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Sample records for sequential research design

  1. Sequential, Multiple Assignment, Randomized Trial Designs in Immuno-oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Postow, Michael A; Panageas, Katherine S

    2018-02-15

    Clinical trials investigating immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to the approval of anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4), anti-PD-1 (programmed death-1), and anti-PD-L1 (PD-ligand 1) drugs by the FDA for numerous tumor types. In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, combinations of checkpoint inhibitors are more effective than single-agent inhibitors, but combination immunotherapy is associated with increased frequency and severity of toxicity. There are questions about the use of combination immunotherapy or single-agent anti-PD-1 as initial therapy and the number of doses of either approach required to sustain a response. In this article, we describe a novel use of sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) design to evaluate immune checkpoint inhibitors to find treatment regimens that adapt within an individual based on intermediate response and lead to the longest overall survival. We provide a hypothetical example SMART design for BRAF wild-type metastatic melanoma as a framework for investigating immunotherapy treatment regimens. We compare implementing a SMART design to implementing multiple traditional randomized clinical trials. We illustrate the benefits of a SMART over traditional trial designs and acknowledge the complexity of a SMART. SMART designs may be an optimal way to find treatment strategies that yield durable response, longer survival, and lower toxicity. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 730-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Remarks on sequential designs in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidenfeld, T.

    1982-01-01

    The special merits of sequential designs are reviewed in light of particular challenges that attend risk assessment for human population. The kinds of ''statistical inference'' are distinguished and the problem of design which is pursued is the clash between Neyman-Pearson and Bayesian programs of sequential design. The value of sequential designs is discussed and the Neyman-Pearson vs. Bayesian sequential designs are probed in particular. Finally, warnings with sequential designs are considered, especially in relation to utilitarianism

  3. Using qualitative repertory grid interviews to gather shared perspectives in a sequential mixed methods research design

    OpenAIRE

    Rojon, C; Saunders, M.N.K.; McDowall, Almuth

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider a specific example of applying mixed methods designs combining both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches, giving particular attention to issues including reliability and validity. Human resource management (HRM) researchers, like others setting out to examine a novel or insufficiently defined research topic, frequently favour qualitative approaches to gather data during initial stages, to facilitate an in-depth exploration of indivi...

  4. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mixing modes in a population-based interview survey: comparison of a sequential and a concurrent mixed-mode design for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; von der Lippe, Elena; Allen, Jennifer; Schilling, Ralph; Müters, Stephan; Hoebel, Jens; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Lange, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    the two designs. Modelling these results for higher response rates and larger net sample sizes indicated that the sequential design was more cost and time-effective. This study contributes to the research available on implementing mixed-mode designs as part of public health surveys. Our findings show that SAQ-Paper and SAQ-Web questionnaires can be combined effectively. Sequential mixed-mode designs with higher rates of online respondents may be of greater benefit to studies with larger net sample sizes than concurrent mixed-mode designs.

  6. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  7. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  8. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  9. Sequential ensemble-based optimal design for parameter estimation: SEQUENTIAL ENSEMBLE-BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.

  10. Breaking from binaries - using a sequential mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Patricia Mary; Begley, Cecily Marion; Devane, Declan

    2014-03-01

    To outline the traditional worldviews of healthcare research and discuss the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods approaches in contributing to the development of nursing and midwifery knowledge. There has been much debate about the contribution of mixed methods research to nursing and midwifery knowledge in recent years. A sequential exploratory design is used as an exemplar of a mixed methods approach. The study discussed used a combination of focus-group interviews and a quantitative instrument to obtain a fuller understanding of women's experiences of childbirth. In the mixed methods study example, qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data using regression analysis. Polarised debates about the veracity, philosophical integrity and motivation for conducting mixed methods research have largely abated. A mixed methods approach can contribute to a deeper, more contextual understanding of a variety of subjects and experiences; as a result, it furthers knowledge that can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of the research study should be the main instigator when choosing from an array of mixed methods research designs. Mixed methods research offers a variety of models that can augment investigative capabilities and provide richer data than can a discrete method alone. This paper offers an example of an exploratory, sequential approach to investigating women's childbirth experiences. A clear framework for the conduct and integration of the different phases of the mixed methods research process is provided. This approach can be used by practitioners and policy makers to improve practice.

  11. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  12. Research Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    Gunnar Scott Reinbacher (editor) Antology.  Research Design : Validation in Social Sciences. Gunnar Scott Reinbacher: Introduction. Research design and validity. 15p Ole Riis: Creative Research design. 16 p Lennart Nørreklit: Validity in Research Design. 24p Gitte Sommer Harrits: Praxeological...... Scott Reinbacher: Multidisciplinary Research Designs in Problem Based Research. The case of an european project on chronical diseases, the Tandem project (Training Alternmative Networking Skills in Diabetes Management). 15p Niels Nørgaard Kristensen: A qualitative bottom up approach to post modern...... knowledge: An integrated strategy for combining "explaining" and "understanding". 22p Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen & Viola Burau: Comparative research designs. 40p Rasmus Antoft & Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen: Studying organizations by a Pragmatic Research Design: the case of qualitative case study  designs. 31p...

  13. Group sequential and confirmatory adaptive designs in clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...

  14. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...... ‘synergies from interdisciplinary perspectives’ by discussing and elaborating on differing academic perspectives, theoretical backgrounds, and design concept definitions, and evaluating their unique contribution to a general core of design research. This book is an exciting contribution to this little...

  15. Sequential analysis in neonatal research-systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Elie, Valéry; Ha, Phuong Thi Viet; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2018-05-01

    As more new drugs are discovered, traditional designs come at their limits. Ten years after the adoption of the European Paediatric Regulation, we performed a systematic review on the US National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica database of sequential trials involving newborns. Out of 326 identified scientific reports, 21 trials were included. They enrolled 2832 patients, of whom 2099 were analyzed: the median number of neonates included per trial was 48 (IQR 22-87), median gestational age was 28.7 (IQR 27.9-30.9) weeks. Eighteen trials used sequential techniques to determine sample size, while 3 used continual reassessment methods for dose-finding. In 16 studies reporting sufficient data, the sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674) with respect to a traditional trial. When the number of neonates finally included in the analysis was considered, the difference became significant: 35 (57%) patients (IQR 10 to 136.5, p = 0.0033). Sequential trial designs have not been frequently used in Neonatology. They might potentially be able to reduce the number of patients in drug trials, although this is not always the case. What is known: • In evaluating rare diseases in fragile populations, traditional designs come at their limits. About 20% of pediatric trials are discontinued, mainly because of recruitment problems. What is new: • Sequential trials involving newborns were infrequently used and only a few (n = 21) are available for analysis. • The sequential design allowed to non-significantly reduce the number of enrolled neonates by a median of 24 (31%) patients (IQR - 4.75 to 136.5, p = 0.0674).

  16. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  17. An exploratory sequential design to validate measures of moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Margarita G; Delgado, Ana R

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploratory and sequential mixed methods approach in validating measures of knowledge of the moral emotions of contempt, anger and disgust. The sample comprised 60 participants in the qualitative phase when a measurement instrument was designed. Item stems, response options and correction keys were planned following the results obtained in a descriptive phenomenological analysis of the interviews. In the quantitative phase, the scale was used with a sample of 102 Spanish participants, and the results were analysed with the Rasch model. In the qualitative phase, salient themes included reasons, objects and action tendencies. In the quantitative phase, good psychometric properties were obtained. The model fit was adequate. However, some changes had to be made to the scale in order to improve the proportion of variance explained. Substantive and methodological im-plications of this mixed-methods study are discussed. Had the study used a single re-search method in isolation, aspects of the global understanding of contempt, anger and disgust would have been lost.

  18. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  19. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-10-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  20. A Bayesian Optimal Design for Sequential Accelerated Degradation Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When optimizing an accelerated degradation testing (ADT plan, the initial values of unknown model parameters must be pre-specified. However, it is usually difficult to obtain the exact values, since many uncertainties are embedded in these parameters. Bayesian ADT optimal design was presented to address this problem by using prior distributions to capture these uncertainties. Nevertheless, when the difference between a prior distribution and actual situation is large, the existing Bayesian optimal design might cause some over-testing or under-testing issues. For example, the implemented ADT following the optimal ADT plan consumes too much testing resources or few accelerated degradation data are obtained during the ADT. To overcome these obstacles, a Bayesian sequential step-down-stress ADT design is proposed in this article. During the sequential ADT, the test under the highest stress level is firstly conducted based on the initial prior information to quickly generate degradation data. Then, the data collected under higher stress levels are employed to construct the prior distributions for the test design under lower stress levels by using the Bayesian inference. In the process of optimization, the inverse Gaussian (IG process is assumed to describe the degradation paths, and the Bayesian D-optimality is selected as the optimal objective. A case study on an electrical connector’s ADT plan is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed Bayesian sequential ADT design method. Compared with the results from a typical static Bayesian ADT plan, the proposed design could guarantee more stable and precise estimations of different reliability measures.

  1. Research on parallel algorithm for sequential pattern mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Qin, Bai; Wang, Yu; Hao, Zhongxiao

    2008-03-01

    Sequential pattern mining is the mining of frequent sequences related to time or other orders from the sequence database. Its initial motivation is to discover the laws of customer purchasing in a time section by finding the frequent sequences. In recent years, sequential pattern mining has become an important direction of data mining, and its application field has not been confined to the business database and has extended to new data sources such as Web and advanced science fields such as DNA analysis. The data of sequential pattern mining has characteristics as follows: mass data amount and distributed storage. Most existing sequential pattern mining algorithms haven't considered the above-mentioned characteristics synthetically. According to the traits mentioned above and combining the parallel theory, this paper puts forward a new distributed parallel algorithm SPP(Sequential Pattern Parallel). The algorithm abides by the principal of pattern reduction and utilizes the divide-and-conquer strategy for parallelization. The first parallel task is to construct frequent item sets applying frequent concept and search space partition theory and the second task is to structure frequent sequences using the depth-first search method at each processor. The algorithm only needs to access the database twice and doesn't generate the candidated sequences, which abates the access time and improves the mining efficiency. Based on the random data generation procedure and different information structure designed, this paper simulated the SPP algorithm in a concrete parallel environment and implemented the AprioriAll algorithm. The experiments demonstrate that compared with AprioriAll, the SPP algorithm had excellent speedup factor and efficiency.

  2. Research design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K.

    2018-01-01

    Many of today’s global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training

  3. Decision-making in research tasks with sequential testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent controversial essay, published by JPA Ioannidis in PLoS Medicine, it has been argued that in some research fields, most of the published findings are false. Based on theoretical reasoning it can be shown that small effect sizes, error-prone tests, low priors of the tested hypotheses and biases in the evaluation and publication of research findings increase the fraction of false positives. These findings raise concerns about the reliability of research. However, they are based on a very simple scenario of scientific research, where single tests are used to evaluate independent hypotheses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present computer simulations and experimental approaches for analyzing more realistic scenarios. In these scenarios, research tasks are solved sequentially, i.e. subsequent tests can be chosen depending on previous results. We investigate simple sequential testing and scenarios where only a selected subset of results can be published and used for future rounds of test choice. Results from computer simulations indicate that for the tasks analyzed in this study, the fraction of false among the positive findings declines over several rounds of testing if the most informative tests are performed. Our experiments show that human subjects frequently perform the most informative tests, leading to a decline of false positives as expected from the simulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the research tasks studied here, findings tend to become more reliable over time. We also find that the performance in those experimental settings where not all performed tests could be published turned out to be surprisingly inefficient. Our results may help optimize existing procedures used in the practice of scientific research and provide guidance for the development of novel forms of scholarly communication.

  4. Design Research between Design and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The discourse on architecture and design research in Denmark in the past thirty years has been stuck in a unproductive dichotomy between research through design on the one hand and a phantom image of academic and theoretical, word-based research on the other. Advocates of the research through...... design strand have argued, that architecture and design research must follow an architecture and design methodology – designing – and be communicated by means of architecture and design media – images and artefacts. Essentially, this view sees no difference between architecture and design research...... and practice, as expressed in the notion of research as ‘artistic innovation work’. On the other hand, the pressure to expand research in architecture and design has seen a movement towards adopting traditional research paradigms from the technical and social sciences and humanities. For many architects...

  5. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    define conceptual designing as a constructive framing and re-framing activity, which is mediated by and targeted at the creation of new design concepts. Conceptual designing as an approach is valuable for addressing the fuzziness and ambiguity typical of research that explores novel areas with new...... partners, methods and resources. It is by no means a new phenomenon, and the main contribution of the article is the clarification of conceptual designing as a particular approach to designing and researching. The approach embraces openness, resource-construction and collaboration. We conclude...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...

  6. A Bayesian sequential design using alpha spending function to control type I error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Yu, Qingzhao

    2017-10-01

    We propose in this article a Bayesian sequential design using alpha spending functions to control the overall type I error in phase III clinical trials. We provide algorithms to calculate critical values, power, and sample sizes for the proposed design. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to check the effects from different prior distributions, and conservative priors are recommended. We compare the power and actual sample sizes of the proposed Bayesian sequential design with different alpha spending functions through simulations. We also compare the power of the proposed method with frequentist sequential design using the same alpha spending function. Simulations show that, at the same sample size, the proposed method provides larger power than the corresponding frequentist sequential design. It also has larger power than traditional Bayesian sequential design which sets equal critical values for all interim analyses. When compared with other alpha spending functions, O'Brien-Fleming alpha spending function has the largest power and is the most conservative in terms that at the same sample size, the null hypothesis is the least likely to be rejected at early stage of clinical trials. And finally, we show that adding a step of stop for futility in the Bayesian sequential design can reduce the overall type I error and reduce the actual sample sizes.

  7. Collection of sequential imaging events for research in breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Young, K.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the huge amount of research involving medical images, there is a widely accepted need for comprehensive collections of medical images to be made available for research. This demand led to the design and implementation of a flexible image repository, which retrospectively collects images and data from multiple sites throughout the UK. The OPTIMAM Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, annotations and expert-determined ground truths. Collection has been ongoing for over three years, providing the opportunity to collect sequential imaging events. Extensive alterations to the identification, collection, processing and storage arms of the system have been undertaken to support the introduction of sequential events, including interval cancers. These updates to the collection systems allow the acquisition of many more images, but more importantly, allow one to build on the existing high-dimensional data stored in the OMI-DB. A research dataset of this scale, which includes original normal and subsequent malignant cases along with expert derived and clinical annotations, is currently unique. These data provide a powerful resource for future research and has initiated new research projects, amongst which, is the quantification of normal cases by applying a large number of quantitative imaging features, with a priori knowledge that eventually these cases develop a malignancy. This paper describes, extensions to the OMI-DB collection systems and tools and discusses the prospective applications of having such a rich dataset for future research applications.

  8. Self-clocked sequential circuits: - a design example | Aghdasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses a design methodology for the State variable toggling through data driven clocks to implement a Direct Memory Access Controller (DMAC) as a design example. The design is simulated on software and also implemented using discrete hardware components. The methodology can be extended to parallel ...

  9. Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials: An Opportunity for Improved Design of Stroke Reperfusion Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, William J; Seewald, Nicholas J; Kidwell, Kelley

    2017-04-01

    Modern clinical trials in stroke reperfusion fall into 2 categories: alternative systemic pharmacological regimens to alteplase and "rescue" endovascular approaches using targeted thrombectomy devices and/or medications delivered directly for persistently occluded vessels. Clinical trials in stroke have not evaluated how initial pharmacological thrombolytic management might influence subsequent rescue strategy. A sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) is a novel trial design that can test these dynamic treatment regimens and lead to treatment guidelines that more closely mimic practice. To characterize a SMART design in comparison to traditional approaches for stroke reperfusion trials. We conducted a numerical simulation study that evaluated the performance of contrasting acute stroke clinical trial designs of both initial reperfusion and rescue therapy. We compare a SMART design where the same patients are followed through initial reperfusion and rescue therapy within 1 trial to a standard phase III design comparing 2 reperfusion treatments and a separate phase II futility design of rescue therapy in terms of sample size, power, and ability to address particular research questions. Traditional trial designs can be well powered and have optimal design characteristics for independent treatment effects. When treatments, such as the reperfusion and rescue therapies, may interact, commonly used designs fail to detect this. A SMART design, with similar sample size to standard designs, can detect treatment interactions. The use of SMART designs to investigate effective and realistic dynamic treatment regimens is a promising way to accelerate the discovery of new, effective treatments for stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Empirical research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis

  11. Towards programmatic design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Löwgren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of design research entails research where design practice forms part of the knowledge production. Based on our characterization of the nature of design, we propose to conceptualize this kind of research as programmatic design research. Two ongoing PhD projects in interaction design are presented as examples of programmatic research processes, highlighting issues to do with the virtues and qualities of the processes, the interplay of optics and engagements in a hermeneutical dynamic, and the production of takeaways for the academic community.

  12. Crashworthiness design optimization using multipoint sequential linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, L.F.P.; Adriaens, J.M.T.A.; Slagmaat, van M.T.P.; Schoofs, A.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    A design optimization tool has been developed for the crash victim simulation software MADYMO. The crash worthiness optimization problem is characterized by a noisy behaviour of objective function and constraints. Additionally, objective function and constraint values follow from a computationally

  13. A Bayesian sequential design with adaptive randomization for 2-sided hypothesis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Han

    2017-11-01

    Bayesian sequential and adaptive randomization designs are gaining popularity in clinical trials thanks to their potentials to reduce the number of required participants and save resources. We propose a Bayesian sequential design with adaptive randomization rates so as to more efficiently attribute newly recruited patients to different treatment arms. In this paper, we consider 2-arm clinical trials. Patients are allocated to the 2 arms with a randomization rate to achieve minimum variance for the test statistic. Algorithms are presented to calculate the optimal randomization rate, critical values, and power for the proposed design. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to check the influence on design by changing the prior distributions. Simulation studies are applied to compare the proposed method and traditional methods in terms of power and actual sample sizes. Simulations show that, when total sample size is fixed, the proposed design can obtain greater power and/or cost smaller actual sample size than the traditional Bayesian sequential design. Finally, we apply the proposed method to a real data set and compare the results with the Bayesian sequential design without adaptive randomization in terms of sample sizes. The proposed method can further reduce required sample size. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Teaching engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blessing, Lucienne; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    The importance og engineering design as an industrial activity, and the increasingly complex and dynamic context in which it takes place, has led to the wish to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of engineering design in practice as well as in education. Although attempts have been made...... to improve design for centuries, it was not until well in the second half of the 20th century that engineering design became a research topic (see pahl and Beitz (1996), Heymann (2004) for historical overviews). Engineering research, such as research into thermodynamics, mechanics and materials, has a much...... by PhD students. This has created the demand for a clear, efficient way of learning the crafmanship of doing design research, a demand which is in strong contrast to the state of design research in general. This article reflects the authors' efforts in running a summer school om engineering design...

  15. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  16. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  17. Design (research) practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    possibilities through experimentation (Brandt and Binder 2007). Likewise in relation to design research we have argued that “the possible is always contingent and though research may convincingly provide arguments for certain possibilities both search and arguments have to be guided by programs that set...... substantiate or challenge this view and the dialectic between program and probing is in our view central to any design practice” (Binder and Redström 2006: 4). Our suggestion is to see design research practices as fundamentally homologous to any other design practices both in terms of the way they are driven...

  18. Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove; Petersen, Trine Brun

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel introduceres Design Based Research for første gang på dansk i et videnskabeligt tidsskrift. Artiklen præsenterer de grundlæggende antagelser, som ligger til grund for Design Based Research-traditionen, og artiklen diskuterer de principper, som ligger til grund for gennemførelse af...... et DBR-forskningsprojekt. Med udgangspunkt i forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ELYK: E-læring, Yderområder og Klyngedannelse, præsenteres den innovationsmodel, som projektet har udviklet med udgangspunkt i Design Based Research traditionen. ELYKs DBR innovationsmodel har vist sig effektiv i forhold...

  19. Bridging the clinician/researcher gap with systemic research: the case for process research, dyadic, and sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Megan; Whiting, Jason

    2013-01-01

    In Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT), as in many clinical disciplines, concern surfaces about the clinician/researcher gap. This gap includes a lack of accessible, practical research for clinicians. MFT clinical research often borrows from the medical tradition of randomized control trials, which typically use linear methods, or follow procedures distanced from "real-world" therapy. We review traditional research methods and their use in MFT and propose increased use of methods that are more systemic in nature and more applicable to MFTs: process research, dyadic data analysis, and sequential analysis. We will review current research employing these methods, as well as suggestions and directions for further research. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  1. Against (Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Indrajaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of this article is an attempt to show that the word research in traditional sense (within the Cartesian scheme is hostile to design activity. It will reduce the process of design into a merely fix mechanical process, burying the aspect of imagination, creativity, and more importantly proposing in it that is a crucial aspect to design. This imposition might indiscipline (in a formal academic sense design as a discipline in human sciences. In order to achieve this, the article is divided in three sections. The first section will discuss what scientific research is and what traditionally presupposed in it: objective, neutral, and a-historical; simply the disinterestedness of research. As for the second, epistemological concerns on traditional scientific research from two philosophers of science will be discussed: Thomas S. Kuhn and Paul K. Feyerabend. As for the third, the closing section, an attempt to delineate design and what designers do in comparison to scientists’ will be discussed. It is how design and designers are different in their manners with traditional science and scientist. 

  2. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  3. Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    This workshop is an applied tutorial, aimed at novice and experienced researchers who wish to learn more about Design Science Research (DSR) and/or to develop and progress their own DSR work. During the workshop, attendees will be introduced to various DSR concepts and current trends, to create...

  4. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abreu Almeida

    Full Text Available The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%, starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30% and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L, including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  5. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  6. Further Developments on Optimum Structural Design Using MSC/Nastran and Sequential Quadratic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzleitner, Ludwig

    1996-01-01

    , here the shape of two dimensional parts with different thickness areas will be optimized. As in the previos paper, a methodology for structural optimization using the commercial finite element package MSC/NASTRAN for structural analysis is described. Three different methods for design sensitivity......This work is closely connected to the paper: K.G. MAHMOUD, H.W. ENGL and HOLZLEITNER: "OPTIMUM STRUCTURAL DESIGN USING MSC/NASTRAN AND SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING", Computers & Structures, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 437-447, (1994). In contrast to that paper, where thickness optimization is described...

  7. Queering Participatory Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  8. Design, Research, and Design Research: Synergies and Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Notions of design, research, and design research in the field of educational technology are quite different from conceptualizations held by other design fields. Examining the ways that research is conducted and used in educational technology in comparison to other design fields can provide novel insights into how research and design practice can…

  9. Multi-arm group sequential designs with a simultaneous stopping rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urach, S; Posch, M

    2016-12-30

    Multi-arm group sequential clinical trials are efficient designs to compare multiple treatments to a control. They allow one to test for treatment effects already in interim analyses and can have a lower average sample number than fixed sample designs. Their operating characteristics depend on the stopping rule: We consider simultaneous stopping, where the whole trial is stopped as soon as for any of the arms the null hypothesis of no treatment effect can be rejected, and separate stopping, where only recruitment to arms for which a significant treatment effect could be demonstrated is stopped, but the other arms are continued. For both stopping rules, the family-wise error rate can be controlled by the closed testing procedure applied to group sequential tests of intersection and elementary hypotheses. The group sequential boundaries for the separate stopping rule also control the family-wise error rate if the simultaneous stopping rule is applied. However, we show that for the simultaneous stopping rule, one can apply improved, less conservative stopping boundaries for local tests of elementary hypotheses. We derive corresponding improved Pocock and O'Brien type boundaries as well as optimized boundaries to maximize the power or average sample number and investigate the operating characteristics and small sample properties of the resulting designs. To control the power to reject at least one null hypothesis, the simultaneous stopping rule requires a lower average sample number than the separate stopping rule. This comes at the cost of a lower power to reject all null hypotheses. Some of this loss in power can be regained by applying the improved stopping boundaries for the simultaneous stopping rule. The procedures are illustrated with clinical trials in systemic sclerosis and narcolepsy. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  11. Synthesizing Knowledge in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter discusses knowledge synthesis in design research, bringing together the perspectives of experimental design research, or Research in Design Context that is treated extensively elsewhere in this book, and Design Inclusive Research as well as Practice-based Design Research. Specific...... attention is paid to the question of how practice-based or problem-driven design research processes can be rigorous and yield contributions to knowledge. The main argument in this chapter is that a key to knowledge synthesis and scientific contribution is setting explicit design propositions...... that are instantiated within design artefacts, and evaluated rigorously. The chapter starts with a discussion of knowledge creation and synthesis within design research.Following this, the chapter moves on to focus on setting a methodological framework for deriving design propositions. Lastly the chapter elaborates...

  12. Choice of futility boundaries for group sequential designs with two endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Schüler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, the opportunity for an early stop during an interim analysis (either for efficacy or for futility may relevantly save time and financial resources. This is especially important, if the planning assumptions required for power calculation are based on a low level of evidence. For example, when including two primary endpoints in the confirmatory analysis, the power of the trial depends on the effects of both endpoints and on their correlation. Assessing the feasibility of such a trial is therefore difficult, as the number of parameter assumptions to be correctly specified is large. For this reason, so-called ‘group sequential designs’ are of particular importance in this setting. Whereas the choice of adequate boundaries to stop a trial early for efficacy has been broadly discussed in the literature, the choice of optimal futility boundaries has not been investigated so far, although this may have serious consequences with respect to performance characteristics. Methods In this work, we propose a general method to construct ‘optimal’ futility boundaries according to predefined criteria. Further, we present three different group sequential designs for two endpoints applying these futility boundaries. Our methods are illustrated by a real clinical trial example and by Monte-Carlo simulations. Results By construction, the provided method of choosing futility boundaries maximizes the probability to correctly stop in case of small or opposite effects while limiting the power loss and the probability of stopping the study ‘wrongly’. Our results clearly demonstrate the benefit of using such ‘optimal’ futility boundaries, especially compared to futility boundaries commonly applied in practice. Conclusions As the properties of futility boundaries are often not considered in practice and unfavorably chosen futility boundaries may imply bad properties of the study design, we recommend assessing the

  13. Sequential Design of Experiments to Maximize Learning from Carbon Capture Pilot Plant Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soepyan, Frits B.; Morgan, Joshua C.; Omell, Benjamin P.; Zamarripa-Perez, Miguel A.; Matuszewski, Michael S.; Miller, David C.

    2018-02-06

    Pilot plant test campaigns can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is of interest to maximize the amount of learning and the efficiency of the test campaign given the limited number of experiments that can be conducted. This work investigates the use of sequential design of experiments (SDOE) to overcome these challenges by demonstrating its usefulness for a recent solvent-based CO2 capture plant test campaign. Unlike traditional design of experiments methods, SDOE regularly uses information from ongoing experiments to determine the optimum locations in the design space for subsequent runs within the same experiment. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed, including reducing the high computational burden to efficiently update the model, and the need to incorporate the methodology into a computational tool. We address these challenges by applying SDOE in combination with a software tool, the Framework for Optimization, Quantification of Uncertainty and Surrogates (FOQUS) (Miller et al., 2014a, 2016, 2017). The results of applying SDOE on a pilot plant test campaign for CO2 capture suggests that relative to traditional design of experiments methods, SDOE can more effectively reduce the uncertainty of the model, thus decreasing technical risk. Future work includes integrating SDOE into FOQUS and using SDOE to support additional large-scale pilot plant test campaigns.

  14. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  15. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  16. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  17. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  18. Research through designing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.; Poerschke, U.; Staub, A.; Pihlak, M.; Cooper, J.

    2011-01-01

    With this panel-contribution I will address a lacuna in landscape architecture theory on the connection of the role of ‘research through designing’. I consider the role of ‘research through designing’ crucial for the further production of new practical knowledge within landscape architecture. The

  19. Iterative User Interface Design for Automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Calculator in Sepsis Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Christopher Ansel; Kitson, Jaben E; Li, Man; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-05-18

    The new sepsis definition has increased the need for frequent sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score recalculation and the clerical burden of information retrieval makes this score ideal for automated calculation. The aim of this study was to (1) estimate the clerical workload of manual SOFA score calculation through a time-motion analysis and (2) describe a user-centered design process for an electronic medical record (EMR) integrated, automated SOFA score calculator with subsequent usability evaluation study. First, we performed a time-motion analysis by recording time-to-task-completion for the manual calculation of 35 baseline and 35 current SOFA scores by 14 internal medicine residents over a 2-month period. Next, we used an agile development process to create a user interface for a previously developed automated SOFA score calculator. The final user interface usability was evaluated by clinician end users with the Computer Systems Usability Questionnaire. The overall mean (standard deviation, SD) time-to-complete manual SOFA score calculation time was 61.6 s (33). Among the 24% (12/50) usability survey respondents, our user-centered user interface design process resulted in >75% favorability of survey items in the domains of system usability, information quality, and interface quality. Early stakeholder engagement in our agile design process resulted in a user interface for an automated SOFA score calculator that reduced clinician workload and met clinicians' needs at the point of care. Emerging interoperable platforms may facilitate dissemination of similarly useful clinical score calculators and decision support algorithms as "apps." A user-centered design process and usability evaluation should be considered during creation of these tools. ©Christopher Ansel Aakre, Jaben E Kitson, Man Li, Vitaly Herasevich. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 18.05.2017.

  20. The Design Researcher in Quandary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Fogtman, Majken Hillerup

    2011-01-01

    In the field of practice-based research we articulate the dilemma that emerges as the creative designer embraces the role of being an interaction design researcher. We exemplify the dilemma in a specific design case originating from a PhD project. In this case, we use sketching to illustrate how...... the design researcher embodies the creative designer at all times. We show how the dilemma becomes tangible in the conversation with the material when having to manage a set of design constraints, concerns and sensibilities. We acknowledge that when taking on both roles at the same time there are two...

  1. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  2. Game Design as STS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Dumit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Game design offers a powerful pedagogical paradigm for engaging students in thinking and researching sociotechnical systems. Using the example of designing a game around fracking, this paper describes how game design grapples with emergent dynamic processes, and how students are drawn into becoming STS researchers.

  3. Graphic Design for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Technology continues to radically change how we create and consume information. Today, news, reports, and other material are often delivered quickly through pictures, colors, or other eye-catching visual elements. Words still matter, but they may be tweeted, viewed on a smartphone, or placed in a call-out box in a report. The design of these items…

  4. Dynamics of Research through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basballe, Ditte Amund; Halskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate Research through Design at a micro-level, by addressing the dynamic interplay of research and design as they unfold throughout a design process. As our principal case, we consider the design of a three-dimensional projection installation, a process that unfolded over...... a one-year period. We analyse material collected from 18 key events during the process, in order to identify the ongoing dynamics. Based on the analysis, we establish how the interplay evolves in a complex structure, where the design and research interests continuously couple, interweave, and decouple...

  5. Dynamics of Research through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basballe, Ditte Amund; Halskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    a one-year period. We analyse material collected from 18 key events during the process, in order to identify the ongoing dynamics. Based on the analysis, we establish how the interplay evolves in a complex structure, where the design and research interests continuously couple, interweave, and decouple......In this paper, we investigate Research through Design at a micro-level, by addressing the dynamic interplay of research and design as they unfold throughout a design process. As our principal case, we consider the design of a three-dimensional projection installation, a process that unfolded over...

  6. Fashion Research at Design Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2008-01-01

    as a continuation of the way teaching in fashion design and research on fashion is perceived in the various cases. This of course implements the fact that there are very diverse perceptions on what fashion research is.  A main discussion therefore concerns current methodological diversities in fashion research......The report “Fashion Research at Design Schools” (2008), which was commissioned by Institute for Fashion and Textiles at Designskolen Kolding,  appoints the potentials and challenges in relation to the ongoing academization of design schools, with a specific focus on fashion research. The key...... research question is: “What kind of fashion design education is Designskolen Kolding aiming to offer in the future, what kind of skills will the students need in their future work place, the fashion industry, and can research work as a potential in this process?”   The study is based on qualitative...

  7. Design research and industrial applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry.......Imprinted paper (copies of overheads in English) on the nature of design research, the transformation process for industrial utilization and the challenges of ENDREA from industry....

  8. Research design and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Jerome L; Lorch Jr, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Research Design and Statistical Analysis provides comprehensive coverage of the design principles and statistical concepts necessary to make sense of real data.  The book's goal is to provide a strong conceptual foundation to enable readers to generalize concepts to new research situations.  Emphasis is placed on the underlying logic and assumptions of the analysis and what it tells the researcher, the limitations of the analysis, and the consequences of violating assumptions.  Sampling, design efficiency, and statistical models are emphasized throughout. As per APA recommendations

  9. Fashion Research at Design Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2008-01-01

    The report “Fashion Research at Design Schools” (2008), which was commissioned by Institute for Fashion and Textiles at Designskolen Kolding,  appoints the potentials and challenges in relation to the ongoing academization of design schools, with a specific focus on fashion research. The key......, interactionistic interviews (Järvinen and Mik-Meyer, 2005) with key persons from the respective research- and fashion departments from eight selected design schools in Holland, England and USA. The analysis of each case is inspired by Edgar E. Schein’s levels of culture (Schein 1994), that aims to pinpoint both...

  10. Sequential designs for sensitivity analysis of functional inputs in computer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruth, J.; Roustant, O.; Kuhnt, S.

    2015-01-01

    Computer experiments are nowadays commonly used to analyze industrial processes aiming at achieving a wanted outcome. Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in exploring the actual impact of adjustable parameters on the response variable. In this work we focus on sensitivity analysis of a scalar-valued output of a time-consuming computer code depending on scalar and functional input parameters. We investigate a sequential methodology, based on piecewise constant functions and sequential bifurcation, which is both economical and fully interpretable. The new approach is applied to a sheet metal forming problem in three sequential steps, resulting in new insights into the behavior of the forming process over time. - Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis method for functional and scalar inputs is presented. • We focus on the discovery of most influential parts of the functional domain. • We investigate economical sequential methodology based on piecewise constant functions. • Normalized sensitivity indices are introduced and investigated theoretically. • Successful application to sheet metal forming on two functional inputs

  11. Fashion Research at Design Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2008-01-01

    on fashion education and fashion research, that are “taken for granted” in the institutional culture of each case. Because of the diversity between the cases, a cultural-oriented comparison has been made, where every case is perceived as idiographically unique (Thyge Winther-Jensen 2004). Descriptions......The report “Fashion Research at Design Schools” (2008), which was commissioned by Institute for Fashion and Textiles at Designskolen Kolding,  appoints the potentials and challenges in relation to the ongoing academization of design schools, with a specific focus on fashion research. The key...... research question is: “What kind of fashion design education is Designskolen Kolding aiming to offer in the future, what kind of skills will the students need in their future work place, the fashion industry, and can research work as a potential in this process?”   The study is based on qualitative...

  12. Leveraging Failure in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne; Walters, C. David; Hohensee, Charles; Gruver, John; Diamond, Jaime Marie

    2015-01-01

    Even in the resource-rich, more ideal conditions of many design-based classroom interventions, unexpected events can lead to disappointing results in student learning. However, if later iterations in a design research study are more successful, the previous failures can provide opportunities for comparisons to reveal subtle differences in…

  13. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  14. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  15. Robust Sequential Circuits Design Technique for Low Voltage and High Noise Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Leyva Lancelot

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an innovative input and output data redundancy principle for sequential block circuits, the responsible to keep the state of the system, showing its efficiency in front of other robust technique approaches. The methodology is totally different from the Von Neumann approaches, because element are not replicated N times, but instead, they check the coherence of redundant input data no allowing data propagation in case of discrepancy. This mechanism does not require voting devices.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  17. Crowdsourcing user and design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.V.; Dhillon, G.S.; Piso, M.C.; Schelle, K.J.; Markopoulos, P.; Martens, J.B.; Malins, J.; Coninx, K.; Liapis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing can be defined as a task, which is usually performed by an employee, that is given out as an open call to a crowd of users to be completed. Although crowdsourcing has been growing in recent years, its application to design research and education has only scratched the surface of its

  18. Designing Effective Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, S.

    2010-12-01

    I present a model for designing student research internships that is informed by the best practices of the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program. The dual strands of the CfAO education program include: the preparation of early-career scientists and engineers in effective teaching; and changing the learning experiences of students (e.g., undergraduate interns) through inquiry-based "teaching laboratories." This paper will focus on the carry-over of these ideas into the design of laboratory research internships such as the CfAO Mainland internship program as well as NSF REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates) and senior-thesis or "capstone" research programs. Key ideas in maximizing student learning outcomes and generating productive research during internships include: defining explicit content, scientific process, and attitudinal goals for the project; assessment of student prior knowledge and experience, then following up with formative assessment throughout the project; setting reasonable goals with timetables and addressing motivation; and giving students ownership of the research by implementing aspects of the inquiry process within the internship.

  19. Digging deeper into platform game level design: session size and sequential features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    A recent trend within computational intelligence and games research is to investigate how to affect video game players’ in-game experience by designing and/or modifying aspects of game content. Analysing the relationship between game content, player behaviour and self-reported affective states...... constitutes an important step towards understanding game experience and constructing effective game adaptation mechanisms. This papers reports on further refinement of a method to understand this relationship by analysing data collected from players, building models that predict player experience...... and analysing what features of game and player data predict player affect best. We analyse data from players playing 780 pairs of short game sessions of the platform game Super Mario Bros, investigate the impact of the session size and what part of the level that has the major affect on player experience...

  20. Using case study within a sequential explanatory design to evaluate the impact of specialist and advanced practice roles on clinical outcomes: the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Joan G; Casey, Dympna; Elliott, Naomi; Coyne, Imelda; Comiskey, Catherine; Higgins, Agnes; Murphy, Kathy; Devane, Declan; Begley, Cecily

    2013-04-08

    The role of the clinical nurse/midwife specialist and advanced nurse/midwife practitioner is complex not least because of the diversity in how the roles are operationalised across health settings and within multidisciplinary teams. This aim of this paper is to use The SCAPE Study: Specialist Clinical and Advanced Practitioner Evaluation in Ireland to illustrate how case study was used to strengthen a Sequential Explanatory Design. In Phase 1, clinicians identified indicators of specialist and advanced practice which were then used to guide the instrumental case study design which formed the second phase of the larger study. Phase 2 used matched case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of specialist and advanced practitioners on clinical outcomes for service users. Data were collected through observation, documentary analysis, and interviews. Observations were made of 23 Clinical Specialists or Advanced Practitioners, and 23 matched clinicians in similar matched non-postholding sites, while they delivered care. Forty-one service users, 41 clinicians, and 23 Directors of Nursing or Midwifery were interviewed, and 279 service users completed a survey based on the components of CS and AP practice identified in Phase 1. A coding framework, and the generation of cross tabulation matrices in NVivo, was used to make explicit how the outcome measures were confirmed and validated from multiple sources. This strengthened the potential to examine single cases that seemed 'different', and allowed for cases to be redefined. Phase 3 involved interviews with policy-makers to set the findings in context. Case study is a powerful research strategy to use within sequential explanatory mixed method designs, and adds completeness to the exploration of complex issues in clinical practice. The design is flexible, allowing the use of multiple data collection methods from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms. Multiple approaches to data collection are needed to evaluate the impact

  1. Reflection: Research by Design: Design-Based Research and the Higher Degree Research Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The article "Research by design: Design-based research and the higher degree research student" (Kennedy-Clark, 2013) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 6, Issue 2 in 2013. Two years on, Shannon Kennedy-Clark reflects upon her original article. Upon being asked to revisit this article the author reflected upon…

  2. TARGETED SEQUENTIAL DESIGN FOR TARGETED LEARNING INFERENCE OF THE OPTIMAL TREATMENT RULE AND ITS MEAN REWARD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambaz, Antoine; Zheng, Wenjing; van der Laan, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the targeted sequential inference of an optimal treatment rule (TR) and its mean reward in the non-exceptional case, i.e. , assuming that there is no stratum of the baseline covariates where treatment is neither beneficial nor harmful, and under a companion margin assumption. Our pivotal estimator, whose definition hinges on the targeted minimum loss estimation (TMLE) principle, actually infers the mean reward under the current estimate of the optimal TR. This data-adaptive statistical parameter is worthy of interest on its own. Our main result is a central limit theorem which enables the construction of confidence intervals on both mean rewards under the current estimate of the optimal TR and under the optimal TR itself. The asymptotic variance of the estimator takes the form of the variance of an efficient influence curve at a limiting distribution, allowing to discuss the efficiency of inference. As a by product, we also derive confidence intervals on two cumulated pseudo-regrets, a key notion in the study of bandits problems. A simulation study illustrates the procedure. One of the corner-stones of the theoretical study is a new maximal inequality for martingales with respect to the uniform entropy integral.

  3. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  4. 20% Research & Design Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Beth A.

    2015-04-01

    A project allowing employees to use 15 % of their time on independent projects was established at 3M in the 1950's. The result of this project included products like post it notes and masking tape. Google allows its employees to use 20% of their time on independently pursued projects. The company values creativity and innovation. Employees are allowed to explore projects of interest to them one day out of the week, 20 % of their work week. Products like AdSense, Gmail, Google Transit, Google News, and Google Talk are the result of this 20 % program. My school is implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as part of our regularly scheduled curriculum review. These new standards focus on the process of learning by doing and designing. The NGSS are very hands on and active. The new standards emphasize learning how to define, understand and solve problems in science and technology. In today's society everyone needs to be familiar with science and technology. This project allows students to develop and practice skills to help them be more comfortable and confident with science and technology while exploring something of interest to them. This project includes three major parts: research, design, and presentation. Students will spend approximately 2-4 weeks defining a project proposal and educating themselves by researching a science and technology topic that is of interest to them. In the next phase, 2-4 weeks, students design a product or plan to collect data for something related to their topic. The time spent on research and design will be dependant on the topic students select. Projects should be ambitious enough to encompass about six weeks. Lastly a presentation or demonstration incorporating the research and design of the project is created, peer reviewed and presented to the class. There are some problems anticipated or already experienced with this project. It is difficult for all students to choose a unique topic when you have large class sizes

  5. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  6. Design and Synthesis of a Novel Class of Flavonoid Derivatives via Sequential Phosphorylation and its Application for Greener Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonga, Francis Juma

    Flavonoids exhibit arrays of biological effects that are beneficial to humans, including anti-viral, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, these applications have been hindered by their poor stability and solubility in common solvents. Consequently, there is significant interest in the modification of flavonoids to improve their solubility. This poor solubility is also believed to be responsible for its permeability and bioavailability. Hence the central goal of this work is to design synthetic strategies for the sequential protection of the -OH groups in order to produce phosphorylated quercetin and apigenin derivatives. This work is divided into two parts: the first part presents the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel flavonoid derivatives via global and sequential phosphorylation. The second part focuses on the application of the synthesized derivatives for greener nanoparticle synthesis. This work shows for the first time that sequential phosphorylation of Quercetin is feasible through the design of 4 new derivatives namely: 5,4'-O-Quercetin Diphosphate (QDPI), 4'-O-phosphate Quercetin (4'-QPI), 5,4'-Quercetin Diphosphate (5,4'-QDP) and monophosphate 4-QP. The synthesis of 4'-QP and 5, 4'-QDP was successful with 85% and 60.5% yields respectively. In addition, the progress towards the total synthesis of apigenin phosphate derivatives (7, 4'-ADP and 7-AP) is presented. The synthesized derivatives were characterized using 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. The phosphorylated derivatives were subsequently explored as reducing agents for sustainable synthesis of gold, silver and copper nanoparticles. We have successfully demonstrated the photochemical synthesis of gold nanoplates of sizes ranging from 10 - 200 nm using water soluble QDP in the presence of sunlight. This work contributes immensely in promoting the ideals of green nanosynthesis by (i) eliminating the use of organic solvents in the nanosynthesis, (ii) exploiting the

  7. Research Through Design & Research Through Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Bohemia, Erik; Kovacevic, Ahmed; Buck, Lyndon; Tollestrup, Christian; Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2016-01-01

    The very definition of a university is a place where research and education are intertwined. When there is no research, a university will look like a place for vocational training, and when there are no students to teach, the university is no more than a research institution. This convention of

  8. Customized sequential designs for random simulation experiments: Kriging metamodeling and bootstrapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, van W.C.M.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to select an experimental design for interpolation in random simulation, especially discrete event simulation. (Though the paper focuses on Kriging, this design approach may also apply to other types of metamodels such as linear regression models.) Assuming that

  9. Is Engineering Design Disappearing from Design Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Most systems and products need to be engineered during their design, based upon scientific insight into principles, mechanisms, materials and production pos-sibilities, leading to reliability, durability and value for the user. Despite the central importance and design’s crucial dependency...

  10. Research by Design - a Research and Teaching Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Interweaving research and design-based architectural education is an important effort in most architect schools. All good design is informed by some kind of researchresearch-based design. And all architect schools involve research in their teaching – research based education. Research...... by design. The paper asks how “the new” in architectural production emerges and aims to find similarities between the tradition of practice based proposals and theorisation, and our own research and teaching practice. Grounded in this practice the paper investigates how research by design contributes...... to the construction of knowledge and student’s learning outcomes through research led workshops. The paper presents research inquiries, results and methodologies of two parallel research workshops and discusses the format by which this research tool is developed. Keywords: Research by Design, practice-based research...

  11. Research by Design, Demarcation and Recoginition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Sap, H.A.; Langenhuizen, Anja; Ouwerkerk, Marieke van; Rosemann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong tendency to see designing as a form of research; research by design. On the other hand it is stated that the urban design discipline has ceased to exist or does not develop anymore. Is this correct and can 'research by design' change this situation? These are the questions of

  12. Research by design - a research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic....... Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking in consideration that the practise of architects stretch from natural science and sociology to art, and because the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition is through...... for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency - on the other hand they have different practices, using different methods...

  13. Research by Design - a research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic...... methods. Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking into consideration that the practice of architects stretches from natural science and sociology to art and that the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition...... for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency – and on the other hand, they have different practices, using different...

  14. Developing theory-driven design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Design research is increasingly weak in comparison with other fields; without action to increase scientific, theoretical, and methodological rigour there is a real possibility of the field being superseded and becoming obsolete through lack of impact. The aim of this paper is to show how design r....... I identify key learning indicating future directions for theory-driven design research. I conclude by providing some concrete recommendations for the field of design research and individual design researchers....

  15. Research design models: a new category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a research design model and how it differs from an engineering design model. Essentially, the research design model draws on the methods, materials and processes of engineering design models but more emphasis is placed on conceptualization in 3-D. Typically, equipment and processes in research are unique. Often, there are competing concepts from which to decide. The approach which is evolving at Sandia National Laboratories mixes preliminary, engineering and research design on the same model

  16. Peer Assessment of Webpage Design: Behavioral Sequential Analysis Based on Eye-Tracking Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia; Chang, Shao-Chen; Liu, Nan-Cen

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking machine to record the process of peer assessment. Each web page was divided into several regions of interest (ROIs) based on the frame design and content. A total of 49 undergraduate students with a visual learning style participated in the experiment. This study investigated the peer assessment attitudes of the…

  17. Reflections on Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Design-Based Research is an intervention method that researches educational design (products or processes) in real-life settings with the dual purpose of generating theories about the domain and develop the design iteratively. This paper is an integrative review with a personal ethnographic...... narrative that draws on Design-Based Research literature, and identifies and discusses elements from Interaction Design and Action Research that the Design-Based Research approach could apply, situating the research in online educational projects, where participants are distributed in time and space...

  18. Analyzing Gender Differences in Black Faculty Marginalization through a Sequential Mixed-Methods Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Jessica C.; Harris, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how researchers can integrate qualitative and quantitative methods to gain a deeper understanding of the prevalence and nature of cultural taxation among black professors. In doing so, they show how the impact of cultural taxation on the experiences of black faculty in the academy is best captured using…

  19. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research by Design: Design-Based Research and the Higher Degree Research student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Design-based research lends itself to educational research as the aim of this approach is to develop and refine the design of artefacts, tools and curriculum and to advance existing theory or develop new theories that can support and lead to a deepened understanding of learning. This paper provides an overview of the potential benefits of using a…

  1. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  2. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  3. Sharing Video Datasets in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how design researchers, design practitioners and design education can benefit from sharing a dataset. We present the Design Thinking Research Symposium 11 (DTRS11) as an exemplary project that implied sharing video data of design processes and design activity in natural settings...... with a large group of fellow academics from the international community of Design Thinking Research, for the purpose of facilitating research collaboration and communication within the field of Design and Design Thinking. This approach emphasizes the social and collaborative aspects of design research, where...... a multitude of appropriate perspectives and methods may be utilized in analyzing and discussing the singular dataset. The shared data is, from this perspective, understood as a design object in itself, which facilitates new ways of working, collaborating, studying, learning and educating within the expanding...

  4. Design Process-System and Methodology of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashier, Fathi

    2017-10-01

    Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.

  5. Research oriented projects on design themese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian; Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    How can design students do research-oriented projects about design themes? At the 3rd semester at the Industrial Design Master Program at Aalborg University this is done by taking research oriented learning objectives on design theories and methods and combining them with experimental case studie...... and professional self-reflection amongst students are improved....

  6. The Design Social: Framing social research methods for design postgraduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses approaches for framing social research methods within postgraduate design curricula, details the responses of postgraduate design students to the possibilities presented by social research methods, and concludes with a case study of the adoption experiences of PhD students in design when engaging with social research methods. Analysis of semi-structured interviews is employed to draw out perceptions and experiences of design postgraduates when engaging with social researc...

  7. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  8. Convergent and sequential synthesis designs: implications for conducting and reporting systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Quan Nha; Pluye, Pierre; Bujold, Mathieu; Wassef, Maggy

    2017-03-23

    Systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence can provide a rich understanding of complex phenomena. This type of review is increasingly popular, has been used to provide a landscape of existing knowledge, and addresses the types of questions not usually covered in reviews relying solely on either quantitative or qualitative evidence. Although several typologies of synthesis designs have been developed, none have been tested on a large sample of reviews. The aim of this review of reviews was to identify and develop a typology of synthesis designs and methods that have been used and to propose strategies for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence. A review of systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence was performed. Six databases were searched from inception to December 2014. Reviews were included if they were systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence. The included reviews were analyzed according to three concepts of synthesis processes: (a) synthesis methods, (b) sequence of data synthesis, and (c) integration of data and synthesis results. A total of 459 reviews were included. The analysis of this literature highlighted a lack of transparency in reporting how evidence was synthesized and a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Two main types of synthesis designs were identified: convergent and sequential synthesis designs. Within the convergent synthesis design, three subtypes were found: (a) data-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed together using the same synthesis method, (b) results-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed separately using different synthesis methods and results of both syntheses are integrated during a final synthesis, and (c) parallel-results convergent synthesis design consisting of independent syntheses of qualitative and quantitative evidence and an

  9. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  10. Research on early design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    This paper tells about the scientific bases for conceptual design. Presented on a course for Danish industrialists arranged by the Institute for Product Development 18th March, 1997.......This paper tells about the scientific bases for conceptual design. Presented on a course for Danish industrialists arranged by the Institute for Product Development 18th March, 1997....

  11. Review of research in feature based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Research in feature-based design is reviewed. Feature-based design is regarded as a key factor towards CAD/CAPP integration from a process planning point of view. From a design point of view, feature-based design offers possibilities for supporting the design process better than current CAD systems

  12. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  13. Sequential charged-particle and neutron activation of Flibe in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Tobin, M.T.; Vujic, J.L.; Sanz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most radionuclide generation/depletion codes consider only neutron reactions and assume that charged particles, which may be generated in these reactions, deposit their energy locally without undergoing further nuclear interactions. Neglect of sequential charged-particle (x,n) reactions can lead to large underestimation in the inventories of radionuclides. PCROSS code was adopted for use with the ACAB activation code to enable calculation of the effects of (x,n) reactions upon radionuclide inventories and inventory-related indices. Activation calculations were made for Flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 ) coolant in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. For pure Flibe coolant, it was found that (x,n) reactions dominate the residual contact dose rate at times of interest for maintenance and decommissioning. For impure Flibe, however, radionuclides produced directly in neutron reaction dominate the contact dose rate and (x,n) reactions do not make a significant contribution. Results demonstrate potential importance of (x,n) reactions and that the relative importance of (x,n) reactions varies strongly with the composition of the material considered. Future activation calculations should consider (x,n) reactions until a method for pre-determining their importance is established

  14. Design Research: Aesthetic Epistemology and Explanatory Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murphy

    Full Text Available The article explores the “what” and the “how” of design research. It discusses the epistemological assumptions of design and design research—the conception of true knowledge that underpins the quest to advance design knowledge through research. The article also examines the media and methods of doing design research—that is, the “how” of such research. As it developed over the past century, the design field has drawn extensively on three pivotal but often tacitly deployed epistemologies: the Platonic-Aristotelian, the pragmatic, and the postmodern. Platonic epistemology is latent in many commonplace design instruction texts. Pragmatic epistemology underscores the industrial-arts ethos of design. Postmodern epistemologies dominate in university programs—especially graduate and Ph.D. programs. The article considers how these competing epistemologies understand the role of imagination in the act of creation. The article then considers the role of explanation in the carrying out of research in creative design and arts fields. It addresses whether, and to what degree, design research ought to rely on explanatory words as its principal medium of research, or whether it is valid to substitute artifactual creation for intellectual explanation in the research process. Key words: Epistemology, Design, Imagination, Knowledge, Explanation, Practice-based research

  15. Embodying embodied design research techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Tomico, Oscar; Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The value of engaging the full gamut of sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart objects and systems is increasingly recognized. Yet methods for arriving at robust and reliable outcomes for their development are not fully understood, nor are they easily reported or transferred through ...

  16. Eindhoven school for technological design : design education and design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, H.M.G.J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.Th.

    1995-01-01

    Nine years after starting the two-year post-graduate programme on technological design [Ackermans and Trum, 1988], Eindhoven University of Technology (EUT) decided to enhance the development of synthesis-oriented engineering education by establishing a post-graduate school for technological design.

  17. Research on conceptual design of mechatronic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems/components on holistic dynamic performance of mechatronic systems ... Conceptual design is a typical ill-definition solving problem. ..... Li R 2004 Research on theory and method of scheme creative design of mechatronic system. School.

  18. Applied statistical designs for the researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Paulson, Daryl S

    2003-01-01

    Research and Statistics Basic Review of Parametric Statistics Exploratory Data Analysis Two Sample Tests Completely Randomized One-Factor Analysis of Variance One and Two Restrictions on Randomization Completely Randomized Two-Factor Factorial Designs Two-Factor Factorial Completely Randomized Blocked Designs Useful Small Scale Pilot Designs Nested Statistical Designs Linear Regression Nonparametric Statistics Introduction to Research Synthesis and "Meta-Analysis" and Conclusory Remarks References Index.

  19. Experiential design landscapes: design research in the wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.M.R.; Megens, C.J.P.G.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brandt, E.; Ehn, P.; Johansson, T.; Johansson, T.D.; Hellström Reimer, M.; Markussen, T.; Vallgårda, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to the emergence of new sensing and behaviour tracking technologies, design research can take place anywhere and anytime in the real world. When doing design research, a trade-off has to be made between experimental control and ecological validity. In this paper, we compare Experiential

  20. Architectural design and the collaborative research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Roger N

    2006-10-20

    Given that science is a collaborative endeavor, architects are striving to design new research buildings that not only provide a more pleasant work space but also facilitate interactions among researchers.

  1. Design of a multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Rios, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of a research reactor is essential in any endeavor to improve the execution of a nuclear programme, since it is a very versatile tool which can make a decisive contribution to a country's scientific and technological development. Because of their design, however, many existing research reactors are poorly adapted to certain uses. In some nuclear research centres, especially in the advanced countries, changes have been made in the original designs or new research prototypes have been designed for specific purposes. These modifications have proven very costly and therefore beyond the reach of developing countries. For this reason, what the research institutes in such countries need is a single sufficiently versatile nuclear plant capable of meeting the requirements of a nuclear research programme at a reasonable cost. This is precisely what a multipurpose reactor does. The Mexican National Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) plans to design and build a multipurpose research reactor capable at the same time of being used for the development of reactor design skills and for testing nuclear materials and fuels, for radioisotopes production, for nuclear power studies and basic scientific research, for specialized training, and so on. For this design work on the ININ Multipurpose Research Reactor, collaborative relations have been established with various international organizations possessing experience in nuclear reactor design: Atomehnergoeksport of the USSR: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL); General Atomics (GA) of the USA; and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

  2. Social Media Resources for Participative Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Qaed, Fatema; Briggs, Jo; Cockton, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We present our experiences of novel value from online social media for Participative Design (PD) research. We describe how particular social media (e.g. Facebook, Pinterest, WhatsApp and Twitter) were used during a five-year project on learning space design by the researcher and interested teachers across all research phases (contextual review, user studies, PD action research). Social media were used to source and share comments, photographs and video documentation, supporting participation ...

  3. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  4. Impacting Society through Engineering Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Following the recent ICED11 conference in Copenhagen, Thomas Howard, ICED11 Assistant Chair and Ass. Professor at DTU has written a reflection on design research and design practice, suggesting that in addition to benefiting society through the improved understanding of methods of and approaches...... to design, the academic design community should through design practice produce empowering products which address societal needs unbound by the necessity for profit....

  5. Effects of a self-management education program on self-efficacy in patients with COPD: a mixed-methods sequential explanatory designed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai I; Smith, Graeme Drummond

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-management education programs (SMEPs) are potentially effective in the symptomatic management of COPD. Little is presently known about the effectiveness of these programs in Chinese COPD patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a specifically designed SMEP on levels of self-efficacy in Chinese patients with COPD. Materials and methods Based on the Medical Research Council framework for evaluating complex interventions, an exploratory phase randomized controlled trial was employed to examine the effects of an SMEP. Self-efficacy was the primary outcome using the COPD Self-efficacy Scale, measured at baseline and 6 months after the program. Qualitative data were sequentially collected from these patients via three focus groups to supplement the quantitative findings. Results The experimental group displayed significant improvement in their general self-efficacy (Z =−2.44, P=0.015) and specifically in confronting 1) physical exertion (Z =−2.57, P=0.01), 2) weather/environment effects (Z =−2.63, PChinese patients with COPD. Further attention should be given to cultural considerations when developing this type of intervention in Chinese populations with COPD and other chronic diseases. PMID:28790816

  6. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  7. Conducting Classroom Design Research with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Michelle. L.

    2015-01-01

    Design research is usually motivated by university members with experience and interest in building theory and instructional designs in collaboration with one teacher. Typically, the teacher is considered as a member of the research team, with the primary responsibility of implementing instruction. However, in this chapter, I describe a Classroom…

  8. Reinventing Learning: A Design-Research Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2015-01-01

    Design research is a broad, practice-based approach to investigating problems of education. This approach can catalyze the development of learning theory by fostering opportunities for transformational change in scholars' interpretation of instructional interactions. Surveying a succession of design-research projects, I explain how challenges in…

  9. Evaluation in Design-Oriented Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, P.J.M.; Hartog, R.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Design has been recognized for a long time both as art and as science. In the sixties of the previous century design-oriented research began to draw the attention of scientific researchers and methodologists, not only in technical engineering but also in the social sciences. However, a rather

  10. Research and Design in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Bobbink, I.; Jauslin, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce the particular methodology of the author's and their colleagues at TU Delft Chair of Landscape Architecture. This approach is characterised by theories, methods and techniques converging towards design and research and research by design. The relation and interaction

  11. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  12. What Is This Thing Called "Design" in Design Research and Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper will consider the phenomenon of design research. It will then consider four research positions in social science research. The paper will show how the design perspectives map onto the research paradigms and how by rotating through these paradigms, a design research cycle is formed. Finally, the paper will discuss four research questions…

  13. Using Network Science to Support Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and societal impact. This chapter contributes to the use of network science in empirical studies of design organisations. It focuses on introducing a network-based perspective on the design process and in particular on making use of network science to support design research and practice. The main contribution...... of this chapter is an overview of the methodological challenges and core decision points when embarking on network-based design research, namely defining the overall research purpose and selecting network features. We furthermore highlight the potential for using archival data, the opportunities for navigating...

  14. Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K

    2018-01-01

    Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework. The MIR framework was developed to help cross disciplinary borders, especially those between the natural sciences and the social sciences. The framework has been specifically constructed to facilitate the design of interdisciplinary scientific research, and can be applied in an educational program, as a reference for monitoring the phases of interdisciplinary research, and as a tool to design such research in a process approach. It is suitable for research projects of different sizes and levels of complexity, and it allows for a range of methods' combinations (case study, mixed methods, etc.). The different phases of designing interdisciplinary research in the MIR framework are described and illustrated by real-life applications in teaching and research. We further discuss the framework's utility in research design in landscape architecture, mixed methods research, and provide an outlook to the framework's potential in inclusive interdisciplinary research, and last but not least, research integrity.

  15. Design and Implementation of Collaborative Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venti, Mike W.; Berger, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the collarborative research approaches that NASA has been designing and implementing for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. The inputs for the technical plan are reviewed, the Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) WIKI, is used to create and propose a multi-themed and multi-partner research testing opportunities. The outputs are testing opportunities.

  16. Ubiquitous Surveys Reveal Shallow Research Designs (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Charles-Gene

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the large amount of often irrelevant, poorly designed, and poorly written quantitative journalism research. Notes that journalism education and mass communication education research published in scholarly journals is largely ignored by professional journalists, who find more value in the qualitative research reported in the journalism…

  17. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...

  18. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  19. Research Design – Composition, Configuration and Interdependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will present an integrative view on research design. I will introduce what I take to be the skeleton components of any research design within the social sciences, i.e. the elements of research question, philosophy of science, methodology, method and data. With this as my point...... of departure I will go on to focus on a presentation, a discussion and an evaluation of a new appreciation of the interdependencies of the elements in the research design. An appreciation that favors a relational rather than an atomistic outlook and which gives rise to an ecological conceptualization......). At a more concrete level, it aims at presenting an idea of research design which would – hopefully – be an inspiration to (young) scholars....

  20. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  1. A Practical Framework for Evaluating Health Services Management Educational Program: The Application of The Mixed-Method Sequential Explanatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrafshan Azam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Health services managers are responsible for improving the efficiency and quality in delivering healthcare services. In this regard, Health Services Management (HSM programs have been widely established to provide health providers with skilled, professional managers to address those needs. It is therefore important to ascertain the quality of these programs. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and develop a framework to evaluate the quality of the Health Services Management (HSM program at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study followed a mixed-method sequential explanatory approach in which data were collected through a CIPP survey and semi-structured interviews. In phase 1, participants included 10 faculty members, 64 students and 90 alumni. In phase 2, in-depth semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling were conducted with 27 participants to better understand their perceptions of the HSM program. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo N8 was used to analyze the qualitative data and extract the themes. Results: The data analysis revealed both positive and negative attitudes toward the HSM program. According to the CIPP survey, program objectives (74%, curriculum content (59.5% and graduate skills (79% were the major sources of dissatisfaction. However, most respondents (n=48 reported that the classes are well equipped and learning resources are well prepared (n=41. Most respondents (n=41 reported that the students are actively involved in classroom activities. The majority of respondents (n=43 pointed out that the instructors implemented appropriate teaching strategies. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed that a regular community needs assessment, content revision and directing attention to graduate skills and expertise are the key solutions to improve the program’s quality.Conclusion: This study revealed to what extent the HSM program objectives is being

  2. Design research through practice : from the lab, field, and showroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koskinen, I.; Zimmerman, J.; Binder, T.; Redström, J.; Wensveen, S.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Businesses and the HCI and Interaction Design communities have embraced design and design research. Design research as a field blends methodologies from several disciplines - sociology, engineering, software, philosophy, industrial design, HCI/interaction design -- so designers can learn from past

  3. Research-based design & design-based research: Affordances, limitations and synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Research-based design is an orientation to educational development that is explicitly informed by existing research as well as formative evaluation. Design-based research is a genre of inquiry in which the design of innovative solutions to problems in educational practice provides the context for

  4. Design and construction of multi research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This is the report about design and construction of multi research reactor, which introduces the purpose and necessity of the project, business contents, plan of progress of project and budget for the project. There are three appendixes about status of research reactor in other country, a characteristic of research reactor, three charts about evaluation, process and budget for the multi research reactor and three drawings for the project.

  5. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  6. Liquid crystal designs for high-contrast field sequential color liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) microdisplays (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James; Chen, Cheng; Bos, Philip J.

    2005-04-01

    Single or dual panel microdisplay systems are becoming more popular in the marketplace. Consequently, Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) microdisplays are constantly being pushed to achieve faster switching times as well as higher contrast, while becoming simpler and allowing simpler optics engine design. Currently, most products use a Twisted Nematic (TN) mode with a retardation film. The most promising solution in research now is the Vertically Aligned Nematic (VAN) mode, which does not require a retarder.

  7. Schematic representation of case study research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John P; Yates, Patsy M

    2007-11-01

    The paper is a report of a study to demonstrate how the use of schematics can provide procedural clarity and promote rigour in the conduct of case study research. Case study research is a methodologically flexible approach to research design that focuses on a particular case - whether an individual, a collective or a phenomenon of interest. It is known as the 'study of the particular' for its thorough investigation of particular, real-life situations and is gaining increased attention in nursing and social research. However, the methodological flexibility it offers can leave the novice researcher uncertain of suitable procedural steps required to ensure methodological rigour. This article provides a real example of a case study research design that utilizes schematic representation drawn from a doctoral study of the integration of health promotion principles and practices into a palliative care organization. The issues discussed are: (1) the definition and application of case study research design; (2) the application of schematics in research; (3) the procedural steps and their contribution to the maintenance of rigour; and (4) the benefits and risks of schematics in case study research. The inclusion of visual representations of design with accompanying explanatory text is recommended in reporting case study research methods.

  8. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.

  9. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Design and evaluation The project will provide helpful guidance to IDRC management and ... scaling and programming for scalable research Offer the monograph in multiple forms, ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  10. Evaluating an artifact in design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the iterative evaluation of an artifact developed through the application of Design Science Research (DSR) methodology in a resource constrained environment. In the DSR process the aspect of evaluation is often done...

  11. The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation...... as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform...

  12. Research Designs and Special Education Research: Different Designs Address Different Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide practitioners and other nonresearchers a basic understanding of research designs to aid in appropriately interpreting and applying research findings in special education. Research design provides the blueprint for conducting a research study and shapes what kind of knowledge is generated by the study. We…

  13. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of design science research (DSR) gained momentum as a research approach in information systems (IS), the adoption of a DSR approach in postgraduate studies became more acceptable. This paper reflects on a study to investigate how a...

  14. An overview of research designs relevant to nursing: Part 1: quantitative research designs

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Valmi D.; Driessnack,Martha; Mendes,Isabel Amélia Costa

    2007-01-01

    This three part series of articles provides a brief overview of relevant research designs in nursing. The first article in the series presents the most frequently used quantitative research designs. Strategies for non-experimental and experimental research designs used to generate and refine nursing knowledge are described. In addition, the importance of quantitative designs and the role they play in developing evidence-based practice are discussed. Nursing care needs to be determined by the ...

  15. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  16. Research, design and education, Von Humboldt revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, M.F.T.; Doevendans, C.H.; Trum, H.M.G.J.; Langenhuizen, Anja; Ouwerkerk, Marieke van; Rosemann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a result of reflection on the interrelation design-research-cultivation, and on the interpretation of Von Humboldt's maxim: 'Einheit von Forschung und Lehre', which governed the academic world in the past two centuries. It is argued that 'Forschung' should be interpreted as 'Research

  17. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  18. Research on an innovative design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Fang, H.

    2018-03-01

    The design methods of furniture are different from east to west; it has been the hotspot of the scholars. However, in terms of the theory of modern design innovation, neither the early creation theory, the modern design theory, nor the widely applied TRIZ theory can fully fit the modern furniture design innovation, so it is urgent to study the modern furniture design theory. This paper is based on the idea of TRIZ theory, using lots of literatures as data, and uses the method of statistical stratification to analyze and sort out the research of modern sitting equipment, and finally put forward the modern furniture design model, which provides new ideas and perspectives for the modern design of Chinese furniture.

  19. Analyzing change in short-term longitudinal research using cohort-sequential designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E R

    1993-12-01

    This article illustrates a method for approximating longitudinal data analysis by combining information from different overlapping age groups to form a single developmental growth curve. Using this method, hypotheses about the form of growth, the extent of individual differences in growth, and factors that affect the rate and pattern of growth are investigated. The example used to illustrate this method examines the growth of externalizing behavior and of negativity in parent-child relationships during early adolescence using assessments from multiple methods and multiple informants. These 3 dimensions changed significantly during this period, with parental negativity increasing more rapidly after age 12. However, there were substantial individual differences in the pattern of change in these dimensions. Gender of child and type of family situation (nondivorced, divorced, and remarried) were investigated as possible factors affecting change.

  20. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  1. Designing intervention in educational game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...

  2. Designing intervention in educational game research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...

  3. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media...... of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed......., this research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number...

  4. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  5. Game design research: an introduction to theory & practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lankoski, Petri; Holopainen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Design research is an active academic field covering disciplines such as architecture, graphic, product, service, interaction, and systems design. Design research aims to understand not only the designed end products but also how design as an activity unfolds. The book demonstrates different approaches to design research in game design research.

  6. Safety of research reactors (Design and Operation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirar, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to conduct a comprehensive up-to-date literature review on the current status of safety of research reactor both in design and operation providing the future trends in safety of research reactors. Data and technical information of variety selected historical research reactors were thoroughly reviewed and evaluated, furthermore illustrations of the material of fuel, control rods, shielding, moderators and coolants used were discussed. Insight study of some historical research reactors was carried with considering sample cases such as Chicago Pile-1, F-1 reactor, Chalk River Laboratories,. The National Research Experimental Reactor and others. The current status of research reactors and their geographical distribution, reactor category and utilization is also covered. Examples of some recent advanced reactors were studied like safety barriers of HANARO of Korea including safety doors of the hall and building entrance and finger print identification which prevent the reactor from sabotage. On the basis of the results of this research, it is apparent that a high quality of safety of nuclear reactors can be attained by achieving enough robust construction, designing components of high levels of efficiency, replacing the compounds of the reactor in order to avoid corrosion and degradation with age, coupled with experienced scientists and technical staffs to operate nuclear research facilities.(Author)

  7. Design of LabVIEW®-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E.; Lewis, Simon W.

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW®-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-6 M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05x+8.9164 (R2 =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 × 10-8 M). The limit of detection (3σ) was determined as 5 × 10-11 M morphine. PMID:18924729

  8. Design of LabVIEW-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.

  9. Building an mlearning research framework through design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of how Design Science research has been applied in order to develop a mobile learning framework for the ICT4RED project which is currently in progress in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province...

  10. Research by Design: A paradigm shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will argue that architectural research is becoming more and more important, not only in academia but also in architectural practice. Moreover, a shift is taking place from using and absorbing research methods from other disciplines towards building on the own specific strength...... of the discipline of architecture, i.e. using design and creative practice as a method to generate knowledge and disclose unknown aspects of reality. In doing so, this paper tries to place the Delft ARENA meeting Architectural Research Network Meeting (November 2013) in perspective....

  11. A Computational Lens on Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we briefly review the collective effort of design researchers to weave theory with empirical results, in order to gain a better understanding of the processes of learning. We seek to respond to this challenging agenda by centring on the evolution of one sub-field: namely that which involves investigations within a…

  12. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  13. Design, Research, and Feminism(s)'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Lindström, Kristina; Mazé, Ramia

    2018-01-01

    into practice-based, interventionist and activist modalities to propose, materialize and experience how things may become “otherwise”. This track invite contributions exploring notions of criticality and, or, feminism in design research. Possible topics among others may include: • feminist perspectives...

  14. Design research into mobile museum mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    2013-01-01

    community. 
The PhD research project “Mobile Mediation of Fashion by Museums” explores how aesthetic and ethnographic design methods can be used to develop mobile experiences and articulate museological matters of concern. Building on user perspectives, expressed in response to cultural probes, the project...

  15. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Resources · Publications. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 1: Proposal Development and Fieldwork ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  16. Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, Gyula J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.

  17. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained in ...

  18. Tradeoffs in Design Research: Development Oriented Triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen van Turnhout; Sabine Craenmehr; Robert Holwerda; Mark Menijn; Jan-Pieter Zwart; René Bakker

    2013-01-01

    The Development Oriented Triangulation (DOT) framework in this paper can spark and focus the debate about mixed-method approaches in HCI. The framework can be used to classify HCI methods, create mixed-method designs, and to align research activities in multidisciplinary projects. The framework is

  19. Conceptual design of multipurpose compact research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Naohiko; Kaminaga, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual design of the high-performance and low-cost multipurpose compact research reactor which will be expected to construct in the nuclear power plant introduction countries, started from 2010 in JAEA and nuclear-related companies in Japan. The aims of this conceptual design are to achieve highly safe reactor, economical design, high availability factor and advanced irradiation utilization. One of the basic reactor concept was determined as swimming pool type, thermal power of 10MW and water cooled and moderated reactor with plate type fuel element same as the JMTR. It is expected that the research reactors are used for human resource development, progress of the science and technology, expansion of industry use, lifetime extension of LWRs and so on. (author)

  20. Conceptual design of Dipole Research Experiment (DREX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaogang; Xiao, Chijie; Yang, Xiaoyi; Zheng, Jinxing

    2017-03-01

    A new terrella-like device for laboratory simulation of inner magnetosphere plasmas, Dipole Research Experiment, is scheduled to be built at the Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China, as a major state scientific research facility for space physics studies. It is designed to provide a ground experimental platform to reproduce the inner magnetosphere to simulate the processes of trapping, acceleration, and transport of energetic charged particles restrained in a dipole magnetic field configuration. The scaling relation of hydromagnetism between the laboratory plasma of the device and the geomagnetosphere plasma is applied to resemble geospace processes in the Dipole Research Experiment plasma. Multiple plasma sources, different kinds of coils with specific functions, and advanced diagnostics are designed to be equipped in the facility for multi-functions. The motivation, design criteria for the Dipole Research Experiment experiments and the means applied to generate the plasma of desired parameters in the laboratory are also described. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505040, 11261140326 and 11405038), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Nos. 2016M591518, 2015M570283) and Project Supported by Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (No. 2017008).

  1. Sequential logic analysis and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a

  2. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  3. Design research of uranium mine borehole database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaming; Hu Guangdao; Zhu Xianglin; Chen Dehua; Chen Miaoshun

    2008-01-01

    With short supply of energy sources, exploration of uranium mine have been enhanced, but data storage, analysis and usage of exploration data of uranium mine are not highly computerized currently in China, the data is poor shared and used that it can not adapt the need of production and research. It will be well done, if the data are stored and managed in a database system. The concept structure design, logic structure design and data integrity checks are discussed according to the demand of applications and the analysis of exploration data of uranium mine. An application of the database is illustrated finally. (authors)

  4. Design Research and the Solo Higher Degree Research Student: Strategies to Embed Trustworthiness and Validity into the Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a set of criteria for ensuring trustworthiness in design research studies undertaken by Higher Degree Research (HDR) students. Design research is aimed at exploring educational problems and refining theory and practice by defining a pedagogical outcome and is a methodological approach often associated with the Learning…

  5. Gifts to the Future: Design Reasoning, Design Research, and Critical Design Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McDonnell

    Full Text Available Set in the context of a particular orthodoxy about the history of design research over the last 50 years, this opinion piece selectively surveys some of the significant findings from research into what expert design reasoning entails. Using the conceit of a pool of knowledge—which has come about from many different design research agendas, using multiple methods, and with differing foci of attention—it indicates some of what we know about design reasoning as a phenomenon by taking three “scoops” from the pool. These scoops, respectively characterize design reasoning as navigating the swamp; having negative capability; and being concerned with framing. This material is then used to contrast expert design reasoning with salient features of some popular characterizations of design thinking. The contribution concludes with some comments on designer formation, centered on the necessity of proficiency in reflection implied by any goal to nurture critical design practitioners.

  6. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  7. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...... with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge...

  8. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge......Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research...

  9. Synchrotron radiation research facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A report is presented to define, in general outline, the extent and proportions, the type of construction, the schedule for accomplishment, and the estimated cost for a new Synchrotron Radiation Facility, as proposed to the Energy Research and Development Administration by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The report is concerned only indirectly with the scientific and technological justification for undertaking this project; the latter is addressed explicitly in separate documents. The report does consider user requirements, however, in order to establish a basis for design development. Preliminary drawings, outline specifications, estimated cost data, and other descriptive material are included as supporting documentation on the current status of the project in this preconstruction phase

  10. A Sequential Circuit-Based IP Watermarking Algorithm for Multiple Scan Chains in Design-for-Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI design, the existing Design-for-Test(DFT based watermarking techniques usually insert watermark through reordering scan cells, which causes large resource overhead, low security and coverage rate of watermark detection. A novel scheme was proposed to watermark multiple scan chains in DFT for solving the problems. The proposed scheme adopts DFT scan test model of VLSI design, and uses a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR for pseudo random test vector generation. All of the test vectors are shifted in scan input for the construction of multiple scan chains with minimum correlation. Specific registers in multiple scan chains will be changed by the watermark circuit for watermarking the design. The watermark can be effectively detected without interference with normal function of the circuit, even after the chip is packaged. The experimental results on several ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed scheme has lower resource overhead, probability of coincidence and higher coverage rate of watermark detection by comparing with the existing methods.

  11. Making Theory Come Alive through Practice-based Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva; Rind Christensen, Poul

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how practice-based design research is able not only to challenge, but also to push toward further development of some of the basic assumpstions in emotion theories as used within design research. In so doing, we wish to increase knolwedge on a central...... epistemological question for design research, namely how practice-based design research can be a vehicle for the construction of new theory for design research....

  12. The Role of Hypothesis in Constructive Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin; Markussen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    It is, today, widely appreciated that Research-through-Design – or Constructive Design Research as we will call it in this paper – allows for designers to produce knowledge based on the skills and capacities of the design field itself.However, most of the research fails to bridge the gap between the general notions of constructive design research and the detailed research activities of the field. We therefore suggest bridging this methodological gap in the academic discussion with what we hav...

  13. Sequential lineup presentation: Patterns and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, R C L; Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, J L; Leach, A-M; Bertrand, M I

    2009-01-01

    Sequential lineups were offered as an alternative to the traditional simultaneous lineup. Sequential lineups reduce incorrect lineup selections; however, the accompanying loss of correct identifications has resulted in controversy regarding adoption of the technique. We discuss the procedure and research relevant to (1) the pattern of results found using sequential versus simultaneous lineups; (2) reasons (theory) for differences in witness responses; (3) two methodological issues; and (4) im...

  14. Using design science in educational technology research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Chard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design science is a research paradigm where the development and evaluation of a technology artefact is a key contribution. Design science is used in many domains and this paper draws on those domains to formulate a generic structure for design science research suitable for educational technology research projects. The paper includes guidelines for writing proposals using the design science research methodology for educational technology research and presents a generic research report structure. The paper presents ethical issues to consider in design science research being conducted in educational settings and contributes guidelines for assessment when the research contribution involves the creation of a technology artefact.

  15. Designing future learning. A posthumanist approach to researching design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    I investigate how a design process – leading up to the design of a new education building - enact, transform and highlight tacit everyday practices and experiences in an education setting, whereby becoming an art of managing. I apply a post-humanist performative perspective, highlighting entangled...... agencies rather than focusing on human agency. I focus on the design process rather than the designer. The design process accelerated and performed past and future experiences of schooling, learning, teaching. This called for analytical attention to agential forces of not only the material but also...... and temporalities matter in design processes. Furthermore, the analysis emphasise how design translate affective economies and that attention to those affective economies are vital for the result of the design process....

  16. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  17. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  18. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  19. Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures?.

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Tim; Darling, Stephen; Memon, Amina

    2007-01-01

    Live identification procedures in England and Wales have been replaced by use of video, which provides a sequential presentation of facial images. Sequential presentation of photographs provides some protection to innocent suspects from mistaken identification when used with strict instructions designed to prevent relative judgements (Lindsay, Lea & Fulford, 1991). However, the current procedure in England and Wales is incompatible with these strict instructions. The reported research investi...

  20. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Internal Validity: A Must in Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahit, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…

  2. 7 Things You Should Know About Educational Design Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, Thomas; McKenney, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Reeves, T., & McKenney, S. (2012). 7 Things You Should Know About Educational Design Research. Educause 7 Things Series. Available online: http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/7-things-you-should-know-about-educational-design-research.

  3. The Role of Hypothesis in Constructive Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    It is, today, widely appreciated that Research-through-Design – or Constructive Design Research as we will call it in this paper – allows for designers to produce knowledge based on the skills and capacities of the design field itself. However, most of the research fails to bridge the gap between...... the general notions of constructive design research and the detailed research activities of the field. We therefore suggest bridging this methodological gap in the academic discussion with what we have ended up calling the “entrance level of constructive design research”. As a step towards to a more nuanced...... and solid perspective on how to keep constructive design research on track, this paper offers a model for understanding the role of hypothesis in constructive design research. The model allows for understanding the hypothesis’s relation to research motivation, questions, experiments, evaluation...

  4. Research in Architecture & Design, Aalborg University 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Publication, presenting the research at Architecture & Design, Department of Architecture & Mediea Technology 2009-2012. Editor Gitte Marling......Publication, presenting the research at Architecture & Design, Department of Architecture & Mediea Technology 2009-2012. Editor Gitte Marling...

  5. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent desig...

  6. How Design-based Research, Action Research and Interaction Design Contributes to the Development of Designs for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how action research, design based research and interaction design can be combined and used in the development of educational robotic tools. Our case study is the development of Number Blocks and it combines physical interaction, learning, and immediate feedback. Number Blocks...... supports the children's understanding of place value in the sense that it allows them to experiment with creating large numbers. The development was done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher. The article argues that elements from different research methods...... allowed a structured approach to projects that combines educational research and innovation of new learning technologies. Key elements of this approach is acknowledging the users input, developing a theoretical pre-analysis and using an iterative approach....

  7. Reconceptualizing Design Research in the Age of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Brenda; Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to begin to examine how the intersection of mobile learning and design research prompts the reconceptualization of research and design individually as well as their integration appropriate for current, complex learning environments. To fully conceptualize and reconceptualize design research in mobile learning, the…

  8. Product Design: Research Trends and an Agenda for the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Academic research in product design is growing in popular- ity, and new challenging research questions are emerging. This article explores several of these product design research issues. We first explore the role of design as a driver of innovation and as a strategic resource to senior managers for

  9. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  10. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  11. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% ( n = 62) women and 69.9% ( n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  12. Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Abobaker Mohammed Rahmtalla

    2014-09-01

    There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)

  13. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  14. Data-driven engineering design research: Opportunities using open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez Ruiz, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    the already available and continuously growing body of open data sources to create opportunities for research in Engineering Design. Insights are illustrated by an examination of two examples: a study of open source software repositories and an analysis of open business registries in the cleantech industry....... We conclude with a discussion about the limitations, challenges and risks of using open data in Engineering Design research and practice.......Engineering Design research relies on quantitative and qualitative data to describe design-related phenomena and prescribe improvements for design practice. Given data availability, privacy requirements and other constraints, most empirical data used in Engineering Design research can be described...

  15. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  16. CCD research. [design, fabrication, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassaway, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental problems encountered in designing, fabricating, and applying CCD's are reviewed. Investigations are described and results and conclusions are given for the following: (1) the development of design analyses employing computer aided techniques and their application to the design of a grapped structure; (2) the role of CCD's in applications to electronic functions, in particular, signal processing; (3) extending the CCD to silicon films on sapphire (SOS); and (4) all aluminum transfer structure with low noise input-output circuits. Related work on CCD imaging devices is summarized.

  17. The Multiple Faces of Reflexive Research Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexive research can be grouped into five clusters with circular relations between two elements x ↔ x, namely circular relations between observers, between scientific building blocks like concepts, theories or models, between systemic levels, between rules and rule systems or as circular relations or x ↔ y between these four components. By far the most important cluster is the second cluster which becomes reflexive through a re-entry operation RE into a scientific element x and which establishes its circular formation as x(x. Many of the research problems in these five clusters in reflexivity research are still unexplored and pose grand challenges for future research.

  18. Research Reactor Design for Export to Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win Naing, Lay Lay Myint and Myung-Hyun Kim

    2006-01-01

    Myanmar is striving to acquire the innovative technology in all field areas including maritime, aerospace and nuclear engineering. There is a high intention to construct a new research reactor for peaceful purposes. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Ministry of Education (MOE) are the important government organizations for Myanmar's education and they control most of institutes, universities and colleges. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), one of the departments under MOST, leads research projects such as for radiation protection as well as radiation application and coordinates government departments and institutions regarding nuclear energy and its applications. Myanmar's Scientific and Technological Research Department (MSTRD) under MOST guides researches in metallurgy, polymer, pharmacy and biotechnology and so on, and acts as an official body for Myanmar industrial standard. The Department of Higher Education (DHE) under MOE controls art and science universities and colleges including research centers such as Asia Research Center (ARC), Universities Research Center (URC), Microbiology Research Center and so on and does to expand research areas and to utilize advanced technology in science. The wide use of radiation and radioisotopes is developed in Myanmar especially for the field areas such as Medical Science and Agricultural Science. Co 60 , I 131 and Tc 99 are the major use of radioisotopes in diagnosis and therapy. In Agricultural Science, H 3 , C 14 , C 60 etc are used to provide biological effects of radiations on plants, radio-isotopic study of soil physics and tracer studies

  19. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, randomised clinical study. Method: Sixty orthopaedic patients scheduled for elective lower limb surgery under spinal ...

  20. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel; Smith, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the partici...

  1. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available engineering screening methodology that could be used to screen potential systems engineers. According to their design, this can be achieved by defining a system engineering profile according to specific psychological attributes, and using this profile...

  2. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  3. Designing Research in Environmental Education Curriculum Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing dissatisfaction at many levels with existing environmental education curricula in southern Africa. The resulting change and innovation is opening up possibilities for innovative research into the construction, conceptualisation and implementation of the curriculum. However, researching the curriculum ...

  4. Using mixed methods research designs in health psychology: an illustrated discussion from a pragmatist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L

    2015-02-01

    To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical

  5. An Efficient System Based On Closed Sequential Patterns for Web Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Utpala Niranjan; R.B.V. Subramanyam; V-Khana

    2010-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining, since its introduction has received considerable attention among the researchers with broad applications. The sequential pattern algorithms generally face problems when mining long sequential patterns or while using very low support threshold. One possible solution of such problems is by mining the closed sequential patterns, which is a condensed representation of sequential patterns. Recently, several researchers have utilized the sequential pattern discovery for d...

  6. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  7. Designing interaction, voice, and inclusion in AAC research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Treviranus, Jutta; Patel, Rupal; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    The ISAAC 2016 Research Symposium included a Design Stream that examined timely issues across augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), framed in terms of designing interaction, designing voice, and designing inclusion. Each is a complex term with multiple meanings; together they represent challenging yet important frontiers of AAC research. The Design Stream was conceived by the four authors, researchers who have been exploring AAC and disability-related design throughout their careers, brought together by a shared conviction that designing for communication implies more than ensuring access to words and utterances. Each of these presenters came to AAC from a different background: interaction design, inclusive design, speech science, and social science. The resulting discussion among 24 symposium participants included controversies about the role of technology, tensions about independence and interdependence, and a provocation about taste. The paper concludes by proposing new directions for AAC research: (a) new interdisciplinary research could combine scientific and design research methods, as distant yet complementary as microanalysis and interaction design, (b) new research tools could seed accessible and engaging contextual research into voice within a social model of disability, and (c) new open research networks could support inclusive, international and interdisciplinary research.

  8. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  9. Mixed Methods Designs for Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Kucera, Kristen L

    2018-07-01

    Mixed methods research is a relatively new approach in the field of sports medicine, where the benefits of qualitative and quantitative research are combined while offsetting the other's flaws. Despite its known and successful use in other populations, it has been used minimally in sports medicine, including studies of the clinician perspective, concussion, and patient outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for this approach to be applied in other topic areas not easily addressed by one type of research approach in isolation, such as the retirement from sport, effects of and return from injury, and catastrophic injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Giving girls and women the power to decide. Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying sexual and reproductive and adolescent health research. View moreGiving girls and women the power to decide ...

  11. FEDS : A Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  12. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther

    2006-12-01

    How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER) and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6) developed during a year and a half (about 330h ), several lessons (minimodules) dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a) Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b) teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c) a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d) the formation of a community of practice; and (e) acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  13. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bagno

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330 h , several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  14. Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-Sheva Eylon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330h, several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

  15. 5th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 5th International Conference on Research into Design – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from across the world on design process, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design across boundaries. The special features of the book are the variety of insights into the product and system innovation process, and the host of methods and tools from all major areas of design research for the enhancement of the innovation process. The main benefit of the book for researchers in various areas of design and innovation are access to the latest quality research in this area, with the largest collection of research from India. For practitioners and educators, it is exposure to an empirically validated suite of theories, models, methods and tools that can be taught and practiced for design-led innovation.

  16. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  17. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  18. Research: Designing interprofessional modules for undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... financial constraints, administrative support, logistical issues and resistance to change. The designing and implementing of new modules were intense and time consuming, and required commitment. The development of the modules was an excellent example of interprofessional teamwork that needs to be transferred to ...

  19. Social things : design research on social computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Luen, P.; Rau, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of social networking and computing, things and people are more and more interconnected, giving rise to not only new opportunities but also new challenges in designing new products that are networked, and services that are adaptive to their human users and context aware in their physical

  20. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  1. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  2. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  3. Building a Cohesive Body of Design Knowledge: Developments from a Design Science Research Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2015-01-01

    researchers have identified difficulties in building on past works, and combining insights from across the field. This work starts to dissolve some of these issues by drawing on Design Science Research to propose an integrated approach for the development of design research knowledge, coupled with pragmatic......Design is an extremely diverse field where there has been widespread debate on how to build a cohesive body of scientific knowledge. To date, no satisfactory proposition has been adopted across the field – hampering scientific development. Without this basis for bringing research together design...... advice for design researchers. This delivers a number of implications for researchers as well as for the field as a whole....

  4. Design Rework Prediction in Concurrent Design Environment: Current Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas; Roy, Rajkumar; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Shehab, Essam

    2009-01-01

    Organised by: Cranfield University This paper aims to present state-of-the-art and formulate future research areas on design rework in concurrent design environment. Related literatures are analysed to extract the key factors which impact design rework. Design rework occurs due to changes from upstream design activities and/or by feedbacks from downstream design activities. Design rework is considered as negative iteration; therefore, value in design activities will be increase...

  5. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  6. Critical Race Design: An Emerging Methodological Approach to Anti-Racist Design and Implementation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Deena; Kier, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    This article is about introducing Critical Race Design (CRD), a research methodology that centers race and equity at the nucleus of educational opportunities by design. First, the authors define design-based implementation research (DBIR; Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, & Sabelli, 2011) as an equity-oriented education research methodology where…

  7. Depth of Field: Discursive design research through film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Arnall

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the role of film in interaction and product design research with technology, and the use of film in exploring and explaining emerging technologies in multiple contexts. We have engaged in a reflective design research process that uses graphical, audiovisual, and time-based media as a tool, a material and a communicative artefact that enables us to approach complex, obscure and often invisible emerging technologies. We give a discursive account of how film has played an intricate role in our design research practice, from revealing the materiality of invisible wireless technology, to explaining complex technical prototypes, to communicating to a public audience through online films that may fold broader social and cultural discourses back into our design research process. We conclude by elaborating on discursive design approaches to research that use film as a reflective and communicative medium that allows for design research to operate within a social and cultural frame.

  8. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  9. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It: "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  10. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  11. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and close relations, and professional caretakers. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and social life. As Alzheimer’s is a fatal disease that affects many people, there is a strong interest in finding...... and the outcome. This book is an edited version of their reports written by the students. Our hope is that it can be an inspiration for other people. Thomas Binder, Eva Brandt and Morten Noer Andersen Lecturers, The Danish Design School...

  12. Contextual Interaction Design Research: Enabling HCI

    OpenAIRE

    Murer , Martin; Meschtscherjakov , Alexander; Fuchsberger , Verena; Giuliani , Manuel; Neureiter , Katja; Moser , Christiane; Aslan , Ilhan; Tscheligi , Manfred

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has always been about humans, their needs and desires. Contemporary HCI thinking investigates interactions in everyday life and puts an emphasis on the emotional and experiential qualities of interactions. At the Center for Human-Computer Interaction we seek to bridge meandering strands in the field by following a guiding metaphor that shifts focus to what has always been the core quality of our research field: Enabling HCI, as a leitmo...

  13. Cinematic collage as architectural design research

    OpenAIRE

    Carless, T.; Troiani, I.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter argues that cinematic representation can, and must, be understood as a method of developing a form of critical architectural enquiry and thinking in the same manner as text - a textual analysis and a communication means for practice-based research. The proposition is that cinematic architectural drawing and the discourse of occupied space are inseparable and that the limits of both are products of specific ideological and cultural practices. In this chapter, two different bodies ...

  14. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  15. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  16. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  17. Design Research through the Lens of Sociology of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Hilde Østerås; Seim, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    The use of an approach to design research inspired by Sociology of Technology offers a nuanced understanding of design processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how terminology derived from the socio-technical theory of Actor Network (ANT) can be used to understand the complexity of design...... processes by viewing these processes as building and alignment of networks. The applicability of ANT in design research is demonstrated in an analysis of an action research based case study. In this case study a socio-technical approach called “workspace design” is employed in a process of re......-design of existing workspace and work practice in an industrial company. The case study (i) illustrates a socio-technical approach to design research and (ii) shows how ANT terminology can be applied in an analysis of the course of events in a design process with numerous actors involved....

  18. Sequential lineup presentation promotes less-biased criterion setting but does not improve discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil

    2012-06-01

    When compared with simultaneous lineup presentation, sequential presentation has been shown to reduce false identifications to a greater extent than it reduces correct identifications. However, there has been much debate about whether this difference in identification performance represents improved discriminability or more conservative responding. In this research, data from 22 experiments that compared sequential and simultaneous lineups were analyzed using a compound signal-detection model, which is specifically designed to describe decision-making performance on tasks such as eyewitness identification tests. Sequential (cf. simultaneous) presentation did not influence discriminability, but produced a conservative shift in response bias that resulted in less-biased choosing for sequential than simultaneous lineups. These results inform understanding of the effects of lineup presentation mode on eyewitness identification decisions.

  19. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  20. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  1. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches......, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements...

  2. Relationship between Brazilian Vocational Education and Furniture Design Sequential CourseRelação entre a Educação Vocacional Brasileira e o Curso Superior de Formação Específica em Design de Movelaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Domenes Zapparoli

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on Vocational Education and Training – VET – the so-called sequential courses in Brazil. The problem might be the lack of identification between the real needs of the labour market and the workforce or whether the links between them represent a new social order. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study about the Furniture Design Sequential Course conducted at a University in Southern Brazil. The methods consisted of structured observation, questionnaire and semistructured interviews applied to students and employers, as well as document analysis. Some aspects are studied such as (i issues related to the students’ reasons for taking the furniture design sequential course and their judgement of its effectiveness in preparing them for the labour market; (ii employers’ knowledge of the course, with their judgement of its effectiveness in relation to standards of quality and production, and required skills from students; (iii the structure of the course and the skills taught as well as their relation with the skills considered necessary by the labour market, as indicated by the students. The results of this research show that the sequential courses are in their infancy and it is not possible to conclude if this type of course presents a new social order. However, it is possible to see that sequential courses need to be studied before being implemented.Este estudo discute a Educação Vocacional e Treinamento - VET, chamada no Brasil de cursos seqüenciais. Um dos principais problemas enfrentados por este tipo de educação pode estar na falta de identificação da real necessidade do mercado de trabalho em identificar os profissionais requisitados pelo mercado de trabalho. Também se considera se há ligação entre esses profissionais e o próprio mercado representa uma nova ordem social ou se as ligações entre eles representam uma nova ordem social. O objetivo deste estudo de caso

  3. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  4. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns

    2014-09-01

    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  5. Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development......, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research...... fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas....

  6. The Role of Hypothesis in Constructive Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    and solid perspective on how to keep constructive design research on track, this paper offers a model for understanding the role of hypothesis in constructive design research. The model allows for understanding the hypothesis’s relation to research motivation, questions, experiments, evaluation...... and knowledge production. The intention of the model is to have it serve as a tool in the research process aiding the researcher to understand at what “level” discussions and claims are brought forward, and what consequences these might have for the research work at hand. Thus, the paper claims the central...

  7. Conjecture Mapping: An Approach to Systematic Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William

    2014-01-01

    Design research is strongly associated with the learning sciences community, and in the 2 decades since its conception it has become broadly accepted. Yet within and without the learning sciences there remains confusion about how to do design research, with most scholarship on the approach describing what it is rather than how to do it. This…

  8. Portraying the design research cycle: Professional development in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although para-teachers make up a substantial portion of the world’s educational work force, little empirical research has been conducted on their professional development. During the iterative process of analysis, design, evaluation, and revision, design research was conducted to gain insight into

  9. The Roles of Technical Communication Researchers in Design Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Design has come to be understood as an essential aspect of the work that technical communicators claim. As a result, research in the field of technical communication has approached studies of design in numerous ways. This article showcases how technical communication researchers assume the roles of observers, testers, critics, creators, and…

  10. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system

  11. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system.

  12. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  13. Action Design Research for Social Innovation: Lessons from Designing a Health and Wellbeing Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, G.A.; Keijzer-Broers, W.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    IT artifacts play an important role in solving societal problems and realizing social innovations. Existing practice-inspired design science research (DSR) approaches, such as Action Design Research (ADR), do not consider social innovation as an explicit starting point for design iterations. In this

  14. Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Early, Adream

    2010-01-01

    University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

  15. Gaining a Competitive Edge through Action Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, L.; Alexa, M.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2016-08-01

    The current business environment is characterized by increased competition and highly innovative approach, in order to create products and services to better respond to the costumers’ needs and expectations. In this specific context, the research approaches need to be more flexible and business oriented and so, throughout the paper we have used a research method that combines design research and action research, named Action Design Research which is a research method used for generating prescriptive design knowledge through building and evaluating IT artifacts in an organizational setting [1]. Following the Action Design Research stages and principles: problem identification, building, intervention and evaluation, reflection and learning and formalization of learning, the research team has developed an online instrument used to actively involve the consumer in the product development process, in order to generate a better consumers insight regarding their needs and desires and to design and/or adjust the product accordingly. The customer engagement IT tool created and tested by using Action Design Research, E-PICUS, has been developed within the framework of the research project „E-solutions for innovation through customer pro-active involvement in value creation to increase organisational competitiveness (E-PICUS)”, PN- II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1811, currently undergoing.

  16. Implementing Clinical Research Using Factorial Designs: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Piper, Megan E; Collins, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Factorial experiments have rarely been used in the development or evaluation of clinical interventions. However, factorial designs offer advantages over randomized controlled trial designs, the latter being much more frequently used in such research. Factorial designs are highly efficient (permitting evaluation of multiple intervention components with good statistical power) and present the opportunity to detect interactions amongst intervention components. Such advantages have led methodologists to advocate for the greater use of factorial designs in research on clinical interventions (Collins, Dziak, & Li, 2009). However, researchers considering the use of such designs in clinical research face a series of choices that have consequential implications for the interpretability and value of the experimental results. These choices include: whether to use a factorial design, selection of the number and type of factors to include, how to address the compatibility of the different factors included, whether and how to avoid confounds between the type and number of interventions a participant receives, and how to interpret interactions. The use of factorial designs in clinical intervention research poses choices that differ from those typically considered in randomized clinical trial designs. However, the great information yield of the former encourages clinical researchers' increased and careful execution of such designs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Utilization of MCNP code in the research and design for China advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng

    2006-01-01

    MCNP, which is the internationalized neutronics code, is used for nuclear research and design in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). MCNP is an important neutronics code in the research and design for CARR since many calculation tasks could be undertaken by it. Many nuclear parameters on reactor core, the design and optimization research for many reactor utilizations, much verification for other nuclear calculation code and so on are conducted with help of MCNP. (author)

  18. Design Research and Practice for the Public Good: A Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Junginger

    Full Text Available Public sector managers and policymakers have begun to work with design researchers and design practitioners in an effort to create citizen-centric polices and user-centered public services. What role can design play in the approach taken by the public sector in organizational development and innovation? This paper reflects on an innovation project at a Brazilian Ministry where human-centered design was chosen as an approach to integrate innovation efforts among different government agencies and ministries. It offers an example of how human-centered design approaches can support efforts by civil servants to change their own design practices. Keywords: Design research, Design practice, Public sector, Civil servants, Organizational change & development

  19. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  20. What is it that is being designed in design-based research and how does it qualify as research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Peter Bukovica; Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann

    2015-01-01

    This article performs a comparative reading across a selection of seminal articles on Design based research in order to draw out and clarify key concepts that frame the approach. The article is a contribution to the ongoing discussion of how Design Based Research is or becomes a rigorous science....

  1. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...... is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product....

  2. From a Disciplinary to an Interdisciplinary Design Research: Developing an Integrative Approach for Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen Huei; Wong, Ju-Joan

    2015-01-01

    As the new generation of designers face more complex design issues, the forms of design research start to shift towards a user-centred approach to problem-solving. The cooperation and communication among various fields and specialisations are becoming more complex; in many practical design cases, in particular, technology developers face…

  3. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  4. Reflective Drawing as a Tool for Reflection in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of drawing as a tool for reflection. It reports on a PhD research project that aims to identify and analyse the value that co-design processes can bring to participants and their communities. The research is associated with Leapfrog, a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).…

  5. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...... substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given...

  6. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...

  7. Attending to Objects as Outcomes of Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, Tom; Andersen, Kristina; Gaver, William

    2016-01-01

    outcomes. The premise of this workshop is simple: We need additional spaces for interacting with and reflecting upon material design outcomes at CHI. The goal of this workshop is to experiment with such a space, and to initially do so without a strong theoretical or conceptual framing.......The goal for this workshop is to provide a venue at CHI for research through design practitioners to materially share their work with each other. Conversation will largely be centered upon a discussion of objects produced through a research through design process. Bringing together researchers...

  8. A study of two sequential culture media - impact on embryo quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective. A comparative study of embryo quality and pregnancy outcome between Sydney IVF medium and. Quinn's Advantage sequential culture media. Design. A prospective randomised controlled trial and a retrospective study. Setting. In vitro fertilisation clinic in an academic research environment. Patients.

  9. 6th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; ICoRD 2017; Research into design for communities

    2017-01-01

    This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 6th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2017) – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from across the world on design process, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design for communities. While design traditionally focused on the development of products for the individual, the emerging consensus on working towards a more sustainable world demands greater attention to designing for and with communities, so as to promote their sustenance and harmony - within each community and across communities. The special features of the book are the insights into the product and system innovation process, and the host of methods and tools from all major areas of design research for the enhancement of the innovation process. The main benefit of the book for researchers in various areas of design and innovation are access to the latest quality research in this area, with the...

  10. RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN THE DESIGN DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes findings from a national survey of interior design practitioners in the United States (N=366.  The study explored interior design practitioners' current preferences for conducting project research including: activities conducted and sources used, attraction to and recall from sources, and ideas for communicating research findings. Responses suggest that interior designers do value research, yet have little time to utilize research. While cross-tabulation analyses indicate no major differences in research activities between the study’s demographic groups, collectively, only 12% of the sample indicated they utilized academic journals and, at times, even incorrectly identified those sources. Open-ended responses allowed designers to offer ideas for communicating research and four key themes emerged, including: topic selection and relevancy, ideas for new dissemination methods, ideas for presentation style, and perceptions of the written language used.  It is hoped that this study’s findings may help design researchers better communicate their own findings to design practitioners.

  11. A Design Science Research Methodology for Expert Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jahan Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of design science research (DSR can have applications for improving expert systems (ES development research. Although significant progress of utilising DSR has been observed in particular information systems design – such as decision support systems (DSS studies – only rare attempts can be found in the ES design literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the use of DSR for ES design. First, we explore the ES development literature to reveal the presence of DSR as a research methodology. For this, we select relevant literature criteria and apply a qualitative content analysis in order to generate themes inductively to match the DSR components. Second, utilising the findings of the comparison, we determine a new DSR approach for designing a specific ES that is guided by another result – the findings of a content analysis of examination scripts in Mathematics. The specific ES artefact for a case demonstration is designed for addressing the requirement of a ‘wicked’ problem in that the key purpose is to assist human assessors when evaluating multi-step question (MSQ solutions. It is anticipated that the proposed design knowledge, in terms of both problem class and functions of ES artefacts, will help ES designers and researchers to address similar issues for designing information system solutions.

  12. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  13. A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard; Venable, John

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a central and essential activity in conducting rigorous Design Science Research (DSR), yet there is surprisingly little guidance about designing the DSR evaluation activity beyond suggesting possible methods that could be used for evaluation. This paper extends the notable exception...... of the existing framework of Pries-Heje et al [11] to address this problem. The paper proposes an extended DSR evaluation framework together with a DSR evaluation design method that can guide DSR researchers in choosing an appropriate strategy for evaluation of the design artifacts and design theories that form...... the output from DSR. The extended DSR evaluation framework asks the DSR researcher to consider (as input to the choice of the DSR evaluation strategy) contextual factors of goals, conditions, and constraints on the DSR evaluation, e.g. the type and level of desired rigor, the type of artifact, the need...

  14. Research designs and making causal inferences from health care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the major types of research designs used in healthcare research, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. Observational studies are divided into survey studies (descriptive and correlational studies), case-studies and analytic studies, the last of which are commonly used in epidemiology: case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort studies. Similarities and differences among the research designs are described and the relative strength of evidence they provide is discussed. Emphasis is placed on five criteria for drawing causal inferences that are derived from the writings of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, especially his methods or canons. The application of the criteria to experimentation is explained. Particular attention is given to the degree to which different designs meet the five criteria for making causal inferences. Examples of specific studies that have used various designs in chaplaincy research are provided.

  15. Code on the safety of nuclear research reactors: Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide a safety basis for the design of a research reactor and for the assessment of the design. Another objective is to cover certain aspects related to regulatory supervision, siting and quality assurance, as far as these are related to activities for the design of a research reactor. These objectives are expressed in terms of requirements and recommendations for the design of research reactors. Emphasis is placed on the safety requirements that shall be met rather than on ways in which they can be met. The requirements and recommendations may form the foundation necessary for a Member State to develop specific regulations and safety criteria for its research reactor programme.

  16. Taking into account a reactivity accident in research reactors design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Yehia, H.; Berry, J.L.; Sinda, T.

    1989-11-01

    The particular studies realized in France for research reactors design at a Borax accident type are described. The cases of ORPHEE and RHF reactors are particularly developed. The evolution of the studies and the conservatism used are given [fr

  17. Reporting Qualitative Research: Standards, Challenges, and Implications for Health Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peditto, Kathryn

    2018-04-01

    This Methods column describes the existing reporting standards for qualitative research, their application to health design research, and the challenges to implementation. Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this article provides multiple perspectives on both reporting and evaluating high-quality qualitative research. Two popular reporting standards exist for reporting qualitative research-the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Though compiled using similar procedures, they differ in their criteria and the methods to which they apply. Creating and applying reporting criteria is inherently difficult due to the undefined and fluctuating nature of qualitative research when compared to quantitative studies. Qualitative research is expansive and occasionally controversial, spanning many different methods of inquiry and epistemological approaches. A "one-size-fits-all" standard for reporting qualitative research can be restrictive, but COREQ and SRQR both serve as valuable tools for developing responsible qualitative research proposals, effectively communicating research decisions, and evaluating submissions. Ultimately, tailoring a set of standards specific to health design research and its frequently used methods would ensure quality research and aid reviewers in their evaluations.

  18. Research and Application of Autodesk Fusion360 in Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, P. P.; Qi, Y. M.; Cai, D. C.

    2018-05-01

    In 2016, Fusion 360, a productintroduced byAutodesk and integrating industrial design, structural design, mechanical simulation, and CAM, turns out a design platform supportingcollaboration and sharing both cross-platform and via the cloud. In previous products, design and manufacturing use to be isolated. In the course of design, research and development, the communication between designers and engineers used to go on through different software products, tool commands, and even industry terms. Moreover, difficulty also lies with the communication between design thoughts and machining strategies. Naturally, a difficult product design and R & D process would trigger a noticeable gap between the design model and the actual product. A complete product development process tends to cover several major areas, such as industrial design, mechanical design, rendering and animation, computer aided emulation (CAE), and computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Fusion 360, a perfect design solving the technical problems of cross-platform data exchange, realizes the effective control of cross-regional collaboration and presents an overview of collaboration and breaks the barriers between art and manufacturing, andblocks between design and processing. The “Eco-development of Fusion360 Industrial Chain” is both a significant means to and an inevitable trend forthe manufacturers and industrial designers to carry out innovation in China.

  19. Comparison of Design Research on Manufacturing Firms Moving Towards Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2007-01-01

    Corresponding to a steadily advancing integration of roducts and service operations in the manufacturing industry, a number of research groups within the design community are working with issues of integrated product and service development. Although closely related, the evolving groups focus...... on different research dimensions, and thus the terminologies and concepts used in research contributions are not fully compatible. This research attempts to promote and support an evolving collaboration between the different research groups within the design community, by analysing and comparing the key...... contribution areas of three of the existing groups, namely the groups of Integrated Product and Service Engineering, Service/Product Engineering and Product/Service-System development. A review of the groups’ research contributions is carried out and the main characteristics’ of their research is compared...

  20. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  1. Research and design of 3He pressure control loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Zhang Peisheng; Tang Guoliang; Zhang Aimin; Zhang Yingchao

    2008-01-01

    In order to carry out power transient tests for PWR fuel element in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), the research and conceptual design of 3He pressure control loop were completed. The working principle, design parameters and technological flow of the loop were described. It is seen that the a He loop can adjust the power of the tested PWR fuel element rapidly, evenly and flexibly and it is an optimal path to realize the power transient regulation for tested PWR fuel. (authors)

  2. More ethical and more efficient clinical research: multiplex trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2014-08-14

    Today's clinical research faces challenges such as a lack of clinical equipoise between treatment arms, reluctance in randomizing for multiple treatments simultaneously, inability to address interactions and increasingly restricted resources. Furthermore, many trials are biased by extensive exclusion criteria, relatively small sample size and less appropriate outcome measures. We propose a 'Multiplex' trial design that preserves clinical equipoise with a continuous and factorial trial design that will also result in more efficient use of resources. This multiplex design accommodates subtrials with appropriate choice of treatment arms within each subtrial. Clinical equipoise should increase consent rates while the factorial design is the best way to identify interactions. The multiplex design may evolve naturally from today's research limitations and challenges, while principal objections seem absent. However this new design poses important infrastructural, organisational and psychological challenges that need in depth consideration.

  3. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions

  4. Design-Based Research for Professional Learning for "Cultural Mathematics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravia, Geori; Owens, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research is being used to develop and refine the principles used in professional learning workshops with teachers from three different Papua New Guinean ecologies: highlands, coastal, and inland in a coastal province. The appropriateness of the design of principles for Papua New Guinean Elementary Schools is tried over several phases…

  5. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  6. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  7. Concussion Awareness Education: A Design and Development Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbeam, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    This research study looks at the design and development of an online concussion awareness education module. The Keep Your Head in the Game: Concussion Awareness Training for High School Athletes, or Brainbook, is a stand-alone e-learning module designed to run for fifty minutes and to be highly interactive using short video clips with associated…

  8. Design, manufacture and performance research of double acting hydraulic press

    OpenAIRE

    Koc, Erdem; Unver, Ertu; Ozturk, Hidayet

    1990-01-01

    This research presents the design and production of a double acting 40 tons capacity hydraulic press. The issues in the design, engineering manufacturing of the hydraulic press are reported specifically on both cylinders generating the same pressure and velocity using a solenoid directional control valve and a flow separating valve. (In Turkish)

  9. Getting started in research: designing and preparing to conduct a research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Matthew D; Kisely, Steve; Loi, Samantha; Macfarlane, Stephen; Merry, Sally; Parker, Stephen; Power, Brian; Siskind, Dan; Smith, Geoff; Looi, Jeffrey C

    2015-02-01

    To discuss common pitfalls and useful tips in designing a quantitative research study, the importance and process of ethical approval, and consideration of funding. Through careful planning, based on formulation of a research question, early career researchers can design and conduct quantitative research projects within the framework of the Scholarly Project or in their own independent projects. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  10. The State of Design : A Comprehensive Literature Review to Chart the Design Science Research Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakurta, Rahul; Mueller, Benjamin; Ahlemann, Frederik; Hoffman, David

    Design science is an increasingly popular research paradigm in the information systems discipline. De- spite a recognition of the design science research par- adigm, questions are being raised about the nature of its existence and its contributions. Central to this ar- gument is the understanding of

  11. Employing Design and Development Research (DDR): Approaches in the Design and Development of Online Arabic Vocabulary Learning Games Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrir, Muhammad Sabri; Alias, Nor Aziah; Ismail, Zawawi; Osman, Nurulhuda

    2012-01-01

    The design and development research, first proposed by Brown and Collins in the 1990s, is currently among the well-known methods in educational research to test theory and validate its practicality. The method is also known as developmental research, design research, design-based research, formative research and design-cased and possesses…

  12. Using Interdisciplinary and Active Research to Encourage Higher Resolution Research and Prototyping in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adream Blair-Early

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available University art and design programs are branching out and creating interdisciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to position industry and academic leaders to work alongside students, community leaders, artists and non-profits to develop creative and innovative solutions to the challenges facing contemporary society. But product design benefits even more from practices that engage users throughout the entire design process, often called participatory design. Participatory design process utilizes user feedback throughout the design process to spur innovation and improve design quality. It is possible in the classroom to engage in participatory design and participatory prototyping through the use of inexpensive 3D printers and laser cutters as well as traditional hand tools, requiring only mastery of a few simple techniques and technology readily available on laptop computers. The class research being presented was conceived as part of a new interdisciplinary classroom research space call the Digital Craft Research Lab (DCRL housed within the department of Art and Design. Courses taught within the DCRL offer students, researchers and faculty continual access to both low resolution and high-resolution prototyping machinery and materials. This paper looks at the role of action and participatory research in a design course that created printed hand innovations in collaboration with a nine-year-old female user. Students were asked to work on modeling new designs as well as capturing the progress in a final open source book and models. This paper asks the question can the use of classroom collaboration, action research and work spaces encourage creativity, innovation, and critical thinking in student and professional

  13. Scaffolds for design communication : research through design of shared understanding in design meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Lugt, van der R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the influence of the physical and social environment (the design space) son the formation of shared understanding in multidisciplinary design teams. We concentrate on the creative design meeting as a microenvironment for studying processes of design communication. Our

  14. Using Design-Based Research in Higher Education Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Cristi; McNally, Darragh; Ford, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the design-based research approach used by the Center for Innovation in Learning and Student Success (CILSS) at the University of Maryland, University College (UMUC). CILSS is a laboratory for conducting applied research that focuses on continuous improvements to the university's instruction of curriculum, learning models, and…

  15. DATA MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING RESEARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darlington, Mansur; Howard, Thomas J.; Ball, Alex

    2011-01-01

    of research data and of the barriers to and opportunities for their re-use. The work reported here characterizes engineering design and manufacture research data and explores the context of their development and current management. Insights from the work have resulted in the authors proposing a number of new...

  16. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  17. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  18. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  19. Advances in mechanisms, robotics and design education and research

    CERN Document Server

    Schmiedeler, James; Sreenivasan, S; Su, Hai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This book contains papers on a wide range of topics in the area of kinematics, mechanisms, robotics, and design, addressing new research advances and innovations in design education. The content is divided into  five main categories headed ‘Historical Perspectives’, ‘Kinematics and Mechanisms’, ‘Robotic Systems’, ‘Legged Locomotion’, and ‘Design Engineering Education’. Contributions take the form of survey articles, historical perspectives, commentaries on trends on education or research, original research contributions, and papers on design education.   This volume celebrates the achievements of Professor Kenneth Waldron who has made innumerable and invaluable contributions to these fields in the last fifty years. His leadership and his pioneering work have influenced thousands of people in this discipline.

  20. Design and research of fuel element for pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Sheng

    1994-05-01

    The fuel element is the key component for pulsed reactor and its design is one of kernel techniques for pulsed reactor. Following the GA Company of US the NPIC (Nuclear Power Institute of China) has mastered this technique. Up to now, the first pulsed reactor in China (PRC-1) has been safely operated for about 3 years. The design and research of fuel element undertaken by NPIC is summarized. The verification and evaluation of this design has been carried out by using the results of measured parameters during operation and test of PRC-1 as well as comparing the design parameters published by others

  1. Sequential VEGF and BMP-2 releasing PLA-PEG-PLA scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: I. Design and in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eğri, Sinan; Eczacıoğlu, Numan

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable PLA-PEG-PLA block copolymers were synthesized with desired backbone structures and molecular weights using PEG20000. Rectangular scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying with or without using NaCl particles. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 was loaded to the matrix after the scaffold formation for sustained release while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was loaded within the pores with gelatin solution. VEGF release was quite fast and almost 60% of it was released in 2 d. However, sequential - sustained released was observed for BMP-2 in the following few months. Corporation of VEGF/BMP-2 couple into the scaffolds increased the cell adhesion and proliferation. Neither significant cytotoxicity nor apoptosis/necrosis were observed.

  2. Towards Primary School Physics Teaching and Learning: Design Research Approach. Research Report 256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a project to design a primary school physics learning environment which takes into account teachers' needs, design procedures, properties of the learning environment, and pupil learning outcomes. The project's design team has wide experience in research and development work in relation to science education, the use of ICT in…

  3. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  4. On the function and importance of research design in existential-phenomenological qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    inquiry. This is very different from the research traditions within the social sciences, which traditionally emphasizes the importance of research design and a controlled inquiry, even with respect to qualitative research. Social research is traditionally divided into three phases: planning, execution...... in a convincing way. This principle of controlled inquiry manifests itself in different ways within qualitative and quantitative traditions of social science research. But still, is this principle also applicable and relevant with respect to qualitative human science research? I think so. I hence make...... the argument that there would be a fruitful contribution to much phenomenological research from a greater emphasis on research design and controlled inquiry. But is it possible to combine these social science research principles with a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to qualitative research...

  5. C-quence: a tool for analyzing qualitative sequential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Starkey; Collier, Nicholson T

    2002-02-01

    C-quence is a software application that matches sequential patterns of qualitative data specified by the user and calculates the rate of occurrence of these patterns in a data set. Although it was designed to facilitate analyses of face-to-face interaction, it is applicable to any data set involving categorical data and sequential information. C-quence queries are constructed using a graphical user interface. The program does not limit the complexity of the sequential patterns specified by the user.

  6. Can emergency medicine research benefit from adaptive design clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A; Goodacre, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive design clinical trials use preplanned interim analyses to determine whether studies should be stopped or modified before recruitment is complete. Emergency medicine trials are well suited to these designs as many have a short time to primary outcome relative to the length of recruitment. We hypothesised that the majority of published emergency medicine trials have the potential to use a simple adaptive trial design. We reviewed clinical trials published in three emergency medicine journals between January 2003 and December 2013. We determined the proportion that used an adaptive design as well as the proportion that could have used a simple adaptive design based on the time to primary outcome and length of recruitment. Only 19 of 188 trials included in the review were considered to have used an adaptive trial design. A total of 154/165 trials that were fixed in design had the potential to use an adaptive design. Currently, there seems to be limited uptake in the use of adaptive trial designs in emergency medicine despite their potential benefits to save time and resources. Failing to take advantage of adaptive designs could be costly to patients and research. It is recommended that where practical and logistical considerations allow, adaptive designs should be used for all emergency medicine clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Research on Multidisciplinary Optimization Design of Bridge Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Yifei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge crane is one of the most widely used cranes in our country, which is indispensable equipment for material conveying in the modern production. In this paper, the framework of multidisciplinary optimization for bridge crane is proposed. The presented research on crane multidisciplinary design technology for energy saving includes three levels, respectively: metal structures level, transmission design level, and electrical system design level. The shape optimal mathematical model of the crane is established for shape optimization design of metal structure level as well as size optimal mathematical model and topology optimal mathematical model of crane for topology optimization design of metal structure level is established. Finally, system-level multidisciplinary energy-saving optimization design of bridge crane is further carried out with energy-saving transmission design results feedback to energy-saving optimization design of metal structure. The optimization results show that structural optimization design can reduce total mass of crane greatly by using the finite element analysis and multidisciplinary optimization technology premised on the design requirements of cranes such as stiffness and strength; thus, energy-saving design can be achieved.

  8. Collaborative Mission Design at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kerry M.; Allen, B. Danette; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed and tested two facilities dedicated to increasing efficiency in key mission design processes, including payload design, mission planning, and implementation plan development, among others. The Integrated Design Center (IDC) is a state-of-the-art concurrent design facility which allows scientists and spaceflight engineers to produce project designs and mission plans in a real-time collaborative environment, using industry-standard physics-based development tools and the latest communication technology. The Mission Simulation Lab (MiSL), a virtual reality (VR) facility focused on payload and project design, permits engineers to quickly translate their design and modeling output into enhanced three-dimensional models and then examine them in a realistic full-scale virtual environment. The authors were responsible for envisioning both facilities and turning those visions into fully operational mission design resources at LaRC with multiple advanced capabilities and applications. In addition, the authors have created a synergistic interface between these two facilities. This combined functionality is the Interactive Design and Simulation Center (IDSC), a meta-facility which offers project teams a powerful array of highly advanced tools, permitting them to rapidly produce project designs while maintaining the integrity of the input from every discipline expert on the project. The concept-to-flight mission support provided by IDSC has shown improved inter- and intra-team communication and a reduction in the resources required for proposal development, requirements definition, and design effort.

  9. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...

  10. Research on design connotation of hair drier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    After the analysis and summary of the research on the design of hair drier system, the system design is focused on. Product system design is not only to study its entity, but also is recognized as the part, element and component with a systematic feature to deeply analyze the innovation way of product system design, which is taken as its concept to carry out the association analysis on the component elements of hair driers and the overall analysis and study on the system design process of hair dryers. The product life cycle is taken as the main goal, through system analysis, system synthesis and system optimization, to solve the problems of product design. It is of great practical significance.

  11. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  12. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  13. Research-Design Model for Professional Development of Teachers: Designing Lessons with Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther

    2006-01-01

    How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER) and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers' physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional…

  14. Advanced nuclear reactor safety design technology research in NPIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident happen, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) construction has been suspended in China for a time. Now the new regulatory rule has been proposed that the most advanced safety standard must be adopted for the new NPPs and practical elimination of large fission product release by design during the next five plans period. So the advanced reactor research is developing in China. NPIC is engaging on the ACP1000 and ACP100 (Small Module Reactor) design. The main design character will be introduced in this paper. The Passive Combined with Active (PCWA) design was adopted during the ACP1000 design to reduce the core damage frequency (CDF); the Cavity Injection System (CIS) is design to mitigation the consequence of the severe accident. Advance passive safety system was designed to ensure the long term residual heat removal during the Small Module Reactor (SMR). The SMR will be utilized to be the floating reactors, district heating reactor and so on. Besides, the Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory (LRSDT) also engaged on the fundamental thermal-hydraulic characteristic research in support of the system validation. (author)

  15. Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design research studies: Still promising, still hazy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Bart; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Ormel, B., Pareja Roblin, N., McKenney, S., Voogt, J., & Pieters, J. (2012). Research-practice interactions as reported in recent design research studies: Still promising, still hazy. Educational Technology Research & Development, 60(6), 967-986. doi:10.1007/s11423-012-9261-6

  16. Connecting the Space between Design and Research: Explorations in Participatory Research Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Glenda Amayo; Osborne, Lindy; Mewburn, Inger; Nottingham, Anitra

    2016-01-01

    In this article we offer a single case study using an action research method for gathering and analysing data offering insights valuable to both design and research supervision practice. We do not attempt to generalise from this single case, but offer it as an instance that can improve our understanding of research supervision practice. We…

  17. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis

    In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....

  18. Understanding Engagement with the Privacy Domain Through Design Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasalou, A.; Oostveen, A.; Bowers, Christopher; Beale, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from participatory design research aimed at uncovering how technological interventions can engage users in the domain of privacy. Our work was undertaken in the context of a new design concept “Privacy Trends” whose aspiration is to foster technology users’ digital literacy regarding ongoing privacy risks and elucidate how such risks fit within existing social, organizational and political systems, leading to a longer term privacy concern. Our study reveals two cha...

  19. Design characteristics of research zero power fast reactor Lasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Pesic, M.; Nikolic, D.; Antic, D.; Zavaljevski, N.; Popovic, D.

    1990-01-01

    LASTA is a flexible zero power reactor with uranium and plutonium fuel designed for research in the neutron physics and in the fast reactor physics. Safety considerations and experimental flexibility led to the choice of a fixed vertical assembly with two safety blocks as the main safety elements, so that safety devices would be operated by gravity. The neutron and reactor physics, the control and safety philosophy adopted in our design, are described in this paper. Developed computer programs are presented. (author)

  20. A social representations analysis of design science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Naidoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Design science research (DSR is a relatively unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in this paradigm, this study sought to explore DSR perspectives among local computing researchers. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT such as anchoring and objectification were used to explore how researchers construct their understanding of DSR. A visual approach was used to administer drawing and association tasks to two focus groups; each focus group comprised around 25 participants ranging from doctoral students to experienced researchers. The focus group discussions invoked interesting complementary and distinctive associations about the process and content of DSR – anchored in dominant and conventional research practices. The results also illustrated several ways in which DSR is objectified by the researchers in drawings and metaphorical constructions. We conclude that SRT is useful for exploring beliefs about novel and relatively unfamiliar research practices. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of how computing researchers go about making sense and assigning meaning to changing research practices. The findings are developed into recommendations for introducing changes to research practices. These recommendations can be used to direct efforts to more appropriately accommodate changing research practices within the computing community to broaden knowledge generation.

  1. Sequential Power-Dependence Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de

    2008-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike

  2. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  3. Design for All in Social Research on Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Toboso-Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social studies on disability have increased in number and importance in Spain and other countries over the last few years. Nevertheless, the majority of the available sources and studies do not adequately represent this heterogeneous group, which currently makes up about 9 per cent of the Spanish population. The implementation of social measures requires representative sources and studies containing relevant information. The aim of this paper is to identify the main diffi culties involved in designing and developing social research methods concerning persons with disabilities, and offer proposals and recommendations in order to advance towards a more inclusive social research using the concepts of accessibility and design for all.

  4. Design Science Research For Personal Knowledge Management System Development - Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2016-11-01

    Thirdly, the development process and resulting prototype are verified against accepted general design science research (DSR guidelines. DSR aims at creating innovative IT artifacts (that extend human and social capabilities and meet desired outcomes and at validating design processes (as evidence of their relevance, utility, rigor, resonance, and publishability. Together with the incorporated references to around thirty prior publications covering technical and methodological details, a kind of ‘Long Discussion Case’ emerges aiming to potentially assist IT researchers and entrepreneurs engaged in similar projects.

  5. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...

  6. Treating the emotional and motivational inhibition of highly gifted underachievers with music psychotherapy: Meta-analysis of an evaluation study based on a sequential design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L

    The psychological and neuropsychological characteristics of gifted children and adolescents are analysed, as well as the emotional and behavioural risks linked to this condition. A prospective follow-up study of N=93 highly gifted students suffering from school failure at the beginning of adolescence was implemented. They were treated with an integrated form of music psychotherapy and verbal psychotherapy in 5 separate groups. The methodology of treatment combined active musical improvisation with the writing of stories or the production of drawings under musical induction, followed by verbal elaboration in the cognitive-psychodynamic psychotherapeutic tradition. The evaluation was based on a mixed-methods design, combining psychometric scales, projective tests and expressive tests. Comparative pretest-posttest, correlational and multidimensional analyses were computed, using non-parametric statistical procedures adapted to small samples and data belonging to a mixed level of measurement. We present a meta-analysis of the confirmatory results in 5 subgroups. There was a significant increase in the capacity of concentration, the capacity of imaginary and symbolic elaboration, the pictorial and literary creativity, self-esteem, the quality of coping strategies, as well as in school marks. There was a significant decrease in defensive functioning and in embitterment and resignation. The latent dimensions extracted with Optimal Scaling procedures from the correlational matrixes of the Delta values of TAT and TSD-Z were meaningful at the light of the state-of-the-arts. The results of the study confirm a prior theoretical modelization coming out of the preparatory stage of the research project. They are interpreted at the light of recent findings in developmental and clinical psychology of adolescence and they open many tracks for future research.

  7. PFERD Mission: Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Gary; Zayed, Husni; Herring, Jason; Fuehne, Doug; Sutton, Kevin; Sharkey, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design (PFERD) mission will consist of a flyby spacecraft to Pluto and its satellite, Charon. The mission lifetime is expected to be 18 years. The Titan 4 with a Centaur upper stage will be utilized to launch the craft into the transfer orbit. The proposal was divided into six main subsystems: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) command, communications, and control: (3) altitude and articulation control; (4) power and propulsion; (5) structures and thermal control; and (6) mission management and costing. Tradeoff studies were performed to optimize all factors of design, including survivability, performance, cost, and weight. Problems encountered in the design are also presented.

  8. UMTRAP research on cover design for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the UMTRAP research on radon attenuation and tailings cover design, the basis and general procedures are available for designing covers for uranium tailings piles to meet present criteria for radon emissions. The general procedures involve assessment of the radon source strength of the tailings, definition of candidate cover materials, assessment of their moisture retention and radon diffusion properties, computing the required thicknesses of these materials, comparing costs, and evaluating long-term performance criteria. Final selection of the cover design must assure adequate long-term performance and radon retention as first priority, and keep costs to a minimum in achieving this goal

  9. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  10. Research requirements for improved design of reinforced concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Holley, M.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is a competitive material for the construction of nuclear power plant containment structures. However, the designer is constrained by limited data on the behavior of certain construction details which require him to use what may be excessive rebar quantities and lead to difficult and costly construction. This paper discusses several design situations where research is recommended to increase the designer's options, to facilitate construction, and to extend the applicability of reinforced concrete to such changing containment requirements as may be imposed by an evolving nuclear technology. (Auth.)

  11. OPERATIONS RESEARCH IN THE DESIGN OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    management information systems is concerned with the identification and detailed specification of the information and data processing...of advanced data processing techniques in management information systems today, the close coordination of operations research and data systems activities has become a practical necessity for the modern business firm.... information systems in which mathematical models are employed as the basis for analysis and systems design. Operations research provides a

  12. A Design of Alarm System in a Research Reactor Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaekwan; Jang, Gwisook; Seo, Sangmun; Suh, Yongsuk

    2013-01-01

    The digital alarm system has become an indispensable design to process a large amount of alarms of power plants. Korean research reactor operated for decades maintains a hybrid alarm system with both an analog annunciator and a digital alarm display. In this design, several alarms are indicated on an analog panel and digital display, respectively, and it requires more attention and effort of the operators. As proven in power plants, a centralized alarm system design is necessary for a new research reactor. However, the number of alarms and operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than power plants. Thus, simplification should be considered as an important factor for the operation efficiency. This paper introduces a simplified alarm system. As advances in information technology, fully digitalized alarm systems have been applied to power plants. In a new research reactor, it will be more useful than an analog or hybrid configuration installed in research reactors decades ago. However, the simplification feature should be considered as an important factor because the number of alarms and number of operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than in power plants

  13. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  14. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  15. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  16. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-12-01

    Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Design principles for simulation games for learning clinical reasoning: A design-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J-M; Haavisto, E; Niemi, H; Haho, P; Nylund, S; Multisilta, J

    2018-01-01

    Nurses sometimes lack the competence needed for recognising deterioration in patient conditions and this is often due to poor clinical reasoning. There is a need to develop new possibilities for learning this crucial competence area. In addition, educators need to be future oriented; they need to be able to design and adopt new pedagogical innovations. The purpose of the study is to describe the development process and to generate principles for the design of nursing simulation games. A design-based research methodology is applied in this study. Iterative cycles of analysis, design, development, testing and refinement were conducted via collaboration among researchers, educators, students, and game designers. The study facilitated the generation of reusable design principles for simulation games to guide future designers when designing and developing simulation games for learning clinical reasoning. This study makes a major contribution to research on simulation game development in the field of nursing education. The results of this study provide important insights into the significance of involving nurse educators in the design and development process of educational simulation games for the purpose of nursing education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remote sensing technology research and instrumentation platform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An instrumented pallet concept and definition of an aircraft with performance and payload capability to meet NASA's airborne turbulent flux measurement needs for advanced multiple global climate research and field experiments is presented. The report addresses airborne measurement requirements for general circulation model sub-scale parameterization research, specifies instrumentation capable of making these measurements, and describes a preliminary support pallet design. Also, a review of aircraft types and a recommendation of a manned and an unmanned aircraft capable of meeting flux parameterization research needs is given.

  19. Sequential, progressive, equal-power, reflective beam-splitter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Paul K.

    2017-11-01

    The equations to calculate equal-power reflectivity of a sequential series of beam splitters is presented. Non-sequential optical design examples are offered for uniform illumination using diode lasers. Objects created using Boolean operators and Swept Surfaces can create objects capable of reflecting light into predefined elevation and azimuth angles. Analysis of the illumination patterns for the array are also presented.

  20. Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

  1. Identification and Validation of ESP Teacher Competencies: A Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, G.; Prema, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the research design used for identifying and validating a set of competencies required of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers. The identification of the competencies and the three-stage validation process are also discussed. The observation of classes of ESP teachers for field-testing the validated competencies and…

  2. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  3. Validation and Design Science Research in Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Gonzalez, Rafael A.; Mora, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Validation within design science research in Information Systems (DSRIS) is much debated. The relationship of validation to artifact evaluation is still not clear. This chapter aims at elucidating several components of DSRIS in relation to validation. The role of theory and theorizing are an

  4. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...

  5. Information Sharing in the Field of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilerot, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on an extensive research project which aimed at exploring information sharing activities in a scholarly context. The paper presents and synthesises findings from a literature review and three qualitative case studies. The empirical setting is a geographically distributed Nordic network of design scholars. Method:…

  6. Conducting Quantitative Medical Education Research: From Design to Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Erika L; Paul, Caroline R; Petershack, Jean; Serwint, Janet; Fischel, Janet E; Rocha, Mary; Treitz, Meghan; McPhillips, Heather; Lockspeiser, Tai; Hicks, Patricia; Tewksbury, Linda; Vasquez, Margarita; Tancredi, Daniel J; Li, Su-Ting T

    2018-03-01

    Rigorous medical education research is critical to effectively develop and evaluate the training we provide our learners. Yet many clinical medical educators lack the training and skills needed to conduct high-quality medical education research. We offer guidance on conducting sound quantitative medical education research. Our aim is to equip readers with the key skills and strategies necessary to conduct successful research projects, highlighting new concepts and controversies in the field. We utilize Glassick's criteria for scholarship as a framework to discuss strategies to ensure that the research question of interest is worthy of further study and how to use existing literature and conceptual frameworks to strengthen a research study. Through discussions of the strengths and limitations of commonly used study designs, we expose the reader to particular nuances of these decisions in medical education research and discuss outcomes generally focused on, as well as strategies for determining the significance of consequent findings. We conclude with information on critiquing research findings and preparing results for dissemination to a broad audience. Practical planning worksheets and comprehensive tables illustrating key concepts are provided in order to guide researchers through each step of the process. Medical education research provides wonderful opportunities to improve how we teach our learners, to satisfy our own intellectual curiosity, and ultimately to enhance the care provided to patients. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  8. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  9. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Sessions, Alaric M.; Beyon, Jeffrey; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. The existing power system was analyzed to rank components in terms of inefficiency, power dissipation, footprint and mass. Design considerations and priorities are compared along with the results of each design iteration. Overall power system improvements are summarized for design implementations.

  10. Design of a new research reactor : 1st year conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    A new research reactor model satisfying the strengthened regulatory environments and the changed circumstances around nuclear society should be prepared for the domestic and international demand of research reactor. This can also lead to the improvement of technologies and fostering manpower obtained during the construction and the operation of HANARO. In this aspect, this study has been launched and the 1st year conceptual design has been carried out in 2003. The major tasks performed at the first year of conceptual design stage are as follows; Establishments of general design requirements of research reactors and experimental facilities, Establishment of fuel and reactor core concepts, Preliminary analysis of reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics for conceptual core, Conceptual design of reactor structure and major systems, International cooperation to establish foundations for exporting

  11. Modeling eye gaze patterns in clinician-patient interaction with lag sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Enid; Xu, Jie; Chen, Ping-Yu; Asan, Onur; Barrett, Bruce P; Chewning, Betty

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether lag sequential analysis could be used to describe eye gaze orientation between clinicians and patients in the medical encounter. This topic is particularly important as new technologies are implemented into multiuser health care settings in which trust is critical and nonverbal cues are integral to achieving trust. This analysis method could lead to design guidelines for technologies and more effective assessments of interventions. Nonverbal communication patterns are important aspects of clinician-patient interactions and may affect patient outcomes. The eye gaze behaviors of clinicians and patients in 110 videotaped medical encounters were analyzed using the lag sequential method to identify significant behavior sequences. Lag sequential analysis included both event-based lag and time-based lag. Results from event-based lag analysis showed that the patient's gaze followed that of the clinician, whereas the clinician's gaze did not follow the patient's. Time-based sequential analysis showed that responses from the patient usually occurred within 2 s after the initial behavior of the clinician. Our data suggest that the clinician's gaze significantly affects the medical encounter but that the converse is not true. Findings from this research have implications for the design of clinical work systems and modeling interactions. Similar research methods could be used to identify different behavior patterns in clinical settings (physical layout, technology, etc.) to facilitate and evaluate clinical work system designs.

  12. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In June 1995, an OECD Support Group was set up to perform a broad study of the safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors. This Support Group was endorsed by the CSNI. The Support Group, which is composed of senior experts on safety research from several OECD countries and from Russia, prepared this Report. The Group reviewed the safety research performed to support Russian-designed reactors and set down its views on future needs. The review concentrates on the following main topics: Thermal-Hydraulics/Plant Transients for VVERs; Integrity of Equipment and Structures for VVERs; Severe Accidents for VVERs; Operational Safety Issues; Thermal-Hydraulics/Plant Transients for RBMKs; Integrity of Equipment and Structures for RBMKs; Severe Accidents for RBMKs. (K.A.)

  13. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  14. The promise and challenge of practice-research collaborations: Guiding principles and strategies for initiating, designing, and implementing program evaluation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations, and building on their experiences in successfully completing a community-based research evaluation, the authors identify specific relationship-focused principles and strategies and illustrate how these approaches can guide practice-research teams through the various sequential activities of the evaluation research process. In particular, it is suggested that practice-research collaborations can be formed, strengthened, and sustained by emphasis on a spirit of discovery and shared leadership at the start of the relationship, use of a comprehensive evaluation model to clarify and frame the evaluation and program goals, beginning where the client is when selecting research methodology and measurement tools, commitment to keeping the program first and recording everything during the implementation and data-collection stages, discussion of emerging findings and presentation of findings in graphic format at the data-analysis stage, and a total team approach at the dissemination stage.

  15. Research in architecture : reflection on three approaches linking research and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, B.J.F.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Veldpaus, L.; Fidanoglu, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Research in Architecture is not new, it is usually known as analysis or pre-design stage. Architects get acquainted with program requirements, project context and/or other inspiring works, including concepts on theory, philosophy or history. Seldom are the architects who design without any

  16. Containment design, performance criteria and research needs for advanced reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdi, G.; Ali, S.; Costello, J

    2004-01-01

    This paper points out some important shifts in the basic expectations in the performance requirements for containment structures and discusses the areas where the containment structure design requirements and acceptance criteria can be integrated with ultimate test based insights. Although there has not been any new reactor construction in the United States for over thirty years, several designs of evolutionary and advanced reactors have already been certified. Performance requirements for containment structures under design basis and severe accident conditions and explicit consideration of seismic margins have been used in the design certification process. In the United States, the containment structure design code is the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NE-Class MC for the steel containment and Section III, Division 2 for reinforced and prestressed concrete reactor vessels and containments. This containment design code was based on the early concept of applying design basis internal pressure and associated load combinations that included the operating basis and safe shutdown earthquake ground motion. These early design criteria served the nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in maintaining public health and safety. However, these early design criteria do not incorporate the performance criteria related to containment function in an integrated fashion. Research in large scale model testing of containment structures to failure from over pressurization and shake table testing using simulated ground motion, have produced insights related to failure modes and material behavior at failure. The results of this research provide the opportunity to integrate these observations into design and acceptance criteria. This integration process would identify 'gaps' in the present knowledge and future research needs. This knowledge base is important for gleaning risk-informed insights into

  17. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 2: Context, research questions and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstjens, Irene; Moser, Albine

    2017-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. This second article addresses FAQs about context, research questions and designs. Qualitative research takes into account the natural contexts in which individuals or groups function to provide an in-depth understanding of real-world problems. The research questions are generally broad and open to unexpected findings. The choice of a qualitative design primarily depends on the nature of the research problem, the research question(s) and the scientific knowledge one seeks. Ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory are considered to represent the 'big three' qualitative approaches. Theory guides the researcher through the research process by providing a 'lens' to look at the phenomenon under study. Since qualitative researchers and the participants of their studies interact in a social process, researchers influence the research process. The first article described the key features of qualitative research, the third article will focus on sampling, data collection and analysis, while the last article focuses on trustworthiness and publishing.

  18. A Research Design for NASA-Funded Professional Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J.; Getty, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This proposal outlines a research plan designed to measure gains in student learning resulting from their teachers participating in professional development. Project Description Misconceptions about global climate change (GCC) are prevalent in the general public (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). One solution is to provide high school students with a better grounding in the basic science and data that underlie GCC. The overarching goal of a NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Change Literacy (PEL), is to increase GCC literacy in high school students. Research Design The research design is interpretative (Erickson, 2006), framed within a multi-method design, synthesizing both quantitative and qualitative data sources (Morse, 2003). Overall, the data will provide rich information about the PEL's impact on curriculum development, teacher pedagogical knowledge, and student learning. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation (E-V-C) (Fan, 2011; Wigfield & Eccles, 1994) provides a theoretical foundation for the research. Expectancy is the degree to which a teacher or student has reason to expect that they will be successful in school. Value indicates whether they think that performance at school will be worthwhile to them. Cost is the perceived sacrifices that must be undertaken, or factors that can inhibit, a successful performance at school. For students, data from an embedded E-V-C investigation will help articulate how E-V-C factors relate to student interest in science, continuing to study science, or embarking on STEM related careers. For teachers, the E-V-C measures will give insight into a key mediating variable on student achievement in science. The evaluation will seek to address research questions at the student and teacher levels. Table 1 presents a sample of research questions and data sources. This is a sample of a much larger set of questions that will be addressed in the project. Data

  19. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors. Requirements situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R. Allan; Holmstrom, Heikki; Reocreux, Michel; Schulz, Helmut; Liesch, Klaus; Santarossa, Giampiero; Hayamizu, Yoshitaka; Asmolov, Vladimir; Bolshov, Leonid; Strizhov, Valerii; Bougaenko, Sergei; Nikitin, Yuri N.; Proklov, Vladimir; Potapov, Alexandre; Kinnersly, Stephen R.; Voronin, Leonid M.; Honekamp, John R.; Frescura, Gianni M.; Maki, Nobuo; Reig, Javier; ); Bekjord, Eric S.; Rosinger, Herbert E.

    1998-01-01

    In June 1995, an OECD Support Group was set up to perform a broad study of the safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors. The emphasis of the study is on the VVER-type reactors in part because of the larger base of knowledge within the NEA Member countries related to LWRs. For the RBMKs, the study does not make the judgement that such reactors can be brought to acceptable levels of safety but focuses on near term efforts that can contribute to reducing the risk to the public. The need for the safety research must be evaluated in context of the lifetime of the reactors. The principal outcome of the work of the Support Group is the identification of a number of research topics which the members believe should receive priority attention over the next several years if risk levels are to be reduced and public safety enhanced. These appear in the Conclusions and Recommendations section of the report, and are the following: - The most important near-term need for VVER and RBMK safety research is to establish a sound technical basis for the emergency operating procedures used by the plant staff to prevent or halt the progression of accidents (i.e., Accident Management) and for plant safety improvements. - Co-operation of Western and Eastern experts should help to avoid East-West know-how gaps in the future, as safety technology continues to improve. - Safety research in Eastern countries will make an important contribution to public safety as it has in OECD countries. - RBMK safety research, including verification of codes, starts from a smaller base of experience than VVER, and is at an earlier stage of development. Technical Conclusions: - Research to improve human performance and operational safety of VVER and RBMK plants is extremely important. - VVER thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics research should focus on full validation of codes to VVER-specific features, and on extension of experimental data base. - Methods of assessing VVER pressure boundary

  20. A Conceptual Culture Model for Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of design science research (DSR in information systems is the user-centred creation of IT-artifacts with regard to specific social environments. For culture research in the field, which is necessary for a proper localization of IT-artifacts, models and research approaches from social sciences usually are adopted. Descriptive dimension-based culture models most commonly are applied for this purpose, which assume culture being a national phenomenon and tend to reduce it to basic values. Such models are useful for investigations in behavioural culture research because it aims to isolate, describe and explain culture-specific attitudes and characteristics within a selected society. In contrast, with the necessity to deduce concrete decisions for artifact-design, research results from DSR need to go beyond this aim. As hypothesis, this contribution generally questions the applicability of such generic culture dimensions’ models for DSR and focuses on their theoretical foundation, which goes back to Hofstede’s conceptual Onion Model of Culture. The herein applied literature-based analysis confirms the hypothesis. Consequently, an alternative conceptual culture model is being introduced and discussed as theoretical foundation for culture research in DSR.

  1. Sequential decay of Reggeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshihiro

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of meson production in the sequential decay of Reggeons, which are formed from the projectile and the target in the hadron-hadron to Reggeon-Reggeon processes, are investigated. It is assumed that pair creation of heavy quarks and simultaneous creation of two antiquark-quark pairs are negligible. The leading-order terms with respect to ratio of creation probabilities of anti s s to anti u u (anti d d) are calculated. The production cross sections in the target fragmentation region are given in terms of probabilities in the initial decay of the Reggeons and an effect of manyparticle production. (author)

  2. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  3. Designing and managing your research project: core skills for social and health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, David R; Hodges, Ian

    2010-01-01

    ... for Social and Health Research David R. Thomas and Ian D. Hodges© David R. Thomas and Ian D. Hodges 2010 First published 2010 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any ...

  4. Designing Effective Serious Games: Opportunities and Challenges for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellotti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games represent an acknowledged potential for instruction, because they are able to strongly motivate learners. They can also provide immersive environments where advanced users can practice knowledge and skills, also exploiting multimodal interaction. They can combine the effectiveness of computer processing and data storage, with high levels of attractiveness. Our work has investigated the state of the art research on SGs, starting from the cognitive aspects, that are necessary in order to root technological development and applications in sound theoretical foundations. The paper discusses some key aspects about SG design and exploitation: choice of components-off-the-shelf or from-scratch design, tools and methodologies for development or adaptation, intelligent tutoring, virtual coaches and affective learning, living worlds, game mechanics, Human-Computer Interaction. While several SGs have been developed, still the literature stresses a lack of significant, extensive user tests. Further research is necessary to investigate in greater detail the real effectiveness of the various types of SGs. The paper proposes several research questions - that range from requirements elicitation to design and from deployment to use and evaluation - to be answered in order to avoid technology pushing and drive technological research according to the requirements of the end-users and stakeholders. We believe that deepening the analysis about these issues is key to strengthen the foundations of SG research, for which we identify four major directions: definition of metrics and learning progress evaluation tools; methodologies and tools for designing games from various topics and for various users; computing and communication architectures; technologies that can enhance the overall system performance.

  5. Reading Remediation Based on Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnison, Judy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The theory postulating a dichotomy between sequential and simultaneous processing is reviewed and its implications for remediating reading problems are reviewed. Research is cited on sequential-simultaneous processing for early and advanced reading. A list of remedial strategies based on the processing dichotomy addresses decoding and lexical…

  6. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs

  7. Designing Research Services: Cross-Disciplinary Administration and the Research Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, G.

    2017-12-01

    The sheer number of technical and administrative offices involved in the research lifecycle, and the lack of shared governance and shared processes across those offices, creates challenges to the successful preservation of research outputs. Universities need a more integrated approach to the research lifecycle that allows us to: recognize a research project as it is being initiated; identify the data associated with the research project; document and track any compliance, security, access, and publication requirements associated with the research and its data; follow the research and its associated components across the research lifecycle; and finally recognize that the research has come to a close so we can trigger the various preservation, access, and communications processes that close the loop, inform the public, and promote the continued progress of science. Such an approach will require cooperation, communications, and shared workflow tools that tie together (often across many years) PIs, research design methodologists, grants offices, contract negotiators, central research administrators, research compliance specialists, desktop IT support units, server administrators, high performance computing facilities, data centers, specialized data transfer networks, institutional research repositories, institutional data repositories, and research communications groups, all of which play a significant role in the technical or administrative success of research. This session will focus on progress towards improving cross-disciplinary administrative and technical cooperation at Penn State University, with an emphasis on generalizable approaches that can be adopted elsewhere.

  8. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  9. Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E

    2008-06-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  11. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  12. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola,Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  13. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-cente...

  14. Basic Design of the Cold Neutron Research Facility in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. K.

    2005-09-01

    The HANARO Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) Project has been embarked in July 2003. The CNRF project has selected as one of the radiation technology development project by National Science and Technology Committee in June 2002. In this report, the output of the second project year is summarized as a basic design of cold neutron source and related systems, neutron guide, and neutron scattering instruments

  15. Basic Design of the Cold Neutron Research Facility in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. K. (and others)

    2005-09-15

    The HANARO Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) Project has been embarked in July 2003. The CNRF project has selected as one of the radiation technology development project by National Science and Technology Committee in June 2002. In this report, the output of the second project year is summarized as a basic design of cold neutron source and related systems, neutron guide, and neutron scattering instruments.

  16. The Cornell Kitchen: Housing and Design Research in Postwar America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The Cornell Kitchen (1950-55) was produced at Cornell University by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in home economics, engineering, architecture, and psychology. It promised to deliver rational design, functional principles, aesthetic appeal, and emotional satisfaction in one prefabricated, easy-to-install package. This article sets out the kitchen's history from its design to its field-testing phase to its impact on postwar kitchens. It argues that the kitchen represents an important effort to approach housing in a more scientific way; scientific methods were deployed to understand both the physical and socio-psychological problems of dwelling. The project also sought to introduce a specific model for leveraging housing research into the real world, partnering with industry to mass produce scientific designs. Social scientific methods were hence used to create not only more livable but also more saleable products in an effort to appeal to manufacturers and consumers alike.

  17. Design and analysis of post-marketing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hua Andrew; Yang, Wei

    2013-07-01

    A post-marketing study is an integral part of research that helps to ensure a favorable risk-benefit profile for approved drugs used in the market. Because most of post-marketing studies use observational designs, which are liable to confounding, estimation of the causal effect of a drug versus a comparative one is very challenging. This article focuses on methodological issues of importance in designing and analyzing studies to evaluate the safety of marketed drugs, especially marketed traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. Advantages and limitations of the current designs and analytic methods for postmarketing studies are discussed, and recommendations are given for improving the validity of postmarketing studies in TCM products.

  18. Designing interactive systems to support and augment creativity - a roadmap for research and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Frich Pedersen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    and developments, exemplary cases, and future initiatives to study and design systems and tools to augment creative practices. Participation in the workshop requires participants to contribute with a position paper on one of the above topics, and to read and comment on co-participants contributions before......The aims of the workshop are to examine and discuss the current state of research in designing interactive systems to support and augment creative work, and to outline a roadmap for future research initiatives. The workshop will explore methodological issues and approaches, overarching trends...

  19. The Business of Research in Art and Design: Parallels Between Research Centres and Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Roworth-Stokes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a cross-case analysis of four art and design research centres operating within UK universities. Findings from autobiographical and semi-structured interviews with researchers, research managers, and research leaders indicate that they encounter similar issues in trying to establish internal legitimacy within the university alongside the need to gain external support and recognition. In dealing with these challenges, art and design research centres tend to pass through four broadly identifiable phases: (i Origination (utilising credentials and leadership capacity, (ii Establishment (securing resources and embedding dedicated systems and processes, (iii Development (furthering profile, diversifying, and retaining autonomy, and (iv Sustainability (enhancing research culture, networks, and influence.Many interesting parallels are evident with the way small businesses strive to establish themselves within competitive market environments. Lessons for research managers and directors are explored to consider such similarities in key areas of responsibility that cover leadership, managing people and processes, developing organisational capacity, and building external networks. The research suggests research centre directors must demonstrate many intrapreneurial qualities to overcome obstacles in the development of a successful research team and that university departments can make substantial organisational interventions to help them succeed.

  20. Arctic research vessel design would expand science prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Robert; Kristensen, Dirk

    The U.S. polar marine science community has long declared the need for an arctic research vessel dedicated to advancing the study of northern ice-dominated seas. Planning for such a vessel began 2 decades ago, but competition for funding has prevented construction. A new design program is underway, and it shows promise of opening up exciting possibilities for new research initiatives in arctic marine science.With its latest design, the Arctic Research Vessel (ARV) has grown to a size and capability that will make it the first U.S. academic research vessel able to provide access to the Arctic Ocean. This ship would open a vast arena for new studies in the least known of the world's seas. These studies promise to rank high in national priority because of the importance of the Arctic Ocean as a source of data relating to global climate change. Other issues that demand attention in the Arctic include its contributions to the world's heat budget, the climate history buried in its sediments, pollution monitoring, and the influence of arctic conditions on marine renewable resources.

  1. Eco-innovation: The opportunities for engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hare, Jamie Alexander; McAloone, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Eco-innovation is an approach that has the potential to deliver step change improvements in the environmental performance of products, but the uptake by industry to date has been disappointing. The paper presents a selective review of the academic literature, choosing examples of research that gi...... a flavour of the key trends and interesting topics that are emerging from the eco-innovation body of knowledge. We conclude by suggesting 10 areas where we see potential for the engineering design research community to contribute to the advancement of eco-innovation.......Eco-innovation is an approach that has the potential to deliver step change improvements in the environmental performance of products, but the uptake by industry to date has been disappointing. The paper presents a selective review of the academic literature, choosing examples of research that give...

  2. Methodology is more than research design and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    The Society for Computers in Psychology has been at the forefront of disseminating information about advances in computer technology and their applications for psychologists. Although technological advances, as well as clean research designs, are key contributors to progress in psychological research, the justification of methodological rules for interpreting data and making theory choices is at least as important. Historically, methodological beliefs and practices have been justified through intuition and logic, an approach known as foundationism. However, naturalism, a modern approach in the philosophy of science inspired by the work of Thomas S. Kuhn, indicates that all aspects of scientific practice, including its methodology, should be evaluated empirically. This article examines implications of the naturalistic approach for psychological research methods in general and for the current debate that is often framed as one of qualitative versus quantitative methods.

  3. Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutro, P.

    2009-01-01

    Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)

  4. Shaft extension design at the Underground Research Laboratory, Pinawa, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Ball, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    AECL Research has constructed an underground laboratory for the research and development required for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experimental program in the laboratory will contribute to the assessment of the feasibility and safety of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in stable plutonic rock. In 1988, AECL extended the shaft of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) from the existing 255 m depth to a depth of 443 m in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy. The project, which involved carrying out research activities while excavation and construction work was in progress, required careful planning. To accommodate the research programs, full-face blasting with a burn cut was used to advance the shaft. Existing facilities at the URL had to be modified to accommodate an expanded underground facility at a new depth. This paper discusses the design criteria, shaft-sinking methods and approaches used to accommodate the research work during this shaft extension project. (11 refs., 11 figs.)

  5. A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

    1996-09-24

    This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

  6. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  7. The evolution of drug design at Merck Research Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank K; Sherer, Edward C; Johnson, Scott A; Holloway, M Katharine; Sherborne, Bradley S

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 1981, Fortune magazine published a cover article entitled the "Next Industrial Revolution: Designing Drugs by Computer at Merck". With a 40+ year investment, we have been in the drug design business longer than most. During its history, the Merck drug design group has had several names, but it has always been in the "design" business, with the ultimate goal to provide an actionable hypothesis that could be tested experimentally. Often the result was a small molecule but it could just as easily be a peptide, biologic, predictive model, reaction, process, etc. To this end, the concept of design is now front and center in all aspects of discovery, safety assessment and early clinical development. At present, the Merck design group includes computational chemistry, protein structure determination, and cheminformatics. By bringing these groups together under one umbrella, we were able to align activities and capabilities across multiple research sites and departments. This alignment from 2010 to 2016 resulted in an 80% expansion in the size of the department, reflecting the increase in impact due to a significant emphasis across the organization to "design first" along the entire drug discovery path from lead identification (LID) to first in human (FIH) dosing. One of the major advantages of this alignment has been the ability to access all of the data and create an adaptive approach to the overall LID to FIH pathway for any modality, significantly increasing the quality of candidates and their probability of success. In this perspective, we will discuss how we crafted a new strategy, defined the appropriate phenotype for group members, developed the right skillsets, and identified metrics for success in order to drive continuous improvement. We will not focus on the tactical implementation, only giving specific examples as appropriate.

  8. The evolution of drug design at Merck Research Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank K.; Sherer, Edward C.; Johnson, Scott A.; Holloway, M. Katharine; Sherborne, Bradley S.

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 1981, Fortune magazine published a cover article entitled the "Next Industrial Revolution: Designing Drugs by Computer at Merck". With a 40+ year investment, we have been in the drug design business longer than most. During its history, the Merck drug design group has had several names, but it has always been in the "design" business, with the ultimate goal to provide an actionable hypothesis that could be tested experimentally. Often the result was a small molecule but it could just as easily be a peptide, biologic, predictive model, reaction, process, etc. To this end, the concept of design is now front and center in all aspects of discovery, safety assessment and early clinical development. At present, the Merck design group includes computational chemistry, protein structure determination, and cheminformatics. By bringing these groups together under one umbrella, we were able to align activities and capabilities across multiple research sites and departments. This alignment from 2010 to 2016 resulted in an 80% expansion in the size of the department, reflecting the increase in impact due to a significant emphasis across the organization to "design first" along the entire drug discovery path from lead identification (LID) to first in human (FIH) dosing. One of the major advantages of this alignment has been the ability to access all of the data and create an adaptive approach to the overall LID to FIH pathway for any modality, significantly increasing the quality of candidates and their probability of success. In this perspective, we will discuss how we crafted a new strategy, defined the appropriate phenotype for group members, developed the right skillsets, and identified metrics for success in order to drive continuous improvement. We will not focus on the tactical implementation, only giving specific examples as appropriate.

  9. Magic-Mirror-Spiral: Looking into the role of 'design ideal' in interaction design research projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Nazzi, Elena; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    the dialectic during a research practice are missing. In order to embrace this dialectic, in this paper we suggest the formulation of a Design Ideal as the interface between theoretical concept and situation. We support our suggestion by a retrospection of our ongoing exploration of MagicMirrorSpiral...

  10. Design tradeoffs in long-term research for stream salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Adrianne B,; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2017-01-01

    Long-term research programs can benefit from early and periodic evaluation of their ability to meet stated objectives. In particular, consideration of the spatial allocation of effort is key. We sampled 4 species of stream salamanders intensively for 2 years (2010–2011) in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA to evaluate alternative distributions of sampling locations within stream networks, and then evaluated via simulation the ability of multiple survey designs to detect declines in occupancy and to estimate dynamic parameters (colonization, extinction) over 5 years for 2 species. We expected that fine-scale microhabitat variables (e.g., cobble, detritus) would be the strongest determinants of occupancy for each of the 4 species; however, we found greater support for all species for models including variables describing position within the stream network, stream size, or stream microhabitat. A monitoring design focused on headwater sections had greater power to detect changes in occupancy and the dynamic parameters in each of 3 scenarios for the dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) and red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber). Results for transect length were more variable, but across all species and scenarios, 25-m transects are most suitable as a balance between maximizing detection probability and describing colonization and extinction. These results inform sampling design and provide a general framework for setting appropriate goals, effort, and duration in the initial planning stages of research programs on stream salamanders in the eastern United States.

  11. Design of neutron 'fluse-trop' in Tehran Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafi, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this project, a Neutron Flux-Trap intended for 5MW Tehran Research Reactor was designed. Fuel conversion from HEU to LEU in research reactors usually deprives the core from the high neutron flux. Therefore one has to look for a remedy in such situations otherwise radioisotope production, especially for those neutron demanding ones, falls down dramatically. The initiations of Neutron Flux-Trap idea comes true to face up this problem and provide an appropriate place inside or outside the core with sufficient neutron flux higher than the normal average level. To implement such a design, a number of codes and calculational tools have been used. At preliminary stage, WIMSD and EXTERMINATOR-II were used and then at later stages CITATION and MCNP codes were used for final design. Furthermore, SAND-II and ORIGEN were also employed for spectral analysis and radioisotope production calculations. Good agreements resulted with experiments and especially the case that Neutron Flux-Trap filled with ordinary water

  12. Rethinking Physics for Biologists: A design-based research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    2015-03-01

    Biology majors at the University of Maryland are required to take courses in biology, chemistry, and physics - but they often see these courses as disconnected. Over the past three years the NEXUS/Physics course has been working to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment that bridges the disciplinary domains of biology and physics. Across the three years we have gone from teaching in a small class with one instructor to teaching in a large lecture hall with multiple instructors. We have used a design-based research approach to support critical reflection of the course at multiple-time scales. In this presentation I will detail our process of collecting systematic data, listening to and valuing students' reasoning, and bridging diverse perspectives led. I will demonstrate how this process led to improved curricular design, refined assessment objectives, and new design heuristics. This work is supported by NSF-TUES DUE 11-22818, the HHMI NEXUS grant, and a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE 0750616).

  13. Design of the Graphite Reflectors in Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Graphite is often used as one of reflector materials for research reactors because of its low neutron absorption cross-section, good moderating properties, and relatively low and stable price. In addition, graphite has excellent properties at high temperatures, so it is widely used as a core material in high temperature reactors. However, its material characteristics such as strength, elastic modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, dimensional change, and thermal conductivity sensitively depend on neutron fluence, temperature, and its manufacturing process. In addition, the Wigner energy and the treatment of the graphite waste such as C-14 should also be considered. For the design of the graphite reflectors, it is therefore essential to understand the material characteristics of chosen graphite materials at given conditions. Especially, the dimensional changes and the thermal conductivity are very important factors to design the nuclear components using graphite as a nonstructural material. Hence, in this study, the material characteristics of graphite are investigated via some experiments in literature. Improving design methods for graphite reflectors in research reactors are then suggested to minimize the problems, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also discussed

  14. Cold neutron source conceptual designing for Tehran Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajvand, N.; Mirvakili, S.M.; Faghihi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cold neutron source conceptual designing for Tehran research reactor is carried out. • Type and geometry of moderator and dimensions of cold neutron source are analyzed. • Liquid hydrogen with more ortho-concentration can be better option as moderator. - Abstract: A cold neutron source (CNS) conceptual designing for the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) were carried out using MCNPX code. In this study, a horizontal beam tube of the core which has appropriate the highest thermal flux is selected and parametric analysis to choose the type and geometry of the moderator, and the required CNS dimensions for maximizing the cold neutron production was performed. In this design the moderator cell has a spherical annulus structure, and the cold neutron flux and its brightness are calculated together with the nuclear heat load of the CNS for a variety of materials including liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and solid methane. Based on our study, liquid hydrogen with more ortho-concentration than para and solid methane are the best options.

  15. Basics of case report form designing in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Bellary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report form (CRF is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of data. CRF design should be standardized to address the needs of all users such as investigator, site coordinator, study monitor, data entry personnel, medical coder and statistician. Data should be organized in a format that facilitates and simplifies data analysis. Collection of large amount of data will result in wasted resources in collecting and processing it and in many circumstances, will not be utilized for analysis. Apart from that, standard guidelines should be followed while designing the CRF. CRF completion manual should be provided to the site personnel to promote accurate data entry by them. These measures will result in reduced query generations and improved data integrity. It is recommended to establish and maintain a library of templates of standard CRF modules as they are time saving and cost-effective. This article is an attempt to describe the methods of CRF designing in clinical research and discusses the challenges encountered in this process.

  16. Basics of case report form designing in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellary, Shantala; Krishnankutty, Binny; Latha, M S

    2014-10-01

    Case report form (CRF) is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS) are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of data. CRF design should be standardized to address the needs of all users such as investigator, site coordinator, study monitor, data entry personnel, medical coder and statistician. Data should be organized in a format that facilitates and simplifies data analysis. Collection of large amount of data will result in wasted resources in collecting and processing it and in many circumstances, will not be utilized for analysis. Apart from that, standard guidelines should be followed while designing the CRF. CRF completion manual should be provided to the site personnel to promote accurate data entry by them. These measures will result in reduced query generations and improved data integrity. It is recommended to establish and maintain a library of templates of standard CRF modules as they are time saving and cost-effective. This article is an attempt to describe the methods of CRF designing in clinical research and discusses the challenges encountered in this process.

  17. Design-based research – issues in connecting theory, research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette

    2015-01-01

    the gap. But is this as easy as it sounds? The purpose of the article is to identify and discuss issues involved in applying DBR. The article is based on methodology chapters and essays from three PhD studies applying the DBR framework to implement problem and project based learning (PBL). The findings......During the last 20 years, design-based research (DBR) has become a popular methodology for connecting educational theory, research and practice. The missing link between educational theory, research and educational practice is an ongoing issue and DBR is seen as an integrated methodology to bridge...... indicate several key issues at both the scientific and personal level. Scientifically, the main issues are contribution to theory and the role of the researcher. At the personal level, it is an investment beyond normal research procedures to involve yourself as a researcher in curriculum change....

  18. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  19. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door.

  20. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Research, design and development project Myoelectric Prosthesis of Upper Limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, L; Montaner, E; Flecha, A [Bioparx, J Hernandez 1101, Parana, ERios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A Research Design and Development Project was developed of a myoelectric prosthesis for a pediatric patient presenting congenital amputation of the left forearm below the elbow. A multidisciplinary work-team was formed for this goal, in order to solve the several (/various) aspects regarding this project (mechanical, ergonomics, electronics, physical). The prosthesis as an electromechanical device was divided in several blocks, trying to achieve a focused development for each stage, acording to requisites. A mechanical prototype of the prothesis was designed and built along with the circuitry needed for EMG aquisition, control logic and drivers. Having acomplished the previuos stages, the project is now dealing with the definitions of the interface between the prosthesis and the patient, with promising perspectives.

  2. Research, design and development project Myoelectric Prosthesis of Upper Limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano, L; Montaner, E; Flecha, A

    2007-01-01

    A Research Design and Development Project was developed of a myoelectric prosthesis for a pediatric patient presenting congenital amputation of the left forearm below the elbow. A multidisciplinary work-team was formed for this goal, in order to solve the several (/various) aspects regarding this project (mechanical, ergonomics, electronics, physical). The prosthesis as an electromechanical device was divided in several blocks, trying to achieve a focused development for each stage, acording to requisites. A mechanical prototype of the prothesis was designed and built along with the circuitry needed for EMG aquisition, control logic and drivers. Having acomplished the previuos stages, the project is now dealing with the definitions of the interface between the prosthesis and the patient, with promising perspectives

  3. Skoda Concern's cooperation with State Machinery Design Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchar, J.; Kuhn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main areas are presented of cooperation between the Skoda Plzen Concern and the State Machinery Design Research Institute in Prague-Bechovice. This is mainly the development of steam turbines, from 50 MW turbines to the present 1000 MW saturated steam turbines designed for nuclear power plants. Main attention is centred on conditions of the boiling crisis in the steam turbine circuit, and its consequences. This study is served by the experimental equipment of the institute and its computer. The cooperation of the two institutions in the field of testing and diagnostic equipment is centred on measuring natural oscillations of turbine blades, the diagnostics of vibrations of steam turbines, the measurement of the humidity of saturated steam, optical measurements of the parameters of saturated steam, ultrasound diagnostics and the measurement of turbine blade deformation caused by hydraulic effects. (Z.M.). 8 figs

  4. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door

  5. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  6. Research and Teaching Efficiencies of Turkish Universities with Heterogeneity Considerations: Application of Multi-Activity DEA and DEA by Sequential Exclusion of Alternatives Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Çinar, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The research and teaching efficiencies of 45 Turkish state universities are evaluated by using Multi-Activity Data Envelopment Analysis (MA-DEA) model developed by Beasley (1995). Universities are multi-purpose institutions, therefore they face multiple production functions simultaneously associated with research and teaching activities. MA-DEA allows assigning priorities and allocating shared resources to these activities.

  7. Implementing an online pharmaceutical service using design science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez; da Silva, Miguel Mira; Gregório, João

    2017-03-27

    The rising prevalence of chronic diseases is pressing health systems to introduce reforms. Primary healthcare and multidisciplinary models have been suggested as approaches to deal with this challenge, with new roles for nurses and pharmacists being advocated. More recently, implementing healthcare based on information systems and technologies (e.g. eHealth) has been proposed as a way to improve health services. However, implementing online pharmaceutical services, including their adoption by pharmacists and patients, is still an open research question. In this paper we present ePharmacare, a new online pharmaceutical service implemented using Design Science Research. The Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) was chosen to implement this online service for chronic diseases management. In the paper, DSRM's different activities are explained, from the definition of the problem to the evaluation of the artifact. During the design and development activities, surveys, observations, focus groups, and eye-tracking glasses were used to validate pharmacists' and patients' requirements. During the demonstration and evaluation activities the new service was used with real-world pharmacists and patients. The results show the contribution of DSRM in the implementation of online services for pharmacies. We found that pharmacists spend only 50% of their time interacting with patients, uncovering a clear opportunity to implement online pharmaceutical care services. On the other hand, patients that regularly visit the same pharmacy recognize the value in patient follow-up demanding to use channels such as the Internet for their pharmacy interactions. Limitations were identified regarding the high workload of pharmacists, but particularly their lack of know-how and experience in dealing with information systems (IST) for the provision of pharmaceutical services. This paper summarizes a research project in which an online pharmaceutical service was proposed, designed, developed

  8. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  9. INVOLVING CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS IN RESEARCH DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Suzannah

    2016-09-01

    Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, states that children should be involved in decisions that directly affect them.1 Research involving children should ensure that the opinions and assistance of children and young people is sought at the beginning of the project as their perspectives may influence all aspects of the research design. To describe the challenges recruiting paediatric patients and members of the public to consult on the design of a research project. Posters were put up around the Children's Hospital including pharmacy to recruit paediatric patients and parents to review a research proposal involving children with long-term conditions. There were two responses to the poster, a father and his 15 year old daughter, and a father with a 2 year old child. The father of the 15 year old attended the initial planning meeting, unfortunately the 15 year old and the father of the 2 year old were unable to attend on the day although both agreed to participate in the project. The meeting gave the opportunity to explain the research proposal and answer questions. It was established that the lay team would review the lay summary, participant information leaflet (PIL), and questionnaires that would be sent to the participants. It was arranged that all further contact would be via email due to travel constraints.Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research requires the individuals to be reimbursed for their time. The National Institute for Health Research rate is £18.75 per hour. The lay team members were informed of this and were reimbursed for attending the planning meeting. The use of posters to recruit PPI into the research design had limited success. Since recruitment, the Children's Hospital has launched a youth partnership which may be able to assist in recruitment of lay team members in the future.The logistics of how to pay the lay team members needed to be resolved before their recruitment to ensure timely payment. A form has been

  10. Research by design: honouring the Stolen Generation a theoretical anti-memorial

    OpenAIRE

    Sue-Anne Ware

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical design frameworks and research methods for contemporary memorial design. It is a case study for research by design, an expanding area of design discourse, which offers an alternative to quantitative research practices and 'scientific' methodologies. It expands upon a design research studio, which explored formal design outcomes for an anti-memorial to The Stolen Generation. This essay focuses on ideas about progressive memorial design which prompts multiple re...

  11. New student-designed research and demonstration drop tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donald; Weislogel, Mark

    A new drop tower has been designed and constructed at Portland State University. The ap-proach incorporates innovative features to increase throughput and microgravity quality in a highly public facility. Push button operation with full wireless CCTV coverage and passive magnetic deceleration provides quiet, safe operation from a single control station with low re-cycle time. A two-stage coaxial release mechanism decouples the payload from the drag shield to minimize disturbances to the experiment during release. This is especially important for fluids experiments that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. Performance of the new tower is presented including release, free fall, and deceleration accelerometer data. The two second tower is used for research and educational outreach. The research efforts focus on capillary flows and phenomena relevant to spacecraft fluid systems. The outreach efforts utilize partnerships with local primary, secondary and post-secondary institutions to promote the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  12. Design of a New Research Reactor: Preliminary Conceptual Design (3rd Year)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T. and others

    2006-01-01

    A research reactor design is a kind of integral engineering project and a process to obtain a concrete shape through several years of concept development, conceptual design, basic design and detail design. So it requires close cooperation in various areas as well as lots of manpower and cost. The overall process at each stage may be said to be similar except for some stage-specific works. In 2005 as last year of a concept development stage, investigations on the various concepts of the fuel, reactor structure and systems which can meet the requirements established. The requirements for the process systems and I and C systems have also been embodied. The major tasks planned at the early of 2005 have been performed for each area of reactor design as follows: Establishment of the fuel and reactor core concept, and the core analysis, Preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses for the conceptual cores, Establishment and improvement of analysis system, Concept developments of the reactor structures and major systems, Test and test plan to verify the developed concepts, International cooperation to establish the foundations for exporting a research reactor

  13. An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

  14. Paper in architecture: Research by design, engineering and prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy F. Latka

    2017-11-01

    in terms of architecture, its material properties were researched on a micro, meso and macro level. This research of the possible applications of paper in architecture was informed by two main research questions: What is paper and to what extent can it be used in architecture? What is the most suitable way to use paper in emergency architecture? To answer the first research question, fundamental and material research on paper and paper products had to be conducted. The composition of the material, production methods and properties of paper were researched. Then paper products with the potential to be used in architecture were examined. The history of the development of paper and its influence on civilisation helped the author gain a better understanding of the nature of this material, which we encounter in our lives every day. Research on objects for everyday use, furniture, pavilions and architecture realised in the last 150 years allowed the author to distinguish various types of paper design and paper architecture. Analysis of realised buildings in which paper products were used as structural elements and parts of the building envelope resulted in a wide array of possible solutions. Structural systems, types of connections between the various elements, impregnation methods and the functionalities and lifespan of different types of buildings were systematised. The knowledge thus collected allowed the author to conduct a further exploration of paper architecture in the form of designs and prototypes. To answer the second research question, the analysed case studies were translated into designs and prototypes of emergency shelters. During the research-by-design, engineering and prototyping phases, more than a dozen prototypes were built. The prototypes differed in terms of structural systems, used materials, connections between structural elements, impregnation methods, functionality and types of building. The three versions of the Transportable Emergency Cardboard

  15. Health Maintenance System (HMS) Hardware Research, Design, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Stefanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences division (SLSD) concentrates on optimizing a crew member's health. Developments are translated into innovative engineering solutions, research growth, and community awareness. This internship incorporates all those areas by targeting various projects. The main project focuses on integrating clinical and biomedical engineering principles to design, develop, and test new medical kits scheduled for launch in the Spring of 2011. Additionally, items will be tagged with Radio Frequency Interference Devices (RFID) to keep track of the inventory. The tags will then be tested to optimize Radio Frequency feed and feed placement. Research growth will occur with ground based experiments designed to measure calcium encrusted deposits in the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will assess the urine calcium levels with Portable Clinical Blood Analyzer (PCBA) technology. If effective then a model for urine calcium will be developed and expanded to microgravity environments. To support collaboration amongst the subdivisions of SLSD the architecture of the Crew Healthcare Systems (CHeCS) SharePoint site has been redesigned for maximum efficiency. Community collaboration has also been established with the University of Southern California, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hardware disbursements will transpire within these communities to support planetary surface exploration and to serve as an educational tool demonstrating how ground based medicine influenced the technological development of space hardware.

  16. Design of controller for control rod of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zaid, R.M.F.M

    2008-01-01

    Designing and testing digital control system for any nuclear research reactor can be costly and time consuming. In this thesis, a rapid, low-cost proto typing and testing procedure for digital controller design is proposed using the concept of Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL). Some of the control loop components are real hardware components and the others are simulated. First, the whole system is modeled and tested by Real-Time Simulation (RTS) using conventional simulation techniques such as MATLAB / SIMULINK. Second the Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is tested using Real-Time Windows Target in MATLAB and Visual C ++ . The control parts are included as hardware components which are the reactor control rod and its drivers. Three kinds of controllers are studied, Proportional-Derivative (PD), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and Fuzzy controller. An experimental setup for the hardware used in HIL concept for the control of the nuclear research reactor has been realized. Experimental results are obtained and compared with the simulation results. The experimental results indicate the validation of HIL method in this domain.

  17. Comment on: "Cell Therapy for Heart Disease: Trial Sequential Analyses of Two Cochrane Reviews"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Trial Sequential Analysis is a frequentist method to help researchers control the risks of random errors in meta-analyses (1). Fisher and colleagues used Trial Sequential Analysis on cell therapy for heart diseases (2). The present article discusses the usefulness of Trial Sequential Analysis and...

  18. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  19. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  20. Application of Box-Wilson experimental design method for 2,4-dinitrotoluene treatment in a sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A sequential aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) following the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was used to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). A Box-Wilson statistical experiment design was used to determine the effects of 2,4-DNT and the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on 2,4-DNT and COD removal efficiencies in the AMBR reactor. The 2,4-DNT concentrations in the feed (0-280 mg/L) and the HRT (0.5-10 days) were considered as the independent variables while the 2,4-DNT and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, total and methane gas productions, methane gas percentage, pH, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and total volatile fatty acid/bicarbonate alkalinity (TVFA/Bic.Alk.) ratio were considered as the objective functions in the Box-Wilson statistical experiment design in the AMBR. The predicted data for the parameters given above were determined from the response functions by regression analysis of the experimental data and exhibited excellent agreement with the experimental results. The optimum HRT which gave the maximum COD (97.00%) and 2,4-DNT removal (99.90%) efficiencies was between 5 and 10 days at influent 2,4-DNT concentrations 1-280 mg/L in the AMBR. The aerobic CSTR was used for removals of residual COD remaining from the AMBR, and for metabolites of 2,4-DNT. The maximum COD removal efficiency was 99% at an HRT of 1.89 days at a 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L in the aerobic CSTR. It was found that 280 mg/L 2,4-DNT transformed to 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) via 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (2-A-4-NT) and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4-A-2-NT) in the AMBR. The maximum 2,4-DAT removal was 82% at an HRT of 8.61 days in the aerobic CSTR. The maximum total COD and 2,4-DNT removal efficiencies were 99.00% and 99.99%, respectively, at an influent 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L and at 1.89 days of HRT in the sequential AMBR/CSTR.

  1. Application of Box-Wilson experimental design method for 2,4-dinitrotoluene treatment in a sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk, E-mail: oselcuk@mmf.sdu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Sueleyman Demirel University, Cuenuer Campus, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Sponza, Delia Teresa [Dokuz Eyluel University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Buca Kaynaklar campus, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    A sequential aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) following the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was used to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). A Box-Wilson statistical experiment design was used to determine the effects of 2,4-DNT and the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on 2,4-DNT and COD removal efficiencies in the AMBR reactor. The 2,4-DNT concentrations in the feed (0-280 mg/L) and the HRT (0.5-10 days) were considered as the independent variables while the 2,4-DNT and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, total and methane gas productions, methane gas percentage, pH, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and total volatile fatty acid/bicarbonate alkalinity (TVFA/Bic.Alk.) ratio were considered as the objective functions in the Box-Wilson statistical experiment design in the AMBR. The predicted data for the parameters given above were determined from the response functions by regression analysis of the experimental data and exhibited excellent agreement with the experimental results. The optimum HRT which gave the maximum COD (97.00%) and 2,4-DNT removal (99.90%) efficiencies was between 5 and 10 days at influent 2,4-DNT concentrations 1-280 mg/L in the AMBR. The aerobic CSTR was used for removals of residual COD remaining from the AMBR, and for metabolites of 2,4-DNT. The maximum COD removal efficiency was 99% at an HRT of 1.89 days at a 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L in the aerobic CSTR. It was found that 280 mg/L 2,4-DNT transformed to 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) via 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (2-A-4-NT) and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4-A-2-NT) in the AMBR. The maximum 2,4-DAT removal was 82% at an HRT of 8.61 days in the aerobic CSTR. The maximum total COD and 2,4-DNT removal efficiencies were 99.00% and 99.99%, respectively, at an influent 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L and at 1.89 days of HRT in the sequential AMBR/CSTR.

  2. Application of Box-Wilson experimental design method for 2,4-dinitrotoluene treatment in a sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşçu, Özlem Selçuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2011-03-15

    A sequential aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) following the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was used to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). A Box-Wilson statistical experiment design was used to determine the effects of 2,4-DNT and the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on 2,4-DNT and COD removal efficiencies in the AMBR reactor. The 2,4-DNT concentrations in the feed (0-280 mg/L) and the HRT (0.5-10 days) were considered as the independent variables while the 2,4-DNT and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, total and methane gas productions, methane gas percentage, pH, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and total volatile fatty acid/bicarbonate alkalinity (TVFA/Bic.Alk.) ratio were considered as the objective functions in the Box-Wilson statistical experiment design in the AMBR. The predicted data for the parameters given above were determined from the response functions by regression analysis of the experimental data and exhibited excellent agreement with the experimental results. The optimum HRT which gave the maximum COD (97.00%) and 2,4-DNT removal (99.90%) efficiencies was between 5 and 10 days at influent 2,4-DNT concentrations 1-280 mg/L in the AMBR. The aerobic CSTR was used for removals of residual COD remaining from the AMBR, and for metabolites of 2,4-DNT. The maximum COD removal efficiency was 99% at an HRT of 1.89 days at a 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L in the aerobic CSTR. It was found that 280 mg/L 2,4-DNT transformed to 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) via 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (2-A-4-NT) and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4-A-2-NT) in the AMBR. The maximum 2,4-DAT removal was 82% at an HRT of 8.61 days in the aerobic CSTR. The maximum total COD and 2,4-DNT removal efficiencies were 99.00% and 99.99%, respectively, at an influent 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L and at 1.89 days of HRT in the sequential AMBR/CSTR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design-based research in designing the model for educating simulation facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Jaana-Maija; Hannula, Leena; Bøje, Rikke Buus; Prescott, Stephen; Bland, Andrew; Rekola, Leena; Haho, Päivi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of design-based research, its appropriateness in creating education-based models, and to describe the process of developing such a model. The model was designed as part of the Nurse Educator Simulation based learning project, funded by the EU's Lifelong Learning program (2013-1-DK1-LEO05-07053). The project partners were VIA University College, Denmark, the University of Huddersfield, UK and Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Finland. As an outcome of the development process, "the NESTLED model for educating simulation facilitators" (NESTLED model) was generated. This article also illustrates five design principles that could be applied to other pedagogies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensions of design space: a decision-theoretic approach to optimal research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Stefano; Claxton, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian decision theory can be used not only to establish the optimal sample size and its allocation in a single clinical study but also to identify an optimal portfolio of research combining different types of study design. Within a single study, the highest societal payoff to proposed research is achieved when its sample sizes and allocation between available treatment options are chosen to maximize the expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS). Where a number of different types of study informing different parameters in the decision problem could be conducted, the simultaneous estimation of ENBS across all dimensions of the design space is required to identify the optimal sample sizes and allocations within such a research portfolio. This is illustrated through a simple example of a decision model of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza. The possible study designs include: 1) a single trial of all the parameters, 2) a clinical trial providing evidence only on clinical endpoints, 3) an epidemiological study of natural history of disease, and 4) a survey of quality of life. The possible combinations, samples sizes, and allocation between trial arms are evaluated over a range of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The computational challenges are addressed by implementing optimization algorithms to search the ENBS surface more efficiently over such large dimensions.

  5. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  6. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  7. Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)

  8. [Thinking on designation of sham acupuncture in clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Jia; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCT) is the source of the raw data of evidence-based medicine. Blind method is adopted in most of the high-quality RCT. Sham acupuncture is the main form of blinded in acupuncture clinical trial. In order to improve the quality of acupuncture clinical trail, based on the necessity of sham acupuncture in clinical research, the current situation as well as the existing problems of sham acupuncture, suggestions were put forward from the aspects of new way and new designation method which can be adopted as reference, and factors which have to be considered during the process of implementing. Various subjective and objective factors involving in the process of trial should be considered, and used of the current international standards, try to be quantification, and carry out strict quality monitoring.

  9. A new event detector designed for the Seismic Research Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, James N.; Hutt, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    A new short-period event detector has been implemented on the Seismic Research Observatories. For each signal detected, a printed output gives estimates of the time of onset of the signal, direction of the first break, quality of onset, period and maximum amplitude of the signal, and an estimate of the variability of the background noise. On the SRO system, the new algorithm runs ~2.5x faster than the former (power level) detector. This increase in speed is due to the design of the algorithm: all operations can be performed by simple shifts, additions, and comparisons (floating point operations are not required). Even though a narrow-band recursive filter is not used, the algorithm appears to detect events competitively with those algorithms that employ such filters. Tests at Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory on data supplied by Blandford suggest performance commensurate with the on-line detector of the Seismic Data Analysis Center, Alexandria, Virginia.

  10. Research Reactor Power Control System Design by MATLAB/SIMULINK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yong Suk; Kim, Young Ki; Im, Ki Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this study it is presented that MATLAB/SIMULINK can be efficiently used for modeling and power control system design for research reactors. The presented power control system deals with various functions including reactivity control, signals processing, reactivity calculation, alarm request generation, etc., thus it is required to test all the software logic using proper model for reactor, control rods, and field instruments. In MATLAB/SIMULINK tool, point kinetics, thermal model, control absorber rod model, and other instrument models were developed based on reactor parameters and known properties of each component or system. The software for power control system was invented and linked to the model to test each function. From the simulation result it is shown that the power control performance and other functions of the system can be easily tested and analyzed in the proposed simulation structure

  11. An Overview of Research and Design Activities at CTFusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Hossack, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    CTFusion, a newly formed company dedicated to the development of compact, toroidal fusion energy, is a spin-off from the University of Washington that will build upon the successes of the HIT-SI research program. The mission of the company to develop net-gain fusion power cores that will serve as the heart of economical fusion power plants or radioactive-waste destroying burner reactors. The overarching vision and development plan of the company will be presented, along with a detailed justification and design for our next device, the HIT-TD (Technology Demonstration) prototype. By externally driving the edge current and imposing non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations, HIT-TD should demonstrate the sustainment of stable spheromak configurations with Imposed-Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD), as was accomplished in the HIT-SI device, with higher current gains and temperatures than previously possible. HIT-TD, if successful, will be an instrumental step along this path to economical fusion energy, and will serve as the stepping stone to our Proof-Of-Principle device (HIT-PoP). Beyond the implications of higher performance, sustained spheromaks for fusion applications, the HIT-TD platform will provide a unique system to observe plasma self-organizational phenomena of interest for other fusion devices, and astrophysical systems as well. Lastly, preliminary nuclear engineering design simulations with the MCNP6 code of the HIT-FNSF (Fusion Nuclear Science Facility) device will be presented.

  12. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge

  13. Research of CITP-II tritium production irradiation device design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Deng Yongjun; Mi Xiangmiao; Li Rundong; Liu Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    As the core component of CITP-II, the online tritium production irradiation device is the pivotal equipment in the research on tritium production and release of tritium breeders. The design of CITP-II online tritium production irradiation device creatively makes replacing the breeders online come true; as tritium production capacity, the self-shielding factor of device, and neutron flux were studied. The influence of different load models and load thicknesses of breeders to tritium production capacity was calculated. The hydrodynamics parameters of device in solid-gas phase were computed. Thermal parameters, such as the heat power of breeders, hotspot, temperature grads distributions, utmost temperature, uneven factors, were analyzed. Creatively designed nonlinear electric heater equalized breeders' even heat power. The influence laws of the components, pressure of gap gas and carrier gas to the balance temperature were got. And the key thermal parameters were ascertained. The key thermal parameters and the changing laws were got and provide the basis for structural optimization and safety analysis. They can also be referenced for the study of breeders' tritium production and release. (authors)

  14. Mission and design of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.; Jardin, S.C.; Schmidt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments are needed to test and extend present understanding of confinement, macroscopic stability, alpha-driven instabilities, and particle/power exhaust in plasmas dominated by alpha heating. A key issue is to what extent pressure profile evolution driven by strong alpha heating will act to self-organize advanced configurations with large bootstrap current fractions and internal transport barriers. A design study of a Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is underway to assess near term opportunities for advancing the scientific understanding of self-heated fusion plasmas. The emphasis is on understanding the behavior of fusion plasmas dominated by alpha heating (Q≥5) that are sustained for durations comparable to the characteristic plasma time scales (≥20 τ E and ∼τ skin , where τ skin is the time for the plasma current profile to redistribute at fixed current). The programmatic mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize alpha-dominated plasmas to provide knowledge for the design of attractive magnetic fusion energy systems. The programmatic strategy is to access the alpha-heating-dominated regime with confidence using the present advanced tokamak data base (e.g., Elmy-H-mode, ≤0.75 Greenwald density) while maintaining the flexibility for accessing and exploring other advanced tokamak modes (e. g., reversed shear, pellet enhanced performance) at lower magnetic fields and fusion power for longer durations in later stages of the experimental program. A major goal is to develop a design concept that could meet these physics objectives with a construction cost in the range of $1B. (author)

  15. Understandings of the Concept of Iteration in Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Peter Bukovica

    2017-01-01

    The paper is the first in a series of papers addressing design in Design-based research. The series looks into the question of how this research approach is connected to design. What happens when educational researchers adopt designerly ways of working? This paper provides an overview of design......-based research and from there on discuss one key characteristic, namely iterations, which are fundamental to educational design research in relation to how designers operate and why. The paper concludes that in general iteration is not a particularly well-described aspect in the reporting of DBR-projects. Half...... and usually after long periods of testing design solutions in practice....

  16. Framework for sequential approximate optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python

  17. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units of measurements for quantitative variables. In respect of good practice, a set of confounding factors (as gender, date of birth, etc. have also been identified and integrated in data collection instruments. Data-entry validation rules were implemented for each variable to reduce data input errors when the electronic data collection instrument was created. Results: Two data collection instruments have been developed and successfully implemented: a paper-based form and an electronic data collection instrument. The developed forms included demographics, neonatal complications (as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, etc., biochemical data at birth and follow-up, immunological data, as well as basal and follow-up echocardiographic data. Data-entry validation criteria have been implemented in electronic data collection instrument to assure validity and precision when paper-based data are translated in electronic form. Furthermore, to assure subject’s confidentiality a careful attention was given to HIPPA identifiers when electronic data collection instrument was developed. Conclusion: Data collection instruments were successfully developed and implemented as an a priori step in a clinical research for assisting data collection and management in a case of an observational prospective study with follow-up visits.

  18. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  19. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  20. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  1. Toward time-based design: Creating an applied time evaluation checklist for urban design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shakibamanesh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The perception of a 3D space, in which movement takes place, is subjectively based on experience. The pedestrians’ perception of subjective duration is one of the related issues that receive little attention in urban design literature. Pedestrians often misperceive the required time to pass a certain distance. A wide range of factors affects one׳s perception of time in urban environments. These factors include individual factors (e.g., gender, age, and psychological state, social and cultural contexts, purpose and motivation for being in the space, and knowledge of the given area. This study aims to create an applied checklist that can be used by urban designers in analyzing the effects of individual experience on subjective duration. This checklist will enable urban designers to perform a phenomenological assessment of time perception and compare this perception in different urban spaces, thereby improving pedestrians’ experiences of time through a purposeful design. A combination of exploratory and descriptive analytical research is used as methodology due to the complexity of time perception.

  2. Pass-transistor asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.; Maki, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Design methods for asynchronous sequential pass-transistor circuits, which result in circuits that are hazard- and critical-race-free and which have added degrees of freedom for the input signals, are discussed. The design procedures are straightforward and easy to implement. Two single-transition-time state assignment methods are presented, and hardware bounds for each are established. A surprising result is that the hardware realizations for each next state variable and output variable is identical for a given flow table. Thus, a state machine with N states and M outputs can be constructed using a single layout replicated N + M times.

  3. DRS // CUMULUS Oslo 2013. The 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Merete Nielsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This international conference is a springboard for sharing ideas and concepts about contemporary design education research. Contributors are invited to submit research that deals with different facets of contemporary approaches to design education research. All papers will be double-blind peer-reviewed. This conference is open to research in any aspect and discipline of design education. Conference theme:Design Learning for Tomorrow - Design Education from Kindergarten to PhD

  4. Advancements in flow-induced vibration research and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow exists in many nuclear components and, in particular, steam generators. So far relatively little research work has been done on two-phase flow-induced vibration probably because it is difficult to do. Two-phase flows are not homogeneous and are governed by an additional parameter called void fraction. This can lead to different flow patterns or regimes that can change completely the vibration behaviour. Fluidelastic instability, random turbulence excitation and detailed flow characteristics are being investigated in tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross flow. Fluidelastic instability of a tube bundle preferentially flexible in the flow direction was observed probably for the first time. This is particularly relevant to the problem of in-plane vibration of nuclear steam generator U-tubes and has resulted in changes in our design criteria. Unexpected quasi-periodic excitation forces were also measured in the tube bundle. These are attributed to an alternating wake in the lift direction and to fluctuating momentum flux in the drag direction. Vibration damping due to two-phase flow is very dependent on void fraction and appears directly related to the interface surface area between phases. Maximum damping values correspond to the transitions between flow regimes. Fibre optic probes were developed to measure the characteristics of two-phase flows. These probes are used to take detailed measurements in a triangular array of tubes in cross flow. The results show that the flow tends to stream between the tubes. These studies have yielded interesting results but have raised more questions that could lead to improved design criteria. The more puzzling results will be discussed in this presentation. Some of the dynamic phenomena will be illustrated by animation. (author)

  5. Design Based Research: the Way of Developing and Implementing Educational Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Štemberger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate implementation of innovation is a crucial factor in improving educational practice. In the implementation process, there is, however, often a lack of interaction between designers and practitioners that would enable the latter to become competent enough to implement theoretical knowledge into practice and to have an ongoing support from designers. Design-based research is based on close cooperation between researchers, practitioners and designers which consequently allows greater integration of research and practice in education. In the present paper, the beginnings, development, basic characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and the research process of design-based research are reviewed and an example of design-based research is presented.

  6. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Research and development needs for ITER engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.; Alikaev, V.; Baker, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the series of documents that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), this document describes the research and development (R and D) plans for 1991 - 1995. Part A describes the physics R and D, part B the technology R and D. The Physics R and D needs are presented in terms of task descriptions of an ITER-related R and D programme for 1991/1992 and beyond, while diagnostics R and D needs, although covered in Appendix A, are described in Part B. In Chapter II of Part A, ''ITER-related Physics R and D Needs for 91/92 and Beyond'', the following tasks are described as most crucial: (1) demonstration that (i) operation with a cold divertor plasma is possible, (ii) the peak heat flux onto the divertor plate can be kept below about 10 MW per square meter, (iii) and helium exhaust conditions allow a fractional burnup of about 3 percent or more; (2) a characterisation of disruptions that allows to specify their consequences for the plasma-facing-components, and that provides evidence that the number of disruptions expected allows acceptable plasma-facing-component lifetimes; (3) demonstration that steady-state operation in an enhanced-confinement regime and satisfactory plasma purity is possible, and provision of energy confinement scaling allowing the prediction of ITER performance; and (4) ensurance that the presence of a fast ion population does not jeopardize plasma performance in ITER. Part B, ''ITER Technology Research and Development Needs'', describes planning R and D for magnets, containment structure, assembly and maintenance, current drive and heating, plasma facing components, blanket, fuel cycle, structural materials, and diagnostics. A table of key milestones for Technology R and D is included, as well as cost estimates. Figs and tabs

  8. Configural and component processing in simultaneous and sequential lineup procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Flowe, HD; Smith, HMJ; Karoğlu, N; Onwuegbusi, TO; Rai, L

    2015-01-01

    Configural processing supports accurate face recognition, yet it has never been examined within the context of criminal identification lineups. We tested, using the inversion paradigm, the role of configural processing in lineups. Recent research has found that face discrimination accuracy in lineups is better in a simultaneous compared to a sequential lineup procedure. Therefore, we compared configural processing in simultaneous and sequential lineups to examine whether there are differences...

  9. practice-oriented research in service of designing interventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but rather practice oriented, and illustrates the need for n-type research. We present ... Problem owners are not involved in main-line qualitative or quantitative research. ... not only have knowledge of the research methodology, but should also.

  10. On framing the research question and choosing the appropriate research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfrey, Patrick S; Ravani, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical epidemiology is the science of human disease investigation with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The generation of a reasonable question requires definition of patients, interventions, controls, and outcomes. The goal of research design is to minimize error, to ensure adequate samples, to measure input and output variables appropriately, to consider external and internal validities, to limit bias, and to address clinical as well as statistical relevance. The hierarchy of evidence for clinical decision-making places randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic review of good quality RCTs at the top of the evidence pyramid. Prognostic and etiologic questions are best addressed with longitudinal cohort studies.

  11. Sequential versus Organized Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Richard M.; Crawford, Charlotte

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that organization in rehearsal is a necessary condition for organization in recall; that is, if recall is organized, then rehearsal must have been organized. (Author)

  12. Foundations of Sequential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    is not sufficient to estimate the payoff. The learned must use a strategy that balances exploration (learning new information by pulling arms that...specifications, or other data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation ; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any...ABSTRACT This report summarizes the research done under FA8750-16-2-0173. This research advanced understanding of bandit algorithms and exploration in

  13. Design, development and deployment of a Diabetes Research Registry to facilitate recruitment in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meng H; Bernstein, Steven J; Gendler, Stephen; Hanauer, David; Herman, William H

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in conducting clinical trials/studies is the timely recruitment of eligible subjects. Our aim is to develop a Diabetes Research Registry (DRR) to facilitate recruitment by matching potential subjects interested in research with approved clinical studies using study entry criteria abstracted from their electronic health records (EHR). A committee with expertise in diabetes, quality improvement, information technology, and informatics designed and developed the DRR. Using a hybrid approach, we identified and consented patients interested in research, abstracted their EHRs to assess common eligibility criteria, and contacted them about their interest in participating in specific studies. Investigators submit their requests with study entry criteria to the DRR which then provides a list of potential subjects who may be directly contacted for their study. The DRR meets all local, regional and federal regulatory requirements. After 5 years, the DRR has over 5000 registrants. About 30% have type 1 diabetes and 70% have type 2 diabetes. There are almost equal proportions of men and women. During this period, 31 unique clinical studies from 19 unique investigators requested lists of potential subjects for their studies. Eleven grant applications from 10 unique investigators used aggregated counts of potentially eligible subjects in their applications. The DRR matches potential subjects interested in research with approved clinical studies using study entry criteria abstracted from their EHR. By providing large lists of potentially eligible study subjects quickly, the DRR facilitated recruitment in 31 clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Research of Design Based on Social Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Juhua Wu; Meng Xu; Zan Mo; Luo Liao

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous design theories which focus only on artifacts, we study the factors of social commerce design with application environment and human capabilities. By comparing social commerce design model and information model, we develop a new social commerce design model, further exploring user requirements after shopping, including the exploration of brand community, sharing offline social shopping experience and the improvement of user social skills. According to the new model, we revea...

  15. Ethics through aesthetics: a trefoil design research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, P.R.; Trotto, A.; Overbeeke, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    The products and systems we design transform society. As design encompasses ever more complex, ‘Ambient Intelligent’ technologies, its influence on society concurrently becomes increasingly complex, profound and ethically relevant. Designers have both an opportunity and responsibility to take this

  16. A Review of Research on Universal Design Educational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kavita; Ok, Min Wook; Bryant, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Universal design for learning (UDL) has gained considerable attention in the field of special education, acclaimed for its promise to promote inclusion by supporting access to the general curriculum. In addition to UDL, there are two other universal design (UD) educational models referenced in the literature, universal design of instruction (UDI)…

  17. Research on Design Information Management System for Leather Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Peng, Wen-li

    The idea of setting up a design information management system of leather goods was put forward to solve the problems existed in current information management of leather goods. Working principles of the design information management system for leather goods were analyzed in detail. Firstly, the acquiring approach of design information of leather goods was introduced. Secondly, the processing methods of design information were introduced. Thirdly, the management of design information in database was studied. Finally, the application of the system was discussed by taking the shoes products as an example.

  18. Research and Application of Integration Design Environment Faced to CSCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Han; LI Yanfeng; DONG Yude

    2006-01-01

    Computer supported collaborative design(CSCD) technology has been applied extensively with intensive market competition. The key technologies and problems of CSCD are analyzed and a CSCD design frame faced to product design is established. Then a CSCD system faced to radar key components is founded with Pro/INTRALINK software and re-exploiting technology. Some key processes are also designed, such as database management, workflow programming, information communication, file release, conflict identification and safety management. These will provide a reference for constructing a cooperative design environment.

  19. Research on SDG-Based Qualitative Reasoning in Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is the initial stage throughout the product life cycle, whose main purposes include function creation, function decomposition, and function and subfunction designs. At this stage, the information about product function and structure has the characteristics of imprecision, incompleteness, being qualitative, and so forth, which will affect the validity of conceptual design. In this paper, the signed directed graph is used to reveal the inherent causal relationship and interactions among the variables and find qualitative interactions between design variables and design purpose with the help of causal sequence analysis and constraint propagation. In the case of incomplete information, qualitative reasoning, which has the function of qualitative behavior prediction, can improve conceptual design level aided by the computer. To some extent, qualitative reasoning plays a supplementary role in evaluating scheme and predicting function. At last, with the problem of planar four-bar mechanism design, a qualitative reasoning flowchart based on the Signed Directed Graph is introduced, and an analysis is made of how to adjust design parameters to make the trajectory of a moving point reach to the predetermined position so as to meet the design requirements and achieve the effect that aided designers expect in conceptual design.

  20. Practical research on the teaching of Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changjiang; Ren, Zhijun; Ying, Chaofu; Peng, Baojin

    2017-08-01

    Optical design, together with applied optics, forms a complete system from basic theory to application theory, and it plays a very important role in professional education. In order to improve senior undergraduates' understanding of optical design, this course is divided into three parts: theoretical knowledge, software design and product processing. Through learning theoretical knowledge, students can master the aberration theory and the design principles of typical optical system. By using ZEMAX(an imaging design software), TRACEPRO(a lighting optical design software), SOLIDWORKS or PROE( mechanical design software), student can establish a complete model of optical system. Student can use carving machine located in lab or cooperative units to process the model. Through the above three parts, student can learn necessary practical knowledge and get improved in their learning and analysis abilities, thus they can also get enough practice to prompt their creative abilities, then they could gradually change from scientific theory learners to an Optics Engineers.

  1. Conceptual Nuclear Design of a 20 MW Multipurpose Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Vinh, Le Vinh; Dang, Vo Doan Hai [Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2007-08-15

    A conceptual nuclear design of a 20 MW multi-purpose research reactor for Vietnam has been jointly done by the KAERI and the DNRI (VAEC). The AHR reference core in this report is a right water cooled and a heavy water reflected open-tank-in-pool type multipurpose research reactor with 20 MW. The rod type fuel of a dispersed U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al with a density of 4.0 gU/cc is used as a fuel. The core consists of fourteen 36-element assemblies, four 18-element assemblies and has three in-core irradiation sites. The reflector tank filled with heavy water surrounds the core and provides rooms for various irradiation holes. Major analyses have been done for the relevant nuclear design parameters such as the neutron flux and power distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths, etc. For the analysis, the MCNP, MVP, and HELIOS codes were used by KAERI and DNRI (VAEC). The results by MCNP (KAERI) and MVP (DNRI) showed good agreements and can be summarized as followings. For a clean, unperturbed core condition such that the fuels are all fresh and there are no irradiation holes in the reflector region, the fast neutron flux (E{sub n}{>=}1.0 MeV) reaches 1.47x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s and the maximum thermal neutron flux (E{sub n}{<=}0.625 eV) reaches 4.43x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s in the core region. In the reflector region, the thermal neutron peak occurs about 28 cm far from the core center and the maximum thermal neutron flux is estimated to be 4.09x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s. For the analysis of the equilibrium cycle core, the irradiation facilities in the reflector region were considered. The cycle length was estimated as 38 days long with a refueling scheme of replacing three 36-element fuel assemblies or replacing two 36-element and one 18-element fuel assemblies. The excess reactivity at a BOC was 103.4 mk, and 24.6 mk at a minimum was reserved at an EOC. The assembly average discharge burnup was 54.6% of initial U-235 loading. For the proposed fuel management

  2. Towards designing and implementing an empirically grounded research for humanitarian logistics after nepal earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharmand, Hossein; Comes, M.; Lauras, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper proposes a research design for effective use of qualitative data from field research in a quantitative analysis of humanitarian logistics. Design/methodology/approach Our research design is composed of qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative part has four steps:

  3. Recent Innovations in Small-N Designs for Research and Practice in "Professional School Counseling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Smith, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This article illustrates an innovative small-N research design that researchers and practitioners can use to investigate questions of interest in "professional school counseling." The distributed criterion (DC) design integrates elements of three classic small-N research designs--the changing criterion, reversal, and multiple baseline. The DC…

  4. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT mea......BACKGROUND: Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG...... assumed to be normally distributed, and sequential one-sided hypothesis tests on the population standard deviation of the differences against a hypothesised value of 1.5 were performed, employing an alpha spending function. The fixed-sample analysis (N = 45) was compared with the group-sequential analysis...... strategies comprising one (at N = 23), two (at N = 15, 30), or three interim analyses (at N = 11, 23, 34), respectively, which were defined post hoc. RESULTS: When performing interim analyses with one third and two thirds of patients, sufficient agreement could be concluded after the first interim analysis...

  5. Design research in statistics education : on symbolizing and computer tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The present knowledge society requires statistical literacy-the ability to interpret, critically evaluate, and communicate about statistical information and messages (Gal, 2002). However, research shows that students generally do not gain satisfactory statistical understanding. The research

  6. Conducting and publishing design science research : Inaugural essay of the design science department of the Journal of Operations Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, Joan; Chandrasekaran, Aravind; Halman, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The new Design Science department at the Journal of Operations Management invites submissions using a design science research strategy for operations management (OM) issues. The objective of this strategy is to develop knowledge that can be used in a direct and specific way to design and implement

  7. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  8. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  9. A narrative research design for moral courage of professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Marion; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Narrative research is an appropriate method for studying the constructs and sensemaking of moral courage. Moral courage or speaking up by professionals is needed for maintaining ethical checks and balances in organizations. Personal narratives give the researcher and the researched increased

  10. Improving the Design of Workplace E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Cathy; Long, Lori

    2012-01-01

    E-learning researchers face considerable challenges in creating meaningful and generalizable studies due to the complex nature of this dynamic training medium. Our experience in conducting workplace e-learning research led us to create this guide for planning research on e-learning. We share the unanticipated complications we encountered in our…

  11. From sequential to parallel programming with patterns

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    To increase in both performance and efficiency, our programming models need to adapt to better exploit modern processors. The classic idioms and patterns for programming such as loops, branches or recursion are the pillars of almost every code and are well known among all programmers. These patterns all have in common that they are sequential in nature. Embracing parallel programming patterns, which allow us to program for multi- and many-core hardware in a natural way, greatly simplifies the task of designing a program that scales and performs on modern hardware, independently of the used programming language, and in a generic way.

  12. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  13. Research on the optimization of quota design in real estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunling; Ma, Susu; Zhong, Weichao

    2017-11-01

    Quota design is one of the effective methods of cost control in real estate development project and widely used in the current real estate development project to control the engineering construction cost, but quota design have many deficiencies in design process. For this purpose, this paper put forward a method to achieve investment control of real estate development project, which combine quota design and value engineering(VE) at the stage of design. Specifically, it’s an optimizing for the structure of quota design. At first, determine the design limits by investment estimate value, then using VE to carry on initial allocation of design limits and gain the functional target cost, finally, consider the whole life cycle cost (LCC) and operational problem in practical application to finish complex correction for the functional target cost. The improved process can control the project cost more effectively. It not only can control investment in a certain range, but also make the project realize maximum value within investment.

  14. Design of Breadfruit Shelling Machine | Nwigbo | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the engineering design of this machine, the action zone consisted essentially of two rollers; one adjustable and the other rotating. A separating unit that cleans the seed while pneumatically separating it from the shell was incorporated. The design of this separating unit was such that practically 80% cleaning was achieved ...

  15. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢礼立; 马玉宏

    2002-01-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building(s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the (Optimal Economic Decision Model( and (Optimal Safe Decision Model( are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  16. Software Tools for Battery Design | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Software Tools for Battery Design Software Tools for Battery Design Under the Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) project, NREL has developed software tools to help using CAEBAT software tools. Knowledge of the interplay of multi-physics at varied scales is imperative

  17. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  18. Research Notes ~ Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Brown

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing and developing e-learning materials is a costly and time consuming enterprise. This paper highlights the elements of effective design that we consider assist in the development of high quality materials in a cost efficient way. We introduce six elements of design and discuss each in some detail. These elements focus on paying attention to the provision of a rich learning activity, situating this activity within an interesting story line, providing meaningful opportunities for student reflection and third party criticism, considering appropriate technologies for delivery, ensuring that the design is suitable for the context in which it will be used, and bearing in mind the personal, social, and environmental impact of the designed activities. Along the way, we describe how these design elements can be effectively utilized by contextualizing them with examples from an e-learning initiative.

  19. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  20. Challenges and learning outcomes of educational design research for PhD students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, L.H.; de Kleijn, R.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational design research (EDR) is described as a complex research approach. The challenges resulting from this complexity are typically described as procedural, whereas EDR might also be challenging for different reasons, specifically for early career researchers. Yet challenging experiences may