. The amphiphiles were evaluated for their ability to stabilize small Au nanoparticles, and, at the same time, serve as templates for nanocasting porous SiO2. One of the Au@SiO2 materials thus prepared was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Au nanoparticle-catalyzed regioselective hydroamination of alkynes.

  3. One-pot synthesis of Au@SiO2 catalysts: A click chemistry approach

    KAUST Repository

    Solovyeva, Vera A.; Vu, Khanh B.; Merican, Zulkifli; Sougrat, Rachid; Rodionov, Valentin O.

    2014-01-01

    Using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition "click" reaction, a library of triazole amphiphiles with a variety of functional polar "heads" and hydrophobic or superhydrophobic "tails" was synthesized. The amphiphiles were evaluated for their ability to stabilize small Au nanoparticles, and, at the same time, serve as templates for nanocasting porous SiO2. One of the Au@SiO2 materials thus prepared was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Au nanoparticle-catalyzed regioselective hydroamination of alkynes.

  4. On Locally Most Powerful Sequential Rank Tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-125 ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonparametric test s * sequential ranks * stopping variable Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.339, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474065.pdf

  5. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SEQUENTIALLY-TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the development of the noninvasive use of explosives during the destruction of ice mass in river flows. The system of special sequentially-timed charges utilizes the increase in efficiency of cutting charges by covering them with bags filled with water, while simultaneously increasing the effect of the entire system of timed charges. Timing, spatial combinations during placement, and the linking of these charges results in the loosening of ice barriers on a frozen waterway, while at the same time regulating the size of the ice fragments. The developed charges will increase the operability and safety of IRS units.

  7. Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.

  8. Estimation After a Group Sequential Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Kenward, Michael G; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; Davidian, Marie; Verbeke, Geert

    2015-10-01

    Group sequential trials are one important instance of studies for which the sample size is not fixed a priori but rather takes one of a finite set of pre-specified values, dependent on the observed data. Much work has been devoted to the inferential consequences of this design feature. Molenberghs et al (2012) and Milanzi et al (2012) reviewed and extended the existing literature, focusing on a collection of seemingly disparate, but related, settings, namely completely random sample sizes, group sequential studies with deterministic and random stopping rules, incomplete data, and random cluster sizes. They showed that the ordinary sample average is a viable option for estimation following a group sequential trial, for a wide class of stopping rules and for random outcomes with a distribution in the exponential family. Their results are somewhat surprising in the sense that the sample average is not optimal, and further, there does not exist an optimal, or even, unbiased linear estimator. However, the sample average is asymptotically unbiased, both conditionally upon the observed sample size as well as marginalized over it. By exploiting ignorability they showed that the sample average is the conventional maximum likelihood estimator. They also showed that a conditional maximum likelihood estimator is finite sample unbiased, but is less efficient than the sample average and has the larger mean squared error. Asymptotically, the sample average and the conditional maximum likelihood estimator are equivalent. This previous work is restricted, however, to the situation in which the the random sample size can take only two values, N = n or N = 2 n . In this paper, we consider the more practically useful setting of sample sizes in a the finite set { n 1 , n 2 , …, n L }. It is shown that the sample average is then a justifiable estimator , in the sense that it follows from joint likelihood estimation, and it is consistent and asymptotically unbiased. We also show why

  9. A sequential/parallel track selector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolino, F; Bressani, Tullio; Chiavassa, E; Costa, S; Dellacasa, G; Gallio, M; Musso, A

    1980-01-01

    A medium speed ( approximately 1 mu s) hardware pre-analyzer for the selection of events detected in four planes of drift chambers in the magnetic field of the Omicron Spectrometer at the CERN SC is described. Specific geometrical criteria determine patterns of hits in the four planes of vertical wires that have to be recognized and that are stored as patterns of '1's in random access memories. Pairs of good hits are found sequentially, then the RAMs are used as look-up tables. (6 refs).

  10. Boundary conditions in random sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Ziff, Robert M.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of different boundary conditions on the density of random packings of disks is studied. Packings are generated using the random sequential adsorption algorithm with three different types of boundary conditions: periodic, open, and wall. It is found that the finite size effects are smallest for periodic boundary conditions, as expected. On the other hand, in the case of open and wall boundaries it is possible to introduce an effective packing size and a constant correction term to significantly improve the packing densities.

  11. Automatic synthesis of sequential control schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.

    1993-01-01

    Of all hard- and software developed for industrial control purposes, the majority is devoted to sequential, or binary valued, control and only a minor part to classical linear control. Typically, the sequential parts of the controller are invoked during startup and shut-down to bring the system into its normal operating region and into some safe standby region, respectively. Despite its importance, fairly little theoretical research has been devoted to this area, and sequential control programs are therefore still created manually without much theoretical support to obtain a systematic approach. We propose a method to create sequential control programs automatically. The main ideas is to spend some effort off-line modelling the plant, and from this model generate the control strategy, that is the plan. The plant is modelled using action structures, thereby concentrating on the actions instead of the states of the plant. In general the planning problem shows exponential complexity in the number of state variables. However, by focusing on the actions, we can identify problem classes as well as algorithms such that the planning complexity is reduced to polynomial complexity. We prove that these algorithms are sound, i.e., the generated solution will solve the stated problem, and complete, i.e., if the algorithms fail, then no solution exists. The algorithms generate a plan as a set of actions and a partial order on this set specifying the execution order. The generated plant is proven to be minimal and maximally parallel. For a larger class of problems we propose a method to split the original problem into a number of simple problems that can each be solved using one of the presented algorithms. It is also shown how a plan can be translated into a GRAFCET chart, and to illustrate these ideas we have implemented a planing tool, i.e., a system that is able to automatically create control schemes. Such a tool can of course also be used on-line if it is fast enough. This

  12. From sequential to parallel programming with patterns

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    To increase in both performance and efficiency, our programming models need to adapt to better exploit modern processors. The classic idioms and patterns for programming such as loops, branches or recursion are the pillars of almost every code and are well known among all programmers. These patterns all have in common that they are sequential in nature. Embracing parallel programming patterns, which allow us to program for multi- and many-core hardware in a natural way, greatly simplifies the task of designing a program that scales and performs on modern hardware, independently of the used programming language, and in a generic way.

  13. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  14. Simultaneous optimization of sequential IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, Richard A.; Prellop, Perri B.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Santos, Jennifer F. de los; Duan, Jun; Fiveash, John B.; Brezovich, Ivan A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy often comprises two phases, in which irradiation of a volume at risk for microscopic disease is followed by a sequential dose escalation to a smaller volume either at a higher risk for microscopic disease or containing only gross disease. This technique is difficult to implement with intensity modulated radiotherapy, as the tolerance doses of critical structures must be respected over the sum of the two plans. Techniques that include an integrated boost have been proposed to address this problem. However, clinical experience with such techniques is limited, and many clinicians are uncomfortable prescribing nonconventional fractionation schemes. To solve this problem, we developed an optimization technique that simultaneously generates sequential initial and boost IMRT plans. We have developed an optimization tool that uses a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a high level programming language for technical computing. The tool uses the TPS to calculate the dose deposition coefficients (DDCs) for optimization. The DDCs were imported into external software and the treatment ports duplicated to create the boost plan. The initial, boost, and tolerance doses were specified and used to construct cost functions. The initial and boost plans were optimized simultaneously using a gradient search technique. Following optimization, the fluence maps were exported to the TPS for dose calculation. Seven patients treated using sequential techniques were selected from our clinical database. The initial and boost plans used to treat these patients were developed independently of each other by dividing the tolerance doses proportionally between the initial and boost plans and then iteratively optimizing the plans until a summation that met the treatment goals was obtained. We used the simultaneous optimization technique to generate plans that met the original planning goals. The coverage of the initial and boost target volumes in the simultaneously optimized

  15. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  16. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Gordon T; Munro, Ian; Poher, Vincent; French, Paul M W; Neil, Mark A A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Elson, Daniel S [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hares, Jonathan D [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Unit 9, Hall Farm Workshops, South Moreton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 9AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gordon.kennedy@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-05-07

    We demonstrate flexible use of low cost, high-power light emitting diodes as illumination sources for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques have been implemented at wavelengths spanning the range 450-640 nm. Additionally, we demonstrate optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging by combining structured illumination with frequency-domain FLIM.

  17. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  18. Detection of Alkynes via Click Chemistry with a Brominated Coumarin Azide by Simultaneous Fluorescence and Isotopic Signatures in Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Chumsae, Chris; Kaplan, Jenifer B; Moulton, Kevin Ryan; Wang, Dongdong; Lee, David H; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny

    2017-09-20

    Alkynes are a key component of click chemistry and used for a wide variety of applications including bioconjugation, selective tagging of protein modifications, and labeling of metabolites and drug targets. However, challenges still exist for detecting alkynes because most 1,2,3-triazole products from alkynes and azides do not possess distinct intrinsic properties that can be used for their facile detection by either fluorescence or mass spectrometry. To address this critical need, a novel brominated coumarin azide was used to tag alkynes and detect alkyne-conjugated biomolecules. This tag has several useful properties: first, it is fluorogenic and the click-chemistry products are highly fluorescent and quantifiable; second, its distinct isotopic pattern facilitates identification by mass spectrometry; and third, its click-chemistry products form a unique pair of reporter ions upon fragmentation that can be used for the quick screening of data. Using a monoclonal antibody conjugated with alkynes, a general workflow has been developed and examined comprehensively.

  19. Hybrid light emitting transistors (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhieddine, Khalid; Ullah, Mujeeb; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well studied and established in current display applications. Light-emitting transistors (LETs) have been developed to further simplify the necessary circuitry for these applications, combining the switching capabilities of a transistor with the light emitting capabilities of an OLED. Such devices have been studied using mono- and bilayer geometries and a variety of polymers [1], small organic molecules [2] and single crystals [3] within the active layers. Current devices can often suffer from low carrier mobilities and most operate in p-type mode due to a lack of suitable n-type organic charge carrier materials. Hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) are a logical step to improve device performance by harnessing the charge carrier capabilities of inorganic semiconductors [4]. We present state of the art, all solution processed hybrid light-emitting transistors using a non-planar contact geometry [1, 5]. We will discuss HLETs comprised of an inorganic electron transport layer prepared from a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide and several organic emissive materials. The mobility of the devices is found between 1-5 cm2/Vs and they had on/off ratios of ~105. Combined with optical brightness and efficiencies of the order of 103 cd/m2 and 10-3-10-1 %, respectively, these devices are moving towards the performance required for application in displays. [1] M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 53, 6213 [2] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, M. Muccini, Nature Materials 2010, 9, 496 [3] T. Takenobu, S. Z. Bisri, T. Takahashi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 066601 [4] H. Nakanotani, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, K. Yano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 262104 [5] K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26,37, 6410

  20. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  1. Comparison of Sequential and Variational Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Weerts, Albrecht

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a valuable tool to improve model state estimates by combining measured observations with model simulations. It has recently gained significant attention due to its potential in using remote sensing products to improve operational hydrological forecasts and for reanalysis purposes. This has been supported by the application of sequential techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter which require no additional features within the modeling process, i.e. it can use arbitrary black-box models. Alternatively, variational techniques rely on optimization algorithms to minimize a pre-defined objective function. This function describes the trade-off between the amount of noise introduced into the system and the mismatch between simulated and observed variables. While sequential techniques have been commonly applied to hydrological processes, variational techniques are seldom used. In our believe, this is mainly attributed to the required computation of first order sensitivities by algorithmic differentiation techniques and related model enhancements, but also to lack of comparison between both techniques. We contribute to filling this gap and present the results from the assimilation of streamflow data in two basins located in Germany and Canada. The assimilation introduces noise to precipitation and temperature to produce better initial estimates of an HBV model. The results are computed for a hindcast period and assessed using lead time performance metrics. The study concludes with a discussion of the main features of each technique and their advantages/disadvantages in hydrological applications.

  2. Time scale of random sequential adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Radek; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    A simple multiscale approach to the diffusion-driven adsorption from a solution to a solid surface is presented. The model combines two important features of the adsorption process: (i) The kinetics of the chemical reaction between adsorbing molecules and the surface and (ii) geometrical constraints on the surface made by molecules which are already adsorbed. The process (i) is modeled in a diffusion-driven context, i.e., the conditional probability of adsorbing a molecule provided that the molecule hits the surface is related to the macroscopic surface reaction rate. The geometrical constraint (ii) is modeled using random sequential adsorption (RSA), which is the sequential addition of molecules at random positions on a surface; one attempt to attach a molecule is made per one RSA simulation time step. By coupling RSA with the diffusion of molecules in the solution above the surface the RSA simulation time step is related to the real physical time. The method is illustrated on a model of chemisorption of reactive polymers to a virus surface.

  3. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  4. Sequential and simultaneous choices: testing the diet selection and sequential choice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Aw, Justine; Kacelnik, Alex

    2009-03-01

    We investigate simultaneous and sequential choices in starlings, using Charnov's Diet Choice Model (DCM) and Shapiro, Siller and Kacelnik's Sequential Choice Model (SCM) to integrate function and mechanism. During a training phase, starlings encountered one food-related option per trial (A, B or R) in random sequence and with equal probability. A and B delivered food rewards after programmed delays (shorter for A), while R ('rejection') moved directly to the next trial without reward. In this phase we measured latencies to respond. In a later, choice, phase, birds encountered the pairs A-B, A-R and B-R, the first implementing a simultaneous choice and the second and third sequential choices. The DCM predicts when R should be chosen to maximize intake rate, and SCM uses latencies of the training phase to predict choices between any pair of options in the choice phase. The predictions of both models coincided, and both successfully predicted the birds' preferences. The DCM does not deal with partial preferences, while the SCM does, and experimental results were strongly correlated to this model's predictions. We believe that the SCM may expose a very general mechanism of animal choice, and that its wider domain of success reflects the greater ecological significance of sequential over simultaneous choices.

  5. Predicting Click-Through Rates of New Advertisements Based on the Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most classical search engines choose and rank advertisements (ads based on their click-through rates (CTRs. To predict an ad’s CTR, historical click information is frequently concerned. To accurately predict the CTR of the new ads is challenging and critical for real world applications, since we do not have plentiful historical data about these ads. Adopting Bayesian network (BN as the effective framework for representing and inferring dependencies and uncertainties among variables, in this paper, we establish a BN-based model to predict the CTRs of new ads. First, we built a Bayesian network of the keywords that are used to describe the ads in a certain domain, called keyword BN and abbreviated as KBN. Second, we proposed an algorithm for approximate inferences of the KBN to find similar keywords with those that describe the new ads. Finally based on the similar keywords, we obtain the similar ads and then calculate the CTR of the new ad by using the CTRs of the ads that are similar with the new ad. Experimental results show the efficiency and accuracy of our method.

  6. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on electrografted 4-ethynylphenyl film via click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Qin; Peng Ru; Liang Cong; Ye Siqiu; Xian Yuezhong; Zhang Wenjing; Jin Litong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and click chemistry. Highlights: → A simple, versatile two-step approach, which is based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has been developed for covalent redox proteins immobilization and biosensing for the first time. In this work, azido group modified HRP was covalently grafted on 4-ethylnylphenyl diazonium compound via CuAAC reaction and a novel electrochemical hydrogen peroxide biosensor was successfully fabricated. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple two-step approach for redox protein immobilization was introduced. Firstly, alkynyl-terminated film was formed on electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-ethylnylphenyl (4-EP) diazonium compound. Then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with azido group was covalently immobilized onto the electrografted film via click reaction. Reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the modification process. The results indicate that HRP retains its native structure and shows fast direct electron transfer. Moreover, the immobilized HRP shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward H 2 O 2 with a linear range of 5.0 x 10 -6 to 9.3 x 10 -4 mol L -1 .

  7. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on electrografted 4-ethynylphenyl film via click chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran Qin; Peng Ru; Liang Cong; Ye Siqiu [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xian Yuezhong, E-mail: yzxian@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Wenjing; Jin Litong [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and click chemistry. Highlights: > A simple, versatile two-step approach, which is based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has been developed for covalent redox proteins immobilization and biosensing for the first time. In this work, azido group modified HRP was covalently grafted on 4-ethylnylphenyl diazonium compound via CuAAC reaction and a novel electrochemical hydrogen peroxide biosensor was successfully fabricated. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple two-step approach for redox protein immobilization was introduced. Firstly, alkynyl-terminated film was formed on electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-ethylnylphenyl (4-EP) diazonium compound. Then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with azido group was covalently immobilized onto the electrografted film via click reaction. Reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the modification process. The results indicate that HRP retains its native structure and shows fast direct electron transfer. Moreover, the immobilized HRP shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with a linear range of 5.0 x 10{sup -6} to 9.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}.

  8. Click chemistry approach to conventional vegetable tanning process: accelerated method with improved organoleptic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ganesan; Ramamurthy, Govindaswamy; Sadulla, Sayeed; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2014-09-01

    Click chemistry approaches are tailored to generate molecular building blocks quickly and reliably by joining small units together selectively and covalently, stably and irreversibly. The vegetable tannins such as hydrolyzable and condensed tannins are capable to produce rather stable radicals or inhibit the progress of radicals and are prone to oxidations such as photo and auto-oxidation, and their anti-oxidant nature is well known. A lot remains to be done to understand the extent of the variation of leather stability, color variation (lightening and darkening reaction of leather), and poor resistance to water uptake for prolonged periods. In the present study, we have reported click chemistry approaches to accelerated vegetable tanning processes based on periodates catalyzed formation of oxidized hydrolysable and condensed tannins for high exhaustion with improved properties. The distribution of oxidized vegetable tannin, the thermal stability such as shrinkage temperature (T s) and denaturation temperature (T d), resistance to collagenolytic activities, and organoleptic properties of tanned leather as well as the evaluations of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates the cross section of tightness of the leather. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis shows that the T d of leather is more than that of vegetable tanned or equal to aldehyde tanned one. The leathers exhibited fullness, softness, good color, and general appearance when compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannin. The developed process benefits from significant reduction in total solids and better biodegradability in the effluent, compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannins.

  9. Why are there no long distance jumpers among click-beetles (Elateridae)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribak, Gal; Mordechay, Oded; Weihs, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Click-beetles jump from an inverted position without using their legs. This unique mechanism results in high vertical jumps with the jump angle restricted by the rigid morphology of the exoskeleton. We explored the option to exploit this jumping mechanism for application to small mechanical devices having to extricate themselves from rough terrain. We combined experiments on a biomimetic jumping device with a physical–mathematical model of the jump to assess the effect of morphological variation on the jumping performance. We found that through morphological change of two non-dimensional (size independent) parameters, the propulsive force powering the jump can be directed at angles as small as 40°. However, in practice jumping at such angles is precluded by loss of traction with the ground during the push-off phase. This limitation to steep jump angles is inherent to the jumping mechanism which is based on rotation of body parts about a single hinge. Such a rotation dictates a curvilinear trajectory for the center of mass during takeoff so that the vertical and horizontal accelerations occur out of phase, implying loss of traction with the ground before substantial horizontal acceleration can be reached. Thus click-beetle inspired jumping is effective mainly for making steep-angle righting jumps. (paper)

  10. Neural Point-and-Click Communication by a Person With Incomplete Locked-In Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y; Stavisky, Sergey D; Simeral, John D; Newell, Katherine; Oakley, Erin M; Cash, Sydney S; Friehs, Gerhard; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2015-06-01

    A goal of brain-computer interface research is to develop fast and reliable means of communication for individuals with paralysis and anarthria. We evaluated the ability of an individual with incomplete locked-in syndrome enrolled in the BrainGate Neural Interface System pilot clinical trial to communicate using neural point-and-click control. A general-purpose interface was developed to provide control of a computer cursor in tandem with one of two on-screen virtual keyboards. The novel BrainGate Radial Keyboard was compared to a standard QWERTY keyboard in a balanced copy-spelling task. The Radial Keyboard yielded a significant improvement in typing accuracy and speed-enabling typing rates over 10 correct characters per minute. The participant used this interface to communicate face-to-face with research staff by using text-to-speech conversion, and remotely using an internet chat application. This study demonstrates the first use of an intracortical brain-computer interface for neural point-and-click communication by an individual with incomplete locked-in syndrome. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Assembly of a biocompatible triazole-linked gene by one-pot click-DNA ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukwikila, Mikiembo; Gale, Nittaya; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom; Tavassoli, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides and their enzyme-mediated assembly into genes and genomes has significantly advanced multiple scientific disciplines. However, these approaches are not without their shortcomings; enzymatic amplification and ligation of oligonucleotides into genes and genomes makes automation challenging, and site-specific incorporation of epigenetic information and/or modified bases into large constructs is not feasible. Here we present a fully chemical one-pot method for the assembly of oligonucleotides into a gene by click-DNA ligation. We synthesize the 335 base-pair gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein iLOV from ten functionalized oligonucleotides that contain 5ʹ-azide and 3ʹ-alkyne units. The resulting click-linked iLOV gene contains eight triazoles at the sites of chemical ligation, and yet is fully biocompatible; it is replicated by DNA polymerases in vitro and encodes a functional iLOV protein in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate the power and potential of our one-pot gene-assembly method by preparing an epigenetically modified variant of the iLOV gene.

  12. Selling You and Your Clicks: Examining the Audience Commodification of Google

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjin Kang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a political economy perspective, this paper argues that Google’s surplus value from advertising results from its extensive and transformative commodification of users. The unique features of Google as an advertising venue intensify the commodification of its users as compared to traditional media in several ways. First, the simplified valorization process of Google’s advertising methods enables Google to earn significantly more surplus value than those of traditional media. Also, Google’s personalized advertising strategies, its precise measurement of advertising costs based on users’ behaviors represented as “the number of clicks,” and the unclear distinction between advertisements and serviced content commodify its users’ online activities. Lastly, this essay asserts that Google commodifies the aggregated consciousnesses of its users because it sells keywords for advertisers to attach advertisements to search-data output, which are priced in accordance with their popularity. This “click-through” form of behavioral commodification has significant implications for the future of media.

  13. Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Ruthenium(0) Nanoparticles in Click Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avvaru Praveen; Baek, Minwook; Sridhar, Chirumarry; Kumar, Begari Prem; Lee, Yongill [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Here we report a facile synthesis of ruthenium (Ru) Nanoparticles (NPs) by chemical co-precipitation method. The calcination of ruthenium hydroxide samples at 500 .deg. C under hydrogen atmosphere lead to the formation of Ru{sup 0} NPs. The size and aggregation of Ru NPs depends on the pH of the medium, and type of surfactant and its concentration. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope image (TEM) analyses of particles indicated the formation of Ru{sup 0} NPs, and have 10 to 20 nm sizes. As-synthesized Ru{sup 0} NPs are characterized and investigated their catalytic ability in click chemistry (azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions), showing good results in terms of reactivity. Interestingly, small structural differences in triazines influence the catalytic activity of Ru{sup 0} nanocatalysts. Click chemistry has recently emerged to become one of the most powerful tools in drug discovery, chemical biology, proteomics, medical sciences and nanotechnology/nanomedicine. In addition, preliminary tests of recycling showed good results with neither loss of activity or significant precipitation.

  14. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  15. GREEN LIGHT EMITTING TRICOMPONENT LUMINOPHORS OF 2-NAPHTHOL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    K. G. MANE , P. B. NAGORE , DR. S. R. PUJARI

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a previous study and incredible progress in basic theoretical modeling, and working for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) including preparation and characteristic studies of Organo- Luminescent Materials by conventional solid state reaction technique.

  16. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  17. Longitudinally Controlled Modification of Cylindrical and Conical Track-Etched Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Pores Using an Electrochemically Assisted Click Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coceancigh, Herman; Tran-Ba, Khanh-Hoa; Columbia University, New York, NY; Siepser, Natasha; Baker, Lane A.; Ito, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Here in this study, the longitudinally controlled modification of the inner surfaces of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched pores was explored using an electrochemically assisted Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. Cylindrical or conical PET track-etched pores were first decorated with ethynyl groups via the amidation of surface -COOH groups, filled with a solution containing Cu(II) and azide-tagged fluorescent dye, and then sandwiched between comb-shaped and planar gold electrodes. Cu(I) was produced at the comb-shaped working electrode by the reduction of Cu(II); it diffused along the pores toward the other electrode and catalyzed CuAAC between an azide-tagged fluorescent dye and a pore-tethered ethynyl group. The modification efficiency of cylindrical pores (ca. 1 μm in diameter) was assessed from planar and cross-sectional fluorescence microscope images of modified membranes. Planar images showed that pore modification took place only above the teeth of the comb-shaped electrode with a higher reaction yield for longer Cu(II) reduction times. Cross-sectional images revealed micrometer-scale gradient modification along the pore axis, which reflected a Cu(I) concentration profile within the pores, as supported by finite-element computer simulations. The reported approach was applicable to the asymmetric modification of cylindrical pores with two different fluorescent dyes in the opposite directions and also for the selective visualization of the tip and base openings of conical pores (ca. 3.5 μm in base diameter and ca. 1 μm in tip diameter). Lastly, the method based on electrochemically assisted CuAAC provides a controlled means to fabricate asymmetrically modified nanoporous membranes and, in the future, will be applicable for chemical separations and the development of sequential catalytic reactors.

  18. Purification and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides using phosphate-based alkyne CLICK chemistry in combination with titanium dioxide chromatography and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Gupta, Pankaj; Cordwell, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A selective method for the enrichment of O-GlcNAcylated peptides using a novel CLICK chemistry reagent is described. Peptides modified by O-GlcNAc were enzymatically labeled with N-azidoacetylgalactosamine. The azide was then reacted with a phospho-alkyne using CLICK chemistry and O-GlcNAcGalNAzPO4...

  19. Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...

  20. Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation mode...

  1. C-quence: a tool for analyzing qualitative sequential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Starkey; Collier, Nicholson T

    2002-02-01

    C-quence is a software application that matches sequential patterns of qualitative data specified by the user and calculates the rate of occurrence of these patterns in a data set. Although it was designed to facilitate analyses of face-to-face interaction, it is applicable to any data set involving categorical data and sequential information. C-quence queries are constructed using a graphical user interface. The program does not limit the complexity of the sequential patterns specified by the user.

  2. Discrimination between sequential and simultaneous virtual channels with electrical hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, David; Galvin, John J

    2011-09-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), simultaneous or sequential stimulation of adjacent electrodes can produce intermediate pitch percepts between those of the component electrodes. However, it is unclear whether simultaneous and sequential virtual channels (VCs) can be discriminated. In this study, CI users were asked to discriminate simultaneous and sequential VCs; discrimination was measured for monopolar (MP) and bipolar + 1 stimulation (BP + 1), i.e., relatively broad and focused stimulation modes. For sequential VCs, the interpulse interval (IPI) varied between 0.0 and 1.8 ms. All stimuli were presented at comfortably loud, loudness-balanced levels at a 250 pulse per second per electrode (ppse) stimulation rate. On average, CI subjects were able to reliably discriminate between sequential and simultaneous VCs. While there was no significant effect of IPI or stimulation mode on VC discrimination, some subjects exhibited better VC discrimination with BP + 1 stimulation. Subjects' discrimination between sequential and simultaneous VCs was correlated with electrode discrimination, suggesting that spatial selectivity may influence perception of sequential VCs. To maintain equal loudness, sequential VC amplitudes were nearly double those of simultaneous VCs, presumably resulting in a broader spread of excitation. These results suggest that perceptual differences between simultaneous and sequential VCs might be explained by differences in the spread of excitation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  3. Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E

    2008-06-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...

  5. Flexible organic light-emitting device based on magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Tong, S.W.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    A radio-frequency sputtering deposition method was applied to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) on a plastic substrate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The correlation of deposition conditions and ITO film properties was systematically investigated and characterized. The optimal ITO films had a transmittance of over 90% in the visible range (400-700 nm) and a resistivity of 5.0x10 -4 Ω-cm. Sequentially α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium, and magnesium-silver were thermally deposited on the ITO-coated PET substrate to fabricate flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated devices had a maximum current efficiency of ∼4.1 cd/A and a luminance of nearly 4100 cd/m 2 at 100 mA/cm 2 . These values showed that the FOLEDs had comparable performance characteristics with the conventional organic light-emitting diodes made on ITO-coated glasses with the same device configuration

  6. High performance multilayered nano-crystalline silicon/silicon-oxide light-emitting diodes on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbari, S; Shahmohammadi, M; Mortazavi, M; Mohajerzadeh, S [Thin Film and Nano-Electronic Laboratory, School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y [Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Robertson, M; Morrison, T, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada)

    2011-09-16

    A low-temperature hydrogenation-assisted sequential deposition and crystallization technique is reported for the preparation of nano-scale silicon quantum dots suitable for light-emitting applications. Radio-frequency plasma-enhanced deposition was used to realize multiple layers of nano-crystalline silicon while reactive ion etching was employed to create nano-scale features. The physical characteristics of the films prepared using different plasma conditions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, room temperature photoluminescence and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of multilayered structures improved the photon-emission properties as observed by photoluminescence and a thin layer of silicon oxy-nitride was then used for electrical isolation between adjacent silicon layers. The preparation of light-emitting diodes directly on glass substrates has been demonstrated and the electroluminescence spectrum has been measured.

  7. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  8. Light-emitting device test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark; Brodie, Alan; George, James; Guan, Yu; Nyffenegger, Ralph

    2018-01-23

    Light-emitting devices, such as LEDs, are tested using a photometric unit. The photometric unit, which may be an integrating sphere, can measure flux, color, or other properties of the devices. The photometric unit may have a single port or both an inlet and outlet. Light loss through the port, inlet, or outlet can be reduced or calibrated for. These testing systems can provide increased reliability, improved throughput, and/or improved measurement accuracy.

  9. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  10. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  11. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m−2 s−1). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops. PMID:26504531

  13. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  14. Clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis

    2012-01-01

    In this study clinically relevant ultrasound images generated with synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is compared to images generated with a conventional technique. The advantage of SASB is the ability to produce high resolution ultrasound images with a high frame rate and at the same...... time massively reduce the amount of generated data. SASB was implemented in a system consisting of a conventional ultrasound scanner connected to a PC via a research interface. This setup enables simultaneous recording with both SASB and conventional technique. Eighteen volunteers were ultrasound...... scanned abdominally, and 84 sequence pairs were recorded. Each sequence pair consists of two simultaneous recordings of the same anatomical location with SASB and conventional B-mode imaging. The images were evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, contrast, unwanted artifacts, and penetration depth...

  15. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  16. Gleason-Busch theorem for sequential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Kieran; Barnett, Stephen M.; Croke, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Gleason's theorem is a statement that, given some reasonable assumptions, the Born rule used to calculate probabilities in quantum mechanics is essentially unique [A. M. Gleason, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 6, 885 (1957), 10.1512/iumj.1957.6.56050]. We show that Gleason's theorem contains within it also the structure of sequential measurements, and along with this the state update rule. We give a small set of axioms, which are physically motivated and analogous to those in Busch's proof of Gleason's theorem [P. Busch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 120403 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.120403], from which the familiar Kraus operator form follows. An axiomatic approach has practical relevance as well as fundamental interest, in making clear those assumptions which underlie the security of quantum communication protocols. Interestingly, the two-time formalism is seen to arise naturally in this approach.

  17. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  18. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  19. Sequential Acral Lentiginous Melanomas of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Uehara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Japanese woman had a lightly brown-blackish pigmented macule (1.2 cm in diameter on the left sole of her foot. She received surgical excision following a diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, which was confirmed histopathologically. One month after the operation, a second melanoma lesion was noticed adjacent to the grafted site. Histopathologically, the two lesions had no continuity, but HMB-45 and cyclin D1 double-positive cells were detected not only on aggregates of atypical melanocytes but also on single cells near the cutting edge of the first lesion. The unique occurrence of a sequential lesion of a primary melanoma might be caused by stimulated subclinical field cells during the wound healing process following the initial operation. This case warrants further investigation to establish the appropriate surgical margin of ALM lesions.

  20. Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

  1. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-05

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  2. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  3. Microstructure history effect during sequential thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassar, Reza S.; Murphy, John; Burton, Christina; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; El kadiri, Haitham; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2008-01-01

    The key to modeling the material processing behavior is the linking of the microstructure evolution to its processing history. This paper quantifies various microstructural features of an aluminum automotive alloy that undergoes sequential thermomechanical processing which is comprised hot rolling of a 150-mm billet to a 75-mm billet, rolling to 3 mm, annealing, and then cold rolling to a 0.8-mm thickness sheet. The microstructural content was characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the evolution of precipitate morphologies, dislocation structures, and grain orientation distributions. These data can be used to improve material models that claim to capture the history effects of the processing materials

  4. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  5. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  6. Monitoring sequential electron transfer with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Feezel, L.L.; Snyder, S.W.; Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Morris, A.L.; Rustandi, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    A completely general model which treats electron spin polarization (ESP) found in a system in which radical pairs with different magnetic interactions are formed sequentially has been described. This treatment has been applied specifically to the ESP found in the bacterial reaction center. Test cases show clearly how parameters such as structure, lifetime, and magnetic interactions within the successive radical pairs affect the ESP, and demonstrate that previous treatments of this problem have been incomplete. The photosynthetic bacterial reaction center protein is an ideal system for testing the general model of ESP. The radical pair which exhibits ESP, P 870 + Q - (P 870 + is the oxidized, primary electron donor, a bacteriochlorophyll special pair and Q - is the reduced, primary quinone acceptor) is formed via sequential electron transport through the intermediary radical pair P 870 + I - (I - is the reduced, intermediary electron acceptor, a bacteriopheophytin). In addition, it is possible to experimentally vary most of the important parameters, such as the lifetime of the intermediary radical pair and the magnetic interactions in each pair. It has been shown how selective isotopic substitution ( 1 H or 2 H) on P 870 , I and Q affects the ESP of the EPR spectrum of P 870 + Q - , observed at two different microwave frequencies, in Fe 2+ -depleted bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. Thus, the relative magnitudes of the magnetic properties (nuclear hyperfine and g-factor differences) which influence ESP development were varied. The results support the general model of ESP in that they suggest that the P 870 + Q - radical pair interactions are the dominant source of ESP production in 2 H bacterial reaction centers

  7. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    1997-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out

  8. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria [Instituto per la Ricerca di Base (Italy)

    1997-08-15

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out.

  9. Colour tuneable light-emitting transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, Eva J.; Melzer, Christian; Seggern, Heinz von [Electronic Materials Department, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years the interest in ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors has increased steadily as the devices combine switching behaviour of transistors with light emission. Usually, small molecules and polymers with a band gap in the visible spectral range serve as semiconducting materials. Mandatory remain balanced injection and transport properties for both charge carrier types to provide full control of the spatial position of the recombination zone of electrons and holes in the transistor channel via the applied voltages. As will be presented here, the spatial control of the recombination zone opens new possibilities towards light-emitting devices with colour tuneable emission. In our contribution an organic light-emitting field-effect transistors is presented whose emission colour can be changed by the applied voltages. The organic top-contact field-effect transistor is based on a parallel layer stack of acenes serving as organic transport and emission layers. The transistor displays ambipolar characteristics with a narrow recombination zone within the transistor channel. During operation the recombination zone can be moved by a proper change in the drain and gate bias from one organic semiconductor layer to another one inducing a change in the emission colour. In the presented example the emission maxima can be switched from 530 nm to 580 nm.

  10. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  11. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particle sand antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus by passing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out. 16 refs

  12. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incand...

  13. Integrating the Visual Arts Back into the Classroom with Mobile Applications: Teaching beyond the "Click and View" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Buonincontro, Jen; Foster, Aroutis

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can use mobile applications to integrate the visual arts back into the classroom, but how? This article generates recommendations for selecting and using well-designed mobile applications in the visual arts beyond a "click and view " approach. Using quantitative content analysis, the results show the extent to which a sample of…

  14. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri, October 14, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ury, Connie Jo., Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings document the fifth year of the "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium", held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. Thirty five peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, written by academic librarians, and presented at the symposium are included in this volume. Many of the entries have…

  15. Are occlusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds associated with the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriti, Leandro; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; Leal de Godoy, Camila Haddad; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] To assess the association between the oclusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds and signs/symptoms of TMD in adolescents. [Subjects] Adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. [Methods] The participants were evaluated using the Helkimo Index and a clinical examination to track clicking sounds, parafunctional habits and other signs/symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were classified according to the presence or absence of headache, type of occlusion, facial pattern and type of bite. In statistical analyse we used the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, with a level of significance of 5%. [Results] The sample was made up of 81 adolescents with a mean age of 15.64 years; 51.9% were male. The prevalence of signals/symptoms of TMD was 74.1%, predominantly affecting females. Signals/symptoms of TMD were significantly associated with clicking sounds, headache and nail biting. No associations were found between signals/symptoms of TMD and angle classification, type of bite and facial pattern. [Conclusion] Headache is one of the most closely associated symptoms of TMD. Clicking sounds were found in the majority of cases. Therefore, the sum of two or more factors may be necessary for the onset and perpetuation of TMD.

  16. Catalyst-Free Conjugation and In Situ Quantification of Nanoparticle Ligand Surface Density Using Fluorogenic Cu-Free Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Sun, Honghao; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient method for functionalizing nanoparticles and directly quantifying conjugation efficiency and ligand surface density has been developed. Attachment of 3-azido-modifed RGD-peptides to PEGylated liposomes was achieved by using Cu-free click conditions. Upon coupling a fluorophore ...

  17. Non-Catalyzed Click Reactions of ADIBO Derivatives with 5-Methyluridine Azides and Conformational Study of the Resulting Triazoles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smyslová, P.; Popa, I.; Lyčka, A.; Tejral, Gracian; Havlač, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), e0144613 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : copper-free click * alkyne cycloaddition * chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  18. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid

  19. Click chemistry as a powerful and chemoselective tool for the attachment of targeting ligands to polymer drug carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Robert; Braunová, Alena; Laga, Richard; Pechar, Michal; Ulbrich, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 1340-1350 ISSN 1759-9954 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0802 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : click chemistry * RAFT polymerization * hydrophilic polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2014

  20. Click synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles catalysed by CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Click synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles catalysed by. CuO–CeO2 nanocomposite in the presence of amberlite-supported azide. JALAL ALBADIa,∗, JAFAR ABBASI SHIRANb and AZAM MANSOURNEZHADc. aBehbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan 6361647189, Iran. bFaculty of Science ...

  1. Target and identify: triazene linker helps identify azidation sites of labelled proteins via click and cleave strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Schindl, Alexandra; Danda, Natasha; Williams, Chris P; Kramer, Karl; Kuster, Bernhard; Witte, Martin D; Médard, Guillaume

    2017-10-31

    A method for identifying probe modification of proteins via tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Azide bearing molecules are immobilized on functionalised sepharose beads via copper catalysed Huisgen-type click chemistry and selectively released under acidic conditions by chemical cleavage of the triazene linkage. We applied this method to identify the modification site of targeted-diazotransfer on BirA.

  2. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R; Shaffer, Karl J; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J; Robb, Ellen L; Prime, Tracy A; Chouchani, Edward T; Cochemé, Helena M; Fearnley, Ian M; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M; Porteous, Carolyn M; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

    2016-02-09

    The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by "click" chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An interactive graphical tool for exploring sequential dependencies in categorical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.

    1997-01-01

    As monitoring and data storage devices have become cheaper and more readily available, it has become common practice to establish automated monitoring processes which collect enormous amounts of data. For example, in a waste storage facility, waste from several different sources may be combined and stored in a single storage container. Within this unit, many different types of chemical and microbiological reactions may take place over the course of time, not all of which are completely understood. Thus, it is important to monitor the levels of several different chemical compounds within the system, in order to ensure that the waste is being stored safely. The monitoring devices record any anomalous behavior of the system, such as when the presence of a certain chemical compound exceeds some prescribed expectation, the pressure within the container increases beyond a tolerance threshold, the temperature drops more than .5 degree, etc. These monitoring systems may thus collect large quantities of data in fairly short periods of time. The challenge is then to utilize these massive data sets to bring about an understanding of the process and discover potential avenues of intervention. This report describes an interactive graphical tool, written in XLISP-STAT, for exploratory data analysis of dependencies in sequences of categorical data. Both global and local views of the dependency structure can be insightful, and allowing the user the flexibility to change critical parameters and switch between views in a simple, interactive, point-and-click environment can make the task of exploring dependencies among a large number of categories feasible and lead to a better understanding of the sequential properties of the data

  4. The combined effects of forward masking by noise and high click rate on monaural and binaural human auditory nerve and brainstem potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Polyakov, Andrey; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Naomi

    2004-07-01

    To study effects of forward masking and rapid stimulation on human monaurally- and binaurally-evoked brainstem potentials and suggest their relation to synaptic fatigue and recovery and to neuronal action potential refractoriness. Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs) were recorded from 12 normally- and symmetrically hearing adults, in response to each click (50 dB nHL, condensation and rarefaction) in a train of nine, with an inter-click interval of 11 ms, that followed a white noise burst of 100 ms duration (50 dB nHL). Sequences of white noise and click train were repeated at a rate of 2.89 s(-1). The interval between noise and first click in the train was 2, 11, 22, 44, 66 or 88 ms in different runs. ABEPs were averaged (8000 repetitions) using a dwell time of 25 micros/address/channel. The binaural interaction components (BICs) of ABEPs were derived and the single, centrally located equivalent dipoles of ABEP waves I and V and of the BIC major wave were estimated. The latencies of dipoles I and V of ABEP, their inter-dipole interval and the dipole magnitude of component V were significantly affected by the interval between noise and clicks and by the serial position of the click in the train. The latency and dipole magnitude of the major BIC component were significantly affected by the interval between noise and clicks. Interval from noise and the click's serial position in the train interacted to affect dipole V latency, dipole V magnitude, BIC latencies and the V-I inter-dipole latency difference. Most of the effects were fully apparent by the first few clicks in the train, and the trend (increase or decrease) was affected by the interval between noise and clicks. The changes in latency and magnitude of ABEP and BIC components with advancing position in the click train and the interactions of click position in the train with the intervals from noise indicate an interaction of fatigue and recovery, compatible with synaptic depletion and replenishing

  5. Recombination zone in white organic light emitting diodes with blue and orange emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Taiju; Kishimoto, Tadashi; Wako, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Kuniharu; Iguchi, Hirofumi

    2012-10-01

    White fluorescent OLED devices with a 10 nm thick blue-emitting layer and a 31 nm thick orange-emitting layer have been fabricated, where the blue-emitting layer is stacked on a hole transport layer. An interlayer was inserted between the two emitting layers. The thickness of the interlayer was changed among 0.3, 0.4, and 1.0 nm. White emission with CIE coordinates close to (0.33, 0.33) was observed from all the OLEDs. OLED with 0.3 nm thick interlayer gives the highest maximum luminous efficiency (11 cd/A), power efficiency (9 lm/W), and external quantum efficiency (5.02%). The external quantum efficiency becomes low with increasing the interlayer thickness from 0 nm to 1.0 nm. When the location of the blue- and orange-emitting layers is reversed, white emission was not obtained because of too weak blue emission. It is suggested that the electron-hole recombination zone decreases nearly exponentially with a distance from the hole transport layer.

  6. Extremely efficient catalysis of carbon-carbon bond formation using "click" dendrimer-stabilized palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Didier; Ornelas, Cátia; Diallo, Abdou K; Ruiz, Jaime

    2010-07-20

    This article is an account of the work carried out in the authors' laboratory illustrating the usefulness of dendrimer design for nanoparticle palladium catalysis. The "click" synthesis of dendrimers constructed generation by generation by 1-->3 C connectivity, introduces 1,2,3-triazolyl ligands insides the dendrimers at each generation. Complexation of the ligands by Pd(II) followed by reduction to Pd(0) forms dendrimer-stabilized Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) that are extremely reactive in the catalysis of olefin hydrogenation and C-C bond coupling reactions. The stabilization can be outer-dendritic for the small zeroth-generation dendrimer or intra-dendritic for the larger first- and second-generation dendrimers. The example of the Miyaura-Suzuki reaction that can be catalyzed by down to 1 ppm of PdNPs with a "homeopathic" mechanism (the less, the better) is illustrated here, including catalysis in aqueous solvents.

  7. Super-resolution optical DNA Mapping via DNA methyltransferase-directed click chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vranken, Charlotte; Deen, Jochem; Dirix, Lieve

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an approach to optical DNA mapping, which enables near single-molecule characterization of whole bacteriophage genomes. Our approach uses a DNA methyltransferase enzyme to target labelling to specific sites and copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition to couple a fluorophore...... to the DNA. We achieve a labelling efficiency of ∼70% with an average labelling density approaching one site every 500 bp. Such labelling density bridges the gap between the output of a typical DNA sequencing experiment and the long-range information derived from traditional optical DNA mapping. We lay...... the foundations for a wider-scale adoption of DNA mapping by screening 11 methyltransferases for their ability to direct sequence-specific DNA transalkylation; the first step of the DNA labelling process and by optimizing reaction conditions for fluorophore coupling via a click reaction. Three of 11 enzymes...

  8. Self-Plasticization of PVC via click reaction of a monooctyl phthalate derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Puyou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modified PVC (M-PVC material with suppressed migration and low glass transition temperature was prepared via click reaction of a monooctyl phthalate derivative. Chemical structure and composition of M-PVC were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and element analysis. Thermal stability, glass transition temperature and migration stability of M-PVC were studied with TGA, DSC and migration tests, respectively. The study showed that M-PVC exhibited poor thermal stability, and low glass transition temperature of 66.0°C. No migration was found in distilled water, 10% (v/v ethanol, 30% (w/vacetic acid and petroleum ether. The PVC material is expected to preparing PVC products in the areas with high migration resistance requirement.

  9. On the hidden curriculum of the mouse click: An anthropologically drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Werler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Any process of education is media based. But the advent of computer based media in the classroom caused a qualitative change. This new type of media serves as a bodily and cognitive extension of man. The aim of the article is to demonstrate educational consequences of these new anthropologically premises. The article discusses the structure and concept of digital communication culture as it denies the existence of spatial distance. The click option of the mouse will be framed as digital communications hidden curriculum. In order to navigate in the digital world of education the texts concludes with that man has to develop sign-literacy to be able to master the iconic turn in education.

  10. Synthesis of amphiphilic aminated inulin via 'click chemistry' and evaluation for its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Ren, Jianming; Wang, Gang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2014-09-15

    Inulins are a group of abundant, water-soluble, renewable polysaccharides, which exhibit attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of inulin is often performed prior to further utilization. We hereby presented a method to modify inulin at its primary hydroxyls to synthesize amphiphilic aminated inulin via 'click chemistry' to facilitate its chemical manipulation. Additionally, its antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated and the best inhibitory index against S. aureus was 58% at 1mg/mL. As the amphiphilic aminated inulin is easy to prepare and exhibits improved bioactivity, this material may represent as an attractive new platform for chemical modifications of inulin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultramild protein-mediated click chemistry creates efficient oligonucleotide probes for targeting and detecting nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Jensen, Knud J.

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized synthetic oligonucleotides are finding growing applications in research, clinical studies, and therapy. However, it is not easy to prepare them in a biocompatible and highly efficient manner. We report a new strategy to synthesize oligonucleotides with promising nucleic acid...... targeting and detection properties. We focus in particular on the pH sensitivity of these new probes and their high target specificity. For the first time, human copper(I)-binding chaperon Cox17 was applied to effectively catalyze click labeling of oligonucleotides. This was performed under ultramild...... conditions with fluorophore, peptide, and carbohydrate azide derivatives. In thermal denaturation studies, the modified probes showed specific binding to complementary DNA and RNA targets. Finally, we demonstrated the pH sensitivity of the new rhodamine-based fluorescent probes in vitro and rationalize our...

  12. Ads' click-through rates predicting based on gated recurrent unit neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiaohong; Guo, Zixuan; Dong, Wen; Jin, Lingzi

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the effect of online advertising and to increase the revenue of advertising, the gated recurrent unit neural networks(GRU) model is used as the ads' click through rates(CTR) predicting. Combined with the characteristics of gated unit structure and the unique of time sequence in data, using BPTT algorithm to train the model. Furthermore, by optimizing the step length algorithm of the gated unit recurrent neural networks, making the model reach optimal point better and faster in less iterative rounds. The experiment results show that the model based on the gated recurrent unit neural networks and its optimization of step length algorithm has the better effect on the ads' CTR predicting, which helps advertisers, media and audience achieve a win-win and mutually beneficial situation in Three-Side Game.

  13. Enhanced Tumor Retention Effect by Click Chemistry for Improved Cancer Immunochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ling; Liu, Yayuan; Rao, Jingdong; Tang, Xian; Li, Man; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2018-05-30

    Because of the limited drug concentration in tumor tissues and inappropriate treatment strategies, tumor recurrence and metastasis are critical challenges for effectively treating malignancies. A key challenge for effective delivery of nanoparticles is to reduce uptake by reticuloendothelial system and to enhance the permeability and retention effect. Herein, we demonstrated Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry triggered the aggregation of azide/alkyne-modified micelles, enhancing micelles accumulation in tumor tissues. In addition, combined doxorubicin with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A, an agonist of toll-like receptor4, generated immunogenic cell death, which further promoted maturity of dendritic cells, antigen presentation and induced strong effector T cells in vivo. Following combined with anti-PD-L1 therapy, substantial antitumor and metastasis inhibitory effects were achieved because of the reduced PD-L1 expression and regulatory T cells. In addition, effective long-term immunity from memory T cell responses protected mice from tumor recurrence.

  14. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with alkyne-containing polyacrylates for click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socaci, Crina; Rybka, Miriam; Magerusan, Lidia; Nan, Alexandrina; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    New magnetic core shell nanoparticles were synthesized consisting of magnetite cores and poly-( O-propargyl acrylate) shells. Strong fixing of the shells was achieved by primary anchoring phosphates or α-dihydroxydiphosphonates containing acrylate or methacrylate functionalities. The magnetic nanoparticles are attractive as supports for a variety of function which can be easily introduced by Cu-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC, a click reaction). In this way, also the loading of the magnetic nanoparticles with propargyl units was determined by reaction with 4-azidoacetophenone and analysis of the supernatant. In order to demonstrate the attractiveness of the magnetic nanoparticles a novel azido-containing conjugate with biotin as recognition function and dansyl as fluorescence marker was introduced by CuAAC reaction. All NP show superparamagnetic behavior with high-saturation magnetization values and were further characterized by FTIR, photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM.

  15. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with alkyne-containing polyacrylates for click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socaci, Crina; Rybka, Miriam; Magerusan, Lidia; Nan, Alexandrina; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    New magnetic core shell nanoparticles were synthesized consisting of magnetite cores and poly-(O-propargyl acrylate) shells. Strong fixing of the shells was achieved by primary anchoring phosphates or α-dihydroxydiphosphonates containing acrylate or methacrylate functionalities. The magnetic nanoparticles are attractive as supports for a variety of function which can be easily introduced by Cu-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC, a click reaction). In this way, also the loading of the magnetic nanoparticles with propargyl units was determined by reaction with 4-azidoacetophenone and analysis of the supernatant. In order to demonstrate the attractiveness of the magnetic nanoparticles a novel azido-containing conjugate with biotin as recognition function and dansyl as fluorescence marker was introduced by CuAAC reaction. All NP show superparamagnetic behavior with high-saturation magnetization values and were further characterized by FTIR, photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM.

  16. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with alkyne-containing polyacrylates for click chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socaci, Crina [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania); Rybka, Miriam [Humboldt-University Berlin, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Magerusan, Lidia; Nan, Alexandrina; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Juergen, E-mail: liebscher@chemie.hu-berlin.de [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    New magnetic core shell nanoparticles were synthesized consisting of magnetite cores and poly-(O-propargyl acrylate) shells. Strong fixing of the shells was achieved by primary anchoring phosphates or {alpha}-dihydroxydiphosphonates containing acrylate or methacrylate functionalities. The magnetic nanoparticles are attractive as supports for a variety of function which can be easily introduced by Cu-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC, a click reaction). In this way, also the loading of the magnetic nanoparticles with propargyl units was determined by reaction with 4-azidoacetophenone and analysis of the supernatant. In order to demonstrate the attractiveness of the magnetic nanoparticles a novel azido-containing conjugate with biotin as recognition function and dansyl as fluorescence marker was introduced by CuAAC reaction. All NP show superparamagnetic behavior with high-saturation magnetization values and were further characterized by FTIR, photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM.

  17. "Click" synthesis of fatty acid derivatives as fast-degrading polyanhydride precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Cristina; Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Cadiz, Virginia

    2011-09-01

    Fast-degrading linear and branched polyanhydrides are obtained by melt-condensation of novel di- and tri-carboxylic acid monomers based on oleic and undecylenic acid synthesized using photoinitiated thiol-ene click chemistry. (1)H NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy have been used to fully characterize these polymers. The hydrolytic degradation of these polymers was studied by means of weight loss, anhydride bond loss, and changes in molecular weight, showing fast degrading properties. Drug release studies from the synthesized polyanhydrides have also been conducted, using rhodamine B as a hydrophobic model drug, to evaluate the potential of these polymers in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis of Dendrimer Containing Dialkylated-fluorene Unit as a Core Chromophore via Click Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Choul; Lee, Jae Wook; Jin, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    The convergent synthetic strategy for the emissive dendrimers having the chromophore at core via the coppercatalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between alkyne and azide was described. 2,7-Diazido-9,9-dioctyl- 9H-fluorene, designed to serve as the core in dendrimer, was stitched with the alkyne-functionalized Frechettype and PAMAM dendrons by the click chemistry leading to the formation of the corresponding fluorescent dendrimers in high yields. The preliminary photoluminescence studies indicated that 2,7-diazido-9,9-dioctyl- 9H-fluorene showed no fluorescence due to the quenching effect from the electron-rich α-nitrogen of the azido group but the dendrimers fluoresced due to the elimination of the quenching through the formation of the triazole ring

  19. Advertisement Click-Through Rate Prediction Based on the Weighted-ELM and Adaboost Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate click-through rate (CTR prediction can not only improve the advertisement company’s reputation and revenue, but also help the advertisers to optimize the advertising performance. There are two main unsolved problems of the CTR prediction: low prediction accuracy due to the imbalanced distribution of the advertising data and the lack of the real-time advertisement bidding implementation. In this paper, we will develop a novel online CTR prediction approach by incorporating the real-time bidding (RTB advertising by the following strategies: user profile system is constructed from the historical data of the RTB advertising to describe the user features, the historical CTR features, the ID features, and the other numerical features. A novel CTR prediction approach is presented to address the imbalanced learning sample distribution by integrating the Weighted-ELM (WELM and the Adaboost algorithm. Compared to the commonly used algorithms, the proposed approach can improve the CTR significantly.

  20. Integrating Protein Engineering and Bioorthogonal Click Conjugation for Extracellular Vesicle Modulation and Intracellular Delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wang

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small, cell-secreted vesicles that transfer proteins and genetic information between cells. This intercellular transmission regulates many physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, exosomes have emerged as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis and as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Here, we report an easy-to-adapt and highly versatile methodology to modulate exosome composition and conjugate exosomes for intracellular delivery. Our strategy combines the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins or glycan/glycoproteins of exosome-secreting cells with active azides and bioorthogonal click conjugation to modify and functionalize the exosomes. The azide-integrated can be conjugated to a variety of small molecules and proteins and can efficiently deliver conjugates into cells. The metabolic engineering of exosomes diversifies the chemistry of exosomes and expands the functions that can be introduced into exosomes, providing novel, powerful tools to study the roles of exosomes in biology and expand the biomedical potential of exosomes.

  1. Indirect photopatterning of functionalized organic monolayers via copper-catalyzed "click chemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2018-07-01

    Solution-based lithographic surface modification of an organic monolayer on a solid substrate is attained based on selective area photo-reduction of copper (II) to copper (I) to catalyze the azide-alkyne dipolar cycloaddition "click" reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to confirm patterning, and spectroscopic results are analyzed and supplemented with computational models to confirm the surface chemistry. It is determined that this surface modification approach requires irradiation of the solid substrate with all necessary components present in solution. This method requires only minutes of irradiation to result in spatial and temporal control of the covalent surface functionalization of a monolayer and offers the potential for wavelength tunability that may be desirable in many applications utilizing organic monolayers.

  2. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  3. Campbell and moment measures for finite sequential spatial processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe define moment and Campbell measures for sequential spatial processes, prove a Campbell-Mecke theorem, and relate the results to their counterparts in the theory of point processes. In particular, we show that any finite sequential spatial process model can be derived as the vector

  4. Simultaneous versus sequential penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2006-10-01

    To compare the surgical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery with those of sequential surgery. Thirty-nine eyes of 39 patients scheduled for simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery and 23 eyes of 23 patients scheduled for sequential keratoplasty and secondary phacoemulsification surgery were recruited. Refractive error, regular and irregular corneal astigmatism determined by Fourier analysis, and endothelial cell loss were studied at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after combined surgery in the simultaneous surgery group or after subsequent phacoemulsification surgery in the sequential surgery group. At 3 and more months after surgery, mean refractive error was significantly greater in the simultaneous surgery group than in the sequential surgery group, although no difference was seen at 1 week. The refractive error at 12 months was within 2 D of that targeted in 15 eyes (39%) in the simultaneous surgery group and within 2 D in 16 eyes (70%) in the sequential surgery group; the incidence was significantly greater in the sequential group (P = 0.0344). The regular and irregular astigmatism was not significantly different between the groups at 3 and more months after surgery. No significant difference was also found in the percentage of endothelial cell loss between the groups. Although corneal astigmatism and endothelial cell loss were not different, refractive error from target refraction was greater after simultaneous keratoplasty and cataract surgery than after sequential surgery, indicating a better outcome after sequential surgery than after simultaneous surgery.

  5. Reading Remediation Based on Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnison, Judy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The theory postulating a dichotomy between sequential and simultaneous processing is reviewed and its implications for remediating reading problems are reviewed. Research is cited on sequential-simultaneous processing for early and advanced reading. A list of remedial strategies based on the processing dichotomy addresses decoding and lexical…

  6. Induction of simultaneous and sequential malolactic fermentation in durian wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniasuri, Fransisca; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-08-02

    This study represented for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) induced by Oenococcus oeni and its inoculation strategies (simultaneous vs. sequential) on the fermentation performance as well as aroma compound profile of durian wine. There was no negative impact of simultaneous inoculation of O. oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth and fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae as compared to sequential fermentation. Simultaneous MLF did not lead to an excessive increase in volatile acidity as compared to sequential MLF. The kinetic changes of organic acids (i.e. malic, lactic, succinic, acetic and α-ketoglutaric acids) varied with simultaneous and sequential MLF relative to yeast alone. MLF, regardless of inoculation mode, resulted in higher production of fermentation-derived volatiles as compared to control (alcoholic fermentation only), including esters, volatile fatty acids, and terpenes, except for higher alcohols. Most indigenous volatile sulphur compounds in durian were decreased to trace levels with little differences among the control, simultaneous and sequential MLF. Among the different wines, the wine with simultaneous MLF had higher concentrations of terpenes and acetate esters while sequential MLF had increased concentrations of medium- and long-chain ethyl esters. Relative to alcoholic fermentation only, both simultaneous and sequential MLF reduced acetaldehyde substantially with sequential MLF being more effective. These findings illustrate that MLF is an effective and novel way of modulating the volatile and aroma compound profile of durian wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  8. Dynamics-based sequential memory: Winnerless competition of patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliger, Philip; Tsimring, Lev S.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a biologically motivated dynamical principle of sequential memory which is based on winnerless competition (WLC) of event images. This mechanism is implemented in a two-layer neural model of sequential spatial memory. We present the learning dynamics which leads to the formation of a WLC network. After learning, the system is capable of associative retrieval of prerecorded sequences of patterns

  9. Sequential, progressive, equal-power, reflective beam-splitter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Paul K.

    2017-11-01

    The equations to calculate equal-power reflectivity of a sequential series of beam splitters is presented. Non-sequential optical design examples are offered for uniform illumination using diode lasers. Objects created using Boolean operators and Swept Surfaces can create objects capable of reflecting light into predefined elevation and azimuth angles. Analysis of the illumination patterns for the array are also presented.

  10. The sequential price of anarchy for atomic congestion games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jasper; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Liu, Tie-Yan; Qi, Qi; Ye, Yinyu

    2014-01-01

    In situations without central coordination, the price of anarchy relates the quality of any Nash equilibrium to the quality of a global optimum. Instead of assuming that all players choose their actions simultaneously, we consider games where players choose their actions sequentially. The sequential

  11. Quantum Probability Zero-One Law for Sequential Terminal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Wulf

    1980-07-01

    On the basis of the Jauch-Piron quantum probability calculus a zero-one law for sequential terminal events is proven, and the significance of certain crucial axioms in the quantum probability calculus is discussed. The result shows that the Jauch-Piron set of axioms is appropriate for the non-Boolean algebra of sequential events.

  12. Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

  13. Accounting for Heterogeneous Returns in Sequential Schooling Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamarro, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating returns to schooling that takes into account that returns may be heterogeneous among agents and that educational decisions are made sequentially.A sequential decision model is interesting because it explicitly considers that the level of education of each

  14. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, A; Lemic, D; Bazok, R; Mikac, K M; Mclean, C M; Ivezić, M; Igrc Barčić, J

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species' abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. The inverse electron demand Diels-Alder click reaction in radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Thomas; Zeglis, Brian M

    2014-04-01

    The inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) cycloaddition between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained alkene dienophiles is an emergent variety of catalyst-free 'click' chemistry that has the potential to have a transformational impact on the synthesis and development of radiopharmaceuticals. The ligation is selective, rapid, high-yielding, clean, and bioorthogonal and, since its advent in 2008, has been employed in a wide variety of chemical settings. In radiochemistry, the reaction has proven particularly useful with (18)  F and has already been utilized to create a number of (18)  F-labeled agents, including the PARP1-targeting small molecule (18)  F-AZD2281, the αv β3 integrin-targeting peptide (18)  F-RGD, and the GLP-1-targeting peptide (18)  F-exendin. The inherent flexibility of the ligation has also been applied to the construction of radiometal-based probes, specifically the development of a modular strategy for the synthesis of radioimmunoconjugates that effectively eliminates variability in the construction of these agents. Further, the exceptional speed and biorthogonality of the reaction have made it especially promising in the realm of in vivo pretargeted imaging and therapy, and pretargeted imaging strategies based on the isotopes (111) In, (18)  F, and (64) Cu have already proven capable of producing images with high tumor contrast and low levels of uptake in background, nontarget organs. Ultimately, the characteristics of inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder click chemistry make it almost uniquely well-suited for radiochemistry, and although the field is young, this ligation has the potential to make a tremendous impact on the synthesis, development, and study of novel radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in children and adolescents with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sarah M; Menks, Willeke M; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like sounds that are produced by the inner ear in response to click-stimuli. CEOAEs generally have a higher amplitude in women compared to men and neonates already show a similar sex difference in CEOAEs. Weaker responses in males are proposed to originate from elevated levels of testosterone during perinatal sexual differentiation. Therefore, CEOAEs may be used as a retrospective indicator of someone's perinatal androgen environment. Individuals diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder (GID), according to DSM-IV-TR, are characterized by a strong identification with the other gender and discomfort about their natal sex. Although the etiology of GID is far from established, it is hypothesized that atypical levels of sex steroids during a critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain might play a role. In the present study, we compared CEOAEs in treatment-naïve children and adolescents with early-onset GID (24 natal boys, 23 natal girls) and control subjects (65 boys, 62 girls). We replicated the sex difference in CEOAE response amplitude in the control group. This sex difference, however, was not present in the GID groups. Boys with GID showed stronger, more female-typical CEOAEs whereas girls with GID did not differ in emission strength compared to control girls. Based on the assumption that CEOAE amplitude can be seen as an index of relative androgen exposure, our results provide some evidence for the idea that boys with GID may have been exposed to lower amounts of androgen during early development in comparison to control boys.

  17. Developing topic-specific search filters for PubMed with click-through data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lu, Z

    2013-01-01

    Search filters have been developed and demonstrated for better information access to the immense and ever-growing body of publications in the biomedical domain. However, to date the number of filters remains quite limited because the current filter development methods require significant human efforts in manual document review and filter term selection. In this regard, we aim to investigate automatic methods for generating search filters. We present an automated method to develop topic-specific filters on the basis of users' search logs in PubMed. Specifically, for a given topic, we first detect its relevant user queries and then include their corresponding clicked articles to serve as the topic-relevant document set accordingly. Next, we statistically identify informative terms that best represent the topic-relevant document set using a background set composed of topic irrelevant articles. Lastly, the selected representative terms are combined with Boolean operators and evaluated on benchmark datasets to derive the final filter with the best performance. We applied our method to develop filters for four clinical topics: nephrology, diabetes, pregnancy, and depression. For the nephrology filter, our method obtained performance comparable to the state of the art (sensitivity of 91.3%, specificity of 98.7%, precision of 94.6%, and accuracy of 97.2%). Similarly, high-performing results (over 90% in all measures) were obtained for the other three search filters. Based on PubMed click-through data, we successfully developed a high-performance method for generating topic-specific search filters that is significantly more efficient than existing manual methods. All data sets (topic-relevant and irrelevant document sets) used in this study and a demonstration system are publicly available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/downloads/CQ_filter/

  18. Brain stem auditory potentials evoked by clicks in the presence of high-pass filtered noise in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, L; Deltenre, P; Coppens, A; Michaux, C; Coussart, E

    2006-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a high-frequency hearing loss simulated by the high-pass-noise masking method, on the click-evoked brain stem-evoked potentials (BAEP) characteristics in dogs. BAEP were obtained in response to rarefaction and condensation click stimuli from 60 dB normal hearing level (NHL, corresponding to 89 dB sound pressure level) to wave V threshold, using steps of 5 dB in eleven 58 to 80-day-old Beagle puppies. Responses were added, providing an equivalent to alternate polarity clicks, and subtracted, providing the rarefaction-condensation potential (RCDP). The procedure was repeated while constant level, high-pass filtered (HPF) noise was superposed to the click. Cut-off frequencies of the successively used filters were 8, 4, 2 and 1 kHz. For each condition, wave V and RCDP thresholds, and slope of the wave V latency-intensity curve (LIC) were collected. The intensity range at which RCDP could not be recorded (pre-RCDP range) was calculated. Compared with the no noise condition, the pre-RCDP range significantly diminished and the wave V threshold significantly increased when the superposed HPF noise reached the 4 kHz area. Wave V LIC slope became significantly steeper with the 2 kHz HPF noise. In this non-invasive model of high-frequency hearing loss, impaired hearing of frequencies from 8 kHz and above escaped detection through click BAEP study in dogs. Frequencies above 13 kHz were however not specifically addressed in this study.

  19. Enhanced quantum efficiency in blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Lim, Yong Taik; Park, O Ok; Yu, Jae-Woong; Kim, Jai Kyeong; Kim, Young Chul

    2004-01-01

    Light-emitting devices based on environmentally stable, blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposites were fabricated by blending poly(di-octylfluorene) (PDOF) with organo-clay. By reducing the excimer formation that leads to long wavelength tails, the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) color purity of the device was enhanced. When a conjugated polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite is applied to an EL device, we expect an electronic structure similar to the well-known quantum well in small nanodomains. The ratio of PDOF/organo-clay was regulated from 2:1 to 0.5:1 (w/w). The light-emitting device of 0.5:1 (w/w) blend demonstrated the highest quantum efficiency (QE), 0.72% (ph/el), which is ∼500 times higher value compared with that of the pure PDOF layer device. However, the driving voltage of the nanocomposite devices tended to increase with increasing organo-clay content

  20. Nanoengineering of organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This thesis reports nanoengineerging of the emission and transport properties of organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This is achieved by a control of the electronic material properties and the photonic device properties. A novel class of conjugated materials for electroluminescence (EL) applications is presented, based on successively branching, or dendritic, materials comprising an emissive core and a shielding dendritic architecture. Exciton localisation at the centre of these dendrimers is observed in both luminescence and absorption. A detailed quantum chemical investigation using an exciton model supports these findings and accurately describes the energies and oscillator strengths of transitions in the core and branches. The dendrimer generation describes the degree of branching and gives a direct measure of the separation and interaction between chromophores. Increasing generation is found to lead to a reduction in red tail emission. This correlates with an increase in operating field and LED efficiency. Dendrimer blends with triplet harvesting dendritic phosphors are also investigated and found to exhibit unique emission properties. A numerical device model is presented, which is used to describe the temperature dependence of single layer polymer LEDs by fitting the field-dependent mobility and the barrier to hole injection. The device model is also used to obtain mobility values for the dendrimer materials, which are in excellent agreement with results obtained from time-of-flight measurements. The dendrimer generation is shown to provide a direct control of hopping mobility, which decreases by two orders of magnitude as the dendrimer generation increases from 0 to 3. The photonic properties and spontaneous emission of an LED are modified by incorporating a periodic wavelength scale microstructure into the emitting film. This is found to double the amount of light emitted with no effect on the device current. An investigation of the angular dependence

  1. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  2. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  3. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  4. Aero particles characterization emitted by mobile sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas V, A.; Romero G, E. T.; Lopez G, H.

    2009-01-01

    In our country, the mobile sources that conform most of the emissions at the atmosphere, are concentrated on the urban areas. For the present work, samples coming from the escapes of terrestrial transport were obtained, such as: passenger buses, load transport and particular vehicles of the Metropolitan area of the Toluca valley. The material was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy of low vacuum and X-ray diffraction. The objective was to characterize the emitted particles by mobile sources, morphological and chemically to know the structure, size and elements that compose them. (Author)

  5. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  6. Fine structure in deformed proton emitting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ressler, J. J.; Schwartz, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent experiment to study the proton radioactivity of the highly deformed 131 Eu nucleus, two proton lines were detected. The higher energy one was assigned to the ground-state to ground-state decay, while the lower energy, to the ground-state to the 2 + state decay. This constitutes the first observation of fine structure in proton radioactivity. With these four measured quantities, proton energies, half-life and branching ratio, it is possible to determine the Nilsson configuration of the ground state of the proton emitting nucleus as well as the 2 + energy and nuclear deformation of the daughter nucleus. These results will be presented and discussed

  7. Constrained treatment planning using sequential beam selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woudstra, E.; Storchi, P.R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is described for automated treatment plan generation. The algorithm aims at delivery of the prescribed dose to the target volume without violation of constraints for target, organs at risk and the surrounding normal tissue. Pre-calculated dose distributions for all candidate orientations are used as input. Treatment beams are selected in a sequential way. A score function designed for beam selection is used for the simultaneous selection of beam orientations and weights. In order to determine the optimum choice for the orientation and the corresponding weight of each new beam, the score function is first redefined to account for the dose distribution of the previously selected beams. Addition of more beams to the plan is stopped when the target dose is reached or when no additional dose can be delivered without violating a constraint. In the latter case the score function is modified by importance factor changes to enforce better sparing of the organ with the limiting constraint and the algorithm is run again. (author)

  8. Phenomenology of the next sequential lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the phenomenology of a sequential, charged lepton in the mass range 6 --13 GeV. We find the semileptonic branching ratio of such a lepton to be approx. 13%; the dominant two-body modes are found to include the decay L → ν/sub L/F* with a branching ratio approx. 6%. In this analysis we assume that the mass of the lepton under consideration is lighter than the t quark such that decays such as L → ν/sub L/t-barq, where q= (d, s, or b) are kinematically forbidden. We also find that decays such as L → ν/sub L/B* (c-barb) can also be as large as approx. 6% depending on the mixing angles; the lifetime of such a lepton is found to be approx. 2.6 x 10 -12 M/sub L/ -5 sec, where M/sub L/ is in GeV

  9. The Origin of Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M. S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, J.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2017-06-01

    Sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs) are often observed in the immediate vicinity of erupting flares and are associated with coronal mass ejections. Since their initial discovery in 2005, there have been several subsequent investigations of SCBs. These studies have used differing detection and analysis techniques, making it difficult to compare results between studies. This work employs the automated detection algorithm of Kirk et al. (Solar Phys. 283, 97, 2013) to extract the physical characteristics of SCBs in 11 flares of varying size and intensity. We demonstrate that the magnetic substructure within the SCB appears to have a significantly smaller area than the corresponding Hα emission. We conclude that SCBs originate in the lower corona around 0.1 R_{⊙} above the photosphere, propagate away from the flare center at speeds of 35 - 85 km s^{-1}, and have peak photosphere magnetic intensities of 148±2.9 G. In light of these measurements, we infer SCBs to be distinctive chromospheric signatures of erupting coronal mass ejections.

  10. Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2014-05-01

    Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.

  11. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  12. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  13. Sequential acquisition of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishima, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies allows us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), potentially providing us with virtually a complete spectrum of driver mutations in this disease. As shown by many study groups these days, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. For instance, DDX41 mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A and TET2 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and are believed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. In MDS, mutations of genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type-1 genes, may be significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type-2) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, are related to progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. Overall, various driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, at a specific time, in either germline cells, normal hematopoietic cells, or clonal MDS cells.

  14. Building a Lego wall: Sequential action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The present study draws together two distinct lines of enquiry into the selection and control of sequential action: motor sequence production and action selection in everyday tasks. Participants were asked to build 2 different Lego walls. The walls were designed to have hierarchical structures with shared and dissociated colors and spatial components. Participants built 1 wall at a time, under low and high load cognitive states. Selection times for correctly completed trials were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. The paradigm enabled precise measurement of the timing of actions, while using real objects to create an end product. The experiment demonstrated that action selection was slowed at decision boundary points, relative to boundaries where no between-wall decision was required. Decision points also affected selection time prior to the actual selection window. Dual-task conditions increased selection errors. Errors mostly occurred at boundaries between chunks and especially when these required decisions. The data support hierarchical control of sequenced behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  16. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  17. White OLED using {beta}-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, W.G. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Legnani, C. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Cremona, M. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br; Lima, P.P. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Junior, S.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2006-01-03

    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a {beta}-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa){sub 3}phenterpyTb(acac){sub 3}] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the {beta}-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m{sup 2} of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq{sub 3} green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source.

  18. White OLED using β-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, W.G.; Legnani, C.; Cremona, M.; Lima, P.P.; Junior, S.A.; Malta, O.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a β-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa) 3 phenterpyTb(acac) 3 ] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the β-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq 3 ) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m 2 of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq 3 green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source

  19. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  20. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  1. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  2. Rigorous simulations of emitting and non-emitting nano-optical structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.T.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the next decade, several applications of nanotechnology will change our lives. LED lighting is about to replace the common light bulb. The main advantages are its energy efficiency and long lifetime. LEDs can be much more efficient, when part of the emitted light that is currently trapped in the

  3. Comparison of ablation centration after bilateral sequential versus simultaneous LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jane-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Yu

    2005-01-01

    To compare ablation centration after bilateral sequential and simultaneous myopic LASIK. A retrospective randomized case series was performed of 670 eyes of 335 consecutive patients who had undergone either bilateral sequential (group 1) or simultaneous (group 2) myopic LASIK between July 2000 and July 2001 at the China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. The ablation centrations of the first and second eyes in the two groups were compared 3 months postoperatively. Of 670 eyes, 274 eyes (137 patients) comprised the sequential group and 396 eyes (198 patients) comprised the simultaneous group. Three months post-operatively, 220 eyes of 110 patients (80%) in the sequential group and 236 eyes of 118 patients (60%) in the simultaneous group provided topographic data for centration analysis. For the first eyes, mean decentration was 0.39 +/- 0.26 mm in the sequential group and 0.41 +/- 0.19 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .30). For the second eyes, mean decentration was 0.28 +/- 0.23 mm in the sequential group and 0.30 +/- 0.21 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .36). Decentration in the second eyes significantly improved in both groups (group 1, P = .02; group 2, P sequential group and 0.32 +/- 0.18 mm in the simultaneous group (P = .33). The difference of ablation center angles between the first and second eyes was 43.2 sequential group and 45.1 +/- 50.8 degrees in the simultaneous group (P = .42). Simultaneous bilateral LASIK is comparable to sequential surgery in ablation centration.

  4. The sequential trauma score - a new instrument for the sequential mortality prediction in major trauma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Wagner S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma

  5. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  6. Sequential formation of subgroups in OB associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Lada, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    We reconsider the structure and formation of OB association in view of recent radio and infrared observations of the adjacent molecular clouds. As a result of this reexamination, we propose that OB subgroups are formed in a step-by-step process which involves the propagation of ionization (I) and shock (S) fronts through a molecular cloud complex. OB stars formed at the edge of a molecular cloud drive these I-S fronts into the cloud. A layer of dense neutral material accumulates between the I and S fronts and eventually becomes gravitationally unstable. This process is analyzed in detail. Several arguments concerning the temperature and mass of this layer suggest that a new OB subgroup will form. After approximately one-half million years, these stars will emerge from and disrupt the star-forming layer. A new shock will be driven into the remaining molecular cloud and will initiate another cycle of star formation.Several observed properties of OB associations are shown to follow from a sequential star-forming mechanism. These include the spatial separation and systematic differences in age of OB subgroups in a given association, the regularity of subgroup masses, the alignment of subgroups along the galactic plane, and their physical expansion. Detailed observations of ionization fronts, masers, IR sources, and molecular clouds are also in agreement with this model. Finally, this mechanism provides a means of dissipating a molecular cloud and exposing less massive stars (e.g., T Tauri stars) which may have formed ahead of the shock as part of the original cloud collapsed and fragmented

  7. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  8. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  9. Click and chemically triggered declick reactions through reversible amine and thiol coupling via a conjugate acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Katharine L.; Kolesnichenko, Igor V.; Robotham, Scott A.; Bachman, J. Logan; Zhong, Ye; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Anslyn, Eric V.

    2016-10-01

    The coupling and decoupling of molecular units is a fundamental undertaking of organic chemistry. Herein we report the use of a very simple conjugate acceptor, derived from Meldrum's acid, for the sequential ‘clicking’ together of an amine and a thiol in aqueous conditions at neutral pH. Subsequently, this linkage can be ‘declicked’ by a chemical trigger to release the original amine and thiol undisturbed. The reactivity differs from that of other crosslinking agents because the selectivity for sequential functionalization derives from an altering of the electrophilicity of the conjugate acceptor on the addition of the amine. We describe the use of the procedure to modify proteins, create multicomponent libraries and synthesize oligomers, all of which can be declicked to their starting components in a controlled fashion when desired. Owing to the mild reaction conditions and ease of use in a variety of applications, the method is predicted to have wide utility.

  10. An Efficient System Based On Closed Sequential Patterns for Web Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Utpala Niranjan; R.B.V. Subramanyam; V-Khana

    2010-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining, since its introduction has received considerable attention among the researchers with broad applications. The sequential pattern algorithms generally face problems when mining long sequential patterns or while using very low support threshold. One possible solution of such problems is by mining the closed sequential patterns, which is a condensed representation of sequential patterns. Recently, several researchers have utilized the sequential pattern discovery for d...

  11. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  12. Synthesis of a stationary phase based on silica modified with branched octadecyl groups by Michael addition and photoinduced thiol-yne click chemistry for the separation of basic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang; Ou, Junjie; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Yongsheng; Wan, Hao; Zhang, Zhang; Peng, Xiaojun; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-04-01

    A novel silica-based stationary phase with branched octadecyl groups was prepared by the sequential employment of the Michael addition reaction and photoinduced thiol-yne click chemistry with 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica microspheres as the initial material. The resulting stationary phase denoted as SiO2 -N(C18)4 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the existence of branched octadecyl groups in silica microspheres. The separations of benzene homologous compounds, acid compounds and amine analogues were conducted, demonstrating mixed-mode separation mechanism on SiO2 -N(C18)4 . Baseline separation of basic drugs mixture was acquired with the mobile phase of acetonitrile/H2 O (5%, v/v). SiO2 -N(C18)4 was further applied to separate Corydalis yanhusuo Wang water extracts, and more baseline separation peaks were obtained for SiO2 -N(C18)4 than those on Atlantis dC18 column. It can be expected that this new silica-based stationary phase will exhibit great potential in the analysis of basic compounds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sequential ensemble-based optimal design for parameter estimation: SEQUENTIAL ENSEMBLE-BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.

  14. Au-Cu core-shell nanocube-catalyzed click reactions for efficient synthesis of diverse triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madasu, Mahesh; Hsia, Chi-Fu; Huang, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Au-Cu core-shell nanocubes and octahedra synthesized in aqueous solution were employed to catalyze a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between phenylacetylene and benzyl azide in water at 50 °C for 3 h. Interestingly, the nanocubes were far more efficient in catalyzing this reaction, giving 91% yield of a regioselective 1,4-triazole product, while octahedra only recorded 46% yield. The Au-Cu nanocubes were subsequently employed to catalyze the click reaction between benzyl azide and a broad range of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes. The product yields ranged from 78 to 99%. Clearly the Au-Cu cubes exposing {100} surfaces are an excellent and green catalyst for click reactions.

  15. [Value of condensation and rarefaction click evoked action potential latency difference in the diagnosis of Meniere's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Shao, X; Yan, W; Lin, H

    2000-06-01

    To study the value of condensation and rarefaction clicks evoked action potential (AP) latency difference (LD) in diagnosis of Meniere's disease. AP was recorded with ECochG in controls (50 ears) and patients with Meniere's disease(90 ears) and sensorineural hearing loss(SNHL) of other origins(60 ears). LD was calculated and analyzed. LD in patients with Meniere's disease was (0.30 +/- 0.15) ms, which was significantly larger than that of controls(0.18 +/- 0.07) ms and of patients with SNHL of other origins(0.20 +/- 0.10) ms (P curve was larger than those with flat auditory sensation curve(P rarefaction click evoked AP latency difference can be an objective parameter in diagnosis of Meniere's disease.

  16. General method for labeling siRNA by click chemistry with fluorine-18 for the purpose of PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frédéric; Paris, Jérôme; Kaisin, Geoffroy; Thonon, David; Flagothier, Jessica; Teller, Nathalie; Lemaire, Christian; Luxen, André

    2011-01-19

    The alkyne-azide Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition, a click-type reaction, was used to label a double-stranded oligonucleotide (siRNA) with fluorine-18. An alkyne solid support CPG for the preparation of monostranded oligonucleotides functionalized with alkyne has been developed. Two complementary azide labeling agents (1-(azidomethyl)-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzene) and 1-azido-4-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropoxy)benzene have been produced with 41% and 35% radiochemical yields (decay-corrected), respectively. After annealing with the complementary strand, the siRNA was directly labeled by click chemistry with [(18)F]fluoroazide to produce the [(18)F]-radiolabeled siRNA with excellent radiochemical yield and purity.

  17. Ultra-Fast RAFT-HDA Click Conjugation: An Efficient Route to High Molecular Weight Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Andrew J; Stenzel, Martina H; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2009-11-02

    The use of the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer-hetero Diels-Alder (RAFT-HDA) click reaction for the modular construction of block copolymers is extended to the generation of high molecular weight materials. Cyclopentadienyl end-functionalized polystyrene (PS-Cp) prepared via both atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and the RAFT process are conjugated to poly(isobornyl acrylate) (PiBoA) (also prepared via RAFT polymerization) to achieve well-defined block copolymers with molecular weights ranging from 34 000 to over 100 000 g · mol(-1) and with small polydispersities (PDI HDA click chemistry can provide access to high molecular weight block copolymers in a simple and straight-forward fashion. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research (NIMC), Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  19. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  20. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  1. Sequential lineups: shift in criterion or decision strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D

    2004-04-01

    R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985) argued that a sequential lineup enhanced discriminability because it elicited use of an absolute decision strategy. E. B. Ebbesen and H. D. Flowe (2002) argued that a sequential lineup led witnesses to adopt a more conservative response criterion, thereby affecting bias, not discriminability. Height was encoded as absolute (e.g., 6 ft [1.83 m] tall) or relative (e.g., taller than). If a sequential lineup elicited an absolute decision strategy, the principle of transfer-appropriate processing predicted that performance should be best when height was encoded absolutely. Conversely, if a simultaneous lineup elicited a relative decision strategy, performance should be best when height was encoded relatively. The predicted interaction was observed, providing direct evidence for the decision strategies explanation of what happens when witnesses view a sequential lineup.

  2. Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the perturbative treatment of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer reactions with special regards to the DWBA. As examples the (t,p), (p,t), and (α,d) reactions are considered. (HSI)

  3. Retrieval of sea surface velocities using sequential Ocean Colour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    pended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. .... face advective velocities consists essentially of iden- tifying the ... matrix is time consuming, a significant reduction .... Chauhan, P. 2002 Personal Communication.

  4. Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...

  5. Generalized infimum and sequential product of quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Sun Xiuhong; Chen Zhengli

    2007-01-01

    The quantum effects for a physical system can be described by the set E(H) of positive operators on a complex Hilbert space H that are bounded above by the identity operator I. For A, B(set-membership sign)E(H), the operation of sequential product A(convolution sign)B=A 1/2 BA 1/2 was proposed as a model for sequential quantum measurements. A nice investigation of properties of the sequential product has been carried over [Gudder, S. and Nagy, G., 'Sequential quantum measurements', J. Math. Phys. 42, 5212 (2001)]. In this note, we extend some results of this reference. In particular, a gap in the proof of Theorem 3.2 in this reference is overcome. In addition, some properties of generalized infimum A sqcap B are studied

  6. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  7. The impact of eyewitness identifications from simultaneous and sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B

    2007-10-01

    Recent guidelines in the US allow either simultaneous or sequential lineups to be used for eyewitness identification. This paper investigates how potential jurors weight the probative value of the different outcomes from both of these types of lineups. Participants (n=340) were given a description of a case that included some exonerating and some incriminating evidence. There was either a simultaneous or a sequential lineup. Depending on the condition, an eyewitness chose the suspect, chose a filler, or made no identification. The participant had to judge the guilt of the suspect and decide whether to render a guilty verdict. For both simultaneous and sequential lineups an identification had a large effect,increasing the probability of a guilty verdict. There were no reliable effects detected between making no identification and identifying a filler. The effect sizes were similar for simultaneous and sequential lineups. These findings are important for judges and other legal professionals to know for trials involving lineup identifications.

  8. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  9. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  10. Alkyne- and 1,6-elimination- succinimidyl carbonate – terminated heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) for reversible "Click" PEGylation

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yumei; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2010-01-01

    A new heterobifunctional (succinimidyl carbonate, SC)-activated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a reversible 1,6-elimination linker and a terminal alkyne for "click" chemistry was synthesized with high efficiency and low polydispersity. The α-alkyne-ω-hydroxyl PEG was first prepared using trimethylsilyl-2-propargyl alcohol as an initiator for ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide followed by mild deprotection with tetrabutylammonium fluoride. The hydroxy end was then modified with di...

  11. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  12. Concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1995-01-01

    We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder......We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder...

  13. Multichannel, sequential or combined X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florestan, J.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray spectrometer qualities and defects are evaluated for sequential and multichannel categories. Multichannel X-ray spectrometer has time-coherency advantage and its results could be more reproducible; on the other hand some spatial incoherency limits low percentage and traces applications, specially when backgrounds are very variable. In this last case, sequential X-ray spectrometer would find again great usefulness [fr

  14. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...

  15. Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Flowe, HD; Smith, HMJ; Karoğlu, N; Onwuegbusi, TO; Rai, L

    2015-01-01

    Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences...

  16. Sequential weak continuity of null Lagrangians at the boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalamajska, A.; Kraemer, S.; Kružík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, 3/4 (2014), s. 1263-1278 ISSN 0944-2669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : null Lagrangians * nonhomogeneous nonlinear mappings * sequential weak/in measure continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-sequential weak continuity of null lagrangians at the boundary.pdf

  17. A Trust-region-based Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints.......This technical note documents the trust-region-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm used in other works by the authors. The algorithm seeks to minimize a convex nonlinear cost function subject to linear inequalty constraints and nonlinear equality constraints....

  18. Sequential bayes estimation algorithm with cubic splines on uniform meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossfeld, F.; Mika, K.; Plesser-Walk, E.

    1975-11-01

    After outlining the principles of some recent developments in parameter estimation, a sequential numerical algorithm for generalized curve-fitting applications is presented combining results from statistical estimation concepts and spline analysis. Due to its recursive nature, the algorithm can be used most efficiently in online experimentation. Using computer-sumulated and experimental data, the efficiency and the flexibility of this sequential estimation procedure is extensively demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  19. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; De Mouy, E H; Lee, B E

    1994-04-01

    To determine the enhancement patterns of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sequential contrast material-enhanced MR images of the penis in a flaccid state were obtained in 16 volunteers (12 with normal penile function and four with erectile dysfunction). Subjects with normal erectile function showed gradual and centrifugal enhancement of the corpora cavernosa, while those with erectile dysfunction showed poor enhancement with abnormal progression. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides additional morphologic information for the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  20. CAMEX-3 ATMOSPHERIC EMITTED RADIANCE INTERFEROMETER (AERI) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to make atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals. AERI provides absolutely calibrated...

  1. Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a function f(x):R J → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G k (x)=f(x)+g k (x), to obtain x k . The auxiliary functions g k (x):D subset of R J → R + are nonnegative on the set D, each x k is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:R J → R over x in the set C = D-bar, the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by x-circumflex. We assume that the functions g k (x) satisfy the inequalities 0≤g k (x)≤G k-1 (x)-G k-1 (x k-1 ), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {(x k )} is decreasing and converges to f(x-circumflex). If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if x-circumflex is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {x k } is bounded, and f(x*)=f(x-circumflex), for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if x-circumflex is unique, x* = x-circumflex and {x k } → x-circumflex. When x-circumflex is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton–Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results

  2. Using line acceleration to measure false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) click and whistle source levels during pelagic longline depredation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, Aaron; Wild, Lauren; Straley, Janice; Barnes, Dustin; Bayless, Ali; O'Connell, Victoria; Oleson, Erin; Sarkar, Jit; Falvey, Dan; Behnken, Linda; Martin, Sean

    2016-11-01

    False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) depredate pelagic longlines in offshore Hawaiian waters. On January 28, 2015 a depredation event was recorded 14 m from an integrated GoPro camera, hydrophone, and accelerometer, revealing that false killer whales depredate bait and generate clicks and whistles under good visibility conditions. The act of plucking bait off a hook generated a distinctive 15 Hz line vibration. Two similar line vibrations detected at earlier times permitted the animal's range and thus signal source levels to be estimated over a 25-min window. Peak power spectral density source levels for whistles (4-8 kHz) were estimated to be between 115 and 130 dB re 1 μPa 2 /Hz @ 1 m. Echolocation click source levels over 17-32 kHz bandwidth reached 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m pk-pk, or 190 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m (root-mean-square). Predicted detection ranges of the most intense whistles are 10 to 25 km at respective sea states of 4 and 1, with click detection ranges being 5 times smaller than whistles. These detection range analyses provide insight into how passive acoustic monitoring might be used to both quantify and avoid depredation encounters.

  3. Click chemistry for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro-Flores, G., E-mail: ferro_flores@yahoo.com.m [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Rivero, I.A. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Santos-Cuevas, C.L. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sarmiento, J.I. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Arteaga de Murphy, C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico); Ocampo-Garcia, B.E. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Garcia-Becerra, R.; Ordaz-Rosado, D. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC labeled Lys{sup 3}-bombesin has shown specific binding to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) over-expressed in cancer cells. Click chemistry offers an innovative functionalization strategy for biomolecules such as bombesin. The aim of this research was to apply a click chemistry approach for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin and to compare the in vitro MCF7 breast cancer cell uptake and biodistribution profile in mice with that of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin. The results suggest a higher lipophilicity for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-triazole-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin which explains its higher in vivo hepatobiliary elimination. Pancreas-to-blood ratio for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-triazole-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin was 4.46 at 3 h and both bombesin radiopharmaceuticals showed specific recognition for GRP receptors in MCF7 cancer cells. Click chemistry is a reliable approach for [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}] labeling of Lys{sup 3}-bombesin.

  4. Effective ascorbate-free and photolatent click reactions in water using a photoreducible copper(II-ethylenediamine precatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Beniazza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for copper catalysts able to perform effectively click reactions in water in the absence of sodium ascorbate is an active area of current research with strong potential for applications in bioconjugation. The water-soluble and photoreducible copper(II–EDA (EDA = ethylenediamine complex 1, which has two 4-benzoylbenzoates acting as both counterion and photosensitizer, has been synthesized and characterized by different techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction. Highly efficient photoreduction was demonstrated when solutions of 1 in hydrogen atom donating solvents, such as THF or MeOH, were exposed to UVA radiation (350–400 nm provided by a low pressure mercury lamp (type TLC = thin-layer chromatography, 365 nm, or by a 23 W fluorescent bulb, or by ambient/sunlight. In water, a much poorer hydrogen atom donating solvent, the photoreduction of 1 proved inefficient. Interestingly, EPR studies revealed that complex 1 could nonetheless be effectively photoreduced in water when alkynes were present in solution. The catalytic activity of 1 for click reactions involving a range of water-soluble alkynes and azides, in particular saccharides, was tested under various illumination conditions. Complex 1 was found to exhibit a photolatent character, the photogenerated copper(I being very reactive. On irradiating aqueous reaction mixtures containing 1 mol % of 1 at 365 nm (TLC lamp for 1 h, click reactions were shown to proceed to full conversion.

  5. In Situ Forming, Cytocompatible, and Self-Recoverable Tough Hydrogels Based on Dual Ionic and Click Cross-Linked Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein

    2018-05-14

    A dual cross-linking strategy was developed to answer the urgent need for fatigue-resistant, cytocompatible, and in situ forming tough hydrogels. Clickable, yet calcium-binding derivatives of alginate were synthesized by partial substitution of its carboxyl functionalities with furan, which could come into Diels-Alder click reaction with maleimide end groups of a four arm poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Tuning the cooperative viscoelastic action of transient ionic and permanent click cross-links within the single network of alginate provided a soft tough hydrogel with a set of interesting features: (i) immediate self-recovery under cyclic loading, (ii) highly efficient and autonomous self-healing upon fracture, (iii) in situ forming ability for molding and minimally invasive injection, (iv) capability for viable cell encapsulation, and (v) reactivity for on-demand biomolecule conjugation. The facile strategy is applicable to a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers by introducing the calcium binding and click reacting functional groups and can broaden the use of tough hydrogels in load-bearing, cell-laden applications such as soft tissue engineering and bioactuators.

  6. Cytocompatible in situ forming chitosan/hyaluronan hydrogels via a metal-free click chemistry for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Mao, Jiahui; Zhang, Ziwei; Tan, Huaping

    2015-07-01

    Injectable hydrogels are important cell scaffolding materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we report a new class of biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide hydrogels derived from chitosan and hyaluronan via a metal-free click chemistry, without the addition of copper catalyst. For the metal-free click reaction, chitosan and hyaluronan were modified with oxanorbornadiene (OB) and 11-azido-3,6,9-trioxaundecan-1-amine (AA), respectively. The gelation is attributed to the triazole ring formation between OB and azido groups of polysaccharide derivatives. The molecular structures were verified by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, giving substitution degrees of 58% and 47% for chitosan-OB and hyaluronan-AA, respectively. The in vitro gelation, morphologies, equilibrium swelling, compressive modulus and degradation of the composite hydrogels were examined. The potential of the metal-free hydrogel as a cell scaffold was demonstrated by encapsulation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) within the gel matrix in vitro. Cell culture showed that this metal-free hydrogel could support survival and proliferation of ASCs. A preliminary in vivo study demonstrated the usefulness of the hydrogel as an injectable scaffold for adipose tissue engineering. These characteristics provide a potential opportunity to use the metal-free click chemistry in preparation of biocompatible hydrogels for soft tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...... assumed to be normally distributed, and sequential one-sided hypothesis tests on the population standard deviation of the differences against a hypothesised value of 1.5 were performed, employing an alpha spending function. The fixed-sample analysis (N = 45) was compared with the group-sequential analysis...... strategies comprising one (at N = 23), two (at N = 15, 30), or three interim analyses (at N = 11, 23, 34), respectively, which were defined post hoc. RESULTS: When performing interim analyses with one third and two thirds of patients, sufficient agreement could be concluded after the first interim analysis...

  8. The effects of temporo mandibular joint disorder with clicking symptom on children mastication performance in Deutero Malay race children aged 12-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Hartman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporo Mandibular Joint Disorder (TMD could be caused by forward head posture. Articular sound/TMJ clicking is the most often sign and symptom for TMD that could happen in human being. The presence of TMD such as TMJ clicking would cause an imbalance masticatory system. The purpose of this research is to investigate TMJ clicking effects to masticatory performance. This research was cross-sectional study with a type of epidemiology survey. Subject were children aged 12-15 years old Deutero-Malay sub-races Live in Bandung and was taken using multi-stage random sampling technique. Subject; consisted of 24 children as control group and 28 children as TMJ clicking group. Both group were then checked for masticatory performance using multiple sieve method and 20x chewing of artificial test food. Mastication performance value represented by median particle size (MPS particle distribution (b for each group. MPS from TMJ clicking group (3.0571,SD=0.9990 showed higher value than control group (2.28958,SD=0.66838. Statistic analysis with t-test showed that there’s a significant result in both of group (pvalue=0,0024, α = 0,05. Conclussion, temporo mandibular joint clicking subject has lower masticatory performance.

  9. Parallel search engine optimisation and pay-per-click campaigns: A comparison of cost per acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter T. Kritzinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is imperative that commercial websites should rank highly in search engine result pages because these provide the main entry point to paying customers. There are two main methods to achieve high rankings: search engine optimisation (SEO and pay-per-click (PPC systems. Both require a financial investment – SEO mainly at the beginning, and PPC spread over time in regular amounts. If marketing budgets are applied in the wrong area, this could lead to losses and possibly financial ruin. Objectives: The objective of this research was to investigate, using three real-world case studies, the actual expenditure on and income from both SEO and PPC systems. These figures were then compared, and specifically, the cost per acquisition (CPA was used to decide which system yielded the best results. Methodology: Three diverse websites were chosen, and analytics data for all three were compared over a 3-month period. Calculations were performed to reduce the figures to single ratios, to make comparisons between them possible. Results: Some of the resultant ratios varied widely between websites. However, the CPA was shown to be on average 52.1 times lower for SEO than for PPC systems. Conclusion: It was concluded that SEO should be the marketing system of preference for e-commerce-based websites. However, there are cases where PPC would yield better results – when instant traffic is required, and when a large initial expenditure is not possible.

  10. A New Approach for Mobile Advertising Click-Through Rate Estimation Based on Deep Belief Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hao; Zhao, Zi-Qian; Shi, Ji-Yun; Zhao, Chong

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet and its business applications, mobile advertising Click-Through Rate (CTR) estimation has become a hot research direction in the field of computational advertising, which is used to achieve accurate advertisement delivery for the best benefits in the three-side game between media, advertisers, and audiences. Current research on the estimation of CTR mainly uses the methods and models of machine learning, such as linear model or recommendation algorithms. However, most of these methods are insufficient to extract the data features and cannot reflect the nonlinear relationship between different features. In order to solve these problems, we propose a new model based on Deep Belief Nets to predict the CTR of mobile advertising, which combines together the powerful data representation and feature extraction capability of Deep Belief Nets, with the advantage of simplicity of traditional Logistic Regression models. Based on the training dataset with the information of over 40 million mobile advertisements during a period of 10 days, our experiments show that our new model has better estimation accuracy than the classic Logistic Regression (LR) model by 5.57% and Support Vector Regression (SVR) model by 5.80%.

  11. A New Approach for Mobile Advertising Click-Through Rate Estimation Based on Deep Belief Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet and its business applications, mobile advertising Click-Through Rate (CTR estimation has become a hot research direction in the field of computational advertising, which is used to achieve accurate advertisement delivery for the best benefits in the three-side game between media, advertisers, and audiences. Current research on the estimation of CTR mainly uses the methods and models of machine learning, such as linear model or recommendation algorithms. However, most of these methods are insufficient to extract the data features and cannot reflect the nonlinear relationship between different features. In order to solve these problems, we propose a new model based on Deep Belief Nets to predict the CTR of mobile advertising, which combines together the powerful data representation and feature extraction capability of Deep Belief Nets, with the advantage of simplicity of traditional Logistic Regression models. Based on the training dataset with the information of over 40 million mobile advertisements during a period of 10 days, our experiments show that our new model has better estimation accuracy than the classic Logistic Regression (LR model by 5.57% and Support Vector Regression (SVR model by 5.80%.

  12. Synthesis of novel pyrazoline based bis (1,2,3-triazole scaffolds via click chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kothuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel bis(1,2,3-triazoles derivatives 7a–m were synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (click-reaction of 1-methyl-3,5-bis(2- -(prop-2-yn-1-yloxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (5 with various aralkyl azides 6a–m in the presence of sodium ascorbate and copper sulphate with good yields. The required precursor 5 was synthesized by reacting (E-1,3- -bis(2-hydroxyphenylprop-2-en-1-one (3 with methylhydrazine hydrate via 2,2′-(1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3,5-diyldiphenol 4, followed by reaction with propargyl bromide. The homogeneity of all the newly synthesized compounds was checked by TLC. The IR, NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis were in accord with the assigned structure. The title compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains, i.e., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; compounds 7f–7h and 7j were found to be moderately active against the bacteria, when compared with that of the standard drug. Furthermore, the same library of compounds was evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The results of the study showed that compounds 7e–7h and 7k–7m showed good radical scavenging activity.

  13. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Yotapan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes.

  14. Quantitative Secretome Analysis of Activated Jurkat Cells Using Click Chemistry-Based Enrichment of Secreted Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, Kathrin E; Rosowski, Kristin; Müller, Christian; Ahrens, Maike; Eisenacher, Martin; Megger, Dominik A; Knobloch, Jürgen; Koch, Andrea; Bracht, Thilo; Sitek, Barbara

    2017-01-06

    Quantitative secretome analyses are a high-performance tool for the discovery of physiological and pathophysiological changes in cellular processes. However, serum supplements in cell culture media limit secretome analyses, but serum depletion often leads to cell starvation and consequently biased results. To overcome these limiting factors, we investigated a model of T cell activation (Jurkat cells) and performed an approach for the selective enrichment of secreted proteins from conditioned medium utilizing metabolic marking of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Marked glycoproteins were labeled via bioorthogonal click chemistry and isolated by affinity purification. We assessed two labeling compounds conjugated with either biotin or desthiobiotin and the respective secretome fractions. 356 proteins were quantified using the biotin probe and 463 using desthiobiotin. 59 proteins were found differentially abundant (adjusted p-value ≤0.05, absolute fold change ≥1.5) between inactive and activated T cells using the biotin method and 86 using the desthiobiotin approach, with 31 mutual proteins cross-verified by independent experiments. Moreover, we analyzed the cellular proteome of the same model to demonstrate the benefit of secretome analyses and provide comprehensive data sets of both. 336 proteins (61.3%) were quantified exclusively in the secretome. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004280.

  15. DNA-modified electrodes fabricated using copper-free click chemistry for enhanced protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Ariel L; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2013-12-31

    A method of DNA monolayer formation has been developed using copper-free click chemistry that yields enhanced surface homogeneity and enables variation in the amount of DNA assembled; extremely low-density DNA monolayers, with as little as 5% of the monolayer being DNA, have been formed. These DNA-modified electrodes (DMEs) were characterized visually, with AFM, and electrochemically, and were found to facilitate DNA-mediated reduction of a distally bound redox probe. These low-density monolayers were found to be more homogeneous than traditional thiol-modified DNA monolayers, with greater helix accessibility through an increased surface area-to-volume ratio. Protein binding efficiency of the transcriptional activator TATA-binding protein (TBP) was also investigated on these surfaces and compared to that on DNA monolayers formed with standard thiol-modified DNA. Our low-density monolayers were found to be extremely sensitive to TBP binding, with a signal decrease in excess of 75% for 150 nM protein. This protein was detectable at 4 nM, on the order of its dissociation constant, with our low-density monolayers. The improved DNA helix accessibility and sensitivity of our low-density DNA monolayers to TBP binding reflects the general utility of this method of DNA monolayer formation for DNA-based electrochemical sensor development.

  16. Click functionalization of phenyl-capped bithiophene on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yijun; Cui, Jiaxi; Ikeda, Taichi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemically-active self-assembled monolayers with phenyl-capped bithiophene were prepared. • Post-functionalization method based on click chemistry solved the solubility issue of phenyl-capped thiophene alkanethiol. • The capture and release of the counter anions during the redox reaction were detectable by E-QCM. - Abstract: We immobilized tetra(ethylene glycol)-substituted phenyl-capped bithiophene with alkyne terminals (Ph2TPh-alkyne) on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers (N 3 -SAMs) by Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs on a gold substrate showed reversible electrochemical response. The surface densities of the azide groups in N 3 -SAMs and Ph2TPh units in Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs were estimated to be 7.3 ± 0.3 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 and 4.6 ± 0.3 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 , respectively, by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Most of Ph2TPh-alkynes are considered to be anchored on N 3 -SAMs via both terminal groups. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs exhibited reversible redox peaks in cyclic voltammetry (CV). In redox reaction, reversible capture and release of the counter anion could be monitored by electrochemical QCM (E-QCM).

  17. The application of click chemistry in the synthesis of agents with anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nan Ma,1–3 Ying Wang,3 Bing-Xin Zhao,3 Wen-Cai Ye,1,3 Sheng Jiang2 1Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The copper(I-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between alkynes and azides (click chemistry to form 1,2,3-triazoles is the most popular reaction due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. This reaction has the potential to shorten procedures, and render more efficient lead identification and optimization procedures in medicinal chemistry, which is a powerful modular synthetic approach toward the assembly of new molecular entities and has been applied in anticancer drugs discovery increasingly. The present review focuses mainly on the applications of this reaction in the field of synthesis of agents with anticancer activity, which are divided into four groups: topoisomerase II inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and antimicrotubule agents. Keywords: topoisomerase II inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antimicrotubule agents

  18. Click functionalization of phenyl-capped bithiophene on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yijun; Cui, Jiaxi [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPIP), Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Ikeda, Taichi, E-mail: IKEDA.Taichi@nims.go.jp [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPIP), Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Polymer Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemically-active self-assembled monolayers with phenyl-capped bithiophene were prepared. • Post-functionalization method based on click chemistry solved the solubility issue of phenyl-capped thiophene alkanethiol. • The capture and release of the counter anions during the redox reaction were detectable by E-QCM. - Abstract: We immobilized tetra(ethylene glycol)-substituted phenyl-capped bithiophene with alkyne terminals (Ph2TPh-alkyne) on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers (N{sub 3}-SAMs) by Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs on a gold substrate showed reversible electrochemical response. The surface densities of the azide groups in N{sub 3}-SAMs and Ph2TPh units in Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs were estimated to be 7.3 ± 0.3 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2} and 4.6 ± 0.3 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2}, respectively, by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Most of Ph2TPh-alkynes are considered to be anchored on N{sub 3}-SAMs via both terminal groups. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs exhibited reversible redox peaks in cyclic voltammetry (CV). In redox reaction, reversible capture and release of the counter anion could be monitored by electrochemical QCM (E-QCM).

  19. A New Approach for Mobile Advertising Click-Through Rate Estimation Based on Deep Belief Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Qian; Shi, Ji-Yun; Zhao, Chong

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet and its business applications, mobile advertising Click-Through Rate (CTR) estimation has become a hot research direction in the field of computational advertising, which is used to achieve accurate advertisement delivery for the best benefits in the three-side game between media, advertisers, and audiences. Current research on the estimation of CTR mainly uses the methods and models of machine learning, such as linear model or recommendation algorithms. However, most of these methods are insufficient to extract the data features and cannot reflect the nonlinear relationship between different features. In order to solve these problems, we propose a new model based on Deep Belief Nets to predict the CTR of mobile advertising, which combines together the powerful data representation and feature extraction capability of Deep Belief Nets, with the advantage of simplicity of traditional Logistic Regression models. Based on the training dataset with the information of over 40 million mobile advertisements during a period of 10 days, our experiments show that our new model has better estimation accuracy than the classic Logistic Regression (LR) model by 5.57% and Support Vector Regression (SVR) model by 5.80%. PMID:29209363

  20. Sustainable thermoplastic elastomers derived from cellulose, fatty acid and furfural via ATRP and click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juan; Lu, Chuanwei; Wang, Chunpeng; Wang, Jifu; Fan, Yimin; Chu, Fuxiang

    2017-11-15

    Cellulose-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have attracted considerable attention because of their rigid backbone, good mechanical properties, renewable nature and abundance. In the present study, sustainable TPEs based on ethyl cellulose (EC), fatty acid and furfural were generated by the combination of ATRP and "click chemistry". To fabricate sustainable TPEs with higher toughness, a range of polymers, including mono random-copolymer poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate-co-lauryl methacrylate) (P(THFMA-co-LMA), dual polymer side chains PTHFMA and PLMA, and mono-block copolymer PTHFMA-b-PLMA, were designed as side chains to fabricate EC brush copolymers with random, dual or block side chain architectures using the "grafting from" and "grafting onto" methods. The multi-armed structures, chemical compositions and phase separation of these EC brush copolymers were confirmed by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, GPC, DSC, TEM and SEM. Overall, three types of EC brush copolymers all exhibited the desired mechanical properties of TPEs. In addition, the EC brush copolymers with dual/block side chain architectures showed higher tensile strength than that of the random polymers with similar compositions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Chemical surface reactions by click chemistry: coumarin dye modification of 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, Claudia; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2008-01-01

    The functionalization of surfaces and the ability to tailor their properties with desired physico-chemical functions is an important field of research with a broad spectrum of applications. These applications range from the modification of wetting properties, over the alteration of optical properties, to the fabrication of molecular electronic devices. In each of these fields, it is of specific importance to be able to control the quality of the layers with high precision. The present study demonstrates an approach that utilizes the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal acetylenes to prepare triazole-terminated monolayers on different substrates. The characterization of the precursor monolayers, the optimization of the chemical surface reactions as well as the clicking of a fluorescent dye molecule on such azide-terminated monolayers was carried out. A coumarin 343 derivative was utilized to discuss the aspects of the functionalization approach. Based on this approach, a number of potential surface reactions, facilitated via the acetylene-substituted functional molecules, for a broad range of applications is at hand, thus leading to numerous possibilities where surface modifications are concerned. These modifications can be applied on non-structured surfaces of silicon or glass or can be used on structured surfaces. Various possibilities are discussed

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of functional alginate hydrogels based on click chemistry for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Astrain, Clara; Avérous, Luc

    2018-06-15

    Environment-sensitive alginate-based hydrogels for drug delivery applications are receiving increasing attention. However, most work in this field involves traditional cross-linking strategies which led to hydrogels with poor long-term stability. Herein, a series of chemically cross-linked alginate hydrogels was synthesized via click chemistry using Diels-Alder reaction by reacting furan-modified alginate and bifunctional cross-linkers. Alginate was successfully functionalized with furfurylamine. Then, 3D architectures were synthesized with water-soluble bismaleimides. Different substitution degrees were achieved in order to study the effect of alginate modification and the cross-linking extent over the behaviour of the hydrogels. The ensuing hydrogels were analysed in terms of microstructure, swelling, structure modification and rheological behaviour. The materials response to external stimuli such as pH was also investigated, revealing a pulsatile behaviour in a large pH range (1-13) and a clear pH-dependent swelling. Finally, vanillin release studies were conducted to demonstrate the potential of these biobased materials for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clicked Cinnamic/Caffeic Esters and Amides as Radical Scavengers and 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie A. Doiron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO is the key enzyme responsible for the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes, a class of lipid mediators implicated in inflammatory disorders. In this paper, we describe the design, synthesis, and preliminary activity studies of novel clicked caffeic esters and amides as radical scavengers and 5-LO inhibitors. From known 5-LO inhibitor 3 as a lead, cinnamic esters 8a–h and amides 9a–h as well as caffeic esters 15a–h and amides 16a–h were synthesized by Cu(I-catalyzed [1,3]-dipolar cycloaddition with the appropriate azide precursors and terminal alkynes. All caffeic analogs are proved to be good radical scavengers (IC50: 10–20 μM. Esters 15g and 15f possessed excellent 5-LO inhibition activity in HEK293 cells and were equipotent with the known 5-LO inhibitor CAPE and more potent than Zileuton. Several synthesized esters possess activities rivaling Zileuton in stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  4. "Click" chemistry mildly stabilizes bifunctional gold nanoparticles for sensing and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Na; Echeverria, María; Moya, Sergio; Salmon, Lionel; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2014-07-01

    A large family of bifunctional 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that contain both a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain and another functional fragment (e.g., a polymer, dendron, alcohol, carboxylic acid, allyl, fluorescence dye, redox-robust metal complex, or a β-cyclodextrin unit) has been synthesized by facile "click" chemistry and mildly coordinated to nanogold particles, thus providing stable water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the size range 3.0-11.2 nm with various properties and applications. In particular, the sensing properties of these AuNPs are illustrated through the detection of an analogue of a warfare agent (i.e., sulfur mustard) by means of a fluorescence "turn-on" assay, and the catalytic activity of the smallest triazole-AuNPs (core of 3.0 nm) is excellent for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in water. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Large-scale separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by electronic type using click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jo-Eun; Song, Sun Gu; Yoo, Pil J.; Song, Changsik; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2018-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be either metallic or semiconducting, making their separation critical for applications in nanoelectronics, biomedical materials, and solar cells. Herein, we investigate a novel solution-phase separation method based on click chemistry (azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition) and determine its efficiency and scalability. In this method, metallic SWCNTs in metallic/semiconducting SWCNT mixtures are selectively functionalized with alkyne groups by being reacted with 4-propargyloxybenezenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. Subsequently, silica nanoparticles are functionalized with azide groups and reacted with alkyne-bearing metallic SWCNTs in the SWCNT mixture in the presence of a Cu catalyst. As a result, metallic SWCNTs are anchored on silica powder, whereas non-functionalized semiconducting SWCNTs remain in solution. Low-speed centrifugation effectively removes the silica powder with attached metallic SWCNTs, furnishing a solution of highly pure semiconducting SWCNTs, as confirmed by Raman and UV-vis/near-infrared absorption measurements. This novel separation scheme exhibits the advantage of simultaneously separating both metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs from their mixtures, being cost-effective and therefore applicable at an industrial scale.

  6. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  7. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  8. Solution processed, white emitting tandem organic light-emitting diodes with inverted device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Schienle, Alexander; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2014-08-13

    Fully solution processed monochromatic and white-light emitting tandem or multi-photon polymer OLEDs with an inverted device architecture have been realized by employing WO3 /PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/PEI charge carrier generation layers. The luminance of the sub-OLEDs adds up in the stacked device indicating multi-photon emission. The white OLEDs exhibit a CRI of 75. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with forward directed light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Reineke, Sebastian; Furno, Mauro; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for highly efficient and energy saving illumination has increased considerably during the last decades. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for future lighting technologies. They offer high efficiency along with excellent color quality, allowing substantially lower power consumption than traditional illuminants. Recently, especially top-emitting devices have attracted high interest due to their compatibility with opaque substrates like metal sheets. In this contribution, we demonstrate top-emitting OLEDs with white emission spectra employing a multilayer hybrid cavity structure with two highly efficient phosphorescent emitter materials for orange-red (Ir(MDQ)2(acac)) and green (Ir(ppy)3) emission as well as the stable fluorescent blue emitter TBPe. To improve the OLED performance and modify the color quality, two different electron blocking layers and anode material combinations are tested. Compared to Lambertian emission, our devices show considerably enhanced forward emission, which is preferred for most lighting applications. Besides broadband emission and angle independent emission maxima, power efficiencies of 13.3 lm/W at 3 V and external quantum efficiencies of 5.3% are achieved. The emission shows excellent CIE coordinates of (0.420,0.407) at approx. 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and color rendering indices up to 77.

  10. Spectrum study of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with micro-cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Wei Fuxiang; Liu Hui

    2009-01-01

    Blue and white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices OLEDs with cavity effect have been fabricated. TBADN:3%DSAPh and Alq 3 :DCJTB/TBADN:TBPe/Alq 3 :C545 were used as emitting materials of microcavity OLEDs. On a patterned glass substrate, silver was deposited as reflective anode, and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) layer as HIL and 4'-bis[N-(1-Naphthyl)- N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (NPB) layer as HTL were made. Al/Ag thin films were made as semi-transparent cathode with a transmittance of about 30%. By changing the thickness of indium tin oxide ITO, deep blue with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates (CIEx, y) of (0.141, 0.049) was obtained on TBADN:3%DSAPh devices, and different color (red, blue and green) was obtained on Alq 3 :DCJTB/TBADN:TBPe/Alq 3 :C545 devices, full width at half maxima (FWHM) was only 17 nm. The spectral intensity and FWHM of emission in cavity devices have also been studied.

  11. Time-Sequential Working Wavelength-Selective Filter for Flat Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René de la Barré

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A time-sequential working, spatially-multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design consisting of a fast switchable RGB-color filter array and a fast color display is presented. The newly-introduced 3D display design is usable as a multi-user display, as well as a single-user system. The wavelength-selective filter barrier emits the light from a larger aperture than common autostereoscopic barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. Measurements on a demonstrator with commercial display components, simulations and computational evaluations have been carried out to describe the proposed wavelength-selective display design in static states and to show the weak spots of display filters in commercial displays. An optical modelling of wavelength-selective barriers has been used for instance to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. In the time-sequential implementation, it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement leads to visible color artifacts. Therefore, color filter cells, switching faster than conventional LC display cells, must distribute directed light from different primaries at the same time, to create a 3D presentation. For that, electric tunable liquid crystal Fabry–Pérot color filters are presented. They switch on-off the colors red, green and blue in the millisecond regime. Their active areas consist of a sub-micrometer-thick nematic layer sandwiched between dielectric mirrors and indium tin oxide (ITO-electrodes. These cells shall switch narrowband light of red, green or blue. A barrier filter array for a high resolution, glasses-free 3D display has to be equipped with several thousand switchable filter elements having different color apertures.

  12. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PMID:21673938

  13. Degradation in organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vincent Vinh

    This thesis is about the fundamental causes of degradation in tris(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Degradation typically occurs when a current is forced through an insulating material. Since the insulator does not support conduction waves (in its ground state), chemical restructuring must occur to accommodate the current. OLEDs have many technical advantages over the well known semiconductor-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). OLEDs have quantum efficiencies ˜1% (˜10 times higher than the LEDs), and operational power thresholds ˜.05mW (˜100 lower than the LEDs). OLEDs are preferred in power limited and portable devices; devices such as laptops and displays consume ˜1/4 of the supplied power---any power saving is significant. Other advantages, like better compliance to curved surfaces and ease of fabrication, give the OLEDs an even greater edge over the LEDs. OLEDs must have at least comparable or better lifetimes to remain attractive. Typical OLEDs last several 100hrs compared to the several 1000hrs for the LEDs. For reliable OLED application, it is necessary to understand the above breakdown mechanism. In this thesis, we attempt to understand the breakdown by looking at how OLEDs are made, how they work, and when they don't. In the opening sections, we give an overview of OLEDs and LEDs, especially how sustained luminescence is achieved through current circulation. Then in Chapter 2, we look at the basic components in the OLEDs. In Chapter 3 we look at how a hole material (like poly-vinyl carbazole or PVK) establishes an excitonic environment for the sustained luminescence in Alq3. We then approximate how potential is distributed when a simple luminescence system is in operation. In Chapter 4, we look at ways of measuring this distribution via the OLED impedance. Finally in Chapter 5, we look at the OLED stability under light emission conditions via PVK and Alq3 photoemission and photoabsorption spectra

  14. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Ptosis and Strabismus Surgery in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Karen E; Binenbaum, Gil; Li, Jonathan; Mills, Monte D; Katowitz, William R; Katowitz, James A

    The authors sought to compare the clinical outcomes of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery in children. Retrospective, single-center cohort study of children requiring both ptosis and strabismus surgery on the same eye. Simultaneous surgeries were performed during a single anesthetic event; sequential surgeries were performed at least 7 weeks apart. Outcomes were ptosis surgery success (margin reflex distance 1 ≥ 2 mm, good eyelid contour, and good eyelid crease); strabismus surgery success (ocular alignment within 10 prism diopters of orthophoria and/or improved head position); surgical complications; and reoperations. Fifty-six children were studied, 38 had simultaneous surgery and 18 sequential. Strabismus surgery was performed first in 38/38 simultaneous and 6/18 sequential cases. Mean age at first surgery was 64 months, with mean follow up 27 months. A total of 75% of children had congenital ptosis; 64% had comitant strabismus. A majority of ptosis surgeries were frontalis sling (59%) or Fasanella-Servat (30%) procedures. There were no significant differences between simultaneous and sequential groups with regards to surgical success rates, complications, or reoperations (all p > 0.28). In the first comparative study of simultaneous versus sequential ptosis and strabismus surgery, no advantage for sequential surgery was seen. Despite a theoretical risk of postoperative eyelid malposition or complications when surgeries were performed in a combined manner, the rate of such outcomes was not increased with simultaneous surgeries. Performing ptosis and strabismus surgery together appears to be clinically effective and safe, and reduces anesthesia exposure during childhood.

  15. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  16. Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki

    2010-06-01

    For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential

  17. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y.; Sydorenko, D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T e /e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux

  18. CASPER: Concordia Atmospheric SPectroscopy of Emitted Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Petris, M.; Catalano, A.; de Gregori, S.; Lamagna, L.; Lattanzi, V.; Luzzi, G.; Maoli, R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Savini, G.; Vetrani, G. G.; Battistelli, E. S.; Valenziano, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Villa, F.; Cuttaia, F.; Ade, P. A. R.; Mauskopf, P.; Orlando, A.; Encrenaz, P.; Pardo, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.

    CASPER (Concordia Atmospheric SPectroscopy of Emitted Radiation) is a spectrometer proposed for installation at Dome C, devoted to measurements of atmospheric emission in the spectral region between 180 μm and 3 mm (3 55 cm-1). This instrument will be able to perform continuous spectral sampling at different altitudes at angular scales of 1°. From the recorded data it is possible to extract atmospheric transmittance within 1% in the whole wide operating band, together with water vapour content and O{2} and O{3} concentrations. CASPER will allow us to characterize the site for future FIR/mm telescopes. Atmospheric data recorded by CASPER will allow for correction of astrophysical and cosmological observations without the need for telescope-specific procedures and further loss of observation time with more precision in the observations themselves. Calibration of ground-based telescopes on known sky sources is strongly affected by atmospheric absorption. CASPER has this as its primary goal. The spectrometer is based on a Martin-Puplett interferometer. Two data sampling solutions will be performed: phase modulation & fast scan strategy. Sky radiation is collected towards the interferometer by an optical setup that allows the field of view, to explore the full 0° div 90° range of elevation angles. With a low spurious polarization instrument, monitoring of polarized atmospheric contribution will be possible.

  19. Power saving regulated light emitting diode circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haville, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A power saving regulated light source circuit, comprising a light emitting diode (LED), a direct current source and a switching transistor connected in series with the LED, a control voltage producing resistor connected in series with the LED to produce a control voltage corresponding to the current through the LED, a storage capacitor connected in parallel with the series combination of the LED and the resistor, a comparator having its output connected to the input of the transistor, the comparator having a reference input and a control input, a stabilized biasing source for supplying a stabilized reference voltage to the reference input, the control input of the comparator being connected to the control voltage producing resistor, the comparator having a high output state when the reference voltage exceeds the control voltage while having a low output state when the control voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the transistor being conductive in response to the high state while being nonconductive in response to the low state, the transistor when conductive being effective to charge the capacitor and to increase the control voltage, whereby the comparator is cycled between the high and low output states while the transistor is cycled between conductive and nonconductive states

  20. Aggregation in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Abigail

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology has great potential for becoming a solid state lighting source. However, there are inefficiencies in OLED devices that need to be understood. Since these inefficiencies occur on a nanometer scale there is a need for structural data on this length scale in three dimensions which has been unattainable until now. Local Electron Atom Probe (LEAP), a specific implementation of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), is used in this work to acquire morphology data in three dimensions on a nanometer scale with much better chemical resolution than is previously seen. Before analyzing LEAP data, simulations were used to investigate how detector efficiency, sample size and cluster size affect data analysis which is done using radial distribution functions (RDFs). Data is reconstructed using the LEAP software which provides mass and position data. Two samples were then analyzed, 3% DCM2 in C60 and 2% DCM2 in Alq3. Analysis of both samples indicated little to no clustering was present in this system.