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Sample records for sequential proximate analysis

  1. Sequential analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wald, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    In 1943, while in charge of Columbia University's Statistical Research Group, Abraham Wald devised Sequential Design, an innovative statistical inference system. Because the decision to terminate an experiment is not predetermined, sequential analysis can arrive at a decision much sooner and with substantially fewer observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations. The system's immense value was immediately recognized, and its use was restricted to wartime research and procedures. In 1945, it was released to the public and has since revolutio

  2. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  3. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  4. Sequential Proximal Tibial Stress Fractures associated with Prolonged usage of Methotrexate and Corticosteroids: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan TJL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the proximal tibia metaphysis are rare in the elderly. We present a case of a 65-year old male who developed sequential proximal tibia stress fractures associated with prolonged usage of methotrexate and prednisolone within a span of 18 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed an incomplete stress fracture involving the medial proximal tibial region. The patient was treated with stemmed total knee arthroplasty (TKA bilaterally. Stress fractures should be considered in patients with atypical knee pain who have a history of methotrexate and prednisolone usage. TKA is an effective treatment in stress fractures of the proximal tibia.

  5. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  7. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  8. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  10. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  12. Sequential Test Selection by Quantifying of the Reduction in Diagnostic Uncertainty for the Diagnosis of Proximal Caries

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    Umut Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to determine the presence or absence of a certain disease, multiple diagnostic tests may be necessary. Performance of these tests can be sequentially evaluated. Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the contribution of the test in each step, in reducing diagnostic uncertainty when multiple tests are sequentially used for the diagnosis. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study Methods: Radiographs of seventy-three patients of the Department of Dento-Maxillofacial Radiology of Hacettepe University Faculty of Dentistry were assessed. Panoramic (PAN, full mouth intraoral (FM, and bitewing (BW radiographs were used for the diagnosis of proximal caries in the maxillary and mandibular molar regions. Diagnostic performance of radiography was sequentially evaluated by using the reduction in diagnostic uncertainty. Results: FM provided maximum diagnostic information for ruling in potential in the maxillary and mandibular molar regions in the first step. FM provided more diagnostic information than BW radiographs for ruling in the mandibular region in the second step. In the mandibular region, BW radiographs provided more diagnostic information than FM for ruling out in the first step. Conclusion: The presented method in this study provides the clinicians with a solution for the decision of the sequential selection of diagnostic tests for the correct diagnosis of the presence or absence of a certain disease.

  13. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  14. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-03-06

    Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors) and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors). We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2) measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be

  15. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Wetterslev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors. Methods We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. Results The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D2 measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in

  16. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  17. Sequential decision analysis for nonstationary stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, B.

    1974-01-01

    A formulation of the problem of making decisions concerning the state of nonstationary stochastic processes is given. An optimal decision rule, for the case in which the stochastic process is independent of the decisions made, is derived. It is shown that this rule is a generalization of the Bayesian likelihood ratio test; and an analog to Wald's sequential likelihood ratio test is given, in which the optimal thresholds may vary with time.

  18. Analysis on Realization of Sequential Queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min

    Analyzed and introduced the sequential storage structure of the queue, detailed analyzed several specific methods for the circular queue to resolve the "false overflow", gave the algorithm descriptions in C of the corresponding basic operations of the queue, compared and analyzed each algorithm the time complexity and the space complexity, so as to complement and play a guiding role in the relevant chapters in "Data Structure" curriculum.

  19. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be reduced using Trial Sequential Analysis. Several empirical studies have demonstrated...

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  2. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  3. Unsupervised land cover change detection: meaningful sequential time series analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available -1 Unsupervised Land Cover Change Detection: Meaningful Sequential Time Series Analysis Salmon, B.P.; Olivier, J.C.; Wessels, K.J.; Kleynhans, W.; van den Bergh, F.; Steenkamp, K.C.; Dept. of Electr., Electron. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Pretoria, Pretoria...

  4. Algorithm for Non-proportional Loading in Sequentially Linear Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Rots, J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Sequentially linear analysis (SLA) is an alternative to the Newton-Raphson method for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete and masonry structures. In this paper SLA is extended to load cases that are applied one after the other, for example first dead load and then wind load. It

  5. Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metals contents (Pb, Cu, Fe, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn and Ni) in Municipal dumpsite compost were determined by the sequential extraction method. Chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, and organic carbon contents of the samples were also determined. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by atomic ...

  6. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  7. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    and the final analysis. Other partitions did not suggest early stopping after adjustment for multiple testing due to one influential outlier and our small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Group-sequential testing may enable early stopping of a trial, allowing for potential time and resource savings. The testing...

  8. Analysis of sequential exchanges between vulnerable forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-09-04

    A multi-stage and -step analysis of sequences of crises or exchanges shows that aggressiveness on one side can induce rapid counter-value strikes by the other as well and knowledge that opponents will later become less aggressive does not mitigate the tendency to strike early in crises.

  9. Competence and Praxis: Sequential Analysis in German Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Olaf Maiwald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In German social research nowadays most qualitative methodologies employ sequential analysis. This article explores the similarities and differences in conceptualising and practising this method. First, the working consensus, conceived as a shared set of methodological assumptions, is explicated. Second, with regard to three major paradigms of qualitative research in Germany—conversation analysis, objective hermeneutics, and hermeneutic sociology of knowledge—the dif­ferent ways of doing sequential analysis are investigated to locate the points of departure from a working consensus. It is argued that differences arise from different case-perspectives and, relative to that, from different modes of introducing general knowl­edge, i.e. knowledge that is not specific for the analysed case, into the interpretation. An import­ant notion to emerge from the comparison is the distinction between competence and praxis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503310

  10. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    -PET/CT measurements, illuminating the possibility of early trial termination which implicates significant potential time and resource savings. METHODS: Primary lesion maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) was determined twice from preoperative FDG-PET/CTs in 45 ovarian cancer patients. Differences in SUVmax were...... and the final analysis. Other partitions did not suggest early stopping after adjustment for multiple testing due to one influential outlier and our small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Group-sequential testing may enable early stopping of a trial, allowing for potential time and resource savings. The testing...... strategy must, though, be defined at the planning stage, and sample sizes must be reasonably large at interim analysis to ensure robustness against single outliers. Group-sequential testing may have a place in accuracy and agreement studies....

  11. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  12. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  13. Fully vs. Sequentially Coupled Loads Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick; Wendt, Fabian; Musial, Walter; Finucane, Z.; Hulliger, L.; Chilka, S.; Dolan, D.; Cushing, J.; O' Connell, D.; Falk, S.

    2017-06-19

    The design and analysis methods for offshore wind turbines must consider the aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads and response of the entire system (turbine, tower, substructure, and foundation) coupled to the turbine control system dynamics. Whereas a fully coupled (turbine and support structure) modeling approach is more rigorous, intellectual property concerns can preclude this approach. In fact, turbine control system algorithms and turbine properties are strictly guarded and often not shared. In many cases, a partially coupled analysis using separate tools and an exchange of reduced sets of data via sequential coupling may be necessary. In the sequentially coupled approach, the turbine and substructure designers will independently determine and exchange an abridged model of their respective subsystems to be used in their partners' dynamic simulations. Although the ability to achieve design optimization is sacrificed to some degree with a sequentially coupled analysis method, the central question here is whether this approach can deliver the required safety and how the differences in the results from the fully coupled method could affect the design. This work summarizes the scope and preliminary results of a study conducted for the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement aimed at quantifying differences between these approaches through aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of two offshore wind turbines on a monopile and jacket substructure.

  14. Sequential injection analysis for optimization of molecular biology reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2011-03-15

    In order to automate the optimization of complex biochemical and molecular biology reactions, we developed a sequential injection analysis (SIA) device and combined this with a design of experiment (DOE) algorithm. This combination of hardware and software automatically explores the parameter space of the reaction and provides continuous feedback for optimizing reaction conditions. As an example, we optimized the endonuclease digest of a fluorogenic substrate and showed that the optimized reaction conditions also applied to the digest of the substrate outside of the device and to the digest of a plasmid. The sequential technique quickly arrived at optimized reaction conditions with less reagent use than a batch process (such as a fluid handling robot exploring multiple reaction conditions in parallel) would have. The device and method should now be amenable to much more complex molecular biology reactions whose variable spaces are correspondingly larger.

  15. Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and manganese. The phytochemical screening of the seed showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, anthraquinones as well as cardiac glycosides while tannins, ...

  16. A sequential criterion analysis for assessing coping with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, D C; Sobel, H J; Follick, M J; Youkilis, H D

    1980-01-01

    A three-stage sequential criterion analysis based on the Goldfried-D'Zurilla behavior model is presented as a heuristic approach for studying chronic illness. The three interrelated stages consist of: (a) problem identification, (b) response enumeration, and (c) response evaluation. The utility of this systematic approach for understanding the adaptive process, helping to identify patients who might benefit from intervention, providing content for actual intervention, and reducing the myth of homogeneity among chronic patient populations for both clinicians and researches, is discussed. Examples of the utility of the criterion analysis are provided throughout the paper.

  17. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  18. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  19. Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants around the University of Agriculture Makurdi Wildlife Park were investigated. The selected plants were Anona senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tacca leontopetaloides and Vitex doniana. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique was employed to ...

  20. local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2. S.A. Shomkegh and. 3. Mbakwe, R. 1. Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State. ... Key words: Local Perception, Proximate Analysis, Edible Forest Plants, Focused Group. Discussions. INTRODUCTION ..... Deciduous Forests of India: An Explorative. Study Towards Non ...

  1. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  2. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and mineral analysis of five species of mushroom, Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella volvacea, Coprinus micaceus, Lepiota procera, and Auricularia auricula were examined in this study to determine their nutritional value. These mushrooms were found to contain on the average, 3.24 to 8.70% of crude fibre; 4.12 ...

  3. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... ascorbic acid and palpable concentration of trace minerals (Prakash and Pal, ... vegetables plays a crucial role in assessing their nutri- tional significance .... Table 4. Correlation matrix of the various parameters studied for the proximate analysis of selected plant species. Moisture. (wet). Moistures. (dry). Ash.

  4. Proximate analysis of selected sorghum cultivars | Jimoh | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate analysis revealed that sorghum samples contains appreciable nutrient contents. Also from the result, it has shown that the values of the improved varieties from the Institute for Agricultural research (IAR) Zaria is higher in the parameters analysed as compared to the local samples. The mineral composition of ...

  5. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyu Ye; Wei You; Weimin Zhu; Jiaming Cui; Kang Chen; Daping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze...

  6. The sequential analysis of transgressors' accounts of breaking environmental laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Ana M; Salazar-Laplace, María Esther; Ruiz, Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Three-hundred and twenty written accounts of environmental transgressors were assessed by sequential analysis to reveal their argument streams. The accounts were obtained from the written statements that transgressors are allowed to give during the Spanish administrative process and which were included in files handled by four environmental law enforcement agencies. These agencies are distributed across national, regional, island and municipality jurisdictions. The setting for the study is a highly protected environment in which environmental laws have high salience. Results reveal that transgressors use simple argument streams, consistently more defensive than conciliatory, and questioning the perceived legitimacy of environmental law. It was seen also that the empirical functioning of the explanations related to pursuing emotional/prosocial objectives differs from what was expected from the traditional conceptual definition. Results are discussed in terms of how the assessment of the internal dynamic of the accounts would provide valuable information on transgressors' reasoning in relation to environmental laws.

  7. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  8. Calculating Contingencies in Natural Environments: Issues in the Application of Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Moore, Timothy; Dahl, Norm; Hartman, Ellie; Hoch, John; Symons, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of behavior-environment relations are increasingly being conducted with data that have been derived descriptively. This paper provides an overview of the logic that underlies a sequential analytic approach to the analysis of descriptive data. Several methods for quantifying sequential relations are reviewed along with…

  9. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  10. Sequential methods for random-effects meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julian P T; Whitehead, Anne; Simmonds, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although meta-analyses are typically viewed as retrospective activities, they are increasingly being applied prospectively to provide up-to-date evidence on specific research questions. When meta-analyses are updated account should be taken of the possibility of false-positive findings due to repeated significance tests. We discuss the use of sequential methods for meta-analyses that incorporate random effects to allow for heterogeneity across studies. We propose a method that uses an approximate semi-Bayes procedure to update evidence on the among-study variance, starting with an informative prior distribution that might be based on findings from previous meta-analyses. We compare our methods with other approaches, including the traditional method of cumulative meta-analysis, in a simulation study and observe that it has Type I and Type II error rates close to the nominal level. We illustrate the method using an example in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21472757

  11. Glucocorticosteroids for sepsis : systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volbeda, M.; Wetterslev, J.; Gluud, C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Keus, F.

    Glucocorticosteroids (steroids) are widely used for sepsis patients. However, the potential benefits and harms of both high and low dose steroids remain unclear. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) might shed light on this

  12. Dismal: a spreadsheet for sequential data analysis and HCI experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Frank E; Wood, Alexander B

    2005-02-01

    Dismal is a spreadsheet that works within GNU Emacs, a widely available programmable editor. Dismal has three features of particular interest to those who study behavior: (1) the ability to manipulate and align sequential data, (2) an open architecture that allows users to expand it to meet their particular needs, and (3) an instrumented and accessible interface for studies of human-computer interaction (HCI). Example uses of each of these capabilities are provided, including cognitive models that have had their sequential behavior aligned with subject's protocols, extensions useful for teaching and doing HCI design, and studies in which keystroke logs from the timing package in Dismal have been used.

  13. The design and analysis of sequential clinical trials | Merabet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus we can make available to the user an implementable tool and fully Bayesian. The sequential aspect of the treatment adopted in this paper is a particularly innovative element compared to existing technology; it also helps to reduce multiphase studies more ambitious than the existing, which for the patient makes the ...

  14. Cloud-based data-proximate visualization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    The rise in cloud computing, coupled with the growth of "Big Data", has lead to a migration away from local scientific data storage. The increasing size of remote scientific data sets increase, however, makes it difficult for scientists to subject them to large-scale analysis and visualization. These large datasets can take an inordinate amount of time to download; subsetting is a potential solution, but subsetting services are not yet ubiquitous. Data providers may also pay steep prices, as many cloud providers meter data based on how much data leaves their cloud service. The solution to this problem is a deceptively simple one; move data analysis and visualization tools to the cloud, so that scientists may perform data-proximate analysis and visualization. This results in increased transfer speeds, while egress costs are lowered or completely eliminated. The challenge now becomes creating tools which are cloud-ready. The solution to this challenge is provided by Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily deploy legacy analysis and visualization software to the cloud whilst retaining access via a desktop, netbook, a smartphone, or the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be. Unidata has harnessed Application Streaming to provide a cloud-capable version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  15. Mining Sequential Update Summarization with Hierarchical Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of unexpected news events such as large human accident or natural disaster brings about a new information access problem where traditional approaches fail. Mostly, news of these events shows characteristics that are early sparse and later redundant. Hence, it is very important to get updates and provide individuals with timely and important information of these incidents during their development, especially when being applied in wireless and mobile Internet of Things (IoT. In this paper, we define the problem of sequential update summarization extraction and present a new hierarchical update mining system which can broadcast with useful, new, and timely sentence-length updates about a developing event. The new system proposes a novel method, which incorporates techniques from topic-level and sentence-level summarization. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, we apply it to the task of sequential update summarization of temporal summarization (TS track at Text Retrieval Conference (TREC 2013 to compute four measurements of the update mining system: the expected gain, expected latency gain, comprehensiveness, and latency comprehensiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed method has good performance.

  16. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  17. Sequential double Auger decay in atoms: A quantum informatic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chandra, N. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)], E-mail: ncphy@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2009-05-04

    We theoretically show that the process of inner-shell photoionization in an atom A, followed by the spontaneous sequential emission of two Auger electrons, produces various kinds of spin-entangled states of three flying electronic qubits. All properties of these states are completely pre-determined by the total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of four atomic species (i.e., A, A{sup +{sup *}}, A{sup 2+{sup *}}, A{sup 3+}) participating in this process in the Russell-Saunders coupling. These tripartite states are readily characterized experimentally by measuring only energies of the three emitted electrons, without requiring any entanglement witness or other such protocols.

  18. ARQ with sequential decoding of packetized data - Queueing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, N.

    1984-10-01

    The operation of a sequential decoder in a packet-switching environment is considered. Packets arrive randomly at the decoder, and a packet is stored in a buffer if the decoder is busy upon its arrival. The decoder devotes no more than a time-out period of predetermined length to the decoding of any single packet. If packet decoding is completed within that period, the packet leaves the system. Otherwise, it is retransmitted and its decoding starts anew. While a packet is retransmitted, the decoder decodes another packet that resides in its buffer. An upper bound on the maximum rate of packets that can be supported by the channel-decoder combination is derived, and the optimum time-out that maximizes that rate is determined. A discrete-time model of the decoder's queue is presented, and the average queue length and throughput are evaluated.

  19. Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Properties of Selected Fruits in Batangas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielli Katherine C. Untalan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Five selected fruits in Batangas namely banana (Musa lacatan, chico (Manilkarasapota, papaya (Carica papaya L., pomelo (Citrus grandis and tamarind (Tamarindicusindica were analyzed for their proximate analysis, antioxidant properties and antioxidant activity. The study aimed to make a baseline database using the information obtained which will be useful for further studies and improvement of existing products and food processes and for development of new ones. Among the five selected fruits, tamarind got the highest ash content of 12.51%, crude protein of 4.68%, crude fat of 3.39% and total carbohydrates of 46.67% but the lowest moisture content of 33.45%. Pomelo got the highest moisture content of 91.74% while chico got the highest crude fiber content of 2.64%. Papaya had the lowest total carbohydrates of 7.54% while banana had the lowest crude fiber content of 0.51%. For the antioxidant properties, tamarind had the highest TFC of 0.007 mg quercetin / L, TPC of 0.223 mg gallic acid / L, and Vitamin C of 1024.41 mg/100cm³ while papaya had the highest Beta-carotene content of 286μg/100g. The selected fruits exerted remarkable antioxidant properties. Pomelowith 94.4% hadthe strongest antioxidant activity followed by chico with 91.96%, then banana with 90.84%, papaya with 88.72% and lastly by tamarind with only 70.69%. Based on the statistical treatment of results, there were significant differences in the antioxidant properties and antioxidant activity of selected fruits in Batangas.

  20. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Hidayat; Irna Kinayungan W; Muhammad Irhas; Fathurrahman Sidiq

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qua...

  1. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  2. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  3. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  4. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  5. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  6. Rate of water absorption and proximate analysis of different varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water absorption and proximate composition of four varieties of maize; sweet corn, pop corn, white corn and yellow corn soaked at different temperatures and time duration were determined. Absorption increased with increase in temperatures and time but generally low at 45°C. The total average rate of hydration at different ...

  7. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the exotic vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are cabbage, lettuce, cauli-flower and turnip leafy as well as stems such as Carrot (Aliyu, 2006). ... at 550°C for 48 h, proximate chemical composition of each vegetable sample was carried out to determine the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ...

  8. Fertility decline in Malawi: An analysis of the proximate determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines trends in the proximate determinants of fertility (nuptiality or marriage, contraception and post-partum infecundability) in Malawi during the twelve-year period 1992-2004, with a view to explaining the factors responsible for fertility decline in the country. The study uses the Malawi Demographic and ...

  9. Some Proximate Analysis of African Pear ( Dacryodes Edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) were observed between the samples for all the parameters measured. Fruit density showed a negative correlation (r = -0.86) with the pulp/seed ratio. Significant differences were also observed in the proximate composition of the African pear pulp. The major components of the pulp were moisture (36.5% to 53.82%), ...

  10. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  12. Analysis problems for sequential dynamical systems and communicating state machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Hunt, H. B. (Harry B.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ravi, S. S.; Rosenkrantz, D. J. (Daniel J.); Stearns, R. E. (Richard E.)

    2001-01-01

    A simple sequential dynamical system (SDS) is a triple (G, F, {pi}), where (i) G(V, E) is an undirected graph with n nodes with each node having a 1-bit state, (ii) F = {l_brace} f{sub 1},f{sub 2},...,f{sub n}{r_brace} is a set of local transition functions with f{sub i} denoting a Boolean function associated with node Vv{sub i} and (iii) {pi} is a fixed permutation of (i.e., a total order on) the nodes in V. A single SDS transition is obtained by updating the states of the nodes in V by evaluating the function associated with each of them in the order given by {pi}. Such a (finite) SDS is a mathematical abstraction of simulation systems [BMR99, BR99]. In this paper, we characterize the computational complexity of determining several phase space properties of SDSs. The properties considered are t-REACHABILITY ('Can a given SDS starting from configuration I reach configuration B in t or fewer transitions?'), REACHABILITY('Can a given SDS starting from configuration I ever reach configuration B?') and FIXED POINT REACHABILITY ('Can a given SDS starting from configuration I ever reach configuration in which it stays for ever?'). Our main result is a sharp dichotomy between classes of SDSs whose behavior is 'easy' to predict and those whose behavior is 'hard' to predict. Specifically, we show the following. (1) The t-REACHABILITY, REACHABILITY and the FIXED POINT REACHABILITY problems for SDSs are PSPACE-complete, even when restricted to graphs of bounded bandwidth (and hence of bounded pathwidth and treewidth) and when the function associated with each node is symmetric. The result holds even for regular graphs of constant degree where all the nodes compute the same symmetric Boolean function. (2) In contrast, the t-REACHABILITYm REACHABILITY and FIXED POINT REACHABILITY problems are solvable in polynomial time for SDSs when the Boolean function associated with each node is symmetric and monotone. Two important

  13. [Clinical analysis of prosthesis replacement for proximal humerus tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaojun; Liao, Qiande; Li, Xiaosheng; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To explore surgical strategies, functions and prognosis of artificial prosthesis replacement and soft tissue reconstruction for patients with invasive benign or primary malignant proximal humerus tumor.
 A total of 17 patients with invasive benign or primary malignant proximal humerus tumor underwent prosthetic replacement after segment bone tumor resection and soft tissues reconstruction from April 2007 to April 2014 were enrolled. Based on histological types, tumor stages and surgical procedures, the effects of artificial prosthesis replacement and soft tissue reconstruction on prognosis and shoulder joint function were evaluated.
 All patients were followed up for 8 to 96 months (average time: 58.9 months). Among 11 patients with primary malignant tumor, 5 died of tumor recurrence or metastasis, and 6 showed tumor-free survival for 24 to 91 months (average time: 54.83 months). The 6 patients with aggressive benign tumors survived for 39 to 96 months, with an average of 72.33 months. The shoulder joint function of 17 patients recovered to 64.88% of normal. There were significant differences in the shoulder joint function between the patients who underwent half shoulder replacement and those who underwent total shoulder replacement (56.25% vs 72.56%, Pshoulder joint function between the patients who underwent Type I A excision (retention of abductor muscles and rotator cuff) and those who underwent Type I B excision (68.75% vs 61.44%, Pshoulder joint function is associated with the methods of prosthesis replacement and soft tissue resection.

  14. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  15. Developing a Self-Report-Based Sequential Analysis Method for Educational Technology Systems: A Process-Based Usability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…

  16. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Thorlund, Kristian; Gluud, Christian

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries analogous...

  17. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  18. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqing; Lin, Faying; Wang, Bennett; Cao, Yihai; Hou, Xu; Wang, Yangang

    2016-12-22

    Research indicates that higher levels of traffic-related pollution exposure increase the risk of diabetes, but the association between road proximity and diabetes risk remains unclear. To assess and quantify the association between residential proximity to major roadways and type 2 diabetes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for eligible studies. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, the summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Bayesian meta-analysis was also performed. Eight studies (6 cohort and 2 cross-sectional) with 158,576 participants were finally included. The summary unadjusted RR for type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.44, p = 0.001, I² = 48.1%). The summary adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03-1.22, p = 0.01, I² = 17.9%). After excluding two cross-sectional studies, the summary results suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could increase type 2 diabetes risk (Adjusted RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.27, p = 0.025, I² = 36.6%). Bayesian meta-analysis showed that the unadjusted RR and adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways were 1.22 (95% credibility interval: 1.06-1.55) and 1.13 (95% credibility interval: 1.01-1.31), respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could significantly increase risk of type 2 diabetes, and it is an independent risk factor of type 2 diabetes. More well-designed studies are needed to further strengthen the evidence.

  19. Informality, stability and precarity: a sequential analysis of occupational trajectories over the last few decades

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vasco

    2017-01-01

    The issue of the unpredictability of occupational paths in the post-Fordist capitalist era has been widely discussed in contemporary sociology. Beginning with the second half of the 20th century, the article contextualises this debate in the Portuguese case. Mobilising the occupational trajectory concept, which it develops using a sequential analysis of the trajectories of three Portuguese age cohorts, it offers a path typology that articulates contractual formats and work. The results reveal...

  20. Training Novice Instructors to Implement Errorless Discrete-Trial Teaching: A Sequential Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, Jamie M; Carr, James E

    2012-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is a common instructional method incorporated into intensive behavioral intervention programs for children diagnosed with autism. Errorless learning strategies are frequently recommended during DTT because they often result in more efficient and effective instruction. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a sequential analysis of the efficacy of three methods for teaching errorless DTT procedures to novice instructors: (a) a self-instruction manual, (b)...

  1. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...... assumptions. The estimators are based on regression, inverse probability weighting, and combinations thereof. Our simulation design uses a large population of Swiss jobseekers and considers variations of several features of the data generating process and the implementation of the estimators...

  2. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...... assumptions. The estimators are based on regression, inverse probability weighting, and combinations thereof. Our simulation design uses a large population of Swiss jobseekers and considers variations of several features of the data generating process and the implementation of the estimators...

  3. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemicals and some other constituents of the powdered leaves of Psidium guajava Linn and to evaluate the tolerability profile of the leaves because of their profound medicinal and non-medicinal uses. Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a ...

  4. Proximate Analysis Of Castor Seeds And Cake | Annongu | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid profile analysis of un-decorticated and decorticated seed and cake compared with soybeans as standard plant protein indicated that the cake is deficient in some indispensable amino acids like lysine (4.11), iso-leucine (3.09), tryptophan (0) compared with 6.30, 7.90 and 1.30 lysine, iso-leucine and tryptopha in ...

  5. Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Tao

    2014-04-27

    Proximal humeral fractures are common lesions of the elderly, but there are no established treatment guidelines. A surgical treatment for comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus was developed and is still evolving. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative review to evaluate the risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by operative fixation compared with conservative treatment. We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese), and Wanfang database (in Chinese) up to December 2013 to identify studies related to operative fixation and AVN in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Seven studies with a total of 291 patients (142 operative fixation cases and 149 conservative treatment cases) with proximal humeral fractures were considered in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the incidence of AVN between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-6.11, p = 0.64]. The subgroup meta-analysis by study design (retrospective/prospective), sample size (≤40/>40), and ethnicity (European/Asian) demonstrated similar results. However, the subgroup analysis by specific operative approach (plate fixation/tension band wiring fixation/others) indicated that plate fixation was associated with a higher rate of AVN than conservative treatment (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.76, p = 0.019). Plate fixation was associated with a higher risk of AVN development than conservative treatment in patients with proximal humeral fractures.

  6. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...... and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation...

  7. Sequential change detection and monitoring of temporal trends in random-effects meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogo, Samson Henry; Clark, Allan; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Temporal changes in magnitude of effect sizes reported in many areas of research are a threat to the credibility of the results and conclusions of meta-analysis. Numerous sequential methods for meta-analysis have been proposed to detect changes and monitor trends in effect sizes so that meta-analysis can be updated when necessary and interpreted based on the time it was conducted. The difficulties of sequential meta-analysis under the random-effects model are caused by dependencies in increments introduced by the estimation of the heterogeneity parameter τ2 . In this paper, we propose the use of a retrospective cumulative sum (CUSUM)-type test with bootstrap critical values. This method allows retrospective analysis of the past trajectory of cumulative effects in random-effects meta-analysis and its visualization on a chart similar to CUSUM chart. Simulation results show that the new method demonstrates good control of Type I error regardless of the number or size of the studies and the amount of heterogeneity. Application of the new method is illustrated on two examples of medical meta-analyses. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This study carried out an investigation on the proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues such as palm kernel shell, PKS, palm fibre, PF and empty fruit bunch, EFB using the ASTM standards. The results obtained were compared. The percentage moisture content of the pellets, PKS, PF and EFB ...

  9. [Gait analysis after rotationplasty hip surgery for malignant tumor of the proximal femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, D; Benedetti, M G; Catani, F; Berti, L; Capanna, R

    2004-10-01

    Rotationplasty of the hip joint is a special surgical technique used for the treatment of malignant tumors of the proximal part of the femur. We report a clinical case and gait analysis results before and after rehabilitation training. Evaluation of joint motion, kinetic moments, and the electromyographic findings enabled us to document progressive adaptation of muscle and joint function to their new role in the motor pattern, demonstrating the exceptional strength of rotationplasty. Active control of two fulcrums in the lower limb, the pseudo hip proximally and the pseudo knee intermedially, makes this type of operation extremely advantageous compared to the alternative of hip disarticulation or hemipelvectomy. Total absence of pain together with the preservation of articular and cutaneous proprioception are important advantages. Rotationplasty is an attractive alternative for treatment of malignant tumors of the proximal part of the femur.

  10. Sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor and parathyroid hormone restores lost cancellous bone mass and strength in the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, T.J.; Ratkus, A.M.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) can restore lost cancellous bone mass and strength at a severely osteopenic skeletal site in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were...... subjected to sham surgery or ovariectomy at 3 months of age and maintained untreated for the first year after surgery. At 15 months of age, groups of baseline control and OVX rats were killed and catheters were inserted in the jugular veins of all remaining rats. Two groups of OVX rats were injected...... intravenously (iv) daily with bFGF for 14 days at a dose of 200 microg/kg body weight. At the end of bFGF treatment, one group was killed whereas the other group was subjected to 8 weeks of treatment with synthetic human PTH 1-34 [hPTH(1-34)] consisting of subcutaneous (sc) injections 5 days/week at a dose...

  11. Antipyretic therapy in critically ill patients with established sepsis: a trial sequential analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang

    Full Text Available antipyretic therapy for patients with sepsis has long been debated. The present study aimed to explore the beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy for ICU patients with sepsis.systematic review and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 5, 2014.Mortality was dichotomized as binary outcome variable and odds ratio (OR was chosen to be the summary statistic. Pooled OR was calculated by using DerSimonian and Laird method. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by using the statistic I2. Trial sequential analysis was performed to account for the small number of trials and patients.A total of 6 randomized controlled trials including 819 patients were included into final analysis. Overall, there was no beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality risk in patients with established sepsis (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-2.05. The required information size (IS was 2582 and our analysis has not yet reached half of the IS. The Z-curve did not cross the O'Brien-Fleming α-spending boundary or reach the futility, indicating that the non-significant result was probably due to lack of statistical power.our study fails to identify any beneficial effect of antipyretic therapy on ICU patients with established diagnosis of sepsis. Due to limited number of total participants, more studies are needed to make a conclusive and reliable analysis.

  12. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Analysis of Orbital Conjunction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis; Gold, Dara

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for analysis of commonly available predictions associated with spacecraft conjunctions. Such predictions generally consist of a relative state and relative state error covariance at the time of closest approach, under the assumption that prediction errors are Gaussian. We show that under these circumstances, the likelihood ratio of the Wald test reduces to an especially simple form, involving the current best estimate of collision probability, and a similar estimate of collision probability that is based on prior assumptions about the likelihood of collision.

  13. Sequential injection analysis determination of sulphate in wastewaters by ultraviolet-spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapa Rui A. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A sequential injection analysis system based on the formation of the cation FeSO4+ and the spectrophotometric measuring of the absorbance at 355 nm has been developed for the determination of sulphate in wastewaters. The main interferents were also evaluated. The proposed system is fully automatized and is able to monitor sulphate in samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD obtained was smaller than 2.4%. The linearity of response was obtained between 10 and 1000 mg L-1. The sampling rate was 72 samples per hour.

  14. Sequential injection analysis determination of sulphate in wastewaters by ultraviolet-spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lapa Rui A. S.; Lima José L.F.C.; Pinto Ivone V. O. S.

    2000-01-01

    A sequential injection analysis system based on the formation of the cation FeSO4+ and the spectrophotometric measuring of the absorbance at 355 nm has been developed for the determination of sulphate in wastewaters. The main interferents were also evaluated. The proposed system is fully automatized and is able to monitor sulphate in samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained was smaller than 2.4%. The linearity of response was obtained between 10 and 1000 mg L-1. The sampling ra...

  15. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumbi Chola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.

  16. Proximate cues for a short-distance migratory species: An application of survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J.; Song, R.; Lutz, R.S.; Andersen, D.E.; Doherty, K.E.; Bruggink, J.G.; Oppelt, E.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of bird migration has often highlighted the importance of external factors in determining timing of migration However, little distinction has been made between short- and long-distance migrants and between local and flight birds (passage migrants) in describing migration chronology. In addition, measures of food abundance as a proximate factor influencing timing of migration are lacking in studies of migration chronology. To address the relationship between environmental variables and timing of migration we quantified the relative importance of proximate external factors on migration chronology of local American woodcock (Scolopax minor), a short distance migrant, using event-time analysis methods (survival analysis). We captured 1,094 woodcock local to our study sites in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin (USA) during autumn 2002-2004 and documented 786 departure dates for these birds. Photoperiod appeared to provide an initial proximate cue for timing of departure. Moon phase was important in modifying timing of departure, which may serve as a navigational aid in piloting and possibly orientation. Local synoptic weather variables also contributed to timing of departure by changing the rate of departure from our study sites. We found no evidence that food availability influenced timing of woodcock departure. Our results suggest that woodcock use a conservative photoperiod-controlled strategy with proximate modifiers for timing of migration rather than relying on abundance of their primary food, earthworms. Managing harvest pressure on local birds by adjusting season lengths may be an effective management tool with consistent migration patterns from year to year based on photoperiod.

  17. The relative accuracy and interpretability of five sequential analysis methods: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Blair P; Yoder, Paul J; Tapp, Jon; Staubitz, Johanna L

    2016-12-01

    A variety of sequential analysis methods exist to quantify close temporal associations between events from direct observation data. In the present study, we compared the relative accuracy and interpretability of five sequential-analysis methods using simulated data. The methods included three existing approaches (event lag, concurrent interval, and time window) and two proposed modifications of the event lag approach (event lag with contiguous pauses and event lag with noncontiguous pauses) designed to address limitations of the existing approaches. We evaluated accuracy on the basis of the extent to which the mean contingency estimates produced by each method approximated a known mean (i.e., zero). We evaluated interpretability on the basis of the extent to which the contingency estimates produced by each method were independent from chance estimates of the two-event sequence. The results indicated that the event lag with contiguous pauses method produced the most accurate and interpretable estimates of contingency. This modified method prevents the total number of event types from influencing contingency estimates, thus solving a problem associated with the traditional event lag method.

  18. Sequential Method with Incremental Analysis Update to Retrieve Leaf Area Index from Time Series MODIS Reflectance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-quality leaf area index (LAI products retrieved from satellite observations are urgently needed for crop growth monitoring and yield estimation, land-surface process simulation and global change studies. In recent years, sequential assimilation methods have been increasingly used to retrieve LAI from time series remote-sensing data. However, the inherent characteristics of these sequential assimilation methods result in temporal discontinuities in the retrieved LAI profiles. In this study, a sequential assimilation method with incremental analysis update (IAU was developed to jointly update model states and parameters and to retrieve temporally continuous LAI profiles from time series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data. Based on the existing multi-year Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI product, a dynamic model was constructed to evolve LAI anomalies over time. The sequential assimilation method with an IAU technique takes advantage of the Kalman filter (KF technique to update model parameters, uses the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF technique to update LAI anomalies recursively from time series MODIS reflectance data and then calculates the temporally continuous LAI values by combining the LAI climatology data. The method was tested over eight Committee on Earth Observing Satellites-Benchmark Land Multisite Analysis and Intercomparison of Products (CEOS-BELMANIP sites with different vegetation types. The results indicate that the sequential method with IAU can precisely reconstruct the seasonal variation patterns of LAI and that the LAI profiles derived from the sequential method with IAU are smooth and continuous.

  19. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. Based on the analysis of kefir proximate levels, the kefir grain (5% showed the highest proximate level of both kefirs from goat milk and cow milk. The analysis of protein profile of cow milk kefir showed 75 kDa of protein ribbon, while the goat milk kefir showed 48 kDa, 60 kDa and 75 kDa. Therefore it can be concluded that the proximate level of goat and cow milk kefir with different concentration of kefir grains showed significant differences in the nutrition content as well as its protein profiles.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik proksimat dan profil protein pada kefir hasil fermentasi susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi biji kefir yang berbeda-beda. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni, dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 3 kali ulangan. Prosedur penelitian meliputi pembuatan kefir, analisis proksimat dan profil protein. Data hasil proksimat dianalisi uji BNT, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan analisis kadar proksimat kefir, kefir grains 5% menunjukan kadar proksimat paling tinggi baik pada kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi. Sedangkan analisis profil protein kefir susu sapi menunjukan pita protein 75 kDa, pada kefir susu kambing yaitu 48 kDa, 60 kDa dan 75 kDa. Simpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa kadar proksimat kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi kefir grains yang berbeda menunjukan perbedaan kandungan yang berbeda secara signifikan dengan

  20. Vitamin D supplementation and falls: a trial sequential meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D supplementation is often recommended to prevent falls, although vitamin D trials and meta-analyses of these trials have reported conflicting results for this outcome. We aimed to assess if there was a need for further research. We explored the value of doing further randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of vitamin D supplements on falls with trial sequential analysis with a risk reduction threshold of 15%. All analyses were done using the numbers of participants who had a fall in intention-to-treat analyses. Trial sequential analysis performs a cumulative meta-analysis, but reduces the risk of false-positive results from repetitive statistical testing by maintaining the overall risk of type 1 error at 5%. In 20 existing randomised controlled trials (n=29,535), the effect estimate for vitamin D with or without calcium on falls lay within the futility boundary, providing evidence that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk by 15% or more. In a sensitivity analysis using a risk reduction threshold of 10%, the effect estimate also lay within the futility boundary. In subgroup analyses using a risk reduction threshold of 15%, the effect estimate also lay within the futility boundary for trials of vitamin D supplementation (16 trials, n=22,291) and trials of vitamin D with calcium (six trials, n=9919). In pooled analyses, supplementation with vitamin D, with or without calcium, does not reduce falls by 15% or more. Future trials with similar designs are unlikely to alter these conclusions. At present, there is little justification for prescribing vitamin D supplements to prevent falls. Health Research Council of New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proximity to wood industries and respiratory symptoms in children: a sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Marta; Crainicianu, Ciprian; Marcon, Alessandro; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Pironi, Vanda; Silocchi, Caterina; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Increased prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms was found in children who live near a large wood industrial park. Proximity to the wood industries was used as indicator of exposure. This study describes a sensitivity analysis for the results of the survey. All the children (3-14 years) living in the area were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854) and their addresses were geocoded. The distances from each child's home and school to the closest industry were combined, weighted and used as an indicator of exposure. A sensitivity analysis was performed to check 1) the robustness of the results to the choice of weights used for defining the exposure indicator, 2) the effect of outliers on risk estimates and 3) the sensitivity on the functional form used for modeling the dose-response function. The choice of the weights did not influence the association between proximity to the industries and respiratory symptoms. Excluding the subjects who lived far away from the industries showed that in a radius of 5km from the industries the study did not had enough power to estimate a gradient in the dose-response function. Besides, results were sensitive to the choice of the functional form used for modeling the minimum distance. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the overall increasing trend of respiratory symptoms with proximity to the industries and pointed out that all the assumptions made for defining a proxy of exposure need to be carefully checked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Group-sequential analysis may allow for early trial termination: illustration by an intra-observer repeatability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oke; Vilstrup, Mie H; Halekoh, Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2017-09-26

    Group-sequential testing is widely used in pivotal therapeutic, but rarely in diagnostic research, although it may save studies, time, and costs. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate a group-sequential analysis strategy in an intra-observer study on quantitative FDG-PET/CT measurements, illuminating the possibility of early trial termination which implicates significant potential time and resource savings. Primary lesion maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) was determined twice from preoperative FDG-PET/CTs in 45 ovarian cancer patients. Differences in SUVmax were assumed to be normally distributed, and sequential one-sided hypothesis tests on the population standard deviation of the differences against a hypothesised value of 1.5 were performed, employing an alpha spending function. The fixed-sample analysis (N = 45) was compared with the group-sequential analysis strategies comprising one (at N = 23), two (at N = 15, 30), or three interim analyses (at N = 11, 23, 34), respectively, which were defined post hoc. When performing interim analyses with one third and two thirds of patients, sufficient agreement could be concluded after the first interim analysis and the final analysis. Other partitions did not suggest early stopping after adjustment for multiple testing due to one influential outlier and our small sample size. Group-sequential testing may enable early stopping of a trial, allowing for potential time and resource savings. The testing strategy must, though, be defined at the planning stage, and sample sizes must be reasonably large at interim analysis to ensure robustness against single outliers. Group-sequential testing may have a place in accuracy and agreement studies.

  3. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions: meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-11-01

    After removal of dentine caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. We included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted independently by two reviewers. We conducted random-effects intention-to-treat and per-protocol meta-analyses, and Trial Sequential Analysis to control for random errors. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL) were systematically screened, and hand searches and cross-referencing performed. From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow-up was 36 to 53 months. Restoring the cavity without lining did not significantly affect the risk of failure (intention-to-treat relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval) 0.71 (0.49-1.04), per-protocol RR 0.52 (0.24-1.10). According to Trial Sequential Analysis, no firm evidence was reached. The quality of evidence was very low. Strong recommendations for using cavity liners are unsubstantiated, but firm evidence for omitting lining is also unavailable. Our findings apply only to primary teeth and calcium hydroxide liner. Whilst lining is frequently performed in dental practice, very few randomized clinical trials investigated this issue. The three trials included in this review treated deciduous teeth and did not find lining with calcium hydroxide beneficial. Lining is not supported by sufficient clinical evidence

  4. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of triclosan-coated sutures for the prevention of surgical-site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, S W; Atema, J J; Solomkin, J S; Boermeester, M A

    2017-01-01

    Triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) were developed to reduce the risk of surgical-site infection (SSI). Level 1A evidence of effectiveness has been presented in various recent meta-analyses, yet well designed RCTs have not been able to reproduce these favourable results. The aim of this study was to evaluate all available evidence critically with comprehensive analysis to seek a more reliable answer regarding the effectiveness of TCS in the prevention of SSI. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched from 1990 to November 2015 for RCTs that compared TCS with sutures that were exactly the same, but uncoated, in the prevention of SSI. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95 per cent confidence intervals were estimated using a random-effects model. Metaregression was used to substantiate subgroup effects, trial sequential analysis was employed to assess the risk of random error, and quality of evidence was determined using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Twenty-one RCTs including 6462 patients were included. Risk of bias was serious. Pooled effects showed a RR of 0·72 (95 per cent c.i. 0·60 to 0·86; P < 0·001) for all publications. At a risk of 138 SSIs per 1000 procedures, the use of TCS reduced this by 39 (95 per cent c.i. 19, 55). Trial sequential analysis confirmed a RR reduction of 15 per cent for the use of TCS. GRADE assessment shows moderate-quality evidence that TCS are effective in reducing SSI. Trial sequential analysis indicates that the effect was robust, and additional data are unlikely to alter the summary effect. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  6. Sequential Dictionary Learning From Correlated Data: Application to fMRI Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Iqbal, Asif

    2017-03-22

    Sequential dictionary learning via the K-SVD algorithm has been revealed as a successful alternative to conventional data driven methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. fMRI datasets are however structured data matrices with notions of spatio-temporal correlation and temporal smoothness. This prior information has not been included in the K-SVD algorithm when applied to fMRI data analysis. In this paper we propose three variants of the K-SVD algorithm dedicated to fMRI data analysis by accounting for this prior information. The proposed algorithms differ from the K-SVD in their sparse coding and dictionary update stages. The first two algorithms account for the known correlation structure in the fMRI data by using the squared Q, R-norm instead of the Frobenius norm for matrix approximation. The third and last algorithm account for both the known correlation structure in the fMRI data and the temporal smoothness. The temporal smoothness is incorporated in the dictionary update stage via regularization of the dictionary atoms obtained with penalization. The performance of the proposed dictionary learning algorithms are illustrated through simulations and applications on real fMRI data.

  7. Lattice Sequential Decoder for Coded MIMO Channel: Performance and Complexity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abediseid, Walid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance limit of lattice sequential decoder for lattice space-time coded MIMO channel is analysed. We determine the rates achievable by lattice coding and sequential decoding applied to such channel. The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) under lattice sequential decoding is derived as a function of its parameter---the bias term. The bias parameter is critical for controlling the amount of computations required at the decoding stage. Achieving low decoding complexity requires increasing the value of the bias term. However, this is done at the expense of losing the optimal tradeoff of the channel. We show how such a decoder can bridge the gap between lattice decoder and low complexity decoders. Moreover, the computational complexity of lattice sequential decoder is analysed. Specifically, we derive the tail distribution of the decoder's computational complexity in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime. Similar to the conventional sequential decoder used in discrete memoryless channel,...

  8. Generation of an Atlas of the Proximal Femur and Its Application to Trabecular Bone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Folkesson, Jenny; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Baum, Thomas; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Krug, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Automatic placement of anatomically corresponding volumes of interest and comparison of parameters against a standard of reference are essential components in studies of trabecular bone. Only recently, in vivo MR images of the proximal femur, an important fracture site, could be acquired with high-spatial resolution. The purpose of this MRI trabecular bone study was two-fold: (1) to generate an atlas of the proximal femur to automatically place anatomically corresponding volumes of interest in a population study and (2) to demonstrate how mean models of geodesic topological analysis parameters can be generated to be used as potential standard of reference. Ten females were used to generate the atlas and geodesic topological analysis models, and 10 females were used to demonstrate the atlas-based trabecular bone analysis. All alignments were based on three-dimensional (3D) multiresolution affine transformations followed by 3D multiresolution free-form deformations. Mean distances less than 1 mm between aligned femora, and sharp edges in the atlas and in fused gray-level images of registered femora indicated that the anatomical variability was well accommodated and explained by the free-form deformations. PMID:21432904

  9. How Cognitive Styles Affect the Learning Behaviors of Online Problem-Solving Based Discussion Activity: A Lag Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…

  10. Real time on-chip sequential adaptive principal component analysis for data feature extraction and image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new, simple, and optimized hardware architecture sequential learning technique for adaptive Principle Component Analysis (PCA) which will help optimize the hardware implementation in VLSI and to overcome the difficulties of the traditional gradient descent in learning convergence and hardware implementation.

  11. How Do Learners of English Overcome Non-Understanding?: A Sequential Analysis of "English as a Lingua Franca" Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamoto, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Although there seems to be no doubt that English as a lingua franca paradigm has affected the focus of English language teaching toward the issue of mutual intelligibility, studies involving only non-native English speakers (NNS-NNS interaction) are still in their infancy. Using a sequential analysis, this study examines how Japanese learners of…

  12. Fluorescence optosensing implemented with sequential injection analysis: a novel strategy for the determination of labetalol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Satínský, D; Solich, P

    2007-03-01

    The coupling of sequential injection analysis and optosensing has been developed for the first time. It has been applied to the determination of labetalol in both pharmaceuticals and urine samples, with the analytical signal (native fluorescence) being monitored directly on sensing zone microbeads. The solid support used was the nonionic silica gel C18, using 20% methanol-water (v:v) as a carrier. By using a 1.5-ml sample volume, we achieved a detection limit of 3.3 ng ml-1. This sensitivity allowed the determination of the compound in urine samples. A recovery study was carried out at the labetalol levels usually found in urine after pharmaceuticals administration, and recovery percentages close to 100% were obtained. The relative standard deviation was 3.4% for 100 ng ml-1 labetalol. No pretreatment was needed for urine samples, only an appropriate dilution, therefore minimizing the time required per sample analysis. In addition, the determination of the analyte was also carried out in one pharmaceutical, with a satisfactory result being obtained.

  13. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis of sequential spreading of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis confirms patterns of TDP-43 pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Brettschneider, Johannes; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Lulé, Dorothée; Böhm, Sarah; Braak, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging can identify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated patterns of brain alterations at the group level. Recently, a neuropathological staging system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may disseminate in a sequential regional pattern during four disease stages. The objective of the present study was to apply a new methodological diffusion tensor imaging-based approach to automatically analyse in vivo the fibre tracts that are prone to be involved at each neuropathological stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two data samples, consisting of 130 diffusion tensor imaging data sets acquired at 1.5 T from 78 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 52 control subjects; and 55 diffusion-tensor imaging data sets at 3.0 T from 33 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 control subjects, were analysed by a tract of interest-based fibre tracking approach to analyse five tracts that become involved during the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the corticospinal tract (stage 1); the corticorubral and the corticopontine tracts (stage 2); the corticostriatal pathway (stage 3); the proximal portion of the perforant path (stage 4); and two reference pathways. The statistical analyses of tracts of interest showed differences between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control subjects for all tracts. The significance level of the comparisons at the group level was lower, the higher the disease stage with corresponding involved fibre tracts. Both the clinical phenotype as assessed by the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale-revised and disease duration correlated significantly with the resulting staging scheme. In summary, the tract of interest-based technique allowed for individual analysis of predefined tract structures, thus making it possible to image in vivo the disease stages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This approach can be used not only for

  15. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Fully Kinetic Model of Sequential Reductive Dechlorination in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2011-01-01

    A fully kinetic biogeochemical model of sequential reductive dechlorination (SERD) occurring in conjunction with lactate and propionate fermentation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis was developed. Production and consumption of molecular hydrogen (H2) by microorganisms have b...

  16. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baydoun Safaa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. Methods A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. Results The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60. Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in

  17. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Ali A; Ivanov, Alexander V; Haddad, John J; Kolesnik, Alexander I; Baydoun, Safaa; Arabi, Maher R; Yashina, Irena N; Samaha, Rana A; Ivanov, Dimetry A

    2008-02-27

    The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluidity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60). Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in the confidence interval of the linear parameters, we

  18. Monitoring anaerobic sequential batch reactors via fractal analysis of pH time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Hernandez-Martinez, E; Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Puebla, H

    2013-08-01

    Efficient monitoring and control schemes are mandatory in the current operation of biological wastewater treatment plants because they must accomplish more demanding environmental policies. This fact is of particular interest in anaerobic digestion processes where the availability of accurate, inexpensive, and suitable sensors for the on-line monitoring of key process variables remains an open problem nowadays. In particular, this problem is more challenging when dealing with batch processes where the monitoring strategy has to be performed in finite time, which limits the application of current advanced monitoring schemes as those based in the proposal of nonlinear observers (i.e., software sensors). In this article, a fractal time series analysis of pH fluctuations in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) used for the treatment of tequila vinasses is presented. Results indicated that conventional on-line pH measurements can be correlated with off-line determined key process variables, such as COD, VFA and biogas production via some fractality indexes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The development of sequential injection analysis coupled with lab-on-valve for copper determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelasattarathkul, Tapparath; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Rayanakorn, Mongkon; Oungpipat, Winai; Liawruangrath, Boonsom

    2006-10-15

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) using lab-on-valve with air segmentation and spectrophotometric detection was designed for copper(II) determination. It is based on the reaction of copper(II) and 2-carboxy-2'-hydroxy-5'-sulfoformazyl benzene (Zincon) in a weak alkaline solution between the air zones. Beer's Law was obeyed over the range of 0.1-2.0mgL(-1) copper(II) with a correlation coefficient 0.9985 and a slope of 0.2893 absorbance unit/mgL(-1). The relative standard deviation was 2.0% for a series of 10 measurements of 0.5mgL(-1) copper(II) solution. The detection limit (3 S/N) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 and 0.17mgL(-1) respectively. This method has been successfully applied to determination of copper(II) in wastewater with a sample throughput of 120h(-1). The method is superior to the batchwise method in that it provides fully automation, rapidity, less reagents and sample consumption with little waste generation.

  20. Sequential analysis of sperm functional aspects involved in fertilisation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, D A H; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    The development of diagnostic techniques in andrology as a second level of approach to the diagnosis of male factor infertility has enthused the focus of researchers on the development of a sequential diagnostic programme for these men. Semen samples of 78 men form couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation therapy were used in the study. The semen samples were used to test sperm functional aspects known to interfere with fertilisation. These tests included semen profile, DNA integrity, apoptosis, chromatin packaging, acridin orange staining, zona binding capacity, zona-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Results were correlated with fertilisation outcome. Statistical analyses of the recorded data were carried out using a logistic regression analysis model on all sperm functional tests. A negative and significant association with the fertilisation rates was recorded for DNA damage (r = -0.56; P ≤ 0.0005). A positive significant correlation was recorded between fertilisation rates and sperm with normal DNA (r = -0.57, P ≤ 0.0004), and zona-induced AR (r = 0.33, P ≤ 0.002). Diagnostic andrology can be regarded as a mandatory part of the male factor patient's work-up schedule to assist clinicians with the most suitable therapeutic modality to follow. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. A sequential analysis of classroom discourse in Italian primary schools: the many faces of the IRF pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Luisa; Mameli, Consuelo; Gnisci, Augusto

    2013-09-01

    A sequential analysis of classroom discourse is needed to investigate the conditions under which the triadic initiation-response-feedback (IRF) pattern may host different teaching orientations. The purpose of the study is twofold: first, to describe the characteristics of classroom discourse and, second, to identify and explore the different interactive sequences that can be captured with a sequential statistical analysis. Twelve whole-class activities were video recorded in three Italian primary schools. We observed classroom interaction as it occurs naturally on an everyday basis. In total, we collected 587 min of video recordings. Subsequently, 828 triadic IRF patterns were extracted from this material and analysed with the programme Generalized Sequential Query (GSEQ). The results indicate that classroom discourse may unfold in different ways. In particular, we identified and described four types of sequences. Dialogic sequences were triggered by authentic questions, and continued through further relaunches. Monologic sequences were directed to fulfil the teachers' pre-determined didactic purposes. Co-constructive sequences fostered deduction, reasoning, and thinking. Scaffolding sequences helped and sustained children with difficulties. The application of sequential analyses allowed us to show that interactive sequences may account for a variety of meanings, thus making a significant contribution to the literature and research practice in classroom discourse. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous versus sequential bilateral cochlear implants in adults: Cost analysis in a US setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidade, Aaron; Page, Joshua C; Kennett, Sarah W; Cox, Matthew D; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-11-01

    From a purely surgical efficiency point of view, simultaneous cochlear implantation (SimCI) is more cost-effective than sequential cochlear implantation (SeqCI) when total direct costs are considered (implant and hospital costs). However, in a setting where only SeqCI is practiced and a proportion of initially unilaterally implanted patients do not progress to a second implant, this may not be the case, especially when audiological costs are factored in. We present a cost analysis of such a scenario as would occur in our institution. Retrospective review and cost analysis. Between 2005 and 2015, 370 patients fulfilled the audiological criteria for bilateral implantation. Of those, 267 (72.1%) underwent unilateral cochlear implantation only, 101 (27.3%) progressed to SeqCI, and two underwent SimCI. The total hospital, surgical, and implant costs, and initial implant stimulation series audiological costs between August 2015 and August 2016 (29 adult patients) were used in this analysis. The total hospital, surgical, and implant costs for this period was $2,731,360.42. Based on previous local trends, if a projected eight (27.3%) of these patients decide to progress to SeqCI, this will cost an additional $750,811.04, resulting in an overall total of $3,482,171.46 for these 29 patients. Had all 29 undergone SimCI, the total projected cost would have been $3,332,991.75, representing a total potential saving of $149,179.67 (4.3%). In institutions where only SeqCI is allowed in adults, overall patient management may cost marginally more than if SimCI were practiced. This will be of interest to CI programs and health insurance companies. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2615-2618, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Immediate versus Delayed Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali S Malvankar-Mehta

    Full Text Available Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS, the cataract surgery that is performed in both eyes simultaneously, is gaining popularity worldwide compared to the traditional treatment paradigm: delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery (DSBCS, the surgery that is performed in each eye on a different day as a completely separate operation. ISBCS provides advantages to patients and patients' families in the form of fewer hospital visits. Additionally, patients enjoy rapid rehabilitation, lack of anisometropia - potentially reducing accidents and falls, and avoid suboptimal visual function in daily life. The hospital may benefit due to lower cost.To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate ISBCS and DSBCS.Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED, ISI Web of Science (Thomson-Reuters and the Cochrane Library were searched.Not applicable.Literature was systematically reviewed using EPPI-Reviewer 4 gateway. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA v. 13.0. Standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were computed based on heterogeneity. Meta-analysis was done by instrument used to calculate utility score.In total, 9,133 records were retrieved from multiple databases and an additional 128 records were identified through grey literature search. Eleven articles with 3,657 subjects were included for analysis. Our meta-analysis results indicated significant improvement in post-operative utility score using TTO, EQ5D, HUI3, VF-7, and VF-14 and a non-significant improvement using Catquest questionnaire for both surgeries. For ISBCS versus DSBCS, utility-specific fixed-effect model provided an overall SMD of the utility score using the TTO method as 0.12 (95% CI: -0.15, 0.40, EQ5D as 0.14 (95% CI: -0.14, 0.41, HUI3 as 0.12 (95% CI: -0.15, 0.40, VF

  5. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.; Gluud, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries...... analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA......(30%)), 15% (TSA(15%)), or a risk reduction suggested by low-bias risk trials of the meta-analysis corrected for heterogeneity (TSA(LBHIS)). RESULTS: A total of 174 meta-analyses were eligible; 79 out of 174 (45%) meta-analyses were statistically significant (P

  6. Associations between polymorphisms in coagulation-related genes and venous thromboembolism: A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Liu, Kang; Zou, Junjie; Ma, Hao; Yang, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiwei; Jiao, Yuanyong

    2017-03-01

    Recently, several studies showed that the polymorphisms in the coagulation-related genes might be associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the results were still controversial. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the endothelial cell-activated protein C receptor (EPCR) rs9574, F11 rs2289252, F11 rs2036914, FGG rs2066865, FGG rs1049636, CYP4V2 rs13146272, SERPINC1 rs2227589, and GP6 rs1613662 polymorphisms with the risk of VTE. We searched both the common English-language databases and the Chinese literature databases. Two authors selected studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Crude odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the strength of this association. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed with the chi-square-based Q test and the I statistic. Overall, a total of 20 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed that the F11 rs2289252, F11 rs2036914, FGG rs2066865, and CYP4V2 rs13146272 polymorphisms were closely related to the development of VTE in the white race under the best genetic models after multiple testing adjustments. The EPCR rs9574, FGG rs1049636, SERPINC1 rs2227589, and GP6 rs1613662 polymorphisms might be potential candidates in the pathogenesis of VTE, but trial sequential analyses and sensitivity analyses indicated that the evidences were limited. Larger scale studies were demanded to avoid false-positive outcomes. Finally, our study demonstrated the important role of rs2289252, rs2036914, rs2066865, and rs13146272 polymorphisms in the development of VTE in the white race. Rs9574, rs1049636, rs2227589 and rs1613662 polymorphisms might be risk factors of VTE. However, more studies involving diverse races are needed to probe the ethnic difference and the underlying mechanisms of significant associations.

  7. Caregiver Person-Centeredness and Behavioral Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia: A Timed-Event Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea L; Roberts, Tonya J; Bowers, Barbara J; Brown, Roger L

    2015-06-01

    Evidence suggests that person-centered caregiving approaches may reduce dementia-related behavioral symptoms; however, little is known about the sequential and temporal associations between specific caregiver actions and behavioral symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify sequential associations between caregiver person-centered actions, task-centered actions, and resident behavioral symptoms and the temporal variation within these associations. Videorecorded observations of naturally occurring interactions (N = 33; 724min) between 12 nursing home (NH) residents with dementia and eight certified nursing assistants were coded for caregiver person-centered actions, task-centered actions, and resident behavioral symptoms and analyzed using timed-event sequential analysis. Although caregiver actions were predominantly person-centered, we found that resident behavioral symptoms were significantly more likely to occur following task-centered caregiver actions than person-centered actions. Findings suggest that the person-centeredness of caregivers is sequentially and temporally related to behavioral symptoms in individuals with dementia. Additional research examining the temporal structure of these relationships may offer valuable insights into the utility of caregiver person-centeredness as a low-cost strategy for improving behavioral symptom management in the NH setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Validation of subject-specific automated p-FE analysis of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Nir; Yosibash, Zohar; Milgrom, Charles

    2009-02-09

    The use of subject-specific finite element (FE) models in clinical practice requires a high level of automation and validation. In Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699] a novel method for generating high-order finite element (p-FE) models from CT scans was presented and validated by experimental observations on two fresh frozen femurs (harvested from a 30 year old male and 21 year old female). Herein, we substantiate the validation process by enlarging the experimental database (54 year old female femur), improving the method and examine its robustness under different CT scan conditions. A fresh frozen femur of a 54 year old female was scanned under two different environments: in air and immersed in water (dry and wet CT). Thereafter, the proximal femur was quasi-statically loaded in vitro by a 1000N load. The two QCT scans were manipulated to generate p-FE models that mimic the experimental conditions. We compared p-FE displacements and strains of the wet CT model to the dry CT model and to the experimental results. In addition, the material assignment strategy was reinvestigated. The inhomogeneous Young's modulus was represented in the FE model using two different methods, directly extracted from the CT data and using continuous spatial functions as in Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699]. Excellent agreement between dry and wet FE models was found for both displacements and strains, i.e. the method is insensitive to CT conditions and may be used in vivo. Good agreement was also found between FE results and experimental observations. The spatial functions representing Young's modulus are local and do not influence strains and displacements prediction. Finally, the p-FE results of

  9. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  10. Development of a Sequential Injection Analysis System for the Determination of Saccharin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wibowotomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharin is a powerfully sweet nonnutritive sweetener that has been approved for food-processing applications within the range of 100–1200 mg/kg. A simple, rapid, and cost-effective sequential injection analysis (SIA technique was developed to determine the saccharin level. This method is based on the reaction of saccharin with p-chloranil in an ethanol medium with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 acceleration, and the resultant violet-red compound was detected using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λmax = 420 nm. To ascertain the optimal conditions for the SIA system, several parameters were investigated, including buffer flow rate and volume, p-chloranil concentration, and reactant volumes (saccharin, p-chloranil, and H2O2. The optimum setup of the SIA system was achieved with a buffer flow rate, buffer volume, and draw-up time of 1.2 mL/min, 2900 µL, and ~145 s, respectively. The optimal p-chloranil concentration is 30 mM, and the best reactant volumes, presented in an ordered sequence, are as follows: 30 µL of H2O2, 450 µL of saccharin, and 150 µL of p-chloranil. The optimized SIA configuration produced a good linear calibration curve with a correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9812 in the concentration range of 20–140 mg/L and with a detection limit of 19.69 mg/L. Analytical applications in different food categories also showed acceptable recovery values in the range of 93.1–111.5%. This simple and rapid SIA system offers great feasibility for the saccharin quality control in food-product processing.

  11. Development of a Sequential Injection Analysis System for the Determination of Saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowotomo, Budi; Eun, Jong-Bang; Rhee, Jong Il

    2017-12-12

    Saccharin is a powerfully sweet nonnutritive sweetener that has been approved for food-processing applications within the range of 100-1200 mg/kg. A simple, rapid, and cost-effective sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique was developed to determine the saccharin level. This method is based on the reaction of saccharin with p-chloranil in an ethanol medium with a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) acceleration, and the resultant violet-red compound was detected using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ max = 420 nm. To ascertain the optimal conditions for the SIA system, several parameters were investigated, including buffer flow rate and volume, p-chloranil concentration, and reactant volumes (saccharin, p-chloranil, and H₂O₂). The optimum setup of the SIA system was achieved with a buffer flow rate, buffer volume, and draw-up time of 1.2 mL/min, 2900 µL, and ~145 s, respectively. The optimal p-chloranil concentration is 30 mM, and the best reactant volumes, presented in an ordered sequence, are as follows: 30 µL of H₂O₂, 450 µL of saccharin, and 150 µL of p-chloranil. The optimized SIA configuration produced a good linear calibration curve with a correlation coefficient (R² = 0.9812) in the concentration range of 20-140 mg/L and with a detection limit of 19.69 mg/L. Analytical applications in different food categories also showed acceptable recovery values in the range of 93.1-111.5%. This simple and rapid SIA system offers great feasibility for the saccharin quality control in food-product processing.

  12. Proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Andzouana; Bievenu, Mombouli Jean

    2012-06-01

    The vegetal materials were bought on 20th October, 2010 at the local Total market from Bacongo, South-Brazzaville. The proximate and phytochemical compositions of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis were investigated in accordance with standard procedures. Mineral concentrations were determined by using flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and calorimetry. The proximate analysis revealed high moisture (62.90%), crude protein (24.18%) and energy content values (562.19 kJ/100 g) in U. trinervis leaves while the carbohydrate (06.07%), crude fat (1.32%) and ash content (5.54%) were low. Similarly H. myriantha showed a high content of crude protein (25.37%), energy (1508.32 kJ/100 g) and carbohydrate (60.02%) however, the moisture (6.93%), crude fat (1.54%) and ash content (6.14%) were low. The minerals present in both plant leaves were phosphorus (18.97 and 18.73% for H. myriantha and U. trinervis, respectively), followed by potassium (1.25 and 1.29%), calcium and magnesium, which were found in very low concentrations (0.21-0.29%). While sodium, iron and manganese were present as trace elements (0.02-0.09%), aluminum was not detected. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. Flavonoids were absent solely in H. myriantha while saponins and anthraquinones were not detected in both samples. The study showed that these vegetables contained nutrients, mineral elements and phytochemicals that were nutritionally important for body health. Thus they could be recommended in Congolese nutrition with nutrient and non-nutrient supplementation to help in various protective and therapeutic actions for consumers.

  13. Static bending test after proximal femoral nail (PFN removal - in vitro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Morais Paiva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate, through biomechanical testing, the resistance to and energy required for the occurrence of proximal femoral fracture in synthetic bone after removal of a proximal femoral nail model (PFN, comparing the results obtained with a reinforcement technique using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. Methods Fifteen synthetic bones were used: five units for the control group (CG, five for the test group without reinforcement (TGNR, and five for the test group with reinforcement (TGR. The biomechanical analysis was performed simulating a fall on the trochanter using a servo-hydraulic machine. In the GC, the assay was performed with the PFN intact. In the TGNR and TGR groups, a model of PFN was introduced and the tests were performed in the TGNR, after simple removal of the synthesis material, and in the TGR, after removal of the same PFN model and filling of the cavity in the femoral neck with PMMA. Results All groups presented a basicervical fracture. The CG presented a mean of 1427.39 Newtons (N of maximum load and 10.14 Joules (J of energy for the occurrence of the fracture. The TGNR and TGR presented 892.14 N and 1477.80 N of maximum load, and 6.71 J and 11.99 J of energy, respectively. According to the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, there was a significant difference in the maximum load (p = 0.009 and energy (p = 0.007 between these groups. Conclusion The simple removal of a PFN in synthetic bone showed a significant reduction of the maximum load and energy for the occurrence of fracture, which were re-established with a reinforcement technique using PMMA.

  14. Effectiveness of the random sequential absorption algorithm in the analysis of volume elements with nanoplatelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontefisso, Alessandro; Zappalorto, Michele; Quaresimin, Marino

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a study of the Random Sequential Absorption (RSA) algorithm in the generation of nanoplatelet Volume Elements (VEs) is carried out. The effect of the algorithm input parameters on the reinforcement distribution is studied through the implementation of statistical tools, showing...

  15. Optimized sequential extraction for carbonates : Quantification and δ13C analysis of calcite, dolomite and siderite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morera-Chavarría, A.; Griffioen, J.; Behrends, T.

    2016-01-01

    Siderite is present in diverse types of rocks and sediments, but its quantification is cumbersome when present in relatively low contents. A new analytical method for the sequential separation of different carbonate phases is presented. The separation, quantification and characterization of the

  16. Sequential Pattern Analysis: Method and Application in Exploring How Students Develop Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lin, Chien-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that represents knowledge in graphs. It has been widely adopted in science education and cognitive psychology to aid learning and assessment. To realize the sequential manner in which students develop concept maps, most research relies upon human-dependent, qualitative approaches. This article proposes a method for…

  17. Bioinformatics analysis of proteomics profiles in senescent human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Jingchao; Dapeng, Chen; Wu, Di; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of renal tubule epithelial cells is associated with renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Exploration of the proteomic profiles of senesced tubule epithelial cells is essential to elucidate the mechanism of tubulointerstitium development. Primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells from passage 3 (P3) and passage 6 (P6) were selected for evaluation. EdU and SA-β-galactosidase staining were used to detect cell senescence. p53, p21, and p16 were detected by Western blot analysis. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to examine differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between P6 and P3 cells. The expression of DEPs was examined by Western blot analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by protein-protein interaction and gene ontology analyses. The majority of tubule cells from passage 6 (P6) stained positive for SA-β-galactosidase, whereas passage 3 (P3) cells were negative. Senescence biomarkers, including p53, p21, and p16, were upregulated in P6 cells relative to P3 cells. EdU staining results showed a lower rate of EdU positive cells in P6 cells than in P3 cells. LC-MS was used to examine DEPs between P6 and P3 cells. These DEPs are involved in glycolysis, response to stress, cytoskeleton regulation, oxidative reduction, ATP binding, and oxidative stress. Using Western blot analysis, we validated the down-regulation of AKR1B1, EEF2, EEF1A1, and HSP90 and the up-regulation of VIM in P6 cells seen in the LC-MS data. More importantly, we built the molecular network based on biological functions and protein-protein interactions and found that the DEPs are involved in translation elongation, stress, and glycolysis, and that they are all associated with cytoskeleton regulation, which regulates senescent cell activities such as apoptosis and EMT in tubule epithelial cells. We explored proteomic profile changes in cell culture-induced senescent cells and built senescence-associated molecular networks, which will help to elucidate the

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the risk of malaria: A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengmei; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yuepu

    2017-10-01

    This study is designed to perform a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) to investigate whether people with G6PD deficiency suffered less malarial infection. We searched from PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, CNKI, and Wan Fang databases for case-control study, cohort study or cross section study until April 2017. TSA was used to determine the state of evidence and calculate the required sample size. Eight case-control studies and five cross-sectional studies (30,683participants) were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with normal control group, we found significant protection from severe malaria (OR 0.644, 95% CI [0.493-0.842]; P=0.001) among people with decreasing G6PD activity. People with variations of G6PD gene at nucleotide 202(G6PD A-) were also found to be associated with resistance on severe malaria pooled (OR 0.851, 95% CI [0.779-0.930]; P =0.0001). Sex-stratified test suggested that protection of severe malaria is conferred to both G6PD A-males and heterozygous females (with a single copy of the variant). In conclusion, our study found a significant protection from severe malaria among G6PD deficient people compared to the

  19. Bayesian sequential meta-analysis design in evaluating cardiovascular risk in a new antidiabetic drug development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Amy Xia, H; Liu, Thomas; Hennessey, Violeta

    2014-04-30

    Recently, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration released a guidance that makes recommendations about how to demonstrate that a new antidiabetic therapy to treat type 2 diabetes is not associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. One of the recommendations from the guidance is that phases II and III trials should be appropriately designed and conducted so that a meta-analysis can be performed. In addition, the guidance implies that a sequential meta-analysis strategy could be adopted. That is, the initial meta-analysis could aim at demonstrating the upper bound of a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the estimated hazard ratio to be analysis would need to show the upper bound to be analysis approach using survival regression models to assess whether the size of a clinical development program is adequate to evaluate a particular safety endpoint. We propose a Bayesian sample size determination methodology for sequential meta-analysis clinical trial design with a focus on controlling the familywise type I error rate and power. We use the partial borrowing power prior to incorporate the historical survival meta-data into the Bayesian design. We examine various properties of the proposed methodology, and simulation-based computational algorithms are developed to generate predictive data at various interim analyses, sample from the posterior distributions, and compute various quantities such as the power and the type I error in the Bayesian sequential meta-analysis trial design. We apply the proposed methodology to the design of a hypothetical antidiabetic drug development program for evaluating cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Proximate and elemental analysis of five selected medicinal plants of family Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ishfaq; Hussain, Farrukh

    2015-07-01

    The proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash, moisture, protein, fiber, fats and carbohydrate. ANOVA showed that ash and moisture contents was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages. Crude protein was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages, while crude fats were non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Solanum nigrum and Solanum surattense parts but not for their phenolgical stages. Crude fiber was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages. And carbohydrates was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for the phenolgical stages of Solanum surattense and Withania coagulans. The mineral analysis showed the presence of Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and Na in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of the plants in three different phenological stages. Only the micro-minerals were present in traces while the macro-minerals were present high quantities as compared to the micro-minerals.

  1. Vegetation cover analysis using a low budget hyperspectral proximal sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daquino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the implementation of a hyperspectral proximal sensing low-budget acquisition system and its application to the detection of terrestrian vegetation cover anomalies in sites of high environmental quality. Anomalies can be due to stress for lack of water and/or pollution phenomena and weed presence in agricultural fields. The hyperspectral cube (90-bands ranging from 450 to 900 nm was acquired from the hill near Segni (RM, approximately 500 m far from the target, by means of electronically tunable filters and 8 bit CCD cameras. Spectral libraries were built using both endmember identification method and extraction of centroids of the clusters obtained from a k-means analysis of the image itself. Two classification methods were applied on the hyperspectral cube: Spectral Angle Mapper (hard and Mixed Tuned Matching Filters (MTMF. Results show the good capability of the system in detecting areas with an arboreal, shrub or leafage cover, distinguishing between zones with different spectral response. Better results were obtained using spectral library originated by the k-means method. The detected anomalies not correlated to seasonal phenomena suggest a ground true analysis to identify their origin.

  2. Proximate Analysis and Calorific Value Prediction using Linear Correlation Model for Torrefied Palm Oil Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Siti Raishan Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment processes to upgrade the chemical and physical properties of biomass for power production. In this study, four types of palm oil wastes were selected. The wastes, which consisted of oil palm frond (OPF, palm kernel shell (PKS, palm mesocarp fibre (PMF, and empty fruit bunch (EFB, were subjected to torrefaction process at different temperatures of 240°C, 270°C, 300°C, and 330°C for 30 min residence time. Based on the analysis of torrefied palm oil wastes, it was observed that there is a linear relationship between the properties of torrefied palm oil wastes and torrefaction temperature. Based on this, linear correlation model as a function of mass loss was developed to predict the energy yield (EY, calorific value (HHV, and proximate analysis. A reliable correlation model (R2 > 0.90 for predicting calorific value (HHV, fixed carbon (FC, and volatile matter (VM was obtained, indicating the developed linear model is indeed reliable. Meanwhile, an acceptable coefficient of determination (R2 ≈ 0.75 was obtained when the linear model is used to estimate the energy yield (EY and ash content (ASH. These developed linear correlation models are cost effective and can be used as a tool to predict the properties of palm oil wastes and to assess the suitability of biomass in torrefaction process.

  3. Comparative morphometric analysis of the proximal femur of African hominids and felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Size and shape of the mammalian proximal femur and taxon-specific distinctions in the relative proportions of the proximal articulation, the femoral neck and the proximal femoral diaphysis, are critical determinants in its adaptation to differential biomechanical stresses and observed locomotor habitus in different taxa. The morphometrics of the proximal femur are considered equally critical in the assessment of locomotor habitus of extinct fossil mammals, particularly extinct Miocene anthropoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Analyses of size and shape of k=10 dimensions of the proximal femur were undertaken for a large sample series of two extant mammal families the Felidae and Hominidae using conventional multivariate statistical procedures, commonly used size-correction methods, and post-hoc tests of significance. While significant differences in form do exist, there are equally striking convergences in the functional morphology of extant hominid and felid taxa. Multivariate and bivariate allometric analyses confirm that the proximal femur of these two mammalian families share a common underlying structure manifest in a shared first common principal component. Nevertheless, while considerable convergences in general form of the proximal femur of African hominids and large-bodied felids are apparent, there exist equally discreet distinctions which are consistent with the differential structural demands imposed by their distinct locomotor and behavioural habitus.

  4. Enzymatic determination of glucose in milk samples by sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Alberto N; Lima, José L F C; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2009-05-01

    The present work describes a comparative study involving two sequential injection enzymatic procedures for the spectrophotometric determination of glucose in milk samples. The determinations were based on the use of the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase, in solution or immobilized, and 4-aminophenazone and phenol as chromogenic reagents. In the first procedure, 8.4 IU of glucose oxidase and 0.5 IU of peroxidase were consumed in each determination. In the second procedure, 107 IU of glucose oxidase and 105 IU of peroxidase, immobilized in glass beads, were sequentially packed into the same reactor. The reactor allowed us to perform about 600 continuous determinations with no activity loss. The proposed systems allowed the determination of glucose up to 120 mg L(-1) in milk samples with a precision, considering the RSD (%) values, lower than 3.5%. The results obtained for the two systems were comparatively evaluated against a routine enzymatic method, showing a relative deviation of less than 3%.

  5. Exercise for patients with major depression: a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Gluud, Christian; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-04-02

    The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability. The effects of most antidepressant treatments are poor; therefore, exercise has been assessed in a number of randomized clinical trials. A number of reviews have previously analyzed these trials; however, none of these reviews have addresses the effect of exercise for adults diagnosed with major depression. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of exercise, in terms of severity of depression, lack of remission, suicide, and so on, compared with treatment as usual with or without co-interventions in randomized clinical trials involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of major depression. A meta-analysis of the effect estimates of the individual trials, taking bias risk into consideration, will be carried out. Any heterogeneity will be explored using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Trial sequential analysis will be carried out on the trials to control for risks of random errors. The results from the study will aid health authorities and clinicians to understand whether exercise should be offered to patients with major depression.

  6. Performance Analysis of Video Transmission Using Sequential Distortion Minimization Method for Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Astin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.

  7. Goal directed hemodynamic therapy based in esophageal Doppler flow parameters: A systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés-Melchor, J; Casans-Francés, R; Espinosa, A; Abad-Gurumeta, A; Feldheiser, A; López-Timoneda, F; Calvo-Vecino, J M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have compared perioperative esophageal doppler monitoring (EDM) guided intravascular volume replacement strategies with conventional clinical volume replacement in surgical patients. The use of the EDM within hemodynamic algorithms is called 'goal directed hemodynamic therapy' (GDHT). Meta-analysis of the effects of EDM guided GDHT in adult non-cardiac surgery on postoperative complications and mortality using PRISMA methodology. A systematic search was performed in Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (last update, March 2015). Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which perioperative GDHT was compared to other fluid management. Overall complications. Mortality; number of patients with complications; cardiac, renal and infectious complications; incidence of ileus. Studies were subjected to quantifiable analysis, pre-defined subgroup analysis (stratified by surgery, type of comparator and risk); pre-defined sensitivity analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). Fifty six RCTs were initially identified, 15 fulfilling the inclusion criteria, including 1,368 patients. A significant reduction was observed in overall complications associated with GDHT compared to other fluid therapy (RR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.89; P=0.0009) in colorectal, urological and high-risk surgery compared to conventional fluid therapy. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, neither in other subgroups. The impact on preventing the development of complications in patients using EDM is high, causing a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 50% for a number needed to treat (NNT)=6. GDHT guided by EDM decreases postoperative complications, especially in patients undergoing colorectal surgery and high-risk surgery. However, no differences versus restrictive fluid therapy and in intermediate-risk patients were found. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. On-line speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex environmental aqueous samples by pervaporation sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjob, Warunya; Miró, Manuel; Kolev, Spas D

    2013-12-15

    A proof of concept of a novel pervaporation sequential injection (PSI) analysis method for automatic non-chromatographic speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex aqueous samples is presented. The method is based on hydride generation of arsine followed by its on-line pervaporation-based membrane separation and CCD spectrophotometric detection. The concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are determined sequentially in a single sample zone. The leading section of the sample zone merges with a citric acid/citrate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for the selective reduction of As(III) to arsine while the trailing section of the sample zone merges with hydrochloric acid solution to allow the reduction of both As(III) and As(V) to arsine at pH lower than 1. Virtually identical analytical sensitivity is obtained for both As(III) and As(V) at this high acidity. The flow analyzer also accommodates in-line pH detector for monitoring of the acidity throughout the sample zone prior to hydride generation. Under optimal conditions the proposed PSI method is characterized by a limit of detection, linear calibration range and repeatability for As(III) of 22 μg L(-1) (3sblank level criterion), 50-1000 μg L(-1) and 3.0% at the 500 μg L(-1) level and for As(V) of 51 μg L(-1), 100-2000 μg L(-1) and 2.6% at the 500 μg L(-1) level, respectively. The method was validated with mixed As(III)/As(V) standard aqueous solutions and successfully applied to the determination of As(III) and As(V) in river water samples with elevated content of dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter with no prior sample pretreatment. Excellent relative recoveries ranging from 98% to 104% were obtained for both As(III) and As(V). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-01-01

    ... of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening...

  10. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Markus J; Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and-less consistently-spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide.

  11. Comparative physico-chemical, proximate and mineral analysis on raw and roasted seeds of groundnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Saravan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical, proximate and nutritionally valuable minerals were determined aiming to compare raw and roasted groundnut seeds. The results indicated that total ash content of raw groundnut (4.6% was higher than the roasted groundnut (4.1% seeds. Crude protein content of roasted groundnut was higher (26.1% when compared to that of raw groundnut (24.9%. Crude carbohydrates levels of raw groundnut (25.3% are lower when compared with that of roasted groundnut (26.5%. Crude fat ranged from 39.1% in raw groundnut to 39.6% in roasted groundnut. Crude fiber percentage both in raw (2.9% and roasted (3.1% conditions were good. The moisture content of the raw groundnut (4.1% was more than the roasted groundnut (3.6% because of not exposure to heat. Seeds showed higher energy values both in raw and roasted conditions. Significant amount of minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were present both in raw and roasted conditions. Based on statistical analysis the results showed highly significant differences (P < 0.05 between the raw and roasted seeds.

  12. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  13. A sequential threshold cure model for genetic analysis of time-to-event data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, J; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.

    2011-01-01

    is for improved susceptibility rather than endurance, the error of applying a classical survival model was nonnegligible. The difference was most pronounced for scenarios with substantial underlying genetic variation in endurance and when the 2 underlying traits were lowly genetically correlated. In the presence...... pathogens, which is a common procedure in aquaculture breeding schemes. A cure model is a survival model accounting for a fraction of nonsusceptible individuals in the population. This study proposes a mixed cure model for time-to-event data, measured as sequential binary records. In a simulation study...

  14. Thromboprophylaxis With Apixaban in Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery: Meta-Analysis and Trial-Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Daniel; Rodrigues, Filipe B; Pinto, Fausto J; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Costa, João

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of orthopedic surgery, and until recently, few antithrombotic compounds were available for postoperative thromboprophylaxis. The introduction of the non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOAC), including apixaban, has extended the therapeutic armamentarium in this field. Therefore, estimation of NOAC net clinical benefit in comparison with the established treatment is needed to inform clinical decision making. Systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of apixaban 2.5 mg twice a day versus low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) for thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement. MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched from inception to September 2016, other systematic reviews, reference lists, and experts were consulted. All major orthopedic surgery randomized controlled trials comparing apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily with LMWH, reporting thrombotic and bleeding events. Two independent reviewers, using a predetermined form. The Cochrane tool to assess risk bias was used by two independent authors. RevMan software was used to estimate pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random-effects meta-analysis. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed in statistical significant results to evaluate whether cumulative sample size was powered for the obtained effect. Overall confidence in cumulative evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group methodology. Four studies comparing apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily with LMWH were included, with a total of 11.828 patients (55% undergoing knee and 45% hip replacement). The overall risk of bias across studies was low. In comparison with LMWH (all regimens), apixaban showed a significantly lower risk of VTE events and overall mortality combined (RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.42-0.95, I2 = 84%, n = 8346), but not of major VTE events (RR: 0.62, 95

  15. Thromboprophylaxis With Apixaban in Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery: Meta-Analysis and Trial-Sequential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caldeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a potentially fatal complication of orthopedic surgery, and until recently, few antithrombotic compounds were available for postoperative thromboprophylaxis. The introduction of the non–vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOAC, including apixaban, has extended the therapeutic armamentarium in this field. Therefore, estimation of NOAC net clinical benefit in comparison with the established treatment is needed to inform clinical decision making. Objectives: Systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of apixaban 2.5 mg twice a day versus low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH for thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched from inception to September 2016, other systematic reviews, reference lists, and experts were consulted. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and intervention: All major orthopedic surgery randomized controlled trials comparing apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily with LMWH, reporting thrombotic and bleeding events. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers, using a predetermined form. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The Cochrane tool to assess risk bias was used by two independent authors. RevMan software was used to estimate pooled risk ratio (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI using random-effects meta-analysis. Trial sequential analysis (TSA was performed in statistical significant results to evaluate whether cumulative sample size was powered for the obtained effect. Overall confidence in cumulative evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE Working Group methodology. Results: Four studies comparing apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily with LMWH were included, with a total of 11.828 patients (55% undergoing knee and 45% hip replacement. The overall risk of bias across studies was low. In comparison with LMWH (all regimens

  16. Prophylactic mesh to prevent parastomal hernia after end colostomy: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cano, M; Brandsma, H-T; Bury, K; Hansson, B; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Alamino, J G; Muysoms, F

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of parastomal hernia (PSH) formation is crucial, given the high prevalence and difficulties in the surgical repair of PSH. To investigate the effect of a preventive mesh in PSH formation after an end colostomy, we aimed to meta-analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched five databases. For each trial, we extracted risk ratios (RRs) of the effects of mesh or no mesh. The primary outcome was incidence of PSH with a minimum follow-up of 12 months with a clinical and/or computed tomography diagnosis. RRs were combined using the random-effect model (Mantel-Haenszel). To control the risk of type I error, we performed a trial sequential analysis (TSA). Seven RCTs with low risk of bias (451 patients) were included. Meta-analysis for primary outcome showed a significant reduction of the incidence of PSH using a mesh (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26-0.71; P = 0.0009). Regarding TSA calculation for the primary outcome, the accrued information size (451) was 187.1% of the estimated required information size (RIS) (241). Wound infection showed no statistical differences between groups (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.39-1.54; P = 0.46). PSH repair rate showed a significant reduction in the mesh group (RR 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.78; P = 0.01). PSH prevention with mesh when creating an end colostomy reduces the incidence of PSH, the risk for subsequent PSH repair and does not increase wound infections. TSA shows that the RIS is reached for the primary outcome. Additional RCTs in the previous context are not needed.

  17. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  18. Modeling and Predicting AD Progression by Regression Analysis of Sequential Clinical Data

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Qing

    2016-02-23

    Alzheimer\\'s Disease (AD) is currently attracting much attention in elders\\' care. As the increasing availability of massive clinical diagnosis data, especially the medical images of brain scan, it is highly significant to precisely identify and predict the potential AD\\'s progression based on the knowledge in the diagnosis data. In this paper, we follow a novel sequential learning framework to model the disease progression for AD patients\\' care. Different from the conventional approaches using only initial or static diagnosis data to model the disease progression for different durations, we design a score-involved approach and make use of the sequential diagnosis information in different disease stages to jointly simulate the disease progression. The actual clinical scores are utilized in progress to make the prediction more pertinent and reliable. We examined our approach by extensive experiments on the clinical data provided by the Alzheimer\\'s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The results indicate that the proposed approach is more effective to simulate and predict the disease progression compared with the existing methods.

  19. Sequential Analysis of Postural Control Resource Allocation During a Dual Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hye; Chang, Hyun Jung; Park, Dae-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the postural control factors influencing the automatic (reflex-controlled) and attentional (high cortical) factors on dual task. Methods We used a dual task model to examine the attentional factors affecting the control of posture, subjecting test subjects to vibration stimulation, one-leg standing and verbal or nonverbal task trials. Twenty-three young, healthy participants were asked to stand on force plates and their centers of pressure were measured during dual task trials. We acquired 15 seconds of data for each volunteer during six dual task trials involving varying task combinations. Results We observed significantly different sway patterns between the early and late phases of dual task trials, which probably reflect the attentional demands. Vibration stimulation perturbed sway more during the early than the late phases; with or without vibration stimulation, the addition of secondary tasks decreased sway in all phases, and greater decreases in sway were observed in the late phases, when subjects were assigned nonverbal tasks. Less sway was observed during the nonverbal task in a sequential study. Conclusion The attentional and automatic factors were analyzed during a sequential study. By controlling the postural control factors, optimal parameters and training methods might be used in clinical applications. PMID:23869332

  20. Positional error and time-activity patterns in near-highway proximity studies: an exposure misclassification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kevin J; Kangsen Scammell, Madeleine; Levy, Jonathan I; Fuller, Christina H; Parambi, Ron; Zamore, Wig; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Brugge, Doug

    2013-09-08

    The growing interest in research on the health effects of near-highway air pollutants requires an assessment of potential sources of error in exposure assignment techniques that rely on residential proximity to roadways. We compared the amount of positional error in the geocoding process for three different data sources (parcels, TIGER and StreetMap USA) to a "gold standard" residential geocoding process that used ortho-photos, large multi-building parcel layouts or large multi-unit building floor plans. The potential effect of positional error for each geocoding method was assessed as part of a proximity to highway epidemiological study in the Boston area, using all participants with complete address information (N = 703). Hourly time-activity data for the most recent workday/weekday and non-workday/weekend were collected to examine time spent in five different micro-environments (inside of home, outside of home, school/work, travel on highway, and other). Analysis included examination of whether time-activity patterns were differentially distributed either by proximity to highway or across demographic groups. Median positional error was significantly higher in street network geocoding (StreetMap USA = 23 m; TIGER = 22 m) than parcel geocoding (8 m). When restricted to multi-building parcels and large multi-unit building parcels, all three geocoding methods had substantial positional error (parcels = 24 m; StreetMap USA = 28 m; TIGER = 37 m). Street network geocoding also differentially introduced greater amounts of positional error in the proximity to highway study in the 0-50 m proximity category. Time spent inside home on workdays/weekdays differed significantly by demographic variables (age, employment status, educational attainment, income and race). Time-activity patterns were also significantly different when stratified by proximity to highway, with those participants residing in the 0-50 m proximity category reporting significantly

  1. Basis Expansion Approaches for Regularized Sequential Dictionary Learning Algorithms With Enforced Sparsity for fMRI Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Iqbal, Asif

    2017-09-01

    Sequential dictionary learning algorithms have been successfully applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. fMRI data sets are, however, structured data matrices with the notions of temporal smoothness in the column direction. This prior information, which can be converted into a constraint of smoothness on the learned dictionary atoms, has seldomly been included in classical dictionary learning algorithms when applied to fMRI data analysis. In this paper, we tackle this problem by proposing two new sequential dictionary learning algorithms dedicated to fMRI data analysis by accounting for this prior information. These algorithms differ from the existing ones in their dictionary update stage. The steps of this stage are derived as a variant of the power method for computing the SVD. The proposed algorithms generate regularized dictionary atoms via the solution of a left regularized rank-one matrix approximation problem where temporal smoothness is enforced via regularization through basis expansion and sparse basis expansion in the dictionary update stage. Applications on synthetic data experiments and real fMRI data sets illustrating the performance of the proposed algorithms are provided.

  2. Uncertainty Reduction using Bayesian Inference and Sensitivity Analysis: A Sequential Approach to the NASA Langley Uncertainty Quantification Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for uncertainty characterization and propagation, and sensitivity analysis under the presence of aleatory and epistemic un- certainty, and develops a rigorous methodology for efficient refinement of epistemic un- certainty by identifying important epistemic variables that significantly affect the overall performance of an engineering system. The proposed methodology is illustrated using the NASA Langley Uncertainty Quantification Challenge (NASA-LUQC) problem that deals with uncertainty analysis of a generic transport model (GTM). First, Bayesian inference is used to infer subsystem-level epistemic quantities using the subsystem-level model and corresponding data. Second, tools of variance-based global sensitivity analysis are used to identify four important epistemic variables (this limitation specified in the NASA-LUQC is reflective of practical engineering situations where not all epistemic variables can be refined due to time/budget constraints) that significantly affect system-level performance. The most significant contribution of this paper is the development of the sequential refine- ment methodology, where epistemic variables for refinement are not identified all-at-once. Instead, only one variable is first identified, and then, Bayesian inference and global sensi- tivity calculations are repeated to identify the next important variable. This procedure is continued until all 4 variables are identified and the refinement in the system-level perfor- mance is computed. The advantages of the proposed sequential refinement methodology over the all-at-once uncertainty refinement approach are explained, and then applied to the NASA Langley Uncertainty Quantification Challenge problem.

  3. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  4. Radial Access Reduces Mortality in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: Results From an Updated Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Giuseppe; Capodanno, Davide

    2016-04-11

    The authors sought to investigate whether the cumulative evidence coming from randomized studies has reached the necessary power to consider radial access as a bleeding avoidance strategy that reduces mortality and ischemic endpoints in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Studies in ACS patients have reached conflicting conclusions about the impact of radial access in improving ischemic outcomes in addition to the established bleeding benefit. English-language publications and abstracts of major cardiovascular meetings until October 2015 were scrutinized. Study quality, patient characteristics, procedural data, and outcomes were extracted. Data were pooled in random effects meta-analyses with classic and trial sequential techniques. Trial sequential analysis combines the a priori information size calculation needed to allow for clinically meaningful statistical inference with the adjustment of thresholds for which results are considered significant. Seventeen studies, encompassing data from 19,328 patients, were pooled. Radial access was found to reduce mortality (relative risk [RR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60 to 0.88; p = 0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.95; p = 0.005), and major bleeding (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.76; p < 0.001). Multiple sensitivity analyses showed consistent results, and trial sequential analysis suggested firm evidence for a meaningful reduction in mortality with radial access. Radial access reduces mortality compared with femoral access in ACS patients undergoing invasive management. This benefit is paralleled by consistent reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding, supporting radial access as the default strategy for cardiac catheterization in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of first proximal phalanx geometry on hallux valgus deformity: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Bayod, Javier; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta; Doblare, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Hallux abducto valgus (HAV), one of the most common forefoot deformities, occurs primarily in elderly women. HAV is a complex disease without a clearly identifiable cause for its higher prevalence in women compared with men. Several studies have reported various skeletal parameters related to HAV. This study examined the geometry of the proximal phalanx of the hallux (PPH) as a potential etiologic factor in this deformity. A total of 43 cadaver feet (22 males and 21 females) were examined by means of cadaveric dissection. From these data, ten representative PPHs for both genders were selected, corresponding to five percentiles for males (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) and five for females. These ten different PPHs were modeled and inserted in ten foot models. Stress distribution patterns within these ten PPH models were qualitatively compared using finite element analysis. In the ten cases analyzed, tensile stresses were larger on the lateral side, whereas compressive stresses were larger on the medial side. The bones of males were larger than female bones for each of the parameters examined; however, the mean difference between lateral and medial sides of the PPH (mean ± SD) was larger in women. Also the shallower the concavity at the base of the PPH, the larger the compressive stresses predicted. Internal forces on the PPH, due to differences in length between its medial and lateral sides, may force the PPH into a less-stressful position. The geometry of the PPH is a significant factor in HAV development influencing the other reported skeletal parameters and, thus, should be considered during preoperative evaluation. Clinical assessment should evaluate the first ray as a whole and not as isolated factors.

  6. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  7. Kajian Algoritma Sequential Pattern Mining Dan Market Basket Analysis Dalam Pengenalan Pola Belanja Customer Untuk Layout Toko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusito Rusito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini membahas tentang keterkaitan antar item yang dibeli oleh customer dalam toko ritel. Pengetahuan keterkaitan item yang dibeli dapat digunakan untuk  menentukan tata letak barang dagangan toko ritel. Hal ini penting agar konsumen dapat mudah mendapatkan barang yang dibutuhkan. Sehingga dapat meningkatkan omzet penjualan toko ritel sehingga akhirnya menambah keuntungan bagi pemilik toko ritel. Teknik yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan penggalian data dan keterkaitan pembelian tersebut menggunakan pendekatan Association rule dan Market Basket Analysis. Sedangkan untuk mencari keterkaitan item tersebut digunakan algoritma Sequential Pattern Mining. Digunakan karena mampu menangani jumlah database yang besar dan sangat baik disisi kecepatan pemrosesan. Berbagai aplikasi telah diidentifikasi, termasuk misalnya, cross-selling, analisis situs Web, pendukung keputusan, evaluasi kredit, acara prediksi kriminal, analisis perilaku pelanggan  dan deteksi penipuan. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh  pola-pola belanja customer untuk membentuk suatu layout display dalam toko ritel. Penelitian ini juga menyajikan suatu kerja algoritma yang lebih efektif dari algoritma asli karena terdapat pembatasan perulangan. Untuk kombinasi maksimal 5 item dengan waktu eksekusi 421.06 detik untuk 200 nota.   Kata kunci : Data Mining, Algoritma Sequential Pattern Mining, Market Basket Analysis, Apriori, Layout, Toko Ritel

  8. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pliego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed.

  9. Sequential path analysis of some yield and quality components in sugar beet grown in normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Baradaran Firouzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through biometrical analyses of yield and its components selection indices can be generated and be used in future breeding programs. Sugar yield components were considered as the first order variables (FOV in previous path analyses studies, while white sugar yield (WSY and its related traits were the FOV here. Three lines of sugar beet (7219-P.69, BP-Karaj, 7112 were evaluated in drought and non-drought conditions. Two sequential path models were used for analysis of associations among WSY and its related traits by arraying the various variables in first-, second-, and third-order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Four first-order variables, namely root diameter, sugar yield, molasses content and sugar content, revealed highest direct effects on WSY at normal condition, while root length, α-amino-N, root yield, crown dry weight, water use efficiency and Na+ were found to fit as second-order variables. Three first-order variables, namely sugar content, sugar yield and molasses content, revealed highest direct effects on white sugar yield at drought-stress condition. In this case, sugar yield had the highest direct effect on WSY. In general, the sequential path analysis was efficiently demonstrated the effects of predictor variables.

  10. Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma: A Within-Subjects Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Within-subject data from sequential social dilemma experiments reveal a correlation of first and second-mover decisions for which two channels may be responsible, that our experiment allows to separate: i) a direct, preference-based channel that influences both first- and second-mover decisions; ii......) an indirect channel, where second-mover decisions influence beliefs via a consensus effect, and the first-mover decision is a best response to these beliefs. We find strong evidence for the indirect channel: beliefs about second-mover cooperation are biased toward own second-mover behavior, and most subjects...... best respond to stated beliefs. But when first movers know the true probability of second-mover cooperation, subjects' own second moves still have predictive power regarding their first moves, suggesting that the direct channel also plays a role....

  11. Performance analysis of coherent free space optical communications with sequential pyramid wavefront sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun

    2018-03-01

    Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.

  12. Tibetan Microblog Emotional Analysis Based on Sequential Model in Online Social Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microblogs, selling and buying appear in online social platforms such as Sina Weibo and Wechat. Besides Mandarin, Tibetan language is also used to describe products and customers’ opinions. In this paper, we are interested in analyzing the emotions of Tibetan microblogs, which are helpful to understand opinions and product reviews for Tibetan customers. It is challenging since existing studies paid little attention to Tibetan language. Our key idea is to express Tibetan microblogs as vectors and then classify them. To express microblogs more fully, we select two kinds of features, which are sequential features and semantic features. In addition, our experimental results on the Sina Weibo dataset clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of feature selection and the efficiency of our classification method.

  13. False-positive findings in Cochrane meta-analyses with and without application of trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Thorlund, Kristian; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many published meta-analyses are underpowered. We explored the role of trial sequential analysis (TSA) in assessing the reliability of conclusions in underpowered meta-analyses. METHODS: We screened The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and selected 100 meta-analyses with a binary...... new trial. For each false positive, we performed TSA, using three different approaches. RESULTS: We screened 4736 systematic reviews to find 100 meta-analyses that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Using conventional cumulative meta-analysis, false positives were present in seven of the meta......-analyses (7%, 95% CI 3% to 14%), occurring more than once in three. The total number of false positives was 14 and TSA prevented 13 of these (93%, 95% CI 68% to 98%). In a post hoc analysis, we found that Cochrane meta-analyses that are negative are 1.67 times more likely to be updated (95% CI 0.92 to 2...

  14. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia in the neonate: analysis of sequential sonographic findings and neurologic outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok; Yoo, Dong Soo [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    To analyse the sequential sonographic findings of cystic PVL and to evaluate relationship between sonographic grading of PVL and patterns of neurologic outcomes. Authors have retrospectively analysed the sequential sonographic findings of 36 cases of PVL in the preterm neonates. Initial sonographic features done within 3 days of life were divided into 3 patients such as normal, localized, and diffuse hyperechogenic flare. Grading of PVL confirmed by follow-up studies was classified as involvement of one lobe (grade 1), two lobes (grade 2) and more than extent of grade 2 (grade 3). The relationship between sonographic grading of leukomalacia and later neurologic outcomes were also analysed. Initial sonographic patterns according to grading of PVL were normal pattern in seven of nine (77.8%) of grade 1, diffuse hyperechogenic flares in five of eight cases of grade 2 and in 13 of 16 cases of grade 3. There was a significant difference between the grades and frequency of pattern of diffuse hyperechoic flare (p=0.021). Average detection timing of cystic PVL was 38.4{+-}18.9 days in grade 1, 29.8{+-}14 days in grade 2, and 19.1{+-}5.6 days in grade 3 with a significant statistical difference between the detection time and grades (p=0.037). Cerebral palsy has occurred in 62.5% of grade 1 and 100% of grade 2 and grade 3 (p=0.043). Frequency of spastic quadriplegia was higher in grade 3 (76.5%) than in grade 1 (25%) and grade 2 (12.5%) (p=0.001). Most of grade 1 cystic PVL revealed normal pattern of white matter echogenicity in initial ultrasonography and needed follow up examination over one month period. Spastic quadriplegia occured mainly in patients with grade 3 cystic PVL.

  15. Sequential Change of Wound Calculated by Image Analysis Using a Color Patch Method during a Secondary Intention Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejung Yang

    Full Text Available Photographs of skin wounds have the most important information during the secondary intention healing (SIH. However, there is no standard method for handling those images and analyzing them efficiently and conveniently.To investigate the sequential changes of SIH depending on the body sites using a color patch method.We performed retrospective reviews of 30 patients (11 facial and 19 non-facial areas who underwent SIH for the restoration of skin defects and captured sequential photographs with a color patch which is specially designed for automatically calculating defect and scar sizes.Using a novel image analysis method with a color patch, skin defects were calculated more accurately (range of error rate: -3.39% ~ + 3.05%. All patients had smaller scar size than the original defect size after SIH treatment (rates of decrease: 18.8% ~ 86.1%, and facial area showed significantly higher decrease rate compared with the non-facial area such as scalp and extremities (67.05 ± 12.48 vs. 53.29 ± 18.11, P < 0.05. From the result of estimating the date corresponding to the half of the final decrement, all of the facial area showed improvements within two weeks (8.45 ± 3.91, and non-facial area needed 14.33 ± 9.78 days.From the results of sequential changes of skin defects, SIH can be recommended as an alternative treatment method for restoration with more careful dressing for initial two weeks.

  16. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, A.M.; Nauta, A.; van den Heuvel, E.G.H.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2014-01-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to

  17. Spatiotemporal Proximity Effects in Visual Short-Term Memory Examined by Target-Nontarget Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P.; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a limited-capacity system that holds a small number of objects online simultaneously, implying that competition for limited storage resources occurs (Phillips, 1974). How the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli affects this competition is unclear. In this 2-experiment study, we examined the effect of the…

  18. Hip abductor moment arm - a mathematical analysis for proximal femoral replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement for tumor resection often have compromised hip abductor muscles resulting in a Trendelenberg limp and hip instability. Commercially available proximal femoral prostheses offer several designs with varying sites of attachment for the abductor muscles, however, no analyses of these configurations have been performed to determine which design provides the longest moment arm for the hip abductor muscles during normal function. Methods This study analyzed hip abductor moment arm through hip adduction and abduction with a trigonometric mathematical model to evaluate the effects of alterations in anatomy and proximal femoral prosthesis design. Prosthesis dimensions were taken from technical schematics that were obtained from the prosthesis manufacturers. Manufacturers who contributed schematics for this investigation were Stryker Orthopaedics and Biomet. Results Superior and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter increased the hip abductor mechanical advantage for single-leg stance and adduction and preserved moment arm in the setting of Trendelenberg gait. Hip joint medialization resulted in less variance of the abductor moment arm through coronal motion. The Stryker GMRS endoprosthesis provided the longest moment arm in single-leg stance. Conclusions Hip abductor moment arm varies substantially throughout the hip's range of motion in the coronal plane. Selection of a proximal femur endoprosthesis with an abductor muscle insertion that is located superiorly and laterally will optimize hip abductor moment arm in single-leg stance compared to one located inferiorly or medially.

  19. Probiotics for Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Weng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. The efficacy of the probiotics for preventing VAP is still controversial. Present study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the effect of probiotics on VAP prevention in mechanically ventilated patients.Methods: PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched up to September 2016. Eligible trials designed with randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing probiotics with control in mechanically ventilated patients were included. Risk ratios (RRs and mean differences (MDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated with fixed or random effects models. Trial sequential analysis (TSA was performed using TSA 0.9beta software.Results: Thirteen RCTs (N = 1969 were included. Overall, probiotics were associated with reduced incidence of VAP (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60–0.89; P = 0.002, which was confirmed by TSA (TSA adjusted 95% CI = 0.55–0.96. However, no significant difference was observed in 90-day mortality (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.72–1.37; P = 0.99, overall mortality (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.70–1.02; P = 0.09, 28-day mortality (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.72–1.57; P = 0.99, intensive care unit (ICU mortality (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.74–1.27; P = 0.82, hospital mortality (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65–1.02; P = 0.07, diarrhea (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.83–1.19; P = 0.92, length of ICU stay (MD = −2.40 days, 95% CI = −6.75 to 1.95; P = 0.28, length of hospital stay (MD = −1.34 days, 95% CI = −6.21 to 3.54; P = 0.59, and duration of mechanical ventilation (MD = −3.32 days, 95% CI = −6.74 to 0.09; P = 0.06.Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we found that probiotics could reduce the incidence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients. It seems likely that probiotics provide clinical benefits for mechanically ventilated patients.

  20. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  1. Sequential extraction analysis of heavy metals in sediments of variable composition using nitrilotriacetic acid to counteract resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J L; Vandenbrink, W J

    1999-09-01

    Artificial sediments were made that contained variable amounts (up to 20% by weight) of feldspar, calcite, Fe-oxide or organic matter. Analysis of samples spiked with Pb and Zn in the presence and absence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) showed that 400 mg l(-1) of chelating agent greatly reduced or eliminated sorption in each case. Further study showed that this NTA concentration did not cause significant mineral dissolution. Resorption during sequential extraction analysis of artificial sediments is indicated by the fact that with NTA, levels of metals are higher in the first step and lower during subsequent steps, compared with levels obtained without NTA. However, the addition of 400 mg l(-1) of NTA to each extracting solution in the sequence appears to be effective for counteracting resorption in feldspathic, calcareous, ferruginous and carbonaceous sediments.

  2. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    'blocking' of apical water channels and in 'aquaporin-null' simulation. Reduced rate of volume reabsorption in AQP(-/-) mice would also require decreased apical sodium permeability. Paracellular convection accounts for approx. 36% of the net Na+ absorption, and the model epithelium accomplishes uphill water...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...

  3. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E.H.; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2006-01-01

    'blocking' of apical water channels and in 'aquaporin-null' simulation. Reduced rate of volume reabsorption in AQP(-/-) mice would also require decreased apical sodium permeability. Paracellular convection accounts for approx. 36% of the net Na+ absorption, and the model epithelium accomplishes uphill water...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...

  4. Convergence Analysis of a Proximal Point Algorithm for Minimizing Differences of Functions

    OpenAIRE

    An, Nguyen Thai; Nam, Nguyen Mau

    2015-01-01

    Several optimization schemes have been known for convex optimization problems. However, numerical algorithms for solving nonconvex optimization problems are still underdeveloped. A progress to go beyond convexity was made by considering the class of functions representable as differences of convex functions. In this paper, we introduce a generalized proximal point algorithm to minimize the difference of a nonconvex function and a convex function. We also study convergence results of this algo...

  5. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    OpenAIRE

    Agu, Kingsley C.; Okolie, Paulinus N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different ...

  6. Outcome analysis following removal of locking plate fixation of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Florian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerning surgical management experience with locking plates for proximal humeral fractures has been described with promising results. Though, distinct hardware related complaints after fracture union are reported. Information concerning the outcome after removal of hardware from the proximal humerus is lacking and most studies on hardware removal are focused on the lower extremity. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the functional short-term outcome following removal of locking plate fixation of the proximal humerus. Methods Patients undergoing removal of a locking plate of the proximal humerus were prospectively followed. Patients were subdivided into the following groups: Group HI: symptoms of hardware related subacromial impingement, Group RD: persisting rotation deficit, Group RQ: patients with request for a hardware removal. The clinical (Constant-Murley score and radiologic (AP and axial view follow-up took place three and six months after the operation. To evaluate subjective results, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36, was completed. Results 59 patients were included. The mean length of time with the hardware in place was 15.2 ± 3.81 months. The mean of the adjusted overall Constant score before hardware removal was 66.2 ± 25.2% and increased significantly to 73.1 ± 22.5% after 3 months; and to 84.3 ± 20.6% after 6 months (p Conclusion A significant improvement of clinical outcome following removal was found. However, a general recommendation for hardware removal is not justified, as the risk of an anew surgical and anesthetic procedure with all possible complications has to be carefully taken into account. However, for patients with distinct symptoms it might be justified.

  7. Proximity systems: Analysis of health risks; Varchi magneticianalysis of health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, V.; Bartolini, P.; Donato, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Ingegneria Biomedica; Militello, C.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic fields generated by proximity systems for the controlled access of personnel are reported. Besides data from experimental measurements, the results are presented of theoretical calculations of induced currents inside the body. Health risks are also evaluated based on a comparison with the most advanced international standards. Finally, possible effects of interference with implanted pacemakers are analyzed in detail.

  8. Explaining the Female Black-White Obesity Gap: A Decomposition Analysis of Proximal Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, David W.; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    There exists remarkably large differences in body weights and obesity prevalence between black and white women in the US, and crucially these differences are a significant contributor to black-white inequalities in health. In this paper, we investigate the most proximal explanations for the weight gap, namely differences in diet and exercise. More specifically, we decompose black-white differences in body mass index and waist-to-height ratio into components reflecting black-white differences ...

  9. the principles of diversity and geographical proximity in an industrial ecosystem: social network analysis in the Toluca-Lerma region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alexis Vazquez Zacarias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial ecology allows the traditional model of industrial activity, where individual manufacturing process that takes raw materials in order to generate products, to be transformed into a more comprehensive model of a regional economy named industrial ecosystem. This ecosystem functions through industrial symbiosis alliances formed by firms that cooperate through the exchange of residues in order to use them as inputs to transform them into valuable products. Moreover, the principles of geographical proximity and diversity of the firms have been found in successful ecosystems in developed countries. This study contributes empirically by using social network analysis (SNA methods to explore, the presence of these two principles in an industrial ecosystem in the Toluca-Lerma region in Mexico, consisting of 30 firms that have industrial symbiosis alliances. We conclude that in the context of developing countries, the symbiotic exchanges may not be fully explained with the principles of geographical proximity and diversity.

  10. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  11. Artificial intelligence environment for the analysis and classification of errors in discrete sequential processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    The study evolved over two phases. First, an existing artificial intelligence technique, heuristic state space search, was used to successfully address and resolve significant issues that have prevented automated error classification in the past. A general method was devised for constructing heuristic functions to guide the search process, which successfully avoided the combinatorial explosion normally associated with search paradigms. A prototype error classifier, SLIPS/I, was tested and evaluated using both real-world data from a databank of speech errors and artificially generated random errors. It showed that heuristic state space search is a viable paradigm for conducting domain-independent error classification within practical limits of memory space and processing time. The second phase considered sequential error classification as a diagnostic process in which a set of disorders (elementary errors) is said to be a classification of an observed set of manifestations (local differences between an intended sequence and the errorful sequence) it if provides a regular cover for them. Using a model of abductive logic based on the set covering theory, this new perspective of error classification as a diagnostic process models human diagnostic reasoning in classifying complex errors. A high level, non-procedural error specification language (ESL) was also designed.

  12. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co–Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-jian [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Yu-hua, E-mail: wangyuhua@wust.edu.cn [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zhang, Xiao-jian [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Song, Shu-peng [State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zheng, Li-rong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Co–Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by ion implantation in silica glass. • The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. • EXAFS, AFM and TEM have been used to study the local structural information of imetallic nanoparticles. • With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Three oscillations are determined. - Abstract: Co–Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co–O, Co–Co and Co–Au coordination are determined.

  13. A competing risk analysis of sequential complication development in Asian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chen, Jeng-Huei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Li-Chia; Lao, Chun-Huan; Luh, Hsing; Hwang, Shang-Jyh

    2015-10-28

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the progression risk of sequential complication in Asian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients using the Taiwan Pay-for-Performance Diabetes Registry and claim data from November 2003 to February 2009. 226,310 adult T2D patients without complication were followed from diagnosis to complications, including myocardial infarction (MI), other ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, chronic kidney disease (CKD), retinopathy, amputation, death or to the end of study. Cumulative incidences (CIs) of first and second complications were analyzed in 30 and 4 years using the cumulative incidence competing risk method. IHD (29.8%), CKD (24.5%) and stroke (16.0%) are the most common first complications. The further development of T2D complications depends on a patient's existing complication profiles. Patients who initially developed cardiovascular complications had a higher risk (9.2% to 24.4%) of developing IHD or CKD, respectively. All-cause mortality was the most likely consequence for patients with a prior MI (12.0%), so as stroke in patients with a prior MI (10.8%) or IHD (8.9%). Patients with CKD had higher risk of developing IHD (16.3%), stroke (8.9%) and all-cause mortality (8.7%) than end-stage renal disease (4.0%). Following an amputation, patients had a considerable risk of all-cause mortality (42.1%).

  14. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Kessel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery on two different dates. The quality of evidence was rated as low to very low. None of the studies reported the prevalence of postoperative anisometropia. In conclusion, we cannot provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of ISBCS due to the lack of high quality evidence. Therefore, the decision to perform ISBCS should be taken after careful discussion between the surgeon and the patient.

  15. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, Anne Marieke; Nauta, Arjen; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The effect of posterior polyester tethers on the biomechanics of proximal junctional kyphosis: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Shay; Harris, Jeffrey E; Turner, Alexander W L; LaFage, Virginie; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank J; Haid, Regis W

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) remains problematic following multilevel instrumented spine surgery. Previous biomechanical studies indicate that providing less rigid fixation at the cranial aspect of a long posterior instrumented construct, via transition rods or hooks at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), may provide a gradual transition to normal motion and prevent PJK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of posterior anchored polyethylene tethers to distribute proximal motion segment stiffness in long instrumented spine constructs. METHODS A finite element model of a T7-L5 spine segment was created to evaluate range of motion (ROM), intradiscal pressure, pedicle screw loads, and forces in the posterior ligament complex within and adjacent to the proximal terminus of an instrumented spine construct. Six models were tested: 1) intact spine; 2) bilateral, segmental pedicle screws (PS) at all levels from T-11 through L-5; 3) bilateral pedicle screws from T-12 to L-5 and transverse process hooks (TPH) at T-11 (the UIV); 4) pedicle screws from T-11 to L5 and 1-level tethers from T-10 to T-11 (TE-UIV+1); 5) pedicle screws from T-11 to L-5 and 2-level tethers from T-9 to T-11 (TE-UIV+2); and 6) pedicle screws and 3-level tethers from T-8 to T-11 (TE-UIV+3). RESULTS Proximal-segment range of motion (ROM) for the PS construct increased from 16% at UIV-1 to 91% at UIV. Proximal-segment ROM for the TPH construct increased from 27% at UIV-1 to 92% at UIV. Posterior tether constructs distributed ROM at the UIV and cranial adjacent segments most effectively; ROM for TE-UIV+1 was 14% of the intact model at UIV-1, 76% at UIV, and 98% at UIV+1. ROM for TE-UIV+2 was 10% at UIV-1, 51% at UIV, 69% at UIV+1, and 97% at UIV+2. ROM for TE-UIV+3 was 7% at UIV-1, 33% at UIV, 45% at UIV+1, and 64% at UIV+2. Proximal segment intradiscal pressures, pedicle screw loads, and ligament forces in the posterior ligament complex were progressively reduced with

  17. The Avalanche Hypothesis and Compression of Morbidity: Testing Assumptions through Cohort-Sequential Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Silberman

    Full Text Available The compression of morbidity model posits a breakpoint in the adult lifespan that separates an initial period of relative health from a subsequent period of ever increasing morbidity. Researchers often assume that such a breakpoint exists; however, this assumption is hitherto untested.To test the assumption that a breakpoint exists--which we term a morbidity tipping point--separating a period of relative health from a subsequent deterioration in health status. An analogous tipping point for healthcare costs was also investigated.Four years of adults' (N = 55,550 morbidity and costs data were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected in Pittsburgh, PA between 2006 and 2009; analyses were performed in Rochester, NY and Ann Arbor, MI in 2012 and 2013. Cohort-sequential and hockey stick regression models were used to characterize long-term trajectories and tipping points, respectively, for both morbidity and costs.Morbidity increased exponentially with age (P<.001. A morbidity tipping point was observed at age 45.5 (95% CI, 41.3-49.7. An exponential trajectory was also observed for costs (P<.001, with a costs tipping point occurring at age 39.5 (95% CI, 32.4-46.6. Following their respective tipping points, both morbidity and costs increased substantially (Ps<.001.Findings support the existence of a morbidity tipping point, confirming an important but untested assumption. This tipping point, however, may occur earlier in the lifespan than is widely assumed. An "avalanche of morbidity" occurred after the morbidity tipping point-an ever increasing rate of morbidity progression. For costs, an analogous tipping point and "avalanche" were observed. The time point at which costs began to increase substantially occurred approximately 6 years before health status began to deteriorate.

  18. The Avalanche Hypothesis and Compression of Morbidity: Testing Assumptions through Cohort-Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Jordan; Wang, Chun; Mason, Shawn T.; Schwartz, Steven M.; Hall, Matthew; Morrissette, Jason L.; Tu, Xin M.; Greenhut, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background The compression of morbidity model posits a breakpoint in the adult lifespan that separates an initial period of relative health from a subsequent period of ever increasing morbidity. Researchers often assume that such a breakpoint exists; however, this assumption is hitherto untested. Purpose To test the assumption that a breakpoint exists—which we term a morbidity tipping point—separating a period of relative health from a subsequent deterioration in health status. An analogous tipping point for healthcare costs was also investigated. Methods Four years of adults’ (N = 55,550) morbidity and costs data were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected in Pittsburgh, PA between 2006 and 2009; analyses were performed in Rochester, NY and Ann Arbor, MI in 2012 and 2013. Cohort-sequential and hockey stick regression models were used to characterize long-term trajectories and tipping points, respectively, for both morbidity and costs. Results Morbidity increased exponentially with age (Pmorbidity tipping point was observed at age 45.5 (95% CI, 41.3-49.7). An exponential trajectory was also observed for costs (Pmorbidity and costs increased substantially (Psmorbidity tipping point, confirming an important but untested assumption. This tipping point, however, may occur earlier in the lifespan than is widely assumed. An “avalanche of morbidity” occurred after the morbidity tipping point—an ever increasing rate of morbidity progression. For costs, an analogous tipping point and “avalanche” were observed. The time point at which costs began to increase substantially occurred approximately 6 years before health status began to deteriorate. PMID:25962130

  19. Mesh fixation methods in open inguinal hernia repair: a protocol for network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Long; Tian, Jin-hui; Li, Lun; Wang, Quan; Yang, Ke-hu

    2015-11-19

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) have been used to compare and evaluate different types of mesh fixation usually employed to repair open inguinal hernia. However, there is no consensus among surgeons on the best type of mesh fixation method to obtain optimal results. The choice often depends on surgeons' personal preference. This study aims to compare different types of mesh fixation methods to repair open inguinal hernias and their role in the incidences of chronic groin pain, risk of hernia recurrence, complications, operative time, length of hospital stay and postoperative pain, using Bayesian network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of RCTs. A systematic search will be performed using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Chinese Journal Full-text Database, to include RCTs of different mesh fixation methods (or fixation vs no fixation) during open inguinal hernia repair. The risk of bias in included RCTs will be evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook V.5.1.0. Standard pairwise meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis will be performed to compare the efficacy of different mesh fixation methods. Ethical approval and patient consent are not required since this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. The results of this network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO CRD42015023758. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Design of LabVIEW-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.

  1. Indomethacin or amylobarbitone sodium for sleep in rheumatoid arthritis, with some observations on the use of sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskisson, E C; Grayson, M F

    1974-04-01

    1 A double blind crossover trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that indomethacin given at night was superior to a hypnotic in providing sleep and relieving morning stiffness. 2 In a second trial, the combination of a hypnotic with indomethacin was not superior to indomethacin alone as judged by patients' preference, but further analysis suggested that the combination improved sleep without affecting morning stiffness. 3 It is argued that the use of a small closed sequential design produced too small a sample in the first trial. In the second trial, the sample was relatively large but the result was inconclusive; measurement of the response in terms of preference alone obscured the effect of treatment on one aspect of the symptomatology studied.

  2. Design of LabVIEW®-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E.; Lewis, Simon W.

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW®-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-6 M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05x+8.9164 (R2 =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 × 10-8 M). The limit of detection (3σ) was determined as 5 × 10-11 M morphine. PMID:18924729

  3. Proteomic profiling and pathway analysis of the response of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L; Freund, Dana M; Prenni, Jessica E; Curthoys, Norman P

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a relatively common pathological condition that is defined as a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration. The renal proximal convoluted tubule responds to this condition by increasing the extraction of plasma glutamine and activating ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. The combined processes increase the excretion of acid and produce bicarbonate ions that are added to the blood to partially restore acid-base homeostasis. Only a few cytosolic proteins, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, have been determined to play a role in the renal response to metabolic acidosis. Therefore, further analysis was performed to better characterize the response of the cytosolic proteome. Proximal convoluted tubule cells were isolated from rat kidney cortex at various times after onset of acidosis and fractionated to separate the soluble cytosolic proteins from the remainder of the cellular components. The cytosolic proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Spectral counting along with average MS/MS total ion current were used to quantify temporal changes in relative protein abundance. In all, 461 proteins were confidently identified, of which 24 exhibited statistically significant changes in abundance. To validate these techniques, several of the observed abundance changes were confirmed by Western blotting. Data from the cytosolic fractions were then combined with previous proteomic data, and pathway analyses were performed to identify the primary pathways that are activated or inhibited in the proximal convoluted tubule during the onset of metabolic acidosis.

  4. Proteomic profiling and pathway analysis of the response of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L.; Freund, Dana M.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a relatively common pathological condition that is defined as a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration. The renal proximal convoluted tubule responds to this condition by increasing the extraction of plasma glutamine and activating ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. The combined processes increase the excretion of acid and produce bicarbonate ions that are added to the blood to partially restore acid-base homeostasis. Only a few cytosolic proteins, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, have been determined to play a role in the renal response to metabolic acidosis. Therefore, further analysis was performed to better characterize the response of the cytosolic proteome. Proximal convoluted tubule cells were isolated from rat kidney cortex at various times after onset of acidosis and fractionated to separate the soluble cytosolic proteins from the remainder of the cellular components. The cytosolic proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Spectral counting along with average MS/MS total ion current were used to quantify temporal changes in relative protein abundance. In all, 461 proteins were confidently identified, of which 24 exhibited statistically significant changes in abundance. To validate these techniques, several of the observed abundance changes were confirmed by Western blotting. Data from the cytosolic fractions were then combined with previous proteomic data, and pathway analyses were performed to identify the primary pathways that are activated or inhibited in the proximal convoluted tubule during the onset of metabolic acidosis. PMID:23804448

  5. Proximal major limb amputations – a retrospective analysis of 45 oncological cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goertz Ole

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal major limb amputations due to malignant tumors have become rare but are still a valuable treatment option in palliation and in some cases can even cure. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse outcome in those patients, including the postoperative course, survival, pain, quality of life, and prosthesis usage. Methods Data of 45 consecutive patients was acquired from patient's charts and contact to patients, and general practitioners. Patients with interscapulothoracic amputation (n = 14, shoulder disarticulation (n = 13, hemipelvectomy (n = 3 or hip disarticulation (n = 15 were included. Results The rate of proximal major limb amputations in patients treated for sarcoma was 2.3% (37 out of 1597. Survival for all patients was 42.9% after one year and 12.7% after five years. Survival was significantly better in patients with complete tumor resections. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation did not prolong survival. Eighteen percent of the patients with malignant disease developed local recurrence. In 44%, postoperative complications were observed. Different modalities of postoperative pain management and the site of the amputation had no significant influence on long-term pain assessment and quality of life. Eighty-seven percent suffered from phantom pain, 15.6% considered their quality of life worse than before the operation. Thirty-two percent of the patients who received a prosthesis used it regularly. Conclusion Proximal major limb amputations severely interfere with patients' body function and are the last, albeit valuable, option within the treatment concept of extremity malignancies or severe infections. Besides short survival, high complication rates, and postoperative pain, patients' quality of life can be improved for the time they have remaining.

  6. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz MF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz,1 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,2 Zeliha Disli,3 Engin Burak Selcuk,4 Mustafa Karakaplan,1 Abdullah Gogus5 1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nisantasi University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Malatya Government Hospital, Malatya, Turkey; 4Department of Family Medicine, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA physical status classification (ASA grade. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37–98 years, and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range

  7. Potentially unnecessary and wasteful clinical trial research detected in cumulative meta-epidemiological and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz-Pfennig, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to estimate the presence and extent to which potentially unnecessary and therefore maybe wasteful clinical trials regarding relevant interventions and outcomes in major clinical areas had been conducted. From current Cochrane collaboration systematic reviews in major medical fields (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, psychiatry), 13 different comparisons were sampled. A cumulative meta-analysis was conducted for each and trial sequential analysis applied to determine when in the course of evidence accrual evidence was found sufficient to reach a reliable conclusion. Trials published afterward were considered potentially unnecessary. Sensitivity analysis is performed, for example, to determine if findings could be explained by a delayed perception of published findings when planning new trials. In 8/13 cases, potentially unnecessary research was detected to an extent of between 12% and 89% of all participants in trials that might not have been needed. In three of these cases with high proportions (69-89%) of potentially unnecessary research, this finding was found basically unchanged in sensitivity analysis, when only trials published 3 or 5 years after sufficient evidence had already been published were considered potentially wasteful. The reasonableness of claims to relevance of additional trials needs to be much more carefully evaluated in the future. Cumulative, information size bases analysis might be included in systematic reviews. Research policies to prevent unnecessary research from being done need to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Proximal femoral intramedullary nail versus DHS plate for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. A prospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, A; Ramos, T; Vilchez, F; Mendoza-Lemus, O; Peña, V; Cárdenas-Estrada, E; Acosta-Olivo, C

    2013-01-01

    To show that patients with intertrochanteric fractures treated with a proximal femoral nail have a better postoperative course than those treated with a DHS plate (dynamic hip screw). Patients with a Boyd & Griffin type II intertrochanteric fracture were randomly divided into two groups: a group of patients treated with a PFN and another one treated with a DHS plate. All patients were assessed at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks using the Harris scale and the visual analog scale pre- and postoperatively, as well as the operative time, incision size, intraoperative bleeding, onset of partial and/or total weight bearing, healing time, time to attain prior physical activity level, and radiographic result. 32 patients met our criteria. The variables that had a significant reduction were: incision, operative time, postoperative pain according to the visual analog scale, onset of mobility, partial weight bearing and pain at 2 weeks. The proximal femoral nail has better short-term outcomes than the DHS plate; however, in the medium term both implants have the same outcomes.

  9. Morphological analysis of the proximal femur by computed tomography in Japanese subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Masashi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    In order to evaluate the morphological features of the proximal femur in the Japanese, 100 femora of normal Japanese subjects (normal group) and 60 femora of 43 Japanese patients with secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip (OA group) were analyzed using CT images. The scans for the dried bones (normal group) were done at a setting of 80 kV and 20 mA, for 2 sec duration. The scans were reconstructed using the soft tissue algorithm built into the GE-9800 scanner. The patient scans (OA group) were done at 120 kV and 170 mA also for 2 sec duration, and reconstructed using the same bone algorithm. The results were as follows: Thinning of the femoral cortex occurred in normal females over 60 years of age. The canal flare index at the proximal part of the femoral diaphysis was negatively correlated with the canal diameter at the isthmus. The index at the upper part was greater than that at the lower part. The two groups showed no statistical difference in this index. In the metaphysis, the canal flare index at the anterior portion was twice that at the posterior portion. In absolute terms, the OA group had a reduced flare or curve along the medial portion. In cross-section, the canal shape of the diaphysis was more elliptical in the OA group than in the normal group. The longitudinal axis of the canal was directed more sagittally in the OA group than in the normal group. (author).

  10. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun

    2017-03-01

    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal, vascular, or cancer outcomes: a trial sequential meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with many disorders, leading to calls for widespread supplementation. Some investigators suggest that more clinical trials to test the effect of vitamin D on disorders are needed. We did a trial sequential meta-analysis of existing randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplements, with or without calcium, to investigate the possible effect of future trials on current knowledge. We estimated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, stroke or cerebrovascular disease, cancer, total fracture, hip fracture, and mortality in trial sequential analyses using a risk reduction threshold of 5% for mortality and 15% for other endpoints. The effect estimate for vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium for myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease (nine trials, 48 647 patients), stroke or cerebrovascular disease (eight trials 46 431 patients), cancer (seven trials, 48 167 patients), and total fracture (22 trials, 76 497 patients) lay within the futility boundary, indicating that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk of any of these endpoints by 15% or more. Vitamin D supplementation alone did not reduce hip fracture by 15% or more (12 trials, 27 834 patients). Vitamin D co-administered with calcium reduced hip fracture in institutionalised individuals (two trials, 3853 patients) but did not alter the relative risk of hip fracture by 15% or more in community-dwelling individuals (seven trials, 46 237 patients). There is uncertainty as to whether vitamin D with or without calcium reduces the risk of death (38 trials, 81 173). Our findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium does not reduce skeletal or non-skeletal outcomes in unselected community-dwelling individuals by more than 15%. Future trials with similar designs are unlikely to alter these conclusions. Health Research Council of New Zealand. Copyright

  12. The analysis of densitometric and geometric parameters of bilateral proximal phalanges in horses with the use of peripheral quantitative computed tompgraphy

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    Dzierzęcka Małgorzata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal phalanges in horses are among bones that are most prone to injuries. So far, the detailed analysis of densitometric and geometric parameters of both front legs proximal phalanges in horses has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the densitometric and geometric parameters between proximal phalanges in equine both front legs with the use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Methods The study material comprised isolated both front legs proximal phalanges derived from 22 horses. The structure analysis of the proximal phalanges was conducted with the pQCT. The following bone parameters were determined: bone mineral content, volumetric bone mineral density, total bone area, trabecular area, cortical area, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference, endocortical circumference, Strength Strain Index. Tomographic analysis of proximal phalanges was conducted at three levels: at 15%, 50% and 85% of the bone length. Results The statistical analysis showed that both the densitometric and geometric parameters of the bone at 50% and 85% of its length, did not present any statistically significant differences for the left or right proximal phalanges of the forelimb. At the same time, all examined parameters measured at 15% of the bone length, in the vicinity of the proximal metaphysis revealed significant statistical differences between both front legs proximal phalanges. Conclusions The proximal phalanx parameters in the forelimbs are significantly different for the left and right proximal phalanx at 15% of the length and they indicate higher Strength Strain Index of the left bone in this location. The densitometric and geometric parameters of the bone at 50% and 85% of its length, did not present any statistically significant differences for the left or right proximal phalanges of the left and right forelimbs. The most serious changes caused by asymmetrical load of the thoracic limbs in

  13. Proximity sounding analysis for derechos and supercells: an assessment of similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Charles A.; Evans, Jeffry S.

    Proximity soundings (within 2 h and 167 km) of derechos (long-lived, widespread damaging convective windstorms) and supercells have been obtained. More than 65 derechos, accompanied by 115 proximity soundings, are identified during the years 1983 to 1993. The derechos have been divided into categories according to the synoptic situation: strong forcing (SF), weak forcing (WF), and "hybrid" cases (which are neither weakly nor strongly forced). Nearly 100 supercell proximity soundings have been found for the period 1998 to 2001, subdivided into nontornadic and tornadic supercells; tornadic supercells were further subdivided into those producing significant (>F1 rating) tornadoes and weak tornadoes (F0-F1 rating). WF derecho situations typically are characterized by warm, moist soundings with large convective available potential instability (CAPE) and relatively weak vertical wind shear. SF derechos usually have stronger wind shears, and cooler and less moist soundings with lower CAPE than the weakly forced cases. Most derechos exhibit strong storm-relative inflow at low levels. In WF derechos, this is usually the result of rapid convective system movement, whereas in SF derechos, storm-relative inflow at low levels is heavily influenced by relatively strong low-level windspeeds. "Hybrid" cases collectively are similar to an average of the SF and WF cases. Supercells occur in environments that are not all that dissimilar from those that produce SF derechos. It appears that some parameter combining instability and deep layer shear, such as the Energy-Helicity Index (EHI), can help discriminate between tornadic and nontornadic supercell situations. Soundings with significant tornadoes (F2 and greater) typically show high 0-1 km relative humidities, and strong 0-1 km shear. Results suggest it may not be easy to forecast the mode of severe thunderstorm activity (i.e., derecho versus supercell) on any particular day, given conditions that favor severe thunderstorm activity

  14. Detection and treatment of proximal caries lesions: Milieu-specific cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Paris, Sebastian; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries lesions are highly prevalent, concentrated in high-risk groups, and often affect proximal tooth surfaces. Choosing a caries detection method determines the available treatment options: radiographically detected early lesion stages might receive non-, micro-, or invasive treatments, whilst visually tactile detected lesions are often advanced and mostly require invasive treatment. Thus, the choice of detection method impacts on patients via the applied treatment. We compared the cost-effectiveness of combinations of detections and treatments of proximal lesions in different populations which did or did not receive prevention during adolescence. These cost-effectiveness comparisons of different detection-treatment combinations should aid clinical decision making and improve resource allocation. A Markov-model was constructed to follow a proximal posterior surface in a 12-year-old German over his lifetime. Prevalence, validity and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. Microsimulations were performed to evaluate costs (Euro) per tooth-retention-time (years). For populations with low risk, radiographic detection plus non-invasive treatment without (270 Euro, 61.5 years) and with prevention (312 Euro, 63.0 years), as well as radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment and prevention (373 Euro, 64.0 years) were cost-effective. For populations with high risk, radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment without (427 Euro, 58.5 years) and with prevention (436 Euro, 61.0 years) were cost-effective. Combinations involving invasive treatments had limited cost-effectiveness. Caries detection methods should be evaluated regarding the cost-effectiveness resulting from their use in different populations. Caries detection methods are usually evaluated regarding their validity compared to a gold standard. We demonstrate that the cost-effectiveness stemming from using different detection methods additionally depends on the

  15. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  16. Effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetics of organic solid wastes using thermogravimetric analysis and distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Mei, Qingqing; Dai, Xiaohu; Ding, Guoji

    2017-03-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis, Gaussian-fit-peak model (GFPM), and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) were firstly used to explore the effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetic of four organic solid wastes (OSW). Results showed that the OSW weight loss mainly occurred in the second pyrolysis stage relating to organic matter decomposition. Compared with raw substrate, the weight loss of corresponding digestate was lower in the range of 180-550°C, but was higher in 550-900°C. GFPM analysis revealed that organic components volatized at peak temperatures of 188-263, 373-401 and 420-462°C had a faster degradation rate than those at 274-327°C during anaerobic digestion. DAEM analysis showed that anaerobic digestion had discrepant effects on activation energy for four OSW pyrolysis, possibly because of their different organic composition. It requires further investigation for the special organic matter, i.e., protein-like and carbohydrate-like groups, to confirm the assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthroplasty for the surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; McCormick, Frank; Dines, David M; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2016-05-01

    Shoulder hemiarthroplasty (HA) has been the standard treatment for complex proximal humerus fractures in the elderly requiring surgery but not amenable to fixation. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has also emerged as a costly albeit highly effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of nonoperative fracture care, HA, and RTSA for complex proximal humerus fractures from the perspective of both U.S. payors and hospitals. A Markov model was constructed for the treatment alternatives. Costs were expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars and effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The principal outcome measure was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model assumptions. In the base case, from the payor perspective, RTSA was associated with an ICER of $8100/QALY; HA was eliminated from payor analysis as a cost-ineffective strategy. From the hospital perspective, however, HA was not cost-ineffective and the ICER for HA was $36,700/QALY, with RTSA providing incremental effectiveness at $57,400/QALY. RTSA was the optimal strategy in 61% and 54% of payor and hospital probabilistic sensitivity analyses, respectively. The preferred strategy was dependent on associated QALY gains, primary RTSA cost, and failure rates for RTSA. RTSA can be a cost-effective intervention in the surgical treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures. HA can also be a cost-effective intervention, depending on the cost perspective (cost-ineffective for payor but cost-effective for the hospital). This analysis highlights the opportunities for increased cost-sharing strategies to alleviate the cost burden on hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal Femur after Implant Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyuk Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To compare the biomechanical stability of the femur following the removal of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA-II and dynamic hip screw (DHS. Material and Methods. 56 paired cadaveric femurs were used as experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, PFNA-II and DHS were randomly inserted into femurs on both sides and then removed. Thereafter, compression load was applied until fracture occurred; biomechanical stability of the femurs and associated fracture patterns were studied. Results. The ultimate load and stiffness of the control group were 6227.8±1694.1 N and 990.5±99.8 N/mm, respectively. These were significantly higher than experimental group (p=0.014, <0.001 following the removal of PFNA-II (4085.6±1628.03 N and 656.3±155.3 N/mm and DHS (4001.9±1588.3 N and 656.3±155.3 N/mm. No statistical differences in these values were found between the 2 device groups (p=0.84, 0.71, regardless of age groups. However, fracture patterns were different between two devices, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. Conclusions. Mechanical stability of the proximal femurs does not differ after the removal of 2 different of fixation devices regardless of the age. However, it was significantly lower compared to an intact femur. Different fracture patterns have been shown following the removal of different fixation devices as there are variations in the site of stress risers for individual implants.

  19. Proximate and The Calorific Value Analysis of Brown Coal for High-Calorie Hybrid Briquette Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam; Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Wati, Wa; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    A study has been conducted about the quality of young coal (brown coal ) briquettes from North Kolaka to determine the effect of varied adhesive on the proximate characteristics and calorific value. The young coal briquettes were made by using adhesives of starch, cassava starch and Castor oil plant starch at a concentration of 5 to 15% of the total mass. The grain size of young coal and the adhesive used were 60 mesh and 100 mesh, respectively. The samples were molded in a cylindrical mold with a diameter of 2.5 cm and a high of 6 cm, and with a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. After having been compacted, the young coal samples were then analyzed proximately i.e. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon, as well as their calorific values calculation. The results showed that the increase of the adhesive could tend to increased the water content and volatile matter, but reduced the ash content, and the fixed carbon tend to constant except coal briquettes using starch adhesive it were increased. The calorific value of the young coal briquettes increased for all kinds of adhesives when the adhesive increased. The calorific value per one gram ranged from 3162.7 cal/g to 4678.7 cal/g. The highest calorific value, 4678.7 cal/g, was observed at the adhesive of 15 % of starch. The characteristics of young coal can be used as a raw material for making high-calorie hybrid briquettes.

  20. Development of the Nonstationary Incremental Analysis Update Algorithm for Sequential Data Assimilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Geun Ham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a modified version of the incremental analysis updates (IAU, called the nonstationary IAU (NIAU method, to improve the assimilation accuracy of the IAU while keeping the continuity of the analysis. Similar to the IAU, the NIAU is designed to add analysis increments at every model time step to improve the continuity in the intermittent data assimilation. However, unlike the IAU, the NIAU procedure uses time-evolved forcing using the forward operator as corrections to the model. The solution of the NIAU is superior to that of the forward IAU, of which analysis is performed at the beginning of the time window for adding the IAU forcing, in terms of the accuracy of the analysis field. It is because, in the linear systems, the NIAU solution equals that in an intermittent data assimilation method at the end of the assimilation interval. To have the filtering property in the NIAU, a forward operator to propagate the increment is reconstructed with only dominant singular vectors. An illustration of those advantages of the NIAU is given using the simple 40-variable Lorenz model.

  1. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Simultaneous versus sequential pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic population analysis using an iterative two-stage Bayesian technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, Johannes H.; Schiere, Sjouke; Eleveld, Douglas J.; Wierda, J. Mark K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A method for simultaneous pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) population analysis using an Iterative Two-Stage Bayesian (ITSB) algorithm was developed. The method was evaluated using clinical data and Monte Carlo simulations. Data from a clinical study with rocuronium in nine anesthetized

  3. Impact of family structure and common environment on heritability estimation for neuroimaging genetics studies using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Jahanshad, Neda; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-06-27

    Imaging genetics is an emerging methodological field that combines genetic information with medical imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a reasonable phenotype in an imaging genetics study, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. The Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) imaging genetics software can estimate the heritability of a trait in complex pedigrees. We investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability and common environmental effects on simulated imaging phenotypes in various family structures. We found that heritability is reliably estimated with small family-based studies of 40 to 80 individuals, though subtle differences remain between the family structures. In an imaging application analysis, we found that with 80 subjects in any of the family structures, estimated heritability of white matter fractional anisotropy was biased by <10% for every region of interest. Results from these studies can be used when investigators are evaluating power in planning genetic analyzes.

  4. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  5. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information regarding the nosecap Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system on Orion’s Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nosecap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rocket nozzles like the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 Launch Abort System. The nosecap FADS system used pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which were arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, impact pressure, and freestream static pressure. This paper will present the algorithms employed by the FADS system along with the development of the calibration datasets and a comparison of the final results to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data for PA-1. Also presented in this paper is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study to explore the impact of the ACM on the nosecap FADS system. The comparison of the nosecap FADS system results to the BET and the CFD study showed that more investigation is needed to quantify the impact of the firing rocket motors on the FADS system.

  6. Terahertz Spectroscopy for Proximal Soil Sensing: An Approach to Particle Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Dworak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatially resolved soil parameters are some of the most important pieces of information for precision agriculture. These parameters, especially the particle size distribution (texture, are costly to measure by conventional laboratory methods, and thus, in situ assessment has become the focus of a new discipline called proximal soil sensing. Terahertz (THz radiation is a promising method for nondestructive in situ measurements. The THz frequency range from 258 gigahertz (GHz to 350 GHz provides a good compromise between soil penetration and the interaction of the electromagnetic waves with soil compounds. In particular, soil physical parameters influence THz measurements. This paper presents investigations of the spectral transmission signals from samples of different particle size fractions relevant for soil characterization. The sample thickness ranged from 5 to 17 mm. The transmission of THz waves was affected by the main mineral particle fractions, sand, silt and clay. The resulting signal changes systematically according to particle sizes larger than half the wavelength. It can be concluded that THz spectroscopic measurements provide information about soil texture and penetrate samples with thicknesses in the cm range.

  7. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-01-24

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  8. On-the-Job Ethics – Proximity Morality Forming in Medical School: A grounded theory analysis using survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans O. Thulesius, MD, Ph.D.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On-the-job-ethics exist in all businesses and can also be called proximity morality forming. In this paper we propose that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards ethics education at medical school. This means that they want to form physician morality “on the job” instead of being taught ethics like any other subject. On-the-job-ethics for medical students involves learning ethics that is used when practicing ethics. Learning ethics includes comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide ethics grammar useful for the ethics practicing in attitude exercises and vignette reflections in tutored group discussions. On-the-job-ethics develops professional identity, handles diversity of religious and existential worldviews, trains students described as ethically naive, processes difficult clinical experiences, and desists negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations. This grounded theory analysis was made from a questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed over 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiplechoice questions using classic grounded theory procedures, but also compared questionnaire data using statistics such as multiple regression models. The paper gives an example of how grounded theory can be used with a limited amount of survey data.

  9. A three-dimensional analysis of the geometry and curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Emily K.; Karnick, Pushpak

    2006-02-01

    This study uses new three-dimensional imaging techniques to compare the articular curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids. It has been hypothesized that the curvature of the anteroposterior contour of the lateral condyle in particular can be used to differentiate humans and apes and reflect locomotor function. This study draws from a large comparative sample of extant hominoids to obtain quantitative curvature data. Three-dimensional models of the proximal tibiae of 26 human, 15 chimpanzee, 15 gorilla, 17 orangutan, 16 gibbon and four Australopithecus fossil casts (AL 129-1b, AL 288-1aq, AL 333x-26, KNM-KP 29285A) were acquired with a Cyberware Model 15 laser digitizer. Curvature analysis was accomplished using a software program developed at Arizona State University's Partnership for Research In Stereo Modeling (PRISM) lab, which enables the user to extract curvature profiles and compute the difference between analogous curves from different specimens. Results indicate that the curvature of chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan tibiae is significantly different from the curvature of human tibiae, thus supporting the hypothesized dichotomy between humans and great apes. The non-significant difference between gibbons and all other taxa indicates that gibbons have an intermediate pattern of articular curvature. All four Australopithecus tibia were aligned with the great apes.

  10. Proximal Femoral Nail versus Dynamic Hip Screw Fixation for Trochanteric Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to find out whether the proximal femoral nail was better than the dynamic hip screw in the treatment of trochanteric fractures with respect to operation time, blood transfusion, hospital stay, wound complications, number of reoperation, and mortality rate. Methods. All randomized controlled trials comparing proximal femoral nail and dynamic hip screw in the treatment of trochanteric fractures were included. Articles and conference data were extracted by two authors independently. Data was analyzed using RevMan 5.1 version. Eight trials involving 1348 fractures were retrieved. Results. Compared with DHS fixation, PFN fixation had similar operation time (95% CI: −15.28–2.40, P=0.15. Blood loss and transfusion during perioperative time were also comparable between the two fixations (95% CI: −301.39–28.11, P=0.10; 95% CI: −356.02–107.20, P=0.29, resp.. Outcomes of hospital stay (95% CI: −0.62–1.01, P=0.64, wound complication (95% CI: 0.66–1.67, P=0.82, mortality (95% CI: 0.83–1.30, P=0.72, and reoperation (95% CI: 0.61–1.54, P=0.90 were all similar between the two groups. Conclusion. PFN fixation shows the same effectiveness as DHS fixation in the parameters measured.

  11. Scaffolding the Communication of People With Congenital Deafblindness: An Analysis of Sequential Interaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J; Ruijssenaars, Wied A; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The High Quality Communication intervention aims to stimulate interpersonal communication between individuals with congenital deaf-blindness (CDB) and their social partners. Found effective in multiple-case experiments, the intervention is based on Trevarthen's theory of inter-subjective development (Bråten & Trevarthen, 2007), which describes children's innate and developing ability to share subjective states in interpersonal communication and social partners' mediating role in this development. One implication of this theory is that social partners can support the emergence of higher-complexity communication behaviors in individuals who are still developing these behaviors. To test this proposition, communication patterns between individuals with CDB and their parents, teachers, and professional caregivers were analyzed. Analysis of two-event sequences of communicative behaviors showed a highly significant correspondence between the behavior of the social partner and the subsequent behavior of the individual with CDB, confirming that social partners can scaffold higher-complexity communication within interpersonal communication.

  12. Antimony-film electrode for the determination of trace metals by sequential-injection analysis/anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzsvány, Valéria; Nakajima, Hizuru; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2010-01-18

    The possibility of applying antimony-film modified glassy carbon electrode in sequential-injection analysis (SIA) was investigated with the objective of determining Pb(II) and Cd(II) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The conditions of antimony-film deposition concerning composition of the plating/carrier solutions, concentrations of Sb(III) and hydrochloric acid, effects of different supporting electrolyte salts, and plating potential were optimized. It was found that the antimony-film deposition on glassy carbon substrate in a sample solution consisting of 750 microg L(-1) Sb(III), 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl at -1.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/3 mol L(-1) KCl) yielded a modified electrode suitable for the determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) at the microg L(-1) level. The reproducibility of the analytical signals was characterized by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.8%, and the calculated values of detection limits were 1.2 microg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 1.4 microg L(-1) for Cd(II). The presence of KSCN in the sample solution offers the possibility of detecting ions with more negative oxidation potentials like Zn(II), Mn(II) or Cr(III). The developed SIA-ASV procedure was compared with the commonly used batch method, and its applicability was tested on a spiked tap water sample. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential extractions and isotope analysis for discriminating the chemical forms and origins of Pb in sediment from Liaodong Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Gu, Zhaoyan; Han, Jingtai; Zhang, Yanhui; Chen, Yongfu; Lu, Yanwu

    2009-08-01

    Sequential extraction integrated with isotope analysis was carried out on a sediment core from Liaodong Bay, northeast China, for characterizing Pb in various extraction phases and its possible sources. Results show that in all extracted fractions Pb concentrations increased abruptly in the top part of the sediments that deposited after 1980, but remained lower and rather constant before 1980. Consistent with the variation pattern of Pb concentration, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio displays a dramatic decrease around 1980. These findings strongly suggest serious Pb pollution since then. The Pb concentration and the isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb in the residual fraction show rather small changes through the entire core, and are similar to those of uncontaminated Chinese loess, possibly representing the characteristics of the regional geogenic background. The isotopic ratios of the sediments before 1980 varied in different extracted fractions with a linear pattern, from the residual at the highest toward the average signature of automobile exhausts and Pb-Zn deposits, implying a prominent two-end member mixing style of the Pb origin; one is the regional geologic background and the other is anthropogenic sources. The difference in isotopic ratios between the extractions might be indicative of varied proportions of the two sources. For sediments after 1980, however, the isotope ratios in nonresidual fractions are all relatively low and show little differentiation, which may suggest that polluted Pb dominates all the extracted fractions for the top part of the core.

  14. Potentiometric determination of acetylsalicylic acid by sequential injection analysis (SIA) using a tubular salicylate-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseková, H; Sales, M G; Montenegro, M C; Araújo, A N; Polásek, M

    2001-03-01

    This paper deals with the development of an automated procedure for formulation assays and dissolution tests based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system involving an ion-selective electrode as sensing device. Construction of a tubular salicylate (Sal) selective electrode suitable for potentiometric determination of acetylsalicylic acid (Asa) in pharmaceutical formulations is described. The flow-through electrode is formed by a PVC membrane containing 29.2% (w/w) PVC, 5.8% (w/w) tetraoctylammonium salicylate (ionic sensor), 58.5% o-nitrophenyloctylether (plasticizer) and 6.5% (w/w) p-tert-octylphenol (stabilising additive which increases electrode selectivity). The calibration range is 0.05--10 mM Sal, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.05 mM Sal, the slope is 56.0 mV per decade at 22 degrees C. The R.S.D. is 0.20% (15 readings) when determining 2.5 mM Sal in standard solution. The electrode is used for sensing Asa after its on-line chemical hydrolysis to Sal in a SIA system. The sampling rate is 6 h(-1) but for the dissolution tests the frequency is increased to 20 h(-1). The SIA set-up is employed for the assay of Asa in plain tablets, composed tablets and effervescent tablets and for performing dissolution tests of normal and sustained release tablets. Results obtained by this technique compare well with those required by the US Pharmacopoeia XXIV.

  15. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2014-05-20

    This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.

  16. Back to Osborne. Sequential protein extraction and LC-MS analysis for the characterization of the Holm oak seed proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M; Valledor, Luis; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    It is impossible to capture in just one experiment all or most of the total set of protein species that constitute the cell's proteome. Thus, according to our results, and even considering that they depend on the experimental system carried out (plant, yeast, fungi, or bacteria), the best protein extraction protocol yielded less than 20 % of the total amount of proteins, as determined by the Kjeldahl method. For this reason, protein cataloguing and the whole proteome characterization require the use of firstly, fractionation techniques at the cellular, subcellular, protein, or peptide level, and secondly, the use of complementary approaches.Within our current research on Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota), we aim to characterize its seed proteome. For that we have optimized an experimental workflow in which the Osborne sequential protein extraction (Osborne, Science 28:417-427, 1908) is combined with downstream electrophoretic protein separation or shotgun MS analysis. In general, it can be used to study any plant seed, as well as to investigate on seed maturation and germination, genotype characterization, allergens identification, food traceability, and substantial equivalence, among others.

  17. Outcome after Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibia--Complications and Competing Risk Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan E Puchner

    Full Text Available The proximal tibia (pT is a common site for bone tumors. Improvements in imaging, chemotherapy and surgical technique made limb salvage surgery the treatment of choice. Yet, reconstructions of the pT have been associated with less favorable outcome compared to other parts of the extremities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with a modular endoprosthetic reconstruction of the pT.Eighty-one consecutive patients with an average age of 29 years underwent endoprosthetic reconstruction of the pT. Postoperative complications were categorized according to the ISOLS classification, and revision-free survival until first complication (any Type 1-5, soft tissue failure (Type 1, aseptic loosening (Type 2, structural failure (Type 3, infection (Type 4, and local tumor progression (Type 5 was estimated by using a Fine-Gray model for competing risk analyses for univariate and multivariable regression with Firth's bias correction.A total of 45 patients (56% had at least one complication. Cumulative incidence for complication Types 1 to 5 at 5 years with death and amputation as competing events revealed a risk of 41% for the first complication, 14% for Type 1, 16% for Type 2, 11% for Type 3, 17% for Type 4, and 1% for Type 5.Despite inclusion of amputation and death as strong competing events, pT replacements are still associated with a high risk of postoperative failures. The results suggest that infection and soft tissue failures (Type 1 and 5 seem to depend from each other. Sufficient soft tissue reconstruction and closure allow better function and reduce the risk of infection as the most prominent complication. The use of a rotating hinge design has significantly reduced structural failures over time.

  18. Using a Simple Binomial Model to Assess Improvement in Predictive Capability: Sequential Bayesian Inference, Hypothesis Testing, and Power Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigeti, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pelak, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-11

    general beta-function prior for {theta}, enabling sequential analysis in which a small number of new simulations may be done and the resulting posterior for {theta} used as a prior to inform the next stage of power analysis.

  19. Sequential analysis of surfactant, lung function and inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Karl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross-sectional analysis of cystic fibrosis (CF patients with mild lung disease, reduced surfactant activity was correlated to increased neutrophilic airway inflammation, but not to lung function. So far, longitudinal measurements of surfactant function in CF patients are lacking and it remains unclear how these alterations relate to the progression of airway inflammation as well as decline in pulmonary function over time. Methods As part of the BEAT trial, a longitudinal study to assess the course of airway inflammation in CF, we studied lung function, surfactant function and endobronchial inflammation using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 CF patients with normal pulmonary function (median FEV1 94% of predicted at three times over a three year period. Results There was a progressive loss of surfactant function, assessed as minimal surface tension. The decline in surfactant function was negatively correlated to an increase in neutrophilic inflammation and a decrease in lung function, assessed by FEV1, MEF75/25%VC, and MEF25%VC. The concentrations of the surfactant specific proteins A, C and D did not change, whereas SP-B increased during this time period. Conclusion Our findings suggest a link between loss of surfactant function driven by progressive airway inflammation and loss of small airway function in CF patients with limited lung disease.

  20. Sequential analysis of variable markers for predicting outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hajime; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Fukuda, Akinari; Sasaki, Kengo; Shigeta, Takanobu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Kubota, Masaya; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Mureo

    2017-11-01

    Our aim was to analyze serial changes in the predictive variables and a scoring system retrospectively adapted to evaluate outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure (ALF). We retrospectively collected data on 65 patients with ALF. The 65 patients were divided into two groups according to the need for liver transplantation (LT) as follows: LT group (n = 54) and non-LT group (n = 11). The early determination scoring system of the indications for LT proposed by the Intractable Hepato-Biliary Diseases Study Group of Japan (JIHBDSG) was used in our study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated for the JIHBDSG score between the LT group and non-LT group at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and day 3, and day 5 after the diagnosis. A JIHBDSG score of >3 at day 5 was found to identify the patients requiring LT with 83.7% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity, and 83.3% diagnostic accuracy. Based on a comparison of AUROC values, the JIHBDSG score on day 5 (AUROC 0.91) was higher than that on day 0 (AUROC 0.75) and day 3 (AUROC 0.84). We showed that a serial analysis of the JIHBDSG score might be useful for predicting outcomes of ALF in pediatric patients who fulfilled the criteria of LT indication in our center. However, further studies are needed to validate our results. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  1. Stress ulcer prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis in adult hospitalised acutely ill patients-protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Søren; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    of hospital setting. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis and assess use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) in any dose, formulation and duration. We will accept placebo...... or no prophylaxis as control interventions. The participants will be adult hospitalised acutely ill patients with high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos for relevant literature. We will follow...... the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment...

  2. On Sequential Communication Schemes with Information Feedback,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INFORMATION THEORY, FEEDBACK), CODING, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , WHITE NOISE, DECISION THEORY, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, SEQUENTIAL ANALYSIS, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, NUMERICAL INTEGRATION

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the proximal metacarpus in Quarter Horses used for cutting: Retrospective analysis of 32 horses 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M F; Manchon, P T; Hersman, J; Kawcak, C E

    2018-03-01

    Injury to the proximal suspensory ligament is a common cause of lameness in cutting horses. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of lesions responsible for lameness can provide ambiguous results. MRI provides the most comprehensive diagnostic imaging evaluation of lesions specifically affecting cutting horses. To describe the distribution and severity of bone and soft tissue lesions present in the proximal metacarpus of Quarter Horse cutting horses and to assess the impact of these lesions on return to competition. Retrospective case series. Retrospective analysis of 32 cutting horses referred for MRI of the proximal metacarpus between 2009 and 2012 with a 2-year follow-up period. MRI studies were evaluated by a board-certified veterinary radiologist; the severity of lesions was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total of 20 right and 24 left forelimbs (12 bilateral studies) of 32 horses were evaluated. The most common findings were: third metacarpal (McIII) sclerosis at the proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) origin (42/44), McIII resorption at the PSL origin (32/44), PSL dorsal margin fibre irregularity (30/44) and McIII bone contusion (22/39). Of the 30 horses, 22 horses successfully returned to competition, irrespective of severity of injury. Strong correlation exists between the degree of resorption in the palmar cortex of proximal McIII, degree of McIII sclerosis and severity of dorsal margin fibre irregularity. Statistical significance was limited by small study population. Further analysis of prognosis was limited by availability of comprehensive medical records. Cutting horses with proximal metacarpal pain have significant pathological change within the proximal suspensory ligament and its enthesis on the palmar cortex of McIII. Severity of lesions and degree of lameness at the time of diagnosis does not influence return to performance. Accurate diagnosis of proximal metacarpal lesions based on MRI offers clinicians the capacity to select

  4. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M. [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Institut Mediterrani d' Estudis Avancats, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Spain); Cerda, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Cerda@uib.es [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry Carreterra de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07011 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2010-01-25

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -} with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I{sub 2}/I{sub 3}{sup -}. Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L{sup -1} DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  5. A physiology-based inverse dynamic analysis of human gait using sequential convex programming: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, F; Demeulenaere, B; Swevers, J; De Schutter, J; Jonkers, I

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced version of the previously proposed physiological inverse approach (PIA) to calculate musculotendon (MT) forces and evaluates the proposed methodology in a comparative study. PIA combines an inverse dynamic analysis with an optimisation approach that imposes muscle physiology and optimises performance over the entire motion. To solve the resulting large-scale, nonlinear optimisation problem, we neglected muscle fibre contraction speed and an approximate quadratic optimisation problem (PIA-QP) was formulated. Conversely, the enhanced version of PIA proposed in this paper takes into account muscle fibre contraction speed. The optimisation problem is solved using a sequential convex programing procedure (PIA-SCP). The comparative study includes PIA-SCP, PIA-QP and two commonly used approaches from the literature: static optimisation (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). SO and CMC make simplifying assumptions to limit the computational time. Both methods minimise an instantaneous performance criterion. Furthermore, SO does not impose muscle physiology. All methods are applied to a gait cycle of six control subjects. The relative root mean square error averaged over all subjects, ε(RMS), between the joint torques simulated from the optimised activations and the joint torques obtained from the inverse dynamic analysis was about twice as large for SO (ε(RMS) = 86) as compared with CMC (ε(RMS) = 39) and PIA-SCP (ε(RMS) = 50). ε(RMS) was at least twice as large for PIA-QP (ε(RMS) = 197) than for all other methods. As compared with CMC, muscle activation patterns predicted by PIA-SCP better agree with experimental electromyography (EMG). This study shows that imposing muscle physiology as well as globally optimising performance is important to accurately calculate MT forces underlying gait.

  6. Effects of Steroids on Quality of Recovery and Adverse Events after General Anesthesia: Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Takahiro; Ishii, Tomoko; Ka, Koui; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Quality of recovery (QoR) after surgery is a relevant outcome. The early postoperative quality of recovery of a patient can be determined using the QoR-40 questionnaire. The aim of this meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis was to determine if perioperative administration of glucocorticosteroids improved patients' quality of recovery after general anesthesia and if adverse events occurred. We searched six databases, including trial registration sites. Randomized clinical trials reporting the efficacy of glucocorticosteroids on quality of recovery evaluated using the QoR-40 after general anesthesia were eligible. The QoR-40 data were combined as the mean difference with confidence intervals using a random-effects model. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. The quality of the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane methodology. Moreover, Trial Sequential Analysis was carried out to prevent the inflation of type 1 errors caused by multiple testing and sparse data. We also assessed adverse events. Three randomized clinical trials (totaling 301 patients) were analyzed. The results from one published and four unpublished randomized clinical trials were unavailable. Dexamethasone was investigated in all three trials, and the results suggested that it significantly improved QoR-40 at postoperative day one scores compared with placebo (mean difference [95% confidence interval]: 14.2 points [10.4 to 18.1]; P analysis because of the absence of trials with low risk of bias. The Trial Sequential Analysis-adjusted confidence interval was -1.6 to 30.0, indicating that further trials are required. The reporting of adverse events was insufficient. These findings indicate that perioperative dexamethasone administration may improve short-term (i.e., one day) quality of recovery after general anesthesia and surgery. We need more randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias assessing the effects of glucocorticosteroids on quality of life, other outcomes, and

  7. How frequently do clusters occur in hierarchical clustering analysis? A graph theoretical approach to studying ties in proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Wilmer; Llanos, Eugenio J; Restrepo, Guillermo; Suárez, Carlos F; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is a widely used classificatory technique in many areas of scientific knowledge. Applications usually yield a dendrogram from an HCA run over a given data set, using a grouping algorithm and a similarity measure. However, even when such parameters are fixed, ties in proximity (i.e. two equidistant clusters from a third one) may produce several different dendrograms, having different possible clustering patterns (different classifications). This situation is usually disregarded and conclusions are based on a single result, leading to questions concerning the permanence of clusters in all the resulting dendrograms; this happens, for example, when using HCA for grouping molecular descriptors to select that less similar ones in QSAR studies. Representing dendrograms in graph theoretical terms allowed us to introduce four measures of cluster frequency in a canonical way, and use them to calculate cluster frequencies over the set of all possible dendrograms, taking all ties in proximity into account. A toy example of well separated clusters was used, as well as a set of 1666 molecular descriptors calculated for a group of molecules having hepatotoxic activity to show how our functions may be used for studying the effect of ties in HCA analysis. Such functions were not restricted to the tie case; the possibility of using them to derive cluster stability measurements on arbitrary sets of dendrograms having the same leaves is discussed, e.g. dendrograms from variations of HCA parameters. It was found that ties occurred frequently, some yielding tens of thousands of dendrograms, even for small data sets. Our approach was able to detect trends in clustering patterns by offering a simple way of measuring their frequency, which is often very low. This would imply, that inferences and models based on descriptor classifications (e.g. QSAR) are likely to be biased, thereby requiring an assessment of their reliability. Moreover, any

  8. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  9. Design, fabrication and test of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic bead trapping device for sequential injection analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Lu, Donglai; Fu, Zhifeng; Du, Dan; Ozanich, Richard M.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a pneumatically controlled,renewable, microfluidic device for conducting bead-based assays in an automated sequential injection analysis system. The device used a “brick wall”-like pillar array (pillar size: 20 μm length X 50 μm width X 45 μm height) with 5 μm gaps between the pillars serving as the micro filter. The flow channel where bead trapping occurred is 500 μm wide X 75 μm deep. An elastomeric membrane and an air chamber were located underneath the flow channel. By applying pressure to the air chamber, the membrane is deformed and pushed upward against the filter structure. This effectively traps beads larger than 5 μm and creates a “bed” or micro column of beads that can be perfused and washed with liquid samples and reagents. Upon completion of the assay process, the pressure is released and the beads are flushed out from underneath the filter structure to renew the device. Mouse IgG was used as a model analyte to test the feasibility of using the proposed device for immunoassay applications. Resulting microbeads from an on-chip fluorescent immunoassay were individually examined using flow cytometry. The results show that the fluorescence signal intensity distribution is fairly narrow indicating high chemical reaction uniformity among the beads population. Electrochemical onchip assay was also conducted. A detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL1 ppb was achieved and good device reliability and repeatability were demonstrated. The novel microfluidic-based beadstrapping device thus opens up a new pathway to design micro-bead based biosensor immunoassays for clinical and othervarious applications.

  10. Cupping therapy versus acupuncture for pain-related conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Jing; Cao, Hui-Juan; Li, Xin-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Ying; Lai, Bao-Yong; Yang, Guo-Yang; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Both cupping therapy and acupuncture have been used in China for a long time, and their target indications are pain-related conditions. There is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of these two therapies. To compare the beneficial effectiveness and safety between cupping therapy and acupuncture for pain-related conditions to provide evidence for clinical practice. Protocol of this review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016050986). We conducted literature search from six electronic databases until 31st March 2017. We included randomized trials comparing cupping therapy with acupuncture on pain-related conditions. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated by risk of bias tool. Mean difference, risk ratio, risk difference and their 95% confidence interval were used to report the estimate effect of the pooled results through meta-analysis or the results from each individual study. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was applied to adjust random errors and calculate the sample size. Twenty-three randomized trials with 2845 participants were included covering 12 pain-related conditions. All included studies were of poor methodological quality. Three meta-analyses were conducted, which showed similar clinical beneficial effects of cupping therapy and acupuncture for the rate of symptom improvement in cervical spondylosis (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.26; n = 646), lateral femoral cutaneous neuritis (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22; n = 102) and scapulohumeral periarthritis (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.51; n = 208). Results from other outcomes (such as visual analogue and numerical rating scale) in each study also showed no statistical significant difference between these two therapies for all included pain-related conditions. The results of TSA for cervical spondylosis demonstrated that the current available data have not reached a powerful conclusion. No serious adverse events related to cupping therapy or acupuncture was found in included

  11. Dating widespread tephras and their proximal equivalents by SIMS analysis of accessory mineral rims and by argon geochronology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Matthews, N. E.; Till, C.; Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Marcaida, M.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Coble, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dating the deposition of regionally distributed ash beds whose vent-proximal equivalents are unknown, eroded, or buried by the products of younger eruptions may be challenging because the potassium-rich minerals necessary for high-precision argon geochronology are absent, too small, or altered. Where correlative proximal deposits can be identified, juvenile pyroclasts can be sampled to date their coarse-grained crystals. Zircon is the premier mineral for dating via the U-Pb system, and is commonly present in distal ash beds produced by eruption of silicic magma. However, zircon often yields ages older than eruption due to protracted crystallization in subvolcanic magma chambers, recycling of antecrysts, and/or inheritance. High-spatial resolution sampling of unpolished crystal faces on indium-mounted zircon and other accessory minerals via SIMS (ion microprobe) analysis provides U-Pb or 238U-230Th ages for the final few micrometers of rim crystallization, and represents an alternative technique for avoiding, or at least minimizing, the aforementioned problems. To explore the utility of this technique for dating distal tephras erupted from Quaternary volcanoes in the western United States, we performed U-Pb and U-Th dating of unpolished rims on zircon and allanite in tandem with sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating for rhyolitic ash beds and proximal pyroclastic deposits or lava associated with a variety of Pleistocene eruptions. Tephra beds generated by late Pleistocene eruptions from Mono Craters, east-central California, are distributed over a significant area of the Great Basin, but their ages have been difficult to resolve due to contamination by sanidine xenocrysts and accidental lithic clasts. Rims on zircon and allanite from a regionally distributed tephra and its correlative rhyolite dome in the Mono Craters both yield U-Th isochron ages of ca. 21 ka, which are indistinguishable from the 40Ar/39Ar age for sanidine from the dome. A distinct tephra that erupted from

  12. Hypothermia after cardiac arrest should be further evaluated-A systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Friberg, Hans; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    were calculated with random- and fixed-effects models and random errors were evaluated with trial sequential analysis (TSA). RESULTS: Five randomised trials (478 patients) were included. All trials had substantial risk of bias. The relative risk (RR) for death was 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.......70 to 1.01) and for poor neurological outcome 0.78 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.95). For the two trials with least risk of bias the RR for death was 0.92 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.51) and for poor neurological outcome 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.56 to 1.50). TSA indicated lack of firm evidence for a beneficial effect...

  13. Does anaesthesia with nitrous oxide affect mortality or cardiovascular morbidity? A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberger, G; Orr, A; Thorlund, K; Wetterslev, J; Myles, P; Møller, A M

    2014-03-01

    The role of nitrous oxide in modern anaesthetic practice is contentious. One concern is that exposure to nitrous oxide may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. ENIGMA II is a large randomized clinical trial currently underway which is investigating nitrous oxide and cardiovascular complications. Before the completion of this trial, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, using Cochrane methodology, on the outcomes that make up the composite primary outcome. We used conventional meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). We reviewed 8282 abstracts and selected 138 that fulfilled our criteria for study type, population, and intervention. We attempted to contact the authors of all the selected publications to check for unpublished outcome data. Thirteen trials had outcome data eligible for our outcomes. We assessed three of these trials as having a low risk of bias. Using conventional meta-analysis, the relative risk of short-term mortality in the nitrous oxide group was 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-8.71] and the relative risk of long-term mortality in the nitrous oxide group was 0.94 (95% CI 0.80-1.10). In both cases, TSA demonstrated that the data were far too sparse to make any conclusions. There were insufficient data to perform meta-analysis for stroke, myocardial infarct, pulmonary embolus, or cardiac arrest. This systematic review demonstrated that we currently do not have robust evidence for how nitrous oxide used as part of general anaesthesia affects mortality and cardiovascular complications.

  14. Enrichment analysis of Alu elements with different spatial chromatin proximity in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Gu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transposable elements (TEs have no longer been totally considered as “junk DNA” for quite a time since the continual discoveries of their multifunctional roles in eukaryote genomes. As one of the most important and abundant TEs that still active in human genome, Alu, a SINE family, has demonstrated its indispensable regulatory functions at sequence level, but its spatial roles are still unclear. Technologies based on 3C (chromosome conformation capture have revealed the mysterious three-dimensional structure of chromatin, and make it possible to study the distal chromatin interaction in the genome. To find the role TE playing in distal regulation in human genome, we compiled the new released Hi-C data, TE annotation, histone marker annotations, and the genome-wide methylation data to operate correlation analysis, and found that the density of Alu elements showed a strong positive correlation with the level of chromatin interactions (hESC: r = 0.9, P < 2.2 × 1016; IMR90 fibroblasts: r = 0.94, P < 2.2 × 1016 and also have a significant positive correlation with some remote functional DNA elements like enhancers and promoters (Enhancer: hESC: r = 0.997, P = 2.3 × 10−4; IMR90: r = 0.934, P = 2 × 10−2; Promoter: hESC: r = 0.995, P = 3.8 × 10−4; IMR90: r = 0.996, P = 3.2 × 10−4. Further investigation involving GC content and methylation status showed the GC content of Alu covered sequences shared a similar pattern with that of the overall sequence, suggesting that Alu elements also function as the GC nucleotide and CpG site provider. In all, our results suggest that the Alu elements may act as an alternative parameter to evaluate the Hi-C data, which is confirmed by the correlation analysis of Alu elements and histone markers. Moreover, the GC-rich Alu sequence can bring high GC content and methylation flexibility to the regions with more distal chromatin contact, regulating the transcription of tissue

  15. Direct ion speciation analysis with ion-selective membranes operated in a sequential potentiometric/time resolved chronopotentiometric sensing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahraman Afshar, Majid; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2012-10-16

    Ion-selective membranes based on porous polypropylene membranes doped with an ionophore and a lipophilic cation-exchanger are used here in a new tandem measurement mode that combines dynamic electrochemistry and zero current potentiometry into a single protocol. Open circuit potential measurements yield near-nernstian response slopes in complete analogy to established ion-selective electrode methodology. Such measurements are well established to give direct information on the so-called free ion concentration (strictly, activity) in the sample. The same membrane is here also operated in a constant current mode, in which the localized ion depletion at a transition time is visualized by chronopotentiometry. This dynamic electrochemistry methodology gives information on the labile ion concentration in the sample. The sequential protocol is established on potassium and calcium ion-selective membranes. An increase of the ionophore concentration in the membrane to 180 mM makes it possible to determine calcium concentrations as high as 3 mM by chronopotentiometry, thereby making it possible to directly detect total calcium in undiluted blood samples. Recovery times after current perturbation depend on the current amplitude but can be kept to below 1 min for the polypropylene based ion-selective membranes studied here. Plasticized PVC as membrane material is less suited for this protocol, especially when the measurement at elevated concentrations is desired. An analysis of current amplitudes, transition times, and concentrations shows that the data are described by the Sand equation and that migration effects are insignificant. A numerical model describes the experimental findings with good agreement and gives guidance on the required selectivity in order to observe a well-resolved transition time and on the expected errors due to insufficient selectivity. The simulations suggest that the methodology compares well to that of open circuit potentiometry, despite giving

  16. Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Henry WW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. Methods A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Results Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. Conclusions The results indicated that the layout of a process map does

  17. Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, Lacey; Anderson, Janet E; Potts, Henry W W; Berman, Jonathan

    2010-01-07

    Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. The results indicated that the layout of a process map does influence perceptions of quality and safety problems in a process. In

  18. Addition of enamel matrix derivatives to bone substitutes for the treatment of intrabony defects: A systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Giuseppe; Laino, Luigi; Zhurakivska, Khrystyna; Cicciù, Marco; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Lo Russo, Lucio

    2017-07-01

    In order to enhance clinical improvement of intrabony defects, the addition of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) to bone substitues (BS) has been investigated. The aim of this systematic review is to figure out whether such a combination, in comparison to the treatment with BS alone has beneficial effects on the following outcomes: clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, probing depth (PD) reduction and recession (REC). Electronic databases (PUBMED, SCOPUS, EBSCO Host Research Databases and Web of Knowledge) were searched for randomized controlled trials in humans addressing the use of a combination of BS and EMD versus a control group with BS alone for the treatment of intrabony defects, with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up; meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis were then performed. From a total of 1,197 records screened by title and abstract, nine studies were read full-text and five out of them included in the meta-analysis. No significant differences have been demonstrated both for CAL gain, PD reduction and REC between test and control groups. In the treatment of intrabony defects, the addition of EMD to BS seems to be not beneficial in terms of CAL gain, PD reduction and REC changes. However, such results should be considered with caution because of the small number of studies included in the meta-analysis and their heterogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Estimation of coal proximate analysis factors and calorific value by multivariable regression method and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Behnamfard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate analysis is the most common form of coal evaluation and it reveals the quality of a coal sample. It examines four factors including the moisture, ash, volatile matter (VM, and fixed carbon (FC within the coal sample. Every factor is determined through a distinct experimental procedure under ASTM specified conditions. These determinations are time consuming and require a significant amount of laboratory equipment. The calorific value is one of the most important properties of a solid fuel and its experimental determination requires special instrumentation and highly trained analyst to operate it. This paper develops mathematical and ANFIS models for estimation of two factors of proximate analysis based on the other two factors. Furthermore, the estimation of calorific value of coal samples based on proximate analysis factors is performed using multivariable regression, the Minitab 16 software package, and the ANFIS, Matlab software package. The results indicate that ANFIS is a more powerful tool for estimation of proximate analysis factors and calorific value than multivariable regression method. The following equation estimates the calorific value of coal samples with high precision: Calorific value (btu/lb= 12204 - 170 Moisture + 46.8 FC - 127 Ash

  20. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  1. Holmium laser enucleation versus transurethral resection in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia: an updated systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Weng, Hong; Liu, Tong-Zu; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Chao; Meng, Zhe; Wang, Xing-Huan

    2014-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) in surgical treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) potentially offers advantages over transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library up to October 10, 2013 (updated on February 5, 2014). After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 and Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) 0.9 software. Fifteen studies including 8 RCTs involving 855 patients met the criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that: a) efficacy indicators: there was no significant difference in quality of life between the two groups (P>0.05), but compared with the TURP group, Qmax was better at 3 months and 12 months, PVR was less at 6, 12 months, and IPSS was lower at 12 months in the HoLEP, b) safety indicators: compared with the TURP, HoLEP had less blood transfusion (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.47), but there was no significant difference in early and late postoperative complications (P>0.05), and c) perioperative indicators: HoLEP was associated with longer operation time (WMD 14.19 min, 95% CI 6.30 to 22.08 min), shorter catheterization time (WMD -19.97 h, 95% CI -24.24 to -15.70 h) and hospital stay (WMD -25.25 h, 95% CI -29.81 to -20.68 h). In conventional meta-analyses, there is no clinically relevant difference in early and late postoperative complications between the two techniques, but HoLEP is preferable due to advantage in the curative effect, less blood transfusion rate, shorter catheterization duration time and hospital stay. However, trial sequential analysis does not allow us to draw any solid conclusion in overall clinical benefit comparison between the two approaches. Further large, well-designed, multicentre/international RCTs with long-term data and the comparison between the two approaches remain open.

  2. Holmium laser enucleation versus transurethral resection in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia: an updated systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP in surgical treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH potentially offers advantages over transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. METHODS: Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library up to October 10, 2013 (updated on February 5, 2014. After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 and Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA 0.9 software. RESULTS: Fifteen studies including 8 RCTs involving 855 patients met the criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that: a efficacy indicators: there was no significant difference in quality of life between the two groups (P>0.05, but compared with the TURP group, Qmax was better at 3 months and 12 months, PVR was less at 6, 12 months, and IPSS was lower at 12 months in the HoLEP, b safety indicators: compared with the TURP, HoLEP had less blood transfusion (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.47, but there was no significant difference in early and late postoperative complications (P>0.05, and c perioperative indicators: HoLEP was associated with longer operation time (WMD 14.19 min, 95% CI 6.30 to 22.08 min, shorter catheterization time (WMD -19.97 h, 95% CI -24.24 to -15.70 h and hospital stay (WMD -25.25 h, 95% CI -29.81 to -20.68 h. CONCLUSIONS: In conventional meta-analyses, there is no clinically relevant difference in early and late postoperative complications between the two techniques, but HoLEP is preferable due to advantage in the curative effect, less blood transfusion rate, shorter catheterization duration time and hospital stay. However, trial sequential analysis does not allow us to draw any solid conclusion in overall clinical benefit comparison between the two approaches. Further large, well-designed, multicentre/international RCTs with long-term data and the comparison between the two approaches remain open.

  3. Prediction of coal grindability based on petrography, proximate and ultimate analysis using multiple regression and artificial neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelgani, S. Chehreh; Jorjani, E.; Mesroghli, Sh.; Bagherieh, A.H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Research and Science Campus, Islamic Azad University, Poonak, Hesarak Tehran (Iran); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The effects of proximate and ultimate analysis, maceral content, and coal rank (R{sub max}) for a wide range of Kentucky coal samples from calorific value of 4320 to 14960 (BTU/lb) (10.05 to 34.80 MJ/kg) on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) have been investigated by multivariable regression and artificial neural network methods (ANN). The stepwise least square mathematical method shows that the relationship between (a) Moisture, ash, volatile matter, and total sulfur; (b) ln (total sulfur), hydrogen, ash, ln ((oxygen + nitrogen)/carbon) and moisture; (c) ln (exinite), semifusinite, micrinite, macrinite, resinite, and R{sub max} input sets with HGI in linear condition can achieve the correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.77, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The ANN, which adequately recognized the characteristics of the coal samples, can predict HGI with correlation coefficients of 0.89, 0.89 and 0.95 respectively in testing process. It was determined that ln (exinite), semifusinite, micrinite, macrinite, resinite, and R{sub max} can be used as the best predictor for the estimation of HGI on multivariable regression (R{sup 2} = 0.81) and also artificial neural network methods (R{sup 2} = 0.95). The ANN based prediction method, as used in this paper, can be further employed as a reliable and accurate method, in the hardgrove grindability index prediction. (author)

  4. Radiographic fit and fill analysis of a new second-generation proximally coated cementless stem compared to its predicate design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Kimona; Pivec, Robert; Wuestemann, Thies; Tatevossian, Tiffany; Nevelos, Jim; Mont, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo fit and fill analysis of a new second-generation proximally coated cementless stem compared to its predicate design. This prospective trial of 100 total hip arthroplasties compared specific radiographic "Fit and Fill" parameters between the two designs. Fit type was assessed by comparing the type of canal fill. Post-operative fill parameters such as mean stem-to-canal ratios and mean minimum and maximum gaps between the stems to the cortical bone in different sections and areas were compared. A significantly higher proportion of the second-generation stems had Type I fit (82% vs. 54%), had better stem to canal fill ratio in the middle (90.6% vs. 85.3%) and distal sections (88.1% vs. 78.6%) compared to the older design. The new second-generation stem design had a significantly better canal fit and distal canal fill in the medial and lateral portions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new convergence analysis and perturbation resilience of some accelerated proximal forward-backward algorithms with errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Daniel; De Pierro, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    Many problems in science and engineering involve, as part of their solution process, the consideration of a separable function which is the sum of two convex functions, one of them possibly non-smooth. Recently a few works have discussed inexact versions of several accelerated proximal methods aiming at solving this minimization problem. This paper shows that inexact versions of a method of Beck and Teboulle (fast iterative shrinkable tresholding algorithm) preserve, in a Hilbert space setting, the same (non-asymptotic) rate of convergence under some assumptions on the decay rate of the error terms The notion of inexactness discussed here seems to be rather simple, but, interestingly, when comparing to related works, closely related decay rates of the errors terms yield closely related convergence rates. The derivation sheds some light on the somewhat mysterious origin of some parameters which appear in various accelerated methods. A consequence of the analysis is that the accelerated method is perturbation resilient, making it suitable, in principle, for the superiorization methodology. By taking this into account, we re-examine the superiorization methodology and significantly extend its scope. This work was supported by FAPESP 2013/19504-9. The second author was supported also by CNPq grant 306030/2014-4.

  6. Simulation modeling analysis of sequential relations among therapeutic alliance, symptoms, and adherence to child-centered play therapy between a child with autism spectrum disorder and two therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Chung, Hyewon; Fischel, Leah; Athey-Lloyd, Laura

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the sequential relations among three pertinent variables in child psychotherapy: therapeutic alliance (TA) (including ruptures and repairs), autism symptoms, and adherence to child-centered play therapy (CCPT) process. A 2-year CCPT of a 6-year-old Caucasian boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder was conducted weekly with two doctoral-student therapists, working consecutively for 1 year each, in a university-based community mental-health clinic. Sessions were video-recorded and coded using the Child Psychotherapy Process Q-Set (CPQ), a measure of the TA, and an autism symptom measure. Sequential relations among these variables were examined using simulation modeling analysis (SMA). In Therapist 1's treatment, unexpectedly, autism symptoms decreased three sessions after a rupture occurred in the therapeutic dyad. In Therapist 2's treatment, adherence to CCPT process increased 2 weeks after a repair occurred in the therapeutic dyad. The TA decreased 1 week after autism symptoms increased. Finally, adherence to CCPT process decreased 1 week after autism symptoms increased. The authors concluded that (1) sequential relations differ by therapist even though the child remains constant, (2) therapeutic ruptures can have an unexpected effect on autism symptoms, and (3) changes in autism symptoms can precede as well as follow changes in process variables.

  7. Efficiency and Safety Effects of Applying ERAS Protocols to Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Panwar, Rajesh; Borle, Anuradha; Goudra, Basavana; Trikha, Anjan; van Wagensveld, Bart A; Sinha, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    Application of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) to the bariatric surgical procedures is at its early stages with little consolidated evidence. This meta-analysis evaluates present literature and indicates pathways for development of evidence-based standardized ERAS protocols for bariatric surgery. Comparative trials between ERAS and conventional bariatric surgery published till June 2016 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for length of stay (LOS), readmission, complications (major/minor), and reoperation rates. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) for the strength of meta-analysis was performed for the primary outcome LOS. Five subgroups with a total of 394 and 471 patients in ERAS and conventional group respectively were included. LOS was shorter in ERAS group by 1.56 ± 0.18 days (random-effects, p bariatric procedures allow faster return to home for patients. The present bariatric ERAS protocols have high heterogeneity and would benefit from standardization. Minor complication rates increase with implementation of ERAS, however without any significant effect on overall patient morbidity. Further randomized trials comparing ERAS with conventional care are required to consolidate these findings.

  8. Can Cranberries Contribute to Reduce the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ângelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Pereira, Luísa

    2017-09-01

    We sought to clarify the association between cranberry intake and the prevention of urinary tract infections. This systematic review, which complies with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) statement, was done as a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of clinical trials. The findings clearly showed the potential use of cranberries for the clinical condition of urinary tract infection. Cranberry products significantly reduced the incidence of urinary tract infections as indicated by the weighted risk ratio (0.6750, 95% CI 0.5516-0.7965, p urinary tract infections were more susceptible to the effects of cranberry ingestion. The results of the current study could be used by physicians to recommend cranberry ingestion to decrease the incidence of urinary tract infections, particularly in individuals with recurrent urinary tract infections. This would also reduce the administration of antibiotics, which could be beneficial since antibiotics can lead to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Progression of Sequential Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack McGeachy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential reactions consist of linked reactions in which the product of the first reaction becomes the substrate of a second reaction. Sequential reactions occur in industrially important processes, such as the chlorination of methane. A generalized series of three sequential reactions was analyzed in order to determine the times at which each chemical species reaches its maximum. To determine the concentration of each species as a function of time, the differential rate laws for each species were solved. The solution of each gave the concentration curve of the chemical species. The concentration curves of species A1 and A2 possessed discreet maxima, which were determined through slope-analysis. The concentration curve of the final product, A3, did not possess a discreet maximum, but rather approached a finite limit.

  10. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  11. The Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Chronic Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Helicobacter pylori is a common gastric disease-inducing pathogen. Although an increasing number of recent studies have shown that H. pylori is a risk factor for liver disease, the potential association between H. pylori infection and chronic hepatitis C still remains controversial. The aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate a potential association between H. pylori infection and chronic hepatitis C. Methods. We searched the PubMed, Embase, CNKI, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL databases between January 1, 1994, and May 1, 2015. Results. This study included a total of 1449 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 2377 control cases. The prevalence of H. pylori was significantly higher in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in those without chronic hepatitis C. The pooled odds ratio was 2.93. In a subgroup analysis, the odds ratios were 4.48 for hepatitis C virus- (HCV- related cirrhosis and 5.45 for hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion. Our study found a strong association between H. pylori and chronic hepatitis C, particularly during the HCV progression stage; thus, we recommend active screening for H. pylori in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  12. Combination of Bone Graft and Resorbable Membrane for Alveolar Ridge Preservation: a Systematic Review, Meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Giuseppe; Zhurakivska, Khrystyna; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Laino, Luigi; Cicciù, Marco; Lo Russo, Lucio

    2017-09-12

    Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) techniques are aimed to reduce the resorption after tooth extraction. The combination of a graft material covered with a resorbable membrane represent one of the most common strategies performed in the clinical practice. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse evidence regarding potential benefits of ARP procedures performed with allogenic/xenogenic grafts in combination with a resorbable membrane coverage in comparison to a spontaneous healing. Electronic databases were screened independently by two authors in order to select studies suitable for inclusion in this revision. Horizontal Ridge Width Reduction (HRWR) and Vertical Ridge Height Reduction (VRHR) were investigated as primary outcomes and Volume Changes (VC) as secondary outcome. Meta-analysis was performed using the inverse of variance test with a random effect model. Adjustment for type I and II errors and analysis of the power of evidence was performed with Trial Sequential analysis (TSA). 7 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis. Meta-analysis revealed that the combination therapy resulted in a lower rate of resorption for both HRWR (-2.19 mm with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [-2.67, -1.71]) and VRHR (-1.72 mm with 95% CI [-2.14, -1.30]). For VC no meta-analysis was performed due to insufficient data. Analysis of the power of the evidence performed with TSA, showed that the number of both studies and sockets analyzed is sufficient to validate such findings, despite the high rate of heterogeneity. The use of bone graft covered by a resorbable membrane is able to decrease the rate of alveolar ridge horizontal and vertical resorption after tooth extraction. The power and reliability of the evidences are strong enough to confirm the above-mentioned findings, despite the high rate of heterogeneity of included studies.

  13. Limited clinical utility of genotype-guided warfarin initiation dosing algorithms versus standard therapy: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H L; Shi, W L; Li, X G; Zhang, T; Zhai, S D; Xie, H G

    2015-12-01

    In terms of inconsistent conclusions across all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and available meta-analyses, we aimed to use a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) to evaluate whether clinical utility of a genotype-guided warfarin initiation dosing algorithm could be better than that of a standard therapy regimen, and whether currently relevant evidence could be reliable and conclusive. Overall, 11 eligible RCTs involving 2677 patients were included for further analyses. Compared with fixed dose or clinically adjusted warfarin initiation dosing regimens, genotype-guided algorithms significantly increased time in therapeutic range, shortened time to first therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) and time to stable doses, but did not show any marked improvements in excessive anticoagulation, bleeding events, thromboembolism, or all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that, genotype-guided algorithms showed better control in the outcomes of time in therapeutic range or excessive anticoagulation than fixed-dose regimens rather than clinically adjusted regimens. Except for excessive anticoagulation, currently available evidence of all other outcomes was unreliable and inconclusive as determined with TSA. Our findings suggest that genotype-guided warfarin initiation dosing algorithms have superiority in the improvement of surrogate quality markers for anticoagulation control, but that this does not translate into statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes, which is largely because of the insufficient sample size in the RCTs analyzed.

  14. Sequential FISH analysis with rDNA genes and Ag-NOR banding in the lady beetle Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, E M; Pompolo, S G; Campos, L A; Petitpierre, E

    2001-01-01

    We have characterized the meiosis of Olla v-nigrum by standard analysis, performed a NOR study using NOR banding, FISH of rDNA genes and sequential FISH/AgNOR analysis, and adapted the FISH methodology to Coccinellidae. The chromosome number determined at metaphase I was n = 9 + Xyp. At zygotene it was possible to identify the sex vesicle which presented a deeply stained heteropycnotic block. Chromosome X is much larger than the y and the two combine, forming a "parachute" in metaphase I. FISH analysis using a probe of rDNA genes 18S, 28S and 5.8S of D. melanogaster was used to map the genes in the sex vesicle. The NOR band showed high gene activity in this region. These results were confirmed using sequential FISH/Ag NOR analysis. The data obtained for Olla v-nigrum agree with the classical hypothesis raised to explain the type of sex chromosome association in a parachute format (Xyp) as being due to the presence of nucleolar material. The chromosome number and parachute configuration during metaphase I in this species agree with the basic karyotype of most Coleopterans. The major adaptation of the FISH method was the simultaneous denaturation and hybridization that permitted preservation of chromosome morphology, an essential factor when the chromosomes are small.

  15. REML/BLUP and sequential path analysis in estimating genotypic values and interrelationships among simple maize grain yield-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivoto, T; Nardino, M; Carvalho, I R; Follmann, D N; Ferrari, M; Szareski, V J; de Pelegrin, A J; de Souza, V Q

    2017-03-22

    Methodologies using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP) in combination with sequential path analysis in maize are still limited in the literature. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to use REML/BLUP-based procedures in order to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and genotypic values of simple maize hybrids, and ii) to fit stepwise regressions considering genotypic values to form a path diagram with multi-order predictors and minimum multicollinearity that explains the relationships of cause and effect among grain yield-related traits. Fifteen commercial simple maize hybrids were evaluated in multi-environment trials in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The environmental variance (78.80%) and genotype-vs-environment variance (20.83%) accounted for more than 99% of the phenotypic variance of grain yield, which difficult the direct selection of breeders for this trait. The sequential path analysis model allowed the selection of traits with high explanatory power and minimum multicollinearity, resulting in models with elevated fit (R(2) > 0.9 and ε < 0.3). The number of kernels per ear (NKE) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW) are the traits with the largest direct effects on grain yield (r = 0.66 and 0.73, respectively). The high accuracy of selection (0.86 and 0.89) associated with the high heritability of the average (0.732 and 0.794) for NKE and TKW, respectively, indicated good reliability and prospects of success in the indirect selection of hybrids with high-yield potential through these traits. The negative direct effect of NKE on TKW (r = -0.856), however, must be considered. The joint use of mixed models and sequential path analysis is effective in the evaluation of maize-breeding trials.

  16. Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen.

  17. Proximal balloon occlusion versus distal filter protection in carotid artery stenting: A meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Jad; Mahmud, Ehtisham; White, Christopher J; Aronow, Herbert D; Drachman, Douglas E; Gray, William; Abdullah, Obai; Abu-Fadel, Mazen; Firwana, Belal; Mishkel, Gergory; Al-Dadah, Ashraf S

    2017-04-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is typically performed using embolic protection devices (EPDs) as a means to reduce the risk of procedure-related stroke. In this study, we compared procedural morbidity and mortality associated with distal (D-EPD) vs. proximal (P-EPD) protection. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were queried from January 1998 through May 2015. Only studies comparing (D-EPD) and (P-EPD) were included. Two independent reviewers selected and appraised studies and extracted data in duplicate. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies. Heterogeneity of treatment effect among studies was assessed using the I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using inspection of funnel plots. The primary endpoints included 30-day mortality and stroke. Secondary endpoints included new cerebral lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and contralateral lesions on DW-MRI. A total of 12,281 patients were included from 18 studies (13 prospective and 5 retrospective) comparing (D-EPD) and (P-EPD) in the setting of CAS. The mean patient age was 69 years and 64% of patients were male. No evidence of publication bias was detected. There was no significant difference between the two modalities in terms of the risk of stroke (risk difference [RD] 0.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.01 to 0.01) or mortality (RD 0.0, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.01) nor was there any difference in the incidence of new cerebral lesions on DW-MRI or contralateral DW-MRI lesions. In patients undergoing CAS, both D-EPD and P-EPD provide similar levels of protection from peri-procedural stroke and 30 days mortality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of outcome- and process-based social preferences and beliefs in Dictator Games and sequential Prisoner's Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ozan; Weesie, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, using a within-subjects design, we estimate the utility weights that subjects attach to the outcome of their interaction partners in four decision situations: (1) binary Dictator Games (DG), second player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) after the first player (2) cooperated and (3) defected, and (4) first player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. We find that the average weights in these four decision situations have the following order: (1)>(2)>(4)>(3). Moreover, the average weight is positive in (1) but negative in (2), (3), and (4). Our findings indicate the existence of strong negative and small positive reciprocity for the average subject, but there is also high interpersonal variation in the weights in these four nodes. We conclude that the PD frame makes subjects more competitive than the DG frame. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, we simultaneously analyze beliefs of subjects about others' utility weights in the same four decision situations. We compare several alternative theoretical models on beliefs, e.g., rational beliefs (Bayesian-Nash equilibrium) and a consensus model. Our results on beliefs strongly support the consensus effect and refute rational beliefs: there is a strong relationship between own preferences and beliefs and this relationship is relatively stable across the four decision situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, V S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B; Ruijssenaars, A J J M

    2014-01-01

    While optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is 'focused on the environment' or 'alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to shed light on the sequential relationship between different stimuli and alertness levels in individuals with PIMD. Video observations were conducted for 24 participants during one-on-one interactions with a direct support person in multisensory environments. Time-window sequential analyses were conducted for the 120 s following four different stimuli. For the different stimuli, different patterns in terms of alertness became apparent. Following visual stimuli, the alertness levels of the individuals with PIMD changed in waves of about 20 s from 'active alert' to 'passive alert'. While auditory and tactile stimuli led to 'alert' reactions shortly after the stimulation, alertness levels decreased between seconds 20 and 120. Reactions to vestibular stimuli were only visible after 60 s; these were 'active alert' or 'withdrawn'. The results of the present study show that individuals with PIMD show their reactions to stimuli only slightly, so that 'waves' might reflect the optimal alertness pattern for learning and development. Consequently, it is especially important that direct support persons follow and stimulate these individual 'waves' in the activities they provide to their clients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Internal fixation versus nonoperative treatment for displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchuan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD -0.51, 95% CI: -7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I(2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or

  1. Sequential analysis of latent variables using mixed-effect latent variable models: Impact of non-informative and informative missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébille, Véronique; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Mesbah, Mounir

    2007-11-30

    Sequential methods allowing for early stopping of clinical trials are widely used in various therapeutic areas. These methods allow for the analysis of different types of endpoints (quantitative, qualitative, time to event) and often provide, in average, substantial reductions in sample size as compared with single-stage designs while maintaining pre-specified type I and II errors. Sequential methods are also used when analysing particular endpoints that cannot be directly measured, such as depression, quality of life, or cognitive functioning, which are often measured through questionnaires. These types of endpoints are usually referred to as latent variables and should be analysed with latent variable models. In addition, in most clinical trials studying such latent variables, incomplete data are not uncommon and the missing data process might also be non-ignorable. We investigated the impact of informative or non-informative missing data on the statistical properties of the double triangular test (DTT), combined with the mixed-effects Rasch model (MRM) for dichotomous responses or the traditional method based on observed patient's scores (S) to the questionnaire. The achieved type I errors for the DTT were usually close to the target value of 0.05 for both methods, but increased slightly for the MRM when informative missing data were present. The DTT was very close to the nominal power of 0.95 when the MRM was used, but substantially underpowered with the S method (reduction of about 23 per cent), irrespective of whether informative missing data were present or not. Moreover, the DTT using the MRM allowed for reaching a conclusion (under H(0) or H(1)) with fewer patients than the S method, the average sample number for the latter increasing importantly when the proportion of missing data increased. Incorporating MRM in sequential analysis of latent variables might provide a more powerful method than the traditional S method, even in the presence of non

  2. Empirical mono- versus combination antibiotic therapy in adult intensive care patients with severe sepsis - A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Perner, Anders; Hylander Møller, Morten

    2017-04-01

    To assess benefits and harms of empirical mono- vs. combination antibiotic therapy in adult patients with severe sepsis in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a systematic review according to the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, including meta-analysis, risk of bias assessment and trial sequential analysis (TSA). We included randomised clinical trials (RCT) assessing empirical mono-antibiotic therapy versus a combination of two or more antibiotics in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis. We exclusively assessed patient-important outcomes, including mortality. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and the risk of random errors was assessed by TSA. Thirteen RCTs (n = 2633) were included; all were judged as having high risk of bias. Carbapenems were the most frequently used mono-antibiotic (8 of 13 trials). There was no difference in mortality (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.95-1.29; p = 0.19) or in any other patient-important outcomes between mono- vs. combination therapy. In TSA of mortality, the Z-curve reached the futility area, indicating that a 20% relative risk difference in mortality may be excluded between the two groups. For the other outcomes, TSA indicated lack of data and high risk of random errors. This systematic review of RCTs with meta-analysis and TSA demonstrated no differences in mortality or other patient-important outcomes between empirical mono- vs. combination antibiotic therapy in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis. The quantity and quality of data was low without firm evidence for benefit or harm of combination therapy. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomic analysis of proteins surrounding occludin and claudin-4 reveals their proximity to signaling and trafficking networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Fredriksson

    Full Text Available Tight junctions are complex membrane structures that regulate paracellular movement of material across epithelia and play a role in cell polarity, signaling and cytoskeletal organization. In order to expand knowledge of the tight junction proteome, we used biotin ligase (BioID fused to occludin and claudin-4 to biotinylate their proximal proteins in cultured MDCK II epithelial cells. We then purified the biotinylated proteins on streptavidin resin and identified them by mass spectrometry. Proteins were ranked by relative abundance of recovery by mass spectrometry, placed in functional categories, and compared not only among the N- and C- termini of occludin and the N-terminus of claudin-4, but also with our published inventory of proteins proximal to the adherens junction protein E-cadherin and the tight junction protein ZO-1. When proteomic results were analyzed, the relative distribution among functional categories was similar between occludin and claudin-4 proximal proteins. Apart from already known tight junction- proteins, occludin and claudin-4 proximal proteins were enriched in signaling and trafficking proteins, especially endocytic trafficking proteins. However there were significant differences in the specific proteins comprising the functional categories near each of the tagging proteins, revealing spatial compartmentalization within the junction complex. Taken together, these results expand the inventory of known and unknown proteins at the tight junction to inform future studies of the organization and physiology of this complex structure.

  4. Toward Consistent Methodology to Quantify Populations in Proximity to Oil and Gas Development: A National Spatial Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czolowski, Eliza D; Santoro, Renee L; Srebotnjak, Tanja; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2017-08-23

    Higher risk of exposure to environmental health hazards near oil and gas wells has spurred interest in quantifying populations that live in proximity to oil and gas development. The available studies on this topic lack consistent methodology and ignore aspects of oil and gas development of value to public health-relevant assessment and decision-making. We aim to present a methodological framework for oil and gas development proximity studies grounded in an understanding of hydrocarbon geology and development techniques. We geospatially overlay locations of active oil and gas wells in the conterminous United States and Census data to estimate the population living in proximity to hydrocarbon development at the national and state levels. We compare our methods and findings with existing proximity studies. Nationally, we estimate that 17.6 million people live within 1,600m (∼1 mi) of at least one active oil and/or gas well. Three of the eight studies overestimate populations at risk from actively producing oil and gas wells by including wells without evidence of production or drilling completion and/or using inappropriate population allocation methods. The remaining five studies, by omitting conventional wells in regions dominated by historical conventional development, significantly underestimate populations at risk. The well inventory guidelines we present provide an improved methodology for hydrocarbon proximity studies by acknowledging the importance of both conventional and unconventional well counts as well as the relative exposure risks associated with different primary production categories (e.g., oil, wet gas, dry gas) and developmental stages of wells. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1535.

  5. Kinetic analysis of growth and xanthan gum production with Xanthomonas campestris on sucrose, using sequentially consumed nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letisse, F; Chevallereau, P; Simon, J L; Lindley, N D

    2001-05-01

    A batch fermentation strategy using Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 for xanthan gum production has been established in which all essential medium components are supplied at the onset. This has been achieved using sucrose as sole sugar feedstock. Sequential consumption of nitrogen sources (soybean hydrolysates, ammonium and nitrate salts) was observed to facilitate the further optimisation of the medium. Biomass accumulation was limited by phosphate availability. Xanthan yields of more than 60% (grams of xanthan per gram of sugar) have been obtained with constant acetyl content. However, pyruvyl substitution decreased as the growth rate declined, due to the metabolic constraints specific to phosphate depletion. High rates of carbon conversion into xanthan were observed throughout the culture and the ATP/ADP ratio was not affected by the decline in the specific growth rate.

  6. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. I...

  7. Role of vasopressin and terlipressin in refractory shock compared to conventional therapy in the neonatal and pediatric population: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Reem; Paret, Gideon; Perlman, Amichai; Reif, Shimon; Raccah, Bruria Hirsh; Matok, Ilan

    2017-01-05

    Vasopressin (AVP) and terlipressin (TP) have been used as last-line therapy in refractory shock in children. However, the efficacy and safety profiles of AVP and TP have not been determined in pediatric refractory shock of different origins. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the addition of AVP/TP therapy in pediatric refractory shock of all causes compared to conventional therapy with fluid resuscitation and vasopressor and inotropic therapy. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis (TSA) comparing AVP and TP to conventional therapy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to February 2016. The systematic review included all reports of AVP/TP use in the pediatric population. Reports of clinical trials were pooled using random-effects models and TSA. Main outcomes were mortality and tissue ischemia. Three randomized controlled trials and five "before-and-after clinical" trials (without comparator) met the inclusion criteria. Among 224 neonates and children (aged 0 to 18 years) with refractory shock, 152 received therapy with AVP or TP. Pooled analyses showed no association between AVP/TP treatment and mortality (relative risk (RR),1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-2.00), length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (mean difference (MD), -3.58 days; 95% CI, -9.05 to 1.83), and tissue ischemia (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.47-4.62). In TSA, no significant effect on mortality and risk for developing tissue ischemia was observed with AVP/TP therapy. Our results emphasize the lack of observed benefit for AVP/TP in terms of mortality and length of stay in the PICU, and suggest an increased risk for ischemic events. Our TSA suggests that further large studies are necessary to demonstrate and establish benefits of AVP/TP in children. PROSPERO registry: CRD42016035872.

  8. Is non-cavitated proximal lesion sealing an effective method for caries control in primary and permanent teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Soviero, Vera Mendes; da Silva Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly; Lenzi, Michele; Ferreira, Daniele Masterson T P; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of sealing non-cavitated proximal caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Only controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of sealing on non-cavitated proximal caries with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were included in the study. The primary outcome should be arrestment/progression of proximal caries evaluated by bitewing radiographs. A risk of bias evaluation based on the Cochrane Collaboration common scheme for bias was carried out for each study. The meta-analysis was performed on the studies considered low risk of bias and with pair-wise visual reading results through RevMan software. A comprehensive search was performed in the Systematic Electronic Databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, IBI Web of Science, Lilacs, SIGLE, and on website Clinical trials.gov, through until June 2013. From 967 studies identified, 10 articles and 3 studies with partial results were assessed for eligibility. However three articles were excluded and our final sample included 10 studies. According to the risk of bias evaluation, six studies were considered "high" risk of bias, and four "low" risk of bias. The forest plot of the meta-analysis showed low heterogeneity (I(2)=29%) and a favourable outcome for the Infiltrant. The chance of caries progression when this technique was used was significantly lower (p=0.002) compared with Placebo. Our results suggest that the technique of sealing non-cavitated proximal caries seems to be effective in controlling proximal caries in the short and medium term. Further long-term randomized clinical trials are still necessary to increase this evidence. Contemporary dentistry is focused in minimally invasive approaches that prevent the destruction of sound dental tissues next to carious lesions. This paper searches for evidence of the efficacy of sealing/infiltrating non

  9. Antioxidant activity characterization, phytochemical screening, and proximate analysis of Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Ebby-Anuar; Zaaba, Nur Eleza; Haron, Norhisham; Dasiman, Razif; Amom, Zulkhairi

    2014-11-07

    Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ten percent (10%) aqueous extract from both Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) were used in this study. Antioxidant activity characterization by TPC, TFC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, and phytochemical screening, as well as proximate analysis from both extracts were analyzed in this study. Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) tested positive for flavonoid, saponin, tannins, and terpenoids, but PGR showed negative result for anthraquinones. In average weight of 100.0 g dry sample, the carbohydrates, protein, moisture, ash, fat, and energy content in PGR and PGL were 80.9%, 5.5%, 7.8%, 3.4%, 2.4%, and 367 Kcal/100g, and 66.5%, 14.8%, 10.7%, 6.5%, 1.5%, and 399 Kcal/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant assessments using FRAP and DPPH assay showed that PGL extracts possessed higher antioxidant capacity by reducing the ferric ion-TPTZ complex by 0.14 mg/ml ±0.0018 and higher scavenging activity, 83.83% ±0.54 as compared to PGR, 0.07 mg/ml ±0.0035 for FRAP and 62.87% ±1.33 for DPPH, respectively. The total phenolics content was significantly higher in PGL (208.77 mg GAE/g ±3.79) as compared to PGR (27.53 mg GAE/g ±0.42). However, there was no significant different in the total flavonoid contents for PGR (34.8 mg QE/g ±3.12) and PGL (32.43 mg QE/g ±3.92). Further investigations are suggested to isolate and characterize the other active constituents from this plant in combatting diseases.

  10. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus placebo in patients with major depressive disorder. A systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Schou, Anne; Hellmuth, Signe Gade; Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Leth-Møller, Katja; Iversen, Maria; Banke, Marianne Bjørnø; Petersen, Iggiannguaq Juhl; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Krogh, Jesper; Ebert, Sebastian Elgaard; Timm, Anne; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    2017-02-08

    The evidence on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depressive disorder is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review assessing the effects of SSRIs versus placebo, 'active' placebo, or no intervention in adult participants with major depressive disorder. We searched for eligible randomised clinical trials in The Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index Expanded, clinical trial registers of Europe and USA, websites of pharmaceutical companies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the European Medicines Agency until January 2016. All data were extracted by at least two independent investigators. We used Cochrane systematic review methodology, Trial Sequential Analysis, and calculation of Bayes factor. An eight-step procedure was followed to assess if thresholds for statistical and clinical significance were crossed. Primary outcomes were reduction of depressive symptoms, remission, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were suicides, suicide attempts, suicide ideation, and quality of life. A total of 131 randomised placebo-controlled trials enrolling a total of 27,422 participants were included. None of the trials used 'active' placebo or no intervention as control intervention. All trials had high risk of bias. SSRIs significantly reduced the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at end of treatment (mean difference -1.94 HDRS points; 95% CI -2.50 to -1.37; P depressive symptoms, but all trials were at high risk of bias and the clinical significance seems questionable. SSRIs significantly increase the risk of both serious and non-serious adverse events. The potential small beneficial effects seem to be outweighed by harmful effects. PROSPERO CRD42013004420.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  13. Proximal hypospadias: A persistent challenge. Single institution outcome analysis of three surgical techniques over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippi Salle, J L; Sayed, S; Salle, A; Bagli, D; Farhat, W; Koyle, M; Lorenzo, A J

    2016-02-01

    The optimal treatment of proximal hypospadias remains controversial. Several techniques have been described, but the best approach remains unsettled. To evaluate and compare the complication rates of proximal hypospadias with and without ventral curvature (VC), according to three different surgical techniques: tubularized incised plate (TIP) uretroplasty, dorsal inlay graft TIP (DIG), and staged preputial repair (SR). It was hypothesized that SR performs better than TIP and DIG for proximal hypospadias. Single-center, retrospective chart review of all patients with primary proximal hypospadias reconstructed between 2003 and 2013. The DIG was selectively employed in cases with narrow urethral plate (UP) and deficient spongiosum. Extensive urethral plate (UP) mobilization (UPM), dorsal plication (DP) and/or deep transverse incisions of tunica albuginea (DTITA) were selectively performed when attempting to spare transecting the UP. Division of UP and SR was favored in cases with severe VC (>50°), which was often concurrently managed with DTITA if intrinsic curvature was present. For SR, tubularization of the graft was performed 6 months later. A total of 140 patients were included. Tubularized incised plate (TIP), DIG, and SR techniques were performed in 57, 23, and 60 patients, respectively. The TIP and DIG techniques achieved similar success rates, although DIG was performed in cases of narrow and spongiosum-deficient plates. Reoperation rates with TIP and DIG techniques was 52.6% and 52.1% (NS). Urethro-cutaneous fistulas were seen in 31.5% and 13% of TIP and DIG techniques, respectively. Staged repair accomplished better results than both TIP and DIG techniques, despite being performed in the most unfavorable cases (reoperation rate 28%). After technical modifications, the DIG technique achieved similar outcomes of SR. Proximal hypospadias remains challenging, regardless of the technique utilized for its repair. Urethro-cutaneous fistulas were more commonly seen

  14. Sequential injections as an alternative to gradient exploitation for implementing differential kinetic analysis in a flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R; Feres, Mario A; Zagatto, Elias A G; Lima, José L F C

    2010-06-15

    A novel flow-based strategy for implementing simultaneous determinations of different chemical species reacting with the same reagent(s) at different rates is proposed and applied to the spectrophotometric catalytic determination of iron and vanadium in Fe-V alloys. The method relies on the influence of Fe(II) and V(IV) on the rate of the iodide oxidation by Cr(VI) under acidic conditions; the Jones reducing agent is then needed. Three different plugs of the sample are sequentially inserted into an acidic KI reagent carrier stream, and a confluent Cr(VI) solution is added downstream. Overlap between the inserted plugs leads to a complex sample zone with several regions of maximal and minimal absorbance values. Measurements performed on these regions reveal the different degrees of reaction development and tend to be more precise. Data are treated by multivariate calibration involving the PLS algorithm. The proposed system is very simple and rugged. Two latent variables carried out ca 95% of the analytical information and the results are in agreement with ICP-OES.

  15. Sequential and base rate analysis of emotional validation and invalidation in chronic pain couples: patient gender matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Laura E M; Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which communication patterns that foster or hinder intimacy and emotion regulation in couples were related to pain, marital satisfaction, and depression in 78 chronic pain couples attempting to problem-solve an area of disagreement in their marriage. Sequences and base rates of validation and invalidation communication patterns were almost uniformly unrelated to adjustment variables unless patient gender was taken into account. Male patient couples' reciprocal invalidation was related to worse pain, but this was not found in female patient couples. In addition, spouses' validation was related to poorer patient pain and marital satisfaction, but only in couples with a male patient. It was not only the presence or absence of invalidation and validation that mattered (base rates), but the context and timing of these events (sequences) that affected patients' adjustment. This research demonstrates that sequences of interaction behaviors that foster and hinder emotion regulation should be attended to when assessing and treating pain patients and their spouses. This article presents analyses of both sequences and base rates of chronic pain couples' communication patterns, focusing on validation and invalidation. These results may potentially improve psychosocial treatments for these couples, by addressing sequential interactions of intimacy and empathy. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential injection analysis as a tool for on-line monitoring the sorption of fulvic acid onto modified vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequential injection system associated with a tangential filtration unit and an ultraviolet detector for on-line monitoring of fulvic acid sorption onto two modified vermiculites. With the proposed approach it was possible to improve the temporal resolution in the investigation of the equilibrium time needed for the system sorbent-sorbate to reach the chemical equilibrium. Sorption onto a 10 g L-1 suspension of vermiculite material modified by intercalation of polyhydroxycations of Fe(III was fast, reaching the equilibrium after 4 min of contact time, and resulting in sorption of 97.9 % of the initial 10 mg L-1 fulvic acid concentration. Sorption onto a 10 g L-1 suspension of an organic vermiculite which was modified by ion exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide exhibited a fast initial rate of sorption, followed by desorption and re-adsorption processes, reaching the equilibrium after 30 min of contact time, with sorption of 98% of the initial 10 mg L-1 fulvic acid concentration.

  17. Sequential molecular analysis of circulating MCAM/MUC18 expression: a promising disease biomarker related to clinical outcome in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, Maria Cristina; Suarez Viguria, Tara Mayte; Costanza, Gaetana; Ricozzi, Ilaria; Pierantozzi, Andrea; Di Stefani, Alessandro; Campione, Elena; Bernardini, Sergio; Chimenti, Sergio; Orlandi, Augusto; Bianchi, Luca

    2014-08-01

    MCAM/MUC18 is a cell adhesion molecule associated with higher incidence of relapse in melanoma. The purpose of our study was to evaluate its role as a promising disease biomarker of progression through sequential molecular MCAM/MUC18 RT-PCR assay on serial blood samples collected during the clinical follow-up of 175 melanoma patients in different American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages. MCAM/MUC18 molecular detection, found at least once in 22 out of the 175 patients, was significantly associated with poor prognosis and death (p melanoma progression, whereas patients primarily negative or with subsequent loss gained clinical remission or stable disease, even if in advanced stages (p melanomas was related to peripheral molecular expression. Correlations between circulating molecular and tissutal immunohistochemical detection, primary tumour thickness, AJCC stages and clinical outcome were statistically evaluated using Student's t test, ANOVA, Spearman's rank correlation test, Pearson χ (2)-test and McNemar's test. In our investigation, MCAM/MUC18 expression behaves as a "molecular warning of progression" even in early AJCC patients otherwise in disease-free conditions. Achievement of this molecule predicted the emergence of a clinically apparent status, whereas absence or persistent loss was related to a stable disease or to a disease-free status. If confirmed in larger case series, MCAM/MUC18 molecular expression could predict good or poor clinical outcome, possibly becoming a promising prognostic factor.

  18. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  19. First report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate analysis in marine edible puffer fishes collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleshkumar Karunanidhi

    Full Text Available In the present study, the heavy metal concentration in different organs (skin, tissue, liver, kidney, gill, intestine, and ovary and muscle proximate composition were studied in marine edible puffer fishes Takifugu oblongus, Lagocephalus guentheri, Arothron hispidus, Chelonodon patoca and Arothron immaculatus collected from Mandapam fish landing centre, South east coast of India. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb & Zn were analyzed in different organs for the above mentioned species. The heavy metals concentration ranges in fish organs of all the five species were Cu (0.42 –6.31 mg/kg, Cd (0.01–0.79 mg/kg, Pb (5.80–19.87 mg/kg, and Zn (6.75–65.08 mg/kg. Zn was detected higher in all the samples followed by Pb, Cu and Cd. The proximate composition was determined in edible muscle tissues of all the five species. The highest and lowest protein contents were observed in T. oblongus (20.6 ± 0.6% and C. patoca (17.9 ± 0.3%. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations were found very high in all the internal organs when compared to muscle tissues. Further, this is the first report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate compositions of commercialized important edible puffer fishes from Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. Keywords: Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae, Edible puffer fishes, Heavy metals and proximate analysis

  20. The treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures: analysis of the results of 55 cases treated with PHILOS plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoretto, D; Borgo, A; Iacobellis, C

    2016-08-01

    Complex proximal humerus fractures are often difficult to treat. Their frequency is high, especially in the elderly, and their treatment is still controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results achieved by patients with complex proximal humerus fractures, treated with PHILOS plate only. A cohort of 55 patients was selected. The mean age was 63.4 (range 33-89), while the mean follow-up time was 21.5 months (range 6-75). Clinical outcome was evaluated with the "Constant-Murley shoulder score." All the informations about the presence of complications were gathered, and radiological images were used to calculate the head-shaft angle. The overall mean Constant score was 61.93 ± 18.59, the Individual CS was 70 ± 20 % and the Relative CS was 83 ± 23 %. No significant differences were found between fractures Neer 3 and Neer 4 and between the surgical approaches (delta-split vs. delto-pectoral). Six patients had a fracture with dislocation, seven patients (12.7 %) had complications while in four patients a head-shaft angle beyond the normal range was found. Osteosynthesis with PHILOS plate is stable in the greater part of the cases, and it allows an earlier rehabilitation and so a good functional result, which could be compromised by a prolonged immobilization. Therefore, PHILOS plate is a good option for the treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures.

  1. Speciation Analysis of 129I and 127I in Aerosols Using Sequential Extraction and Mass Spectrometry Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin; Xu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A new analytical method has been developed for speciation analysis of 127I and 129I in aerosols collected on polypropylene (PP) filter paper. Iodide, iodate, NaOH soluble iodine, and insoluble iodine were separated from aerosols using sequential extraction, chromatography separation, and alkaline...... temperature and time, and iodine protective agent, were investigated and optimized. It was observed that long time water leaching would change inorganic iodine species due to photochemical oxidation of iodide on the PP filter surface. NaOH leaching can only extract less than 60% of iodine from the studied...... aerosol filters even under heating, implying that total 129I in aerosol might be underestimated by NaOH leaching. The addition of a reductive agent significantly reduced the loss of iodine during alkaline ashing from more than 35% to 4%, efficiently improving the separation efficiency of iodine...

  2. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ahmed Fouad; Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris) sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v) for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C), then ke...

  3. Biomechanical Analysis Of The Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate: Do Quality Of Reduction And Screw Orientation Influence Construct Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Ivan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Stoffel, Karl; Sommer, Christoph; Helfen, Tobias; Camino, Gaston; Richards, R Geoff; Nork, Sean E; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2017-08-22

    To investigate biomechanically in a human cadaveric model the failure modes of the Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP) and explore the underlying mechanism. Twenty-four fresh-frozen paired human cadaveric femora with simulated unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31-A3.3) were assigned to four groups with six specimens each for plating with PF-LCP. The groups differed in the quality of fracture reduction and plating fashion of the first and second proximal screws as follows: 1) anatomical reduction with on-axis screw placement; 2) anatomical reduction with off-axis screw placement; 3) malreduction with on-axis screw placement; 4) malreduction with off-axis screw placement. The specimens were tested until failure using a protocol with combined axial and torsional loading. Mechanical failure was defined as abrupt change in machine load-displacement data. Clinical failure was defined as 5° varus tilting of the femoral head as captured with optical motion tracking. Initial axial stiffness (N/mm) in groups 1 to 4 was 213.6±65.0, 209.5±134.0, 128.3±16.6 and 106.3±47.4, respectively. Numbers of cycles to clinical and mechanical failure were 16642±10468 and 8695±1462 in group 1, 14076±3032 and 7449±5663 in group 2, 8800±8584 and 4497±2336 in group 3 and 9709±3894 and 5279±4119 in group 4. Significantly higher stiffness as well as numbers of cycles to both clinical and mechanical failure were detected in group 1 in comparison to group 3, P≤0.044. Generally, malreduction led to significantly earlier construct failure. The observed failures were cut-out of the proximal screws in the femoral head, followed by either screw bending, screw loosening or screw fracture. Proper placement of the proximal screws in anatomically reduced fractures led to significantly higher construct stability. Our data also indicates that once the screws are placed off-axis (>5 degrees), the benefit of an anatomic reduction is lost.

  4. Apparently conclusive meta-analyses may be inconclusive--Trial sequential analysis adjustment of random error risk due to repetitive testing of accumulating data in apparently conclusive neonatal meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Thorlund, Kristian; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Random error may cause misleading evidence in meta-analyses. The required number of participants in a meta-analysis (i.e. information size) should be at least as large as an adequately powered single trial. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) may reduce risk of random errors due...

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of the Proximal Adjacent Segment after Multilevel Instrumentation of the Thoracic Spine: Do Hooks Ease the Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Melodie F.; Robinson, Samuel T.; Svet, Mark T.; Liu, John C.; Acosta, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical cadaveric study. Objective Clinical studies indicate that using less-rigid fixation techniques in place of the standard all-pedicle screw construct when correcting for scoliosis may reduce the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis and improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a biomechanical advantage to using supralaminar hooks in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented vertebrae in a multilevel thoracic construct. Methods T7–T12 spines were biomechanically tested: (1) intact; (2) following a two-level pedicles screw fusion from T9 to T11; and after proximal extension of the fusion to T8–T9 with (3) bilateral supra-laminar hooks, (4) a unilateral hook + unilateral screw hybrid, or (5) bilateral pedicle screws. Specimens were nondestructively loaded while three-dimensional kinematics and intradiscal pressure at the supra-adjacent level were recorded. Results Supra-adjacent hypermobility was reduced when bilateral hooks were used in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented level, with statistically significant differences in lateral bending and torsion (p spine and the flexible native spine and is the first to demonstrate these results with laminar hooks. PMID:27190735

  6. Therapist and client discussions of drinking and coping: a sequential analysis of therapy dialogues in three evidence-based alcohol use disorder treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; Walthers, Justin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Gaume, Jacques; Longabaugh, Richard; Apodaca, Timothy R

    2016-06-01

    Research into the active ingredients of behavioral interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUD) has focused upon treatment-specific factors, often yielding disappointing results. The present study examines common factors of change in motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-Step facilitation therapy by (1) estimating transitional probabilities between therapist behaviors and subsequent client Change (CT) and Sustain (ST) Talk and (2) examining therapist skillfulness as a potential predictor of transition probability magnitude. Secondary data analysis examined temporal associations in therapy dialogues. United States: data were from Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Homogeneity) (1997). One hundred and twenty-six participants who received motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy or 12-Step facilitation therapy. Therapist behaviors were measured in three categories (exploring, teaching, connecting) and client statements included five categories (CT-distal, ST-distal, CT-proximal, ST-proximal, neutral). Therapist skillfulness was measured using a five-point ordinal scale. Relative to chance, therapist exploratory behaviors predicted subsequent client discussion of distal, drinking behavior [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37-1.78, P alcohol use disorders, the therapists who explore and connect with clients appear to be more successful at eliciting discussion about change than therapists who engage in teaching behavior. Therapists who are more skilled achieve better results than those who are less skilled. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. XPS analysis and structural and morphological characterization of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films grown by sequential evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia); Calderón, C., E-mail: clcalderont@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mérida, Yuc. (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    This work describes a procedure to grow single phase Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with tetragonal-kesterite type structure, through sequential evaporation of the elemental metallic precursors under sulphur vapor supplied from an effusion cell. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) is mostly used for phase identification but cannot clearly distinguish the formation of secondary phases such as Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) because both compounds have the same diffraction pattern; therefore the use of a complementary technique is needed. Raman scattering analysis was used to distinguish these phases. The influence of the preparation conditions on the morphology and phases present in CZTS thin films were investigated through measurements of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD, respectively. From transmittance measurements, the energy band gap of the CZTS films was estimated to be around 1.45 eV. The limitation of XRD to identify some of the remaining phases after the growth process are investigated and the results of Raman analysis on the phases formed in samples grown by this method are presented. Further, the influence of the preparation conditions on the homogeneity of the chemical composition in the volume was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.

  8. CAST: A retrospective analysis of cabazitaxel and abiraterone acetate sequential treatment in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Michel D; Coenen, Jules L L M; van den Berg, Pieter; Westgeest, Hans M; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; van Oort, Inge M; Bos, Monique M; Bergman, André M; Hamberg, Paul; Ten Tije, Albert J; Los, Maartje; Lolkema, Martijn P J K; de Wit, Ronald; Gelderblom, Hans

    2015-03-15

    Cabazitaxel and abiraterone have both received approval for treating metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients after first-line docetaxel therapy. In the cabazitaxel and abiraterone sequential treatment (CAST) study, the clinical outcome of docetaxel-treated mCRPC patients treated sequentially with both cabazitaxel and abiraterone was studied. Data were collected retrospectively from mCRPC patients at 12 hospitals across the Netherlands who initiated cabazitaxel and/or abiraterone before December 2012. Primary outcome measure was overall survival (OS); secondary measures were progression-free survival (PFS), biochemical PFS, and best clinical and PSA response. Hospital admission data during treatment were collected, as well as toxicities resulting in treatment discontinuation or patient death. Sixty-three and 69 patients received Cab→Abi (cabazitaxel prior to abiraterone) and Abi→Cab before July 10th, 2013, respectively. Median OS was 19.1 months and 17.0 months in Cab→Abi and Abi→Cab treated patients, respectively (p = 0.369). Median PFS and biochemical PFS were significantly longer in Cab→Abi treated patients: 8.1 versus 6.5 (p = 0.050) and 9.5 versus 7.7 months (p = 0.024), respectively. Although partial responses to cabazitaxel occurred in both groups, Abi→Cab treated patients had a significantly decreased antitumor response from cabazitaxel than Cab→Abi treated patients (median PFS 5.0 versus 2.6 months, p cabazitaxel could be severe, while abiraterone toxicity was milder. This retrospective analysis indicates that primary progression on cabazitaxel or abiraterone did not preclude a response to the other agent in mCRPC patients. However, tumor response of both agents, particularly cabazitaxel, was lower when administered as higher-line therapy in the selected study population. © 2014 UICC.

  9. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  10. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation presents information regarding the nose-cap flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on Orion's Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nose-cap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rockets nozzles like the attitude control motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 launch abort system (LAS). The nose-cap FADS systems use pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which are arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of side-slip, Mach number, impact pressure and free-stream static pressure.

  11. A data analysis workflow to enhance clay and organic carbon models using proximal Vis-NIR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabai, Salman; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    data preprocessing (preprocessing survey) and two variable selection methods to significantly increase visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) model performance and stability. Spectra of eight agricultural fields were measured in the range of 350-2200 nm using a mobile sensor platform (Veris......Modelling proximal sensors data is becoming a norm in soil characterization and mapping. In many cases, these models still have low predictive capabilities and lack robustness due to the large amount of noise from several environmental factors. In this study we proposed a combination of extensive...... Technologies, USA) towed by a tractor. A fuzzy c-means clustering was performed based on the first 3 principal components to select 15 representative sampling locations in each field. Clay and organic carbon (OC) were determined for all calibration samples using pipette and ignition methods, respectively...

  12. Improved prediction of higher heating value of biomass using an artificial neural network model based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Harun; Yıldız, Zeynep; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-06-01

    As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0.963) and lower root mean square (0.375), mean absolute (0.328), and mean bias errors (0.010) than other models presented in the literature which, at least when applied to the present data set, tend to under-predict the combustion enthalpy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance neurography evaluation of chronic extraspinal sciatica after remote proximal hamstring injury: a preliminary retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknor, Matthew D; Steinbach, Lynne S; Saloner, David; Chin, Cynthia T

    2014-08-01

    Extraspinal sciatica can present unique challenges in clinical diagnosis and management. In this study, the authors evaluated qualitative and quantitative patterns of sciatica-related pathology at the ischial tuberosity on MR neurography (MRN) studies performed for chronic extraspinal sciatica. Lumbosacral MRN studies obtained in 14 patients at the University of California, San Francisco between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had been referred by neurosurgeons or neurologists for chronic unilateral sciatica (≥ 3 months), and the MRN reports described asymmetrical increased T2 signal within the sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity. MRN studies were also performed prospectively in 6 healthy volunteers. Sciatic nerve T2 signal intensity (SI) and cross-sectional area at the ischial tuberosity were calculated and compared between the 2 sides in all 20 subjects. The same measurements were also performed at the sciatic notch as an internal reference. Adjacent musculoskeletal pathology was compared between the 2 sides in all subjects. Seven of the 9 patients for whom detailed histories were available had a specific history of injury or trauma near the proximal hamstring preceding the onset of sciatica. Eight of the 14 patients also demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities adjacent to the proximal hamstring origin. The remaining 6 had normal muscles, tendons, and marrow in the region of the ischial tuberosity. There was a significant difference in sciatic nerve SI and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides at the level of the ischial tuberosity, with a mean adjusted SI of 1.38 compared with 1.00 (p sciatica remains a diagnosis of exclusion, this distinct category of patients has not been described in the radiographic literature and merits special attention from clinicians and radiologists in the management of extraspinal sciatica. Magnetic resonance neurography is useful for evaluating chronic sciatic neuropathy both

  14. Analysis of close associations of uropod-associated proteins in human T-cells using the proximity ligation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Baumann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that the raft-associated proteins flotillin-1 and -2 are rapidly recruited to the uropods of chemoattractant-stimulated human neutrophils and T-cells and are involved in cell polarization. Other proteins such as the adhesion receptor PSGL-1, the actin-membrane linker proteins ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM and the signaling enzyme phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type Iγ90 (PIPKIγ90 also accumulate in the T-cell uropod. Using the in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA we now have investigated putative close associations of these proteins in human freshly isolated T-cells before and after chemokine addition. The PLA allows in situ subcellular localization of close proximity of endogenous proteins at single-molecule resolution in fixed cells. It allows detection also of weaker and transient complexes that would not be revealed with co-immunoprecipitation approaches. We previously provided evidence for heterodimer formation of tagged flotillin-1 and -2 in T-cells before and after chemokine addition using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET. We now confirm these findings using PLA for the endogenous flotillins in fixed human T-cells. Moreover, in agreement with the literature, our PLA findings confirm a close association of endogenous PSGL-1 and ERM proteins both in resting and chemokine-activated human T-cells. In addition, we provide novel evidence using the PLA for close associations of endogenous activated ERM proteins with PIPKIγ90 and of endogenous flotillins with PSGL-1 in human T-cells, before and after chemokine addition. Our findings suggest that preformed clusters of these proteins coalesce in the uropod upon cell stimulation.

  15. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts ofAnnona muricata(Soursop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-09-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.

  16. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  17. Age estimation in a sub-adult Western Australian population based on the analysis of the pelvic girdle and proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Siobhan; Flavel, Ambika; Franklin, Daniel

    2017-10-16

    The accurate and precise estimation of skeletal age by a forensic anthropologist is both a professional and judicial requirement. When unknown skeletal remains are referred to the anthropologist, the estimation of the requisite biological attributes (e.g., age and sex) should accordingly be based on the application of population-specific standards (statistical data). Deviations from the latter practice may result in reduced accuracy and compromised identification. Towards informing appropriate forensic practice, the aim of the present study is to develop statistically quantified age estimation models for a contemporary sub-adult Western Australian population based on the timing of fusion in the os coxa and proximal femur. The study sample comprises 562 known age and sex MDCT scans (292 male, 270 female) representing contemporary Western Australian individuals birth through 30 years of age. Scans are viewed in multi-planar reconstructed (MPR) and/or three-dimensionally reconstructed images using OsiriX(®). Fusion status is scored according to a three-stage system across a total of nine sites in the proximal femur and os coxae. Observer accordance, bilateral asymmetry and sex-specific variation in fusion timing are statistically quantified. Polynomial regression is used to formulate age prediction models; transition analysis is used to calculate age ranges and determine the mean age for transition between an unfused, fusing and fused status. Observer accordance in stage assignation is acceptable (ϰ=0.79) and there is no significant bilateral variation in fusion timing. It was found that the mean age of commencement of fusion is significantly earlier (∼2 years) in females. The accuracy (SEE) of the polynomial models ranges from ±3.29 to ±3.80 years and the transition analysis shows that fusion of the iliac crest is delayed in comparison to other attributes of os coxa and proximal femur. Results of the present study confirm that the pelvic girdle and proximal

  18. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis

    In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is pos...

  19. Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik

    1998-01-01

    We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as lo...

  20. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im...

  2. Biomechanical effect of medial cortical support and medial screw support on locking plate fixation in proximal humeral fractures with a medial gap: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jin; Ma, Li Min; Zhu, Chang Rong

    2015-01-01

    This finite element analysis aimed to examine the effect of medial cortical support and medial screw support on loads at the implant-bone interface of locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures with a medial gap. An intact humerus from a healthy volunteer was used as the basis for a 3-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) model. The 3D CAD model of the locking plate system was based on information in the manufacturer's catalogue. The proximal part of the humerus was osteotomized to create standard three-part fractures, which were then divided into a -MSC group (which lacked medial cortical support, and in which fractures with a 5-mm medial bone gap simulated this lack) and +MCS group (which had medial cortical support, and in which fractures with medial cortical-to-cortical contact simulated this). Both fracture groups were respectively fixed with either +MSS (in which medial screw support was simulated by the addition of two calcar screws to the locking plate system), or with -MSS (in which the lack of medial screw support was simulated by absence of the two additional calcar screws to the locking plate system). All the modeling was conducted to represent 90° arm abduction. On the screw-bone interface, medial screw support and medial cortical support decreased maximum shear stress by 17% and 23% respectively. On the locking plate, medial screw support and medial cortical support decreased maximum von Mises stress by 11% and 22% respectively. However, a combination of these two appeared to decrease maximum shear stress by 56% for the screw-bone interface, and maximum von Mises stress by 54% for the locking plate. Placement of calcar screws combined with good medial cortical contact in varus in locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures with a medial gap may provide optimal stability for the fixation.

  3. [New aspects of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in man revealed by sequential camera scintigraphy and analysis with the digital computer. Part 1: method and physiologic patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A; Kolberg, T

    1977-01-01

    1. The use of rapid sequential gamma camera scintigraphy in conjunction with computer aided storage and evaluation of data has been shown to be a promising method for the analysis of CSF dynamics in man. 2. Using this method rapid flow of CSF in the basal cisterns can be studied. The further course of tracer activity in different CSF compartments can be followed, and slow currents may be demonstrated. 3. Using this technique the patterns of varying regional CSF dynamics and reabsorption states can be examined. Intracranial activity after 24 hours is 40 to 45% anar behaviour of CSF circulation patterns in the basal cisterns, cisterna magna, and upper cervical area leads us to suggest that this complex of spaces forms a functional unity which may be called "The distribution center of CSF". Further movements of tracer substance seem to start from this complex. 5. In the well recognised CSF pathways over the cerebral convexities some characteristic patterns of fluid flow are demonstrated. The flow times at different situations over the convexities are given. 6. Analysis of spinal CSF flow shows that there are considerable variations in spinal CSF dynamics. 7. Finally, the different uses of this method in various situations are indicated.

  4. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Running to Safety: Analysis of Disaster Susceptibility of Neighborhoods and Proximity of Safety Facilities in Silay City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, C. L.; Saripada, N. A.; Olavides, R. D.; Sinogaya, J.

    2016-06-01

    Going on foot is the most viable option when emergency responders fail to show up in disaster zones at the quickest and most reasonable time. In the Philippines, the efficacy of disaster management offices is hampered by factors such as, but not limited to, lack of equipment and personnel, distance, and/or poor road networks and traffic systems. In several instances, emergency response times exceed acceptable norms. This study explores the hazard susceptibility, particularly to fire, flood, and landslides, of neighborhoods vis-à-vis their proximity to safety facilities in Silay City, Philippines. Imbang River exposes communities in the city to flooding while the mountainous terrain makes the city landslide prone. Building extraction was done to get the possible human settlements in the city. The building structures were extracted through image processing using a ruleset-based approach in the process of segmentation and classification of LiDAR derivatives and ortho-photos. Neighborhoods were then identified whether they have low to high susceptibility to disaster risks in terms of floods and landslides based on the hazards maps obtained from the Philippines' Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB). Service area analyses were performed to determine the safety facilities available to different neighborhoods at varying running times. Locations which are inaccessible or are difficult to run to because of distance and corresponding hazards were determined. Recommendations are given in the form of infrastructure installation, relocation of facilities, safety equipment and vehicle procurement, and policy changes for specific areas in Silay City.

  6. A sequential tree approach for incremental sequential pattern mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data mining; STISPM; sequential tree; incremental mining; backward tracking. Abstract. ''Sequential pattern mining'' is a prominent and significant method to explore the knowledge and innovation from the large database. Common sequential pattern mining algorithms handle static databases.Pragmatically, looking into the ...

  7. Proximal femoral nail shows better concordance of gait analysis between operated and uninjured limbs compared to hemiarthroplasty in intertrochanteric femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Melih; Kocadal, Onur; Akman, Budak; Poyanlı, Oğuz S; Kemah, Bahattin; Atay, Evren Fehmi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of pedobarographic gait analysis between the patients treated by proximal femoral nail or bipolar partial hemiarthroplasty due to intertrochanteric fractures. Thirty-seven patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who had been operated for intertrochanteric fractures were evaluated clinically, radiologically and with pedobarographic gait analysis. Proximal femoral nail had been performed to 21 patients (group A), whilst 16 patients had been operated by partial bipolar hemiarthroplasty (group B). Pedobarographic analysis was performed by measuring plantar pressure, force and contact area values in both static and dynamic manner. Pedobarographic results of operated limb were compared among groups. Same data's also were compared between operated and uninjured limbs in each group to determine any asymmetry on weight-bearing. Average follow-up period in group A and group B was 36 (12-56) and 30 (12-48) months, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among groups in terms of age, gender, body mass index, type and side of fracture, follow-up period, leg length discrepancy and postoperative hip scores. When the pedobarographic results of operated limb were compared, group B showed much more plantar force and pressure values than group A, on both static and dynamic evaluations. If the evaluation was taken into consideration to comparison of pedobarographic results between operated and uninjured limbs in each group, we found asymmetry in static load bearing, caused by higher load on uninjured limb in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant asymmetry between operated and uninjured limbs in respect to dynamic pedobarographic parameters for patients in group A. On the contrary, operated limbs in group B exposed much more plantar force and pressure values than uninjured limbs, which indicated asymmetric weight-bearing on dynamic evaluation. Assessment of pedobarographic parameters

  8. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A Ahmed; Rehab, F M Ali

    2015-01-01

    The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris) sprouts. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v) for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C), then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  9. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  10. Automatic On-line Solid-phase Extraction-Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Exploiting Sequential Injection Analysis for Trace Vanadium, Cadmium and Lead Determination in Human Urine Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Ayala Quezada, Alejandro; Tanaka, Junpei; Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Murakami, Hiroya; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated sequential injection column preconcentration method for the on-line determination of trace vanadium, cadmium and lead in urine samples was successfully developed, utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Polyamino-polycarboxylic acid chelating resin (Nobias chelate PA-1) packed into a handmade minicolumn was used as a sorbent material. Effective on-line retention of chelate complexes of analytes was achieved at pH 6.0, while the highest elution effectiveness was observed with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 in the reverse phase. Several analytical parameters, like the sample acidity, concentration and volume of the eluent as well as the loading/elution flow rates, have been studied, regarding the efficiency of the method, providing appropriate conditions for the analysis of real samples. For a 4.5 mL sample volume, the sampling frequency was 27 h(-1). The detection limits were found to be 3.0, 0.06 and 2.0 ng L(-1) for V(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, with the relative standard deviations ranging between 1.9 - 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (Seronorm(TM) trace elements urine) and spiked urine samples.

  11. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of epidural volume extension by saline injection on the efficacy and safety of intrathecal local anaesthetics: systematic review with meta-analysis, meta-regression and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, M; Weibel, S; Klimek, M; Rossaint, R; Arends, L R; Kranke, P

    2017-11-01

    Epidural volume extension, a modification of combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia, involves the epidural injection of saline in order to increase the spread of drugs given intrathecally. Results from individual studies have so far been contradictory and we aimed to gather the available evidence for this technique. We performed a systematic literature search for randomised, controlled trials comparing epidural volume extension after spinal injection with a control group without epidural injection in patients undergoing surgery. Conventional meta-analyses, trial sequential analyses and meta-regression were performed, with the Grading of Recommendations on Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach used to express reliability of outcome estimates. We included 15 studies with 1177 participants. Meta-analyses for the primary outcomes, such as maximum sensory height (6 studies, 274 participants, mean difference (MD) (95%CI) -0.59 (-1.24 to 0.07) dermatomes, low-quality evidence) and hypotension (10 studies, 683 participants, risk ratio (95%CI) 0.84 (0.66-1.07), low-quality evidence), did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms, but trial sequential analysis suggested insufficient evidence to be certain of these findings. Meta-regression suggested a volume-dependent effect, with higher volumes causing a higher spread of intrathecal drugs and a higher incidence of hypotension. A sub-group analysis indicated a pronounced effect on motor block recovery time when a lower anaesthetic dose plus epidural volume extension was compared with a higher anaesthetic dose without epidural volume extension, the MD (95%CI) being -66.75 (-76.0 to -57.5) min, with trial sequential analysis suggesting the evidence was sufficient to draw this conclusion. In trials using the same anaesthetic mixture in the epidural volume extension and the control groups, motor block recovery time did not differ between groups, with a MD (95%CI) of -1.06 (-5.48 to 3.36) min

  13. The use of a transition rod may prevent proximal junctional kyphosis in the thoracic spine after scoliosis surgery: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick J; Wang, Wenhai; Asghar, Jahangir; Booker, Rashad; Betz, Randal R; Ramsey, Christopher; Baran, George

    2012-05-20

    Finite element analysis. Via finite element analysis: (1) to demonstrate the abnormal forces present at the top of a scoliosis construct, (2) to demonstrate the importance of an intact interspinous and supraspinous ligament (ISL/SSL) complex, and (3) to evaluate a transition rod (a rod that has a short taper to a smaller diameter at one end) as an implant solution to diminish these pathomechanics, regardless of the integrity of the ISL/SSL complex. The pathophysiology of increased nucleus pressure and increased angular displacement may contribute to proximal junctional kyphosis. Furthermore, high implant stress can be demonstrated at the upper end of the construct, possibly leading to the risk of implant failure. A finite element model was constructed to simulate a thoracic spinal fusion. The model was altered to remove the ISL/SSL complex at the level above the construct. Then, the model was altered again by extending the construct one level superior with a transition rod. The angular displacement, the maximum pressure in the nucleus, and stress within the implant were extracted from computational results under 2 conditions: load control and displacement control. The testing was performed with both titanium and stainless steel implants. Pressure in the nucleus and angular displacement are all increased when the ISL/SSL complex is removed immediately above the instrumented levels, whereas the screw pullout force and maximum stress within the screw are decreased. The nucleus pressure increases by more than 50%. The angular displacement increases by 19% to 26%. This absence of the ISL/SSL complex simulates the clinical scenario that occurs when these structures are iatrogenically detached. Abnormal mechanics can be restored to normal level by extending the construct rostral one level with a transition rod. Furthermore, the elevated nucleus pressure and angular displacement noted even when the ISL/SSL complex is intact can be avoided with the use of a transition rod

  14. Análisis estratigráfico secuencial de las formaciones Anacleto y Allen (Cretácico Tardío en el borde nororiental de Cuenca Neuquina, Argentina Sequential stratigraphic analysis of the Anacleto and Allen formations (Late Cretaceous in the northeastern margin of the Neuquina Basin, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Armas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En las provincias de Neuquén y Río Negro a partir de un estudio sedimentológico de detalle se realizó un análisis estratigráfico secuencial de los depósitos del Cretácico Superior de la Formación Anacleto y miembro inferior de la Formación Alien para el borde nororiental de Cuenca Neuquina. La asociación de las litofacies permitió interpretar elementos arquitecturales de origen fluvial y elementos con influencia de mareas. Tres sistemas fluviales (sistema entrelazado, sistema anastomosado y sistema meándrico, un sistema estuárico proximal y uno medio fueron identificados para La Formación Anacleto. Para el miembro basal de la Formación Alien, se definió un sistema estuárico distal o boca de estuario. En el análisis de estratigrafía secuencial se identificó una secuencia constituida por: un cortejo de baja acomodación, en ambiente continental limitado por una superficie de inundación fluvial (discontinuidad I y la discontinuidad II; y un cortejo de alta acomodación y su equivalente cortejo transgresivo en ambiente marino, incluyendo este último las discontinuidades III, IV y V.Based on a detailed sedimentological study we carried out a sequential stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Anacleto Formation and lower member of the Alien Formation in the north-eastern border of the Neuquina Basin. The lithofacies association allowed interpre-ting architectural elements of fluvial origin and tide influenced elements. Three fluvial systems (a braided system, an anastomosed one, and a high sinuosity one, a proximal and a middle estuarine system were recognized for the Anacleto Formation. A distal estuarine system or estuary outlet was defined for the basal member of the Alien Formation. In the sequential stratigraphy analysis the following systems were identified: a low accommodation system tract in a continental environment limited by a flooding fluvial surface (discontinuity I and discontinuity II; and a

  15. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  16. Identification of a novel overlapping sequential E epitope (E') on the bovine leukaemia virus SU glycoprotein and analysis of immunological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Katia; Rizzo, Giorgia; Cagiola, Monica; Ferrante, Giovanna; Marini, Carla; Feliziani, Francesco; Pezzotti, Giovanni; De Giuseppe, Antonio

    2014-08-06

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic C-type retrovirus, is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. Binding of BLV to its cellular receptor is mediated by the surface envelope glycoprotein subunit (SU). Previous studies have identified eight different epitopes (A through H) on the BLV SU. In this study, a new sequential epitope was identified using the monoclonal antibody 2G7 (MAb 2G7) on the C-terminal region of the BLV SU. To localise and refine the map of this epitope, a series of deleted forms in the C and N-terminal ends of the glycoprotein were made and synthesised in baculovirus and Escherichia coli expression systems. The synthetic proteins were analysed both in Western blot and MAb-capture ELISA assays. MAb 2G7 recognised a stretch of 11 amino acids, named epitope E', corresponding to residues 189-SDWVPSVRSWA-199 (comprising the 33 amino acids signal peptide) overlapping with the E epitope of the SU. The data obtained by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) revealed that the E' epitope was hidden on whole BLV particles and that the variation in reactivity between epitope E' and MAb 2G7 depends on the glycosylation state of SU. Similarly, the analysis of immunological data evidenced that the failure of interaction between the MAb anti-DD' and its epitope was also due to a steric hindrance of the glycosylation. Finally, the ELISA assay analysis performed with the deleted and mutated forms of rSU evidenced that the conformational epitopes F, G and H lied into in the 34-173 amino-acids residues of N-terminal region of SU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comment on: "Cell Therapy for Heart Disease: Trial Sequential Analyses of Two Cochrane Reviews"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Trial Sequential Analysis is a frequentist method to help researchers control the risks of random errors in meta-analyses (1). Fisher and colleagues used Trial Sequential Analysis on cell therapy for heart diseases (2). The present article discusses the usefulness of Trial Sequential Analysis...

  18. Sequential buckling : a variational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Peletier (Mark)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe examine a variational problem from elastic stability theory: a thin elastic strut on an elastic foundation. The strut has infinite length, and its lateral deflection is represented by $u:RtoR$. Deformation takes place under conditions of prescribed total shortening, leading to the

  19. Age-related structural changes in the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion along the anterior wall of the proximal human duodenum: A morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aging is one of the most complex biological processes which probably affect structure and function of the enteric nerve system. However, there is not much available information on this topic, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the structure of the myenteric ganglia in the anterior wall of the human proximal duodenum. Methods. We examined the myenteric ganglia in the proximal duodenal anterior wall specimens obtained from 30 cadaver persons aged from 20 to 84 years. Tissue samples were classified into three age groups: 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 years. After standard histological preparation, specimens were stained with HE, Cresyl Violet and AgNO3. Morphometric analysis of all the specimens, using a multipurpose test system M42, was performed. The data were subjected to the ttest. Results. The myenteric ganglia of very old humans contains an empty space, i.e. the respective parts of ganglia show a decreased number of neuron as compared to younger population. The average number of neuron per cm2 of the duodenum in the youngest people (20-44 years was 69,370 ± 1,750.00, in the people aged 45-64 years 69,211 ± 1,573.33, and in the oldest persons (65-84 years 57,951 ± 1,291.52. The loss of neurons in the oldest persons was 16.46%. The applied statistic test demonstrated a significant difference between the observed groups (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. Aging does not induce changes in size and surface of neurons in the ganglia, but it decreases the number of neurons. The nerve structures in the elderly are partly emptied of bodies of nerve cells (“empty ganglions”, which indicates the existence of changed myenteric ganglia in the duodenum. These changes could be related to the duodenum motility disorder associated with aging.

  20. Sequential Analysis of Global Gene Expression Profiles in Immature and In vitro Matured Bovine Oocytes: Potential Molecular Markers of Oocyte Maturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mamo, Solomon

    2011-03-16

    Abstract Background Without intensive selection, the majority of bovine oocytes submitted to in vitro embryo production (IVP) fail to develop to the blastocyst stage. This is attributed partly to their maturation status and competences. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array, global mRNA expression analysis of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes was carried out to characterize the transcriptome of bovine oocytes and then use a variety of approaches to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM was real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis. Results 8489 transcripts were detected across the two oocyte groups, of which ~25.0% (2117 transcripts) were differentially expressed (p < 0.001); corresponding to 589 over-expressed and 1528 under-expressed transcripts in the IVM oocytes compared to their immature counterparts. Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. Subsets of the differentially expressed genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the gene expression data was classified according to gene ontology and pathway enrichment. Numerous cell cycle linked (CDC2, CDK5, CDK8, HSPA2, MAPK14, TXNL4B), molecular transport (STX5, STX17, SEC22A, SEC22B), and differentiation (NACA) related genes were found to be among the several over-expressed transcripts in GV oocytes compared to the matured counterparts, while ANXA1, PLAU, STC1and LUM were among the over-expressed genes after oocyte maturation. Conclusion Using sequential experiments, we have shown and confirmed transcriptional changes during oocyte maturation. This dataset provides a unique reference resource

  1. Hazardous Materials Routing Study Phase II: Analysis of Hazardous Materials Truck Routes in Proximity to the Dallas Central Business District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the findings from the second phase of a two-part analysis of hazardous materials truck routes in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Phase II of this study analyzes the risk of transporting hazardous materials on freeways and arterial ...

  2. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-11-28

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%.

  3. Analysis of adverse events with use of orthodontic sequential aligners as reported in the manufacturer and user facility device experience database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Thennukonda, Rajagopal Athmarao

    2015-01-01

    Sequential aligners (SAs) introduced about a decade ago, changed the practice of orthodontics as we knew it but the adverse events and reactions (AER) associated with SA is not known. The Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is a reliable database that has AERs reported. The manuscript attempts to review the AER associated with SA using the MAUDE database. The authors downloaded and reviewed the SA-related AER from MAUDE for a period of 5 years. In-depth analysis of the site and nature of intraoral and extraoral AERs were performed. We attempted to calculate the probability of pathologies being directly related to SA use, using Bayes' theorem. In the study period of 5 years, 175 cases of AER registered with MAUDE database owing to use of SA. Of the 175 cases, 129 (73.71%) instances were mandatory reports filed by the manufacturer. Of all AERs, 32 (18.29%) cases had been diagnosed/suspected to have an allergic reaction, 20 (11.43%) of them with anaphylactic reaction and 4 (2.29%) of them with angioedema. Lesions involving tongue, throat, and lip such as soreness, inflammation, and hives were more commonly reported. In addition, 12 cases (6.86%) reported of nausea, 11 (6.29%) of gastrointestinal issues (stomach upset, diarrhea, and vomiting), 13 (7.43%) of neuromuscular issues (muscle cramps, spasm, and pain), 13 (7.43%) of cough, 10 (5.71%) of persistent headache, 3 (1.71%) of fever, and 12 (6.86%) of cardiac-related issues were identified. The AERs associated with SA has been described. Though the MAUDE database is not an exact, wholesome and reliable source to identify the potential AER, currently, it is the only available source of AERs associated with SA use. The nature of AERs with the use of SA and its potential pathogenesis and implications has been discussed.

  4. Determination of trace heavy metals in herbs by sequential injection analysis-anodic stripping voltammetry using screen-printed carbon nanotubes electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injang, Uthaitip; Noyrod, Peeyanun; Siangproh, Weena; Dungchai, Wijitar; Motomizu, Shoji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2010-05-23

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) at low microg L(-1) concentration levels by sequential injection analysis-anodic stripping voltammetry (SIA-ASV) using screen-printed carbon nanotubes electrodes (SPCNTE) was developed. A bismuth film was prepared by in situ plating of bismuth on the screen-printed carbon nanotubes electrode. Operational parameters such as ratio of carbon nanotubes to carbon ink, bismuth concentration, deposition time and flow rate during preconcentration step were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were found to be 2-100 microg L(-1) for Pb(II) and Cd(II), and 12-100 microg L(-1) for Zn(II). The limits of detection (S(bl)/S=3) were 0.2 microg L(-1) for Pb(II), 0.8 microg L(-1) for Cd(II) and 11 microg L(-1) for Zn(II). The measurement frequency was found to be 10-15 stripping cycle h(-1). The present method offers high sensitivity and high throughput for on-line monitoring of trace heavy metals. The practical utility of our method was also demonstrated with the determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) by spiking procedure in herb samples. Our methodology produced results that were correlated with ICP-AES data. Therefore, we propose a method that can be used for the automatic and sensitive evaluation of heavy metals contaminated in herb items. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Sequential Treatment of Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in the United States: A Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Rochau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are approved for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Our goal was to identify the optimal sequential treatment strategy in terms of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness for CML patients within the US health care context. We evaluated 18 treatment strategies regarding survival, quality-adjusted survival, and costs. For model parameters, the literature data, expert surveys, registry data, and economic databases were used. Evaluated strategies included imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib, ponatinib, stem-cell transplantation (SCT, and chemotherapy. We developed a Markov state-transition model, which was analyzed as a cohort simulation over a lifelong time horizon with a third-party payer perspective and discount rate of 3%. Remaining life expectancies ranged from 5.4 years (3.9 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for chemotherapy treatment without TKI to 14.4 years (11.1 QALYs for nilotinib→dasatinib→chemotherapy/SCT. In the economic evaluation, imatinib→chemotherapy/SCT resulted in an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR of $171,700/QALY compared to chemotherapy without TKI. Imatinib→nilotinib→chemotherapy/SCT yielded an ICUR of $253,500/QALY compared to imatinib→chemotherapy/SCT. Nilotinib→dasatinib→chemotherapy/SCT yielded an ICUR of $445,100/QALY compared to imatinib→nilotinib→chemotherapy/SCT. All remaining strategies were excluded due to dominance of the clinically superior strategies. Based on our analysis and current treatment guidelines, imatinib→nilotinib→chemotherapy/SCT and nilotinib→dasatinib→chemotherapy/SCT can be considered cost-effective for patients with CML, depending on willingness-to-pay.

  6. Markovian Analysis of the Sequential Behavior of the Spontaneous Spinal Cord Dorsum Potentials Induced by Acute Nociceptive Stimulation in the Anesthetized Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mario; Béjar, Javier; Esposito, Gennaro; Chávez, Diógenes; Contreras-Hernández, Enrique; Glusman, Silvio; Cortés, Ulises; Rudomín, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a Machine Learning procedure for the automatic identification and classification of spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). This study further supported the proposal that in the anesthetized cat, the spontaneous CDPs recorded from different lumbar spinal segments are generated by a distributed network of dorsal horn neurons with structured (non-random) patterns of functional connectivity and that these configurations can be changed to other non-random and stable configurations after the noceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in the anesthetized cat. Here we present a study showing that the sequence of identified forms of the spontaneous CDPs follows a Markov chain of at least order one. That is, the system has memory in the sense that the spontaneous activation of dorsal horn neuronal ensembles producing the CDPs is not independent of the most recent activity. We used this markovian property to build a procedure to identify portions of signals as belonging to a specific functional state of connectivity among the neuronal networks involved in the generation of the CDPs. We have tested this procedure during acute nociceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in intact as well as spinalized preparations. Altogether, our results indicate that CDP sequences cannot be generated by a renewal stochastic process. Moreover, it is possible to describe some functional features of activity in the cord dorsum by modeling the CDP sequences as generated by a Markov order one stochastic process. Finally, these Markov models make possible to determine the functional state which produced a CDP sequence. The proposed identification procedures appear to be useful for the analysis of the sequential behavior of the ongoing CDPs recorded from different spinal segments in response to a variety of experimental procedures including the changes produced by acute nociceptive stimulation. They are

  7. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  8. Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is

  9. [Clinical observation of sequential occlusal adjustment for kinetic food impaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Fang, Bi-Song; Ma, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-12-01

    To study the effectiveness of sequential occlusal adjustment for kinetic food impaction. 36 patients who claiming food impaction with normal proximal contact were examined and analyzed about their occlusal relationship and configuration. Sequential occlusal adjustment was made to reduce pestle-mortar-like cusp, to create food escaping groove and to decrease mesial surface of the distal tooth cusp. One week, two weeks and six months later, the patients were reexamined and their oral conditions were evaluated. An elimination of food impaction was claimed for 32 patients in one week appointment and all 36 patients in two-week appointment. Six months later, no patient reported food impaction. The use of sequential occlusal adjustment results in an effective elimination of some kind of kinetic food impaction.

  10. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  11. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  12. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) of injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the passengers inside the car passenger compartment based on the analysis of 599 archival expert documents available from 45 regional state bureaus of forensic medical examination of the Russian federation for the period from 1995 till 2014. These materials included the data obtained by the examination of 200 corpses and 300 live persons involved in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use the sequential analysis method based on the Byes and Wald formulas yielded the diagnostic coefficients that made it possible to identify the most important signs characterizing the risk of injuries for the passenger occupying the front seat of the vehicle. In the case of the lethal outcome, such injuries include fractures of the right femur (DC -8.9), bleeding (DC -7.1), wounds in the soft tissues of the right thigh (DC -5.0) with the injurious force applied to its anterior surface, bruises on the posterior surface of the right shoulder (DC -6.2), the right deltoid region (DC -5.9), and the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -5.5), fractures of the right humerus (DC -5.), etc. When both the driver and the passengers survive, the most informative signs in the latter are bleeding and scratches (DC -14.5 and 11.5 respectively) in the soft tissues at the posterior surface of the right shoulder, fractures of the right humerus (DC -10.0), bruises on the anterior surface of the right thigh (DC -13.0), the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -10.0) and the fontal region of the right lower leg (DC -10.0), bleeding in the posterior region of the right forearm (DC -9.0) and the anterior region of the left thigh (DC -8.6), fractures of the right femur (DG -8.1), etc. It is concluded that the knowledge of diagnostic coefficients helps to draw attention of the experts to the analysis of the

  13. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  14. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorous in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the 3 steps of the Hietjles-Litjkema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents...

  15. A Prospective Sequential Analysis of the Relation between Physical Aggression and Peer Rejection Acts in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chih; McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie; Symons, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: In early childhood education, the social ecology of the child is considered critical for healthy behavioral development. There is, however, relatively little information based on directly observing what children do that describes the moment-by-moment (i.e., sequential) relation between physical aggression and peer rejection acts…

  16. Analysis of the temporal relationship between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies in sequential blood samples and various organs obtained at autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Wout, A. B.; Ran, L. J.; Kuiken, C. L.; Kootstra, N. A.; Pals, S. T.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the temporal relationship between human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies in tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infected individuals. Sequential PBMC and tissue samples from various organs obtained at autopsy from three patients who died of AIDS-related

  17. CAST: A retrospective analysis of cabazitaxel and abiraterone acetate sequential treatment in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, M.D.; Coenen, J.L.; Berg, P. van den; Westgeest, H.M.; Eertwegh, A.J. van den; Oort, I.M. van; Bos, M.M.; Bergman, A.M.; Hamberg, P.; Tije, A.J. Ten; Los, M.; Lolkema, M.P.; Wit, R. de; Gelderblom, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cabazitaxel and abiraterone have both received approval for treating metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients after first-line docetaxel therapy. In the cabazitaxel and abiraterone sequential treatment (CAST) study, the clinical outcome of docetaxel-treated mCRPC patients

  18. Products of sequentially pseudocompact spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Lipparini

    2012-01-01

    We show that the product of any number of sequentially pseudocompact topological spaces is still sequentially pseudocompact. The definition of sequential pseudocompactness can be given in (at least) two ways: we show their equivalence. Some of the results of the present note already appeared in A. Dow, J. R. Porter, R. M. Stephenson, R. G. Woods, Spaces whose pseudocompact subspaces are closed subsets, Appl. Gen. Topol. 5 (2004), 243-264.

  19. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus. The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  20. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  1. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  2. Objective quantification of the food proximity effect on grapes, chocolate and cracker consumption in a Swedish high school. A temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, Billy; Fagerberg, Petter; Glossner, Andrew; Ioakimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Close food proximity leads to increased short-term energy intake, potentially contributing to the long-term development of obesity. However, its precise effects on eating behaviour are still unclear, especially with food available for extended periods of time. This study involved two similar high school student groups (15-17 years old), which had ad libitum access to grapes, chocolates and crackers during an hour-long experimental session. In the distal condition the foods were placed 6 meters away from the students (n = 24), in contrast to the proximal condition (n = 17) were the food was placed near the students. The identification of the type and the quantification of the amount of each food selected, for each individual serving, was facilitated through use of food scales and video recording. In the proximal condition individuals served themselves grapes and crackers more often and consumed more chocolate than in the distal condition. In total, participants in the proximal condition ingested significantly more energy (726 kcal vs. 504 kcal; p = 0.029), without reporting higher fullness. Food proximity also affected the temporal distribution of servings, with the first five minutes of the sessions corresponding to 53.1% and 45.6% of the total energy intake for the distal and proximal conditions, respectively. After the first five minutes, the servings in the distal condition were strongly clustered in time, with many students getting food together. In the proximal condition however, students displayed an unstructured pattern of servings over time. In conclusion, this study strengthens past evidence regarding the important role of food proximity on individual energy intake and, for the first time, it associates continuous food proximity to the emergence of unstructured eating over time. These conclusions, expanded upon by future studies, could support the creation of meaningful intervention strategies based on spatially and temporally controlled food availability.

  3. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  4. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  5. Sequential comprehensive chromosome analysis on polar bodies, blastomeres and trophoblast: insights into female meiotic errors and chromosomal segregation in the preimplantation window of embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Biricik, Anil; Baldi, Marina; Colamaria, Silvia; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura; Fiorentino, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    What is the optimal stage from oocyte through preimplantation embryo development for biopsy and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) to detect abnormal chromosome segregation patterns in eggs or embryos from advanced maternal age (AMA) patients? Testing at the polar body (PB) stage was the least accurate mainly due to the high incidence of post-zygotic events. This suggests that postponing the time of biopsy to the blastocyst stage of preimplantation embryo development may provide the most reliable results for PGS. In the PGS field there is an ongoing debate about the optimal biopsy stage for PGS. This is a result of the lack of understanding of how aneuploidy arises in the human embryo. To date, most of the cytogenetic data obtained during PGS investigations have been derived through the analysis of cells at isolated points in the preimplantation window, thus potentially missing critical information on chromosomal segregation. Understanding the chromosome segregation patterns during preimplantation development holds the potential to significantly increase the success rates of IVF. In this study, a sequential comprehensive chromosome analysis of both the PBs and the corresponding embryos at both the cleavage and the blastocyst stages is presented. This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study performed between October 2009 and August 2011 involving 9 infertile couples and 21 sets of complete comprehensive chromosomal screening data, including PB1, PB2, corresponding blastomeres and trophectoderm (TE) samples. Infertile couples undergoing IVF cycles with PGS where the female partner was older than 40 years and with a good response to controlled ovarian stimulation (>10 MII oocytes retrieved) were enrolled into the study. The exclusion criteria were (i) patients presenting with abnormal karyotype; (ii) specific ovarian pathologies including polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis grade III or higher and premature ovarian failure and (iii) severe male factor

  6. Sequential treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and chemotherapy for EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of Phase III trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Yiliang Zhang,1,* Yihua Sun,1,* Lei Wang,1 Ting Ye,1 Yunjian Pan,1 Haichuan Hu,1 Yongfu Yu,2 Naiqing Zhao,2 Yanyan Song,3 David Garfield,4 Haiquan Chen1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 3Department of Pharmacology and Biostatistics, Institute of Medical Science, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 4ProMed Cancer Centers, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: This aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy followed, upon progression, by chemotherapy with the reverse sequence in patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in terms of overall survival. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of studies that met the following criteria: Phase III clinical trial comparing the sequencing of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC; activating mutations reported; and availability of hazard ratio estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for overall survival. Results: Six clinical trials were included in this study. The pooled hazard ratio for overall survival of the EGFR-mutated population that completed sequential treatment was 1.03 (95% CI 0.86–1.22, P=0.776. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity between the studies (tau2 =0; I2=0, 95% CI 0–0.37, P=0.548. Evidence of marked publication bias for the two treatment sequences was insufficient (P=0.145. Conclusion: In patients with advanced NSCLC and activating EGFR mutations, first-line chemotherapy followed upon progression by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor was not inferior in terms of overall survival compared with the inverse sequence. This may serve as an indication that

  7. Markovian Analysis of the Sequential Behavior of the Spontaneous Spinal Cord Dorsum Potentials Induced by Acute Nociceptive Stimulation in the Anesthetized Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we developed a Machine Learning procedure for the automatic identification and classification of spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs. This study further supported the proposal that in the anesthetized cat, the spontaneous CDPs recorded from different lumbar spinal segments are generated by a distributed network of dorsal horn neurons with structured (non-random patterns of functional connectivity and that these configurations can be changed to other non-random and stable configurations after the noceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in the anesthetized cat. Here we present a study showing that the sequence of identified forms of the spontaneous CDPs follows a Markov chain of at least order one. That is, the system has memory in the sense that the spontaneous activation of dorsal horn neuronal ensembles producing the CDPs is not independent of the most recent activity. We used this markovian property to build a procedure to identify portions of signals as belonging to a specific functional state of connectivity among the neuronal networks involved in the generation of the CDPs. We have tested this procedure during acute nociceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in intact as well as spinalized preparations. Altogether, our results indicate that CDP sequences cannot be generated by a renewal stochastic process. Moreover, it is possible to describe some functional features of activity in the cord dorsum by modeling the CDP sequences as generated by a Markov order one stochastic process. Finally, these Markov models make possible to determine the functional state which produced a CDP sequence. The proposed identification procedures appear to be useful for the analysis of the sequential behavior of the ongoing CDPs recorded from different spinal segments in response to a variety of experimental procedures including the changes produced by acute nociceptive

  8. Development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction procedure with GC-FID for analysis of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Phoopraintra, Pattamaporn; Wilairat, Prapin; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Chantiwas, Rattikan

    2017-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric and valeric acids, play an important role in methanogenesis activity for biogas production processes. Thus, simple and rapid procedures for monitoring the levels of short-chain fatty acids are requisite for sustaining biogas production. This work presents the development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction (SI-LME) procedure with GC-FID analysis for determination of short-chain fatty acids. GC-FID was employed for detection of the short-chain fatty acids. Calibration curves were linear with good coefficients of determination (r 2 >0.999), using methacrylic acid as the internal standard. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.03-0.19mM. The SI-LME procedure employed tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) as the extracting solvent. Various SI-LME conditions were investigated and optimized to obtain the highest recovery of extraction. With these optimized conditions, an extraction recovery of the five key short-chain fatty acids of 67-90% was obtained, with less than 2% RSD (n=3). The final SI-LME procedure employed two fluidic zones of TBME with a single aqueous fluidic zone of sample sandwiched between the TBME zones, with 5 cycles of flow reversal at a flow rate of 5µL/s for the extraction process. Intra- and inter-day precision values were 0.5-4.0% RSD and 3.3-4.8% RSD, respectively. Accuracy based on percentage of sample recovery were in the range of 69-96, 102-107, and 82-101% (n=4) for acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluents used in biogas production in a factory performing palm oil extraction process. The SI-LME method provides improved extraction performance with high precision, and is both simple and rapid with its economical extraction technique. The SI-LME procedure with GC-FID has strong potential for use as a quality control process for monitoring

  9. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Courtney Rees; Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-06-10

    It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals' opinions and the decision-making process. We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms "cervical cancer," "Pap smear," and "Pap test" were analyzed during: (1) January 1-March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14-June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, "New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer"), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, "It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low cost Pap test.") It was demonstrated that machine learning

  10. Reverse sequential therapy achieves a similar eradication rate as standard sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Feng-Woei; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Tsai, Tzung-Jium; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Peng, Nan-Jin; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-02-01

    Sequential therapy is a two-step therapy achieving a promising eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection. The rationale of sequential method has been proposed that amoxicillin weakens bacterial cell walls in the initial phase of treatment, preventing the development of drug efflux channels for clarithromycin and metronidazole used in the second phase. The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate whether the efficacy of reverse sequential therapy was noninferior to sequential therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection. From January 2009 to December 2010, consecutive H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to receive either sequential therapy (a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin, followed by a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole) or reverse sequential therapy (a 5-day triple therapy with pantoprazole plus clarithromycin and metronidazole, followed by a 5-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin). H. pylori status was examined 6 weeks after the end of treatment by rapid urease and histology or urea breath test. One hundred and twenty-two H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive sequential (n = 60) or reverse sequential therapy (n = 62). The eradication rates, by intention-to-treat analysis, were similar: 91.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.1-98.7%) for sequential therapy and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .44). Per-protocol analysis also showed similar results: 91.8% (95% CI: 84.9-98.7%) for sequential group and 96.7% (95% CI: 92.2-101.2%) for reverse sequential therapy (p = .43). The two treatments exhibited comparable frequencies of adverse events (11.3% vs 6.7%, respectively) and drug compliance (98.4% vs 100%, respectively). The overall resistance rates of antibiotics were clarithromycin 10.5%, amoxicillin 0%, and metronidazole 44.2% of patients, respectively. The dual

  11. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  12. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  13. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  14. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buanuam, Janya [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)]. E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es; Hansen, Elo Harald [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: ehh@kemi.dtu.dk; Shiowatana, Juwadee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH{sub 4}Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3{sigma} detection limit was 0.02 mg P L{sup -1} while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L{sup -1} regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  15. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0M NH4Cl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.5M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3sigma detection limit was 0.02 mg P L(-1) while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L(-1) regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  16. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  17. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  18. Sequential Design of Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-30

    A sequential design of experiments strategy is being developed and implemented that allows for adaptive learning based on incoming results as the experiment is being run. The plan is to incorporate these strategies for the NCCC and TCM experimental campaigns to be run in the coming months. This strategy for experimentation has the advantages of allowing new data collected during the experiment to inform future experimental runs based on their projected utility for a particular goal. For example, the current effort for the MEA capture system at NCCC plans to focus on maximally improving the quality of prediction of CO2 capture efficiency as measured by the width of the confidence interval for the underlying response surface that is modeled as a function of 1) Flue Gas Flowrate [1000-3000] kg/hr; 2) CO2 weight fraction [0.125-0.175]; 3) Lean solvent loading [0.1-0.3], and; 4) Lean solvent flowrate [3000-12000] kg/hr.

  19. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g(-1) FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g(-1) DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of

  20. Upper Thoracic versus Lower Thoracic as Site of Upper Instrumented Vertebrae for Long Fusion Surgery in Adult Spinal Deformity: A Meta-Analysis of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Pu; Wang, Wengang; Shen, Mingkui; Xu, Genzhong; Xia, Lei

    2017-06-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to compare incidence rates of radiographic and surgical proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) between upper thoracic (UT) and lower thoracic (LT) vertebrae as site of upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) endpoints for long fusion surgery in adult spinal deformity (ASD). MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for English-language articles that addressed UT versus LT fixation strategies. The division of the UT and LT groups was based on UIV. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data on incidence rates of radiographic and surgical PJK were extracted from the included studies. RevMan 5.3 was used for data pooling and analysis. Ten retrospective studies comprising 1230 patients were included. Pooled data on radiographic PJK were available in 9 studies comprising 1032 patients, and total radiographic PJK rate was 32.2%. Pooled data on surgical PJK were available in 6 studies comprising 732 patients, and total surgical PJK rate was 6.7%. Decreased radiographic PJK (95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.85; P = 0.002; I2 = 48%) and surgical PJK (95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.76; P = 0.007; I2 = 22%) were found in the UT group. Radiographic PJK is a very common complication of long fusion surgery in adult spinal deformity with an incidence rate of 32.2%. Surgical PJK has an incidence rate of 6.7% and should be seriously considered. The pooled results indicate that choosing UT vertebrae as the site of UIV could decrease the incidence rates of radiographic and surgical PJK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multidimensional single-cell analysis of BCR signaling reveals proximal activation defect as a hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lia Palomba

    Full Text Available Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL is defined by a perturbed B-cell receptor-mediated signaling machinery. We aimed to model differential signaling behavior between B cells from CLL and healthy individuals to pinpoint modes of dysregulation.We developed an experimental methodology combining immunophenotyping, multiplexed phosphospecific flow cytometry, and multifactorial statistical modeling. Utilizing patterns of signaling network covariance, we modeled BCR signaling in 67 CLL patients using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR. Results from multidimensional modeling were validated using an independent test cohort of 38 patients.We identified a dynamic and variable imbalance between proximal (pSYK, pBTK and distal (pPLCγ2, pBLNK, ppERK phosphoresponses. PLSR identified the relationship between upstream tyrosine kinase SYK and its target, PLCγ2, as maximally predictive and sufficient to distinguish CLL from healthy samples, pointing to this juncture in the signaling pathway as a hallmark of CLL B cells. Specific BCR pathway signaling signatures that correlate with the disease and its degree of aggressiveness were identified. Heterogeneity in the PLSR response variable within the B cell population is both a characteristic mark of healthy samples and predictive of disease aggressiveness.Single-cell multidimensional analysis of BCR signaling permitted focused analysis of the variability and heterogeneity of signaling behavior from patient-to-patient, and from cell-to-cell. Disruption of the pSYK/pPLCγ2 relationship is uncovered as a robust hallmark of CLL B cell signaling behavior. Together, these observations implicate novel elements of the BCR signal transduction as potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Empirical mono- versus combination antibiotic therapy in adult intensive care patients with severe sepsis – A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Karl Fredrik Lennart; Perner, Anders; Hylander Møller, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess benefits and harms of empirical mono- vs. combination antibiotic therapy in adult patients with severe sepsis in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We performed a systematic review according to the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, including meta-analysis, risk of bias ...

  3. Parents' Verbal and Nonverbal Caring Behaviors and Child Distress During Cancer-Related Port Access Procedures: A Time-Window Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinbing; Harper, Felicity W K; Penner, Louis A; Swanson, Kristen; Santacroce, Sheila J

    2017-11-01

    To study the relationship between parental verbal and nonverbal caring behaviors and child distress during cancer-related port access placement using correlational and time-window sequential analyses.
. Longitudinal, observational design.
. Children's Hospital of Michigan and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.
. 43 child-parent dyads, each with two or three video recordings of the child undergoing cancer-related port placement.
. Two trained raters coded parent interaction behaviors and child distress using the Parent Caring Response Scoring System and Karmanos Child Coping and Distress Scale, respectively. Mixed modeling with generalized estimating equations examined the associations between parent interaction behaviors and parent distress, child distress, and child cooperation reported by multiple raters. Time-window sequential analyses were performed to investigate the temporal relationships in parent-child interactions within a five-second window.
. Parent caring behaviors, child distress, and child cooperation.
. Parent caring interaction behaviors were significantly correlated with parent distress, child distress, and child cooperation during repeated cancer port accessing. Sequential analyses showed that children were significantly less likely to display behavioral and verbal distress following parent caring behaviors than at any other time. If a child is already distressed, parent verbal and nonverbal caring behaviors can significantly reduce child behavioral and verbal distress.
. Parent caring behaviors, particularly the rarely studied nonverbal behaviors (e.g., eye contact, distance close to touch, supporting/allowing), can reduce the child's distress during cancer port accessing procedures.
. Studying parent-child interactions during painful cancer-related procedures can provide evidence to develop nursing interventions to support parents in caring for their child during painful procedures.

  4. What Is the Association Between Sports Participation and the Development of Proximal Femoral Cam Deformity? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Clohisy, John C

    2015-11-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is recognized as a common cause of hip pain and intra-articular disorders in athletes. Studies have suggested a link between participation in athletics during adolescence and the development of cam-type deformities of the proximal femoral head-neck junction. To investigate the association of sporting activity participation during adolescence and the development of cam deformity. Systematic review. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify potential studies. Abstracts and manuscripts (when applicable) were independently reviewed by 2 reviewers. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, including 8 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity in athletes with that in controls and 3 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity before and after physeal closure (2 with both). A meta-analysis was performed with pooling of data and random-effects modeling to compare rates of cam deformity between athletes and controls. High-level male athletes are 1.9 to 8.0 times more likely to develop a cam deformity than are male controls. The pooled prevalence rate (by hip) of cam deformity in male athletes was 41%, compared with 17% for male controls. The pooled mean alpha angle among male athletes was 61°, compared with 51° for male controls. Males participating in specific high-level impact sports (hockey, basketball, and possibly soccer) are at an increased risk of physeal abnormalities of the anterosuperior head-neck junction that result in a cam deformity at skeletal maturity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Blastocyst culture using single versus sequential media in clinical IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Viana, Iara G R; Navarro, Paula A; Raine-Fenning, Nick; van der Poel, Sheryl; Rienzi, Laura; Racowsky, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a review of the available evidence comparing the use of a single medium versus sequential media for embryo culture to the blastocyst stage in clinical IVF. We searched the Cochrane Central, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify randomized controlled trials comparing single versus sequential media for blastocyst culture and ongoing pregnancy rate. Included studies randomized either oocytes/zygotes or women. Eligible oocyte/zygote studies were analyzed to assess the risk difference (RD) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) between the two media systems; eligible woman-based studies were analyzed to assess the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % CI for clinical pregnancy rate. No differences were observed between single and sequential media for either ongoing pregnancy per randomized woman (relative risk (RR) = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.7 to 1.3, two studies including 246 women, I 2  = 0 %) or clinical pregnancy per randomized woman (RR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.7 to 1.4, one study including 100 women); or miscarriage per clinical pregnancy: RR = 1.3, 95 % CI = 0.4 to 4.3, two studies including 246 participants, I 2  = 0 %). Single media use was associated with an increase blastocyst formation per randomized oocyte/zygote (relative distribution (RD) = +0.06, 95 % CI = +0.01 to +0.12, ten studies including 7455 oocytes/zygotes, I 2  = 83 %) but not top/high blastocyst formation (RD = +0.05, 95 % CI = -0.01 to +0.11, five studies including 3879 oocytes/zygotes, I 2  = 93 %). The overall quality of the evidence was very low for all these four outcomes. Although using a single medium for extended culture has some practical advantages and blastocyst formation rates appear to be higher, there is insufficient evidence to recommend either sequential or single-step media as being superior for the culture of

  6. Comparison of transverse island flap onlay and tubularized incised-plate urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xiao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search updated to 21st May 2014 was carried out for relevant studies. After literature identification and data extraction, odds ratio (OR with 95% confidential interval (CI was calculated to compare postoperative complication rate between TVIF onlay and TIP. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were applied to find potential affective factors. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies including 309 patients receiving TVIF onlay and 262 individuals subjected to TIP met inclusion criteria. The synthetic data suggested that TVIF onlay and TIP were comparable in terms of total complication rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56-1.30, p = 0.461, fistula (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.38-1.21, p = 0.194, recurrent curvature (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.43-3.12, p = 0.766, dehiscence (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.33-2.74, p = 0.920, diverticulum (OR 1.90, 95% CI 0.53-6.78, p = 0.321, meatal stenosis (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.20-2.77, p = 0.651 and urethral stricture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.41-5.50, p = 0.545, without significant heterogeneity for each comparison group. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses revealed no significant findings. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were stable. No publication bias was detected using both funnel plot and Egger's test. Also, there were no obvious differences observed in cosmetic and functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that TVIF onlay and TIP urethroplasties are clinically equivalent. Given the inherent limitations of included studies, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution and wait to be confirmed by more well-designed randomized controlled trials with high quality in the future.

  7. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  9. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  10. A Population-Based Analysis of Three Treatment Modalities for Malignant Obstruction of the Proximal Colon: Acute Resection Versus Stent or Stoma as a Bridge to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F. J.; Consten, E. C. J.; Siersema, P. D.; Tanis, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) traditionally has been treated with acute resection. However, morbidity and mortality rates following these emergency surgeries are high. Initial bowel decompression by stent placement or stoma construction has been used for distal obstructions as

  11. No Association between TNF-α -308G/A Polymorphism and Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Dong

    Full Text Available Conflicting results were reported on the association between the TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism and idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM. Though three meta-analyses have been conducted on this topic, the conclusions were contradictory, and the results may be unreliable as certain crucial conditions were neglected.A complete search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase, other sources like Google Scholar, ClinicalTrial.gov and reference lists of relevant articles were also retrieved. All candidate articles were accessed and screened using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were performed on data extracted from eligible studies using the STATA 12.0 software and the TSA 0.9 beta software.Eventually, 12 case-control studies from 11 publications (with 1,807 cases and 2,012 controls were included in this meta-analysis, and no evidence of any significant association was found in the overall analyses between the TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism and IRM risk. However, significant association was shown in Asian population (four studies from three publications in the dominant model (AA + GA vs. GG, the allelic model (A vs. G, and the heterozygote model (GA vs. GG.TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism is not associated with IRM risk. Though significant association was found in Asian population, the result needs further confirmation from more studies.

  12. Sequential inflammatory processes define human progression from M. tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Scriba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of mechanisms underlying progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to pulmonary tuberculosis disease in humans remains limited. To define such mechanisms, we followed M. tuberculosis-infected adolescents longitudinally. Blood samples from forty-four adolescents who ultimately developed tuberculosis disease (“progressors” were compared with those from 106 matched controls, who remained healthy during two years of follow up. We performed longitudinal whole blood transcriptomic analyses by RNA sequencing and plasma proteome analyses using multiplexed slow off-rate modified DNA aptamers. Tuberculosis progression was associated with sequential modulation of immunological processes. Type I/II interferon signalling and complement cascade were elevated 18 months before tuberculosis disease diagnosis, while changes in myeloid inflammation, lymphoid, monocyte and neutrophil gene modules occurred more proximally to tuberculosis disease. Analysis of gene expression in purified T cells also revealed early suppression of Th17 responses in progressors, relative to M. tuberculosis-infected controls. This was confirmed in an independent adult cohort who received BCG re-vaccination; transcript expression of interferon response genes in blood prior to BCG administration was associated with suppression of IL-17 expression by BCG-specific CD4 T cells 3 weeks post-vaccination. Our findings provide a timeline to the different immunological stages of disease progression which comprise sequential inflammatory dynamics and immune alterations that precede disease manifestations and diagnosis of tuberculosis disease. These findings have important implications for developing diagnostics, vaccination and host-directed therapies for tuberculosis.Clincialtrials.gov, NCT01119521.

  13. Sequential inflammatory processes define human progression from M. tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Shankar, Smitha; Hraha, Tom; Thompson, Ethan G; Sterling, David; Nemes, Elisa; Darboe, Fatoumatta; Suliman, Sara; Amon, Lynn M; Mahomed, Hassan; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Whatney, Wendy; Johnson, John L; Boom, W Henry; Hatherill, Mark; Valvo, Joe; De Groote, Mary Ann; Ochsner, Urs A; Aderem, Alan; Hanekom, Willem A; Zak, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms underlying progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to pulmonary tuberculosis disease in humans remains limited. To define such mechanisms, we followed M. tuberculosis-infected adolescents longitudinally. Blood samples from forty-four adolescents who ultimately developed tuberculosis disease (“progressors”) were compared with those from 106 matched controls, who remained healthy during two years of follow up. We performed longitudinal whole blood transcriptomic analyses by RNA sequencing and plasma proteome analyses using multiplexed slow off-rate modified DNA aptamers. Tuberculosis progression was associated with sequential modulation of immunological processes. Type I/II interferon signalling and complement cascade were elevated 18 months before tuberculosis disease diagnosis, while changes in myeloid inflammation, lymphoid, monocyte and neutrophil gene modules occurred more proximally to tuberculosis disease. Analysis of gene expression in purified T cells also revealed early suppression of Th17 responses in progressors, relative to M. tuberculosis-infected controls. This was confirmed in an independent adult cohort who received BCG re-vaccination; transcript expression of interferon response genes in blood prior to BCG administration was associated with suppression of IL-17 expression by BCG-specific CD4 T cells 3 weeks post-vaccination. Our findings provide a timeline to the different immunological stages of disease progression which comprise sequential inflammatory dynamics and immune alterations that precede disease manifestations and diagnosis of tuberculosis disease. These findings have important implications for developing diagnostics, vaccination and host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. Clincialtrials.gov, NCT01119521.

  14. Use of flow injection and sequential injection analysis schemes for the determination of trace-level concentrations of metals in complex matrices by ETAAS and ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    to facilitate the desired sensitivity and selectivity of measurement. Such pretreatment schemes are advantageously performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all unit operations can be effected on-line and under enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Various separation...... and characteristics of FI and SI, we present, via selected examples, various separation/preconcentration FI/Sl schemes for the determination of trace levels of metals, with particular emphasis on the use of the novel extension of FI/SI, that is, the so-called lab-on-valve concept.......Despite their excellent analytical chemical capacities for determination of low levels of metal species, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry often require suitable pretreatment (separation and preconcentration) of the sample material...

  15. Modality-specific spectral dynamics in response to visual and tactile sequential shape information processing tasks: An MEG study using multivariate pattern classification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Bakul; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Brain regions that respond to more than one sensory modality are characterized as multisensory regions. Studies on the processing of shape or object information have revealed recruitment of the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and other regions regardless of input sensory modalities. However, it remains unknown whether such regions show similar (modality-invariant) or different (modality-specific) neural oscillatory dynamics, as recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG), in response to identical shape information processing tasks delivered to different sensory modalities. Modality-invariant or modality-specific neural oscillatory dynamics indirectly suggest modality-independent or modality-dependent participation of particular brain regions, respectively. Therefore, this study investigated the modality-specificity of neural oscillatory dynamics in the form of spectral power modulation patterns in response to visual and tactile sequential shape-processing tasks that are well-matched in terms of speed and content between the sensory modalities. Task-related changes in spectral power modulation and differences in spectral power modulation between sensory modalities were investigated at source-space (voxel) level, using a multivariate pattern classification (MVPC) approach. Additionally, whole analyses were extended from the voxel level to the independent-component level to take account of signal leakage effects caused by inverse solution. The modality-specific spectral dynamics in multisensory and higher-order brain regions, such as the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, and other brain regions, showed task-related modulation in response to both sensory modalities. This suggests modality-dependency of such brain regions on the input sensory modality for sequential shape-information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  17. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  18. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  19. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  20. Complete revascularization versus culprit-only revascularization in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Hui; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Jin, Xiao-Feng

    2017-02-01

    The present study compared the outcomes of complete revascularization (CR) and culprit-only revascularization (COR) performed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease through a meta-analysis in order to determine which strategy is more appropriate. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases. Eight RCTs with 2060 patients were selected (1080 patients underwent CR [immediate (ICR) or staged (SCR)] and 980 patients underwent COR). The follow-up was 6-38months. In the overall population, CR reduced major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and repeat revascularization when compared to those with COR (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.50-0.72; RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.33-0.73). In the subgroups analysis, ICR reduced MACE, all-cause death and/or MI, non-fatal MI, and repeat revascularization compared to COR (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.32-0.60; RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.85; RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.71; RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24-0.52; SCR reduced only MACE when compared with those in COR (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.89). However, trial sequential analysis powered for a 25% relative reduction indicated firm evidence (cumulative z-curve crossed the monitoring boundary) for only MACE and revascularization in the overall population and ICR subgroup. Contrast-induced nephropathy, major hemorrhage, and stroke incidences were not different between CR and COR. Based on these findings, we believe that CR is preferable to COR in STEMI and multivessel disease patients undergoing primary PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The stability of the hip after the use of a proximal femoral endoprosthesis for oncological indications: analysis of variables relating to the patient and the surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E R; Keeney, B J; Pala, E; Funovics, P T; Eward, W C; Groundland, J S; Ehrlichman, L K; Puchner, S S E; Brigman, B E; Ready, J E; Temple, H T; Ruggieri, P; Windhager, R; Letson, G D; Hornicek, F J

    2017-04-01

    Instability of the hip is the most common mode of failure after reconstruction with a proximal femoral arthroplasty (PFA) using an endoprosthesis after excision of a tumour. Small studies report improved stability with capsular repair of the hip and other techniques, but these have not been investigated in a large series of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate variables associated with the patient and the operation that affect post-operative stability. We hypothesised an association between capsular repair and stability. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 527 adult patients who were treated with a PFA for tumours. Our data included demographics, the pathological diagnosis, the amount of resection of the abductor muscles, the techniques of reconstruction and the characteristics of the implant. We used regression analysis to compare patients with and without post-operative instability. A total of 20 patients out of 527 (4%) had instability which presented at a mean of 35 days (3 to 131) post-operatively. Capsular repair was not associated with a reduced rate of instability. Bivariate analysis showed that a posterolateral surgical approach (odds ratio (OR) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.86) and the type of implant (p = 0.046) had a significant association with reduced instability; age > 60 years predicted instability (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 9.98). Multivariate analysis showed age > 60 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.23 to 21.07), female gender (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.89), a malignant primary bone tumour (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.95), and benign condition (OR 5.56, 95% CI 1.35 to 22.90), but not metastatic disease or soft-tissue tumours, predicted instability, while a posterolateral approach (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.53) was protective against instability. No instability occurred when a synthetic graft was used in 70 patients. Stability of the hip after PFA is influenced by variables associated with the patient, the pathology, the

  2. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan A. Nasser; Mohamed Z. M. Salem; Salim Hiziroglu; Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej; Ahmed S. Mohareb; Manawwer Alam; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%), followed by date palm s...

  3. Analysis of the Pointing Accuracy of a 6U CubeSat Mission for Proximity Operations and Resident Space Object Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    together with the Novatel OEMV-1 GPS receiver and patch antenna , complete the guidance navigation and control suite. During proximity operations, the...are produced by the upper atmospheric particles colliding with the CubeSat. The worst case scenario of solar max activity is modeled for the cal...atmosphere at the nominal altitude of 500km gives a composition of 94% Oxygen and 6% Nitrogen. The number and mass densities are n=3.769×1014m−3 and ρ

  4. First report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate analysis in marine edible puffer fishes collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanidhi, Kaleshkumar; Rajendran, Rajaram; Pandurangan, Dhinesh; Arumugam, Ganeshkumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the heavy metal concentration in different organs (skin, tissue, liver, kidney, gill, intestine, and ovary) and muscle proximate composition were studied in marine edible puffer fishes Takifugu oblongus, Lagocephalus guentheri, Arothron hispidus, Chelonodon patoca and Arothron immaculatus collected from Mandapam fish landing centre, South east coast of India. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb & Zn) were analyzed in different organs for the above mentioned species. The heavy metals concentration ranges in fish organs of all the five species were Cu (0.42 -6.31 mg/kg), Cd (0.01-0.79 mg/kg), Pb (5.80-19.87 mg/kg), and Zn (6.75-65.08 mg/kg). Zn was detected higher in all the samples followed by Pb, Cu and Cd. The proximate composition was determined in edible muscle tissues of all the five species. The highest and lowest protein contents were observed in T. oblongus (20.6 ± 0.6%) and C. patoca (17.9 ± 0.3%). In the present study, heavy metal concentrations were found very high in all the internal organs when compared to muscle tissues. Further, this is the first report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate compositions of commercialized important edible puffer fishes from Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India.

  5. Sequential Divestiture and Firm Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple Cournot models of divestiture tend to generate incentives to divest which are too strong, predicting that firms will break up into an infinite number of divisions resulting in perfect competition. This paper shows that if the order of divestitures is endogenized, firms will always choose sequential, and hence very limited, divestitures. Divestitures favor the larger firm and the follower in a sequential game. Divestitures in which the larger firm is the follower generate greater industry profit and social welfare, but a smaller consumer surplus.

  6. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  7. Fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus: A retrospective analysis of 82 cases treated with the Philos(®) locking plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmo, Rocco; Guerra, Giovanni; Guerra, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    To present the experience in a single institution of the management of 82 consecutive fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus treated with the Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (Philos(®)) plate. A total of 81 patients with 82 proximal humerus fractures (one patient had bilateral fracture) were treated at our institution with open reduction and internal fixation with Philos(®) plate from January 2008 to December 2012 and the clinico-radiological outcome was analysed. Twelve of these patients also had a dislocation of the proximal humerus. According to the Neer classification, there were seven two-part fractures, 40 three-part fractures and 35 four-part fractures. All patients received a similar physical therapy programme following internal fixation. Mean final follow-up was 32 months. Functional outcome was evaluated for each patient using the Constant-Murley score; radiographic evaluation was also conducted and complications were recorded. At the end of the follow-up period, the mean Constant-Murley score for the injured side was 75 points (range 42-92); results were graded as excellent for eight patients, good for 52, moderate for 17 and poor for five. Twenty-three patients (28%) had complications during the follow-up period. Reoperation was required in 12 patients. Complications included avascular necrosis of the humeral head in 10 patients (12%), varus positioning of the head in four patients (4.8%), impingement syndrome in three patients (3.6%), secondary screw perforation in three patients (3.6%), non-union of the fracture in two patients (2.4%) and infection in one patient (1.2%). Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with the Philos(®) plate was associated with good clinical outcomes provided the correct surgical technique was used. To better evaluate the real incidence of complications, it is important to follow patients for more than one year after surgery as some complications may arise after

  8. [Motion Analysis of Lumbar Spine and Hip Joint on Sequential Radiographs Acquired with a Dynamic Flat-panel Detector (FPD) System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kosuke; Kawashima, Hiroki; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Sanada, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    To design an evaluation method for lumbar spine and hip joint function using dynamic radiography using a flat-panel detector (FPD) system. Sixteen healthy subjects (males; age range, 22-60 years; median, 27 years) and 9 patients (7 males and 2 females; age range, 67-85 years; median, 73 years) with L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis were examined using a dynamic FPD system (CANON Inc.). Sequential images were captured with the subjects in the standing position with maximal forward bending followed by backward bending for 10 s. The lateral lumbar radiographs were obtained at 2 frames/s (fps). The flexion-extension angles of L1 and S1 were measured on those images. The range of motion (ROM) of the lumbar joints was significantly larger in the healthy group (82.4 ± 8.7°) than in the disease group (50.4 ± 8.5°; pdisease group (53.1 ± 17.6°; pdisease group, hip joint movements tended to be completed earlier compared with those in the healthy group. In the disease group, the loss of lumbar flexibility was compensated by an increase in hip joint motion due to the lumbar disease. The dynamic FPD system is a convenient imaging modality for the diagnosis of lumbar diseases through the assessment of locomotive function in the lumbar spine and hip joints.

  9. A large scale investigation into changes in coal quality caused by dolerite dykes in Secunda, South Africa-implications for the use of proximate analysis on a working mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussio, John P.; Roberts, James R.

    2016-05-01

    The coalfields of South Africa contain numerous dolerite intrusions, which affected the quality of the surrounding coal through thermal processes, commonly believed to be controlled by the size of the magmatic body. Data gathered from a working coalfield in Secunda, South Africa, suggest that the relationship between intrusive sills and coal is complex and factors other than intrusion width must be considered in relation to the contact metamorphic effect. The study area contains multiple dolerite intrusions of Karoo age, of which three intrusions occur as sills intruded close to the main coal seam of the. A large database (>8000 boreholes) of coal quality data was used to investigate the presence or absence of a change in coal quality relative to dolerite proximity. Reduction in coal quality was defined using three proximate analysis values, namely the ash, volatile content and dry ash free volatile (DAFV) as defined in the coal industry. The resultant investigation showed no correlation between the position and thickness of the dolerites, and changes in coal quality as measured by proximate analysis. In the absence of a linear relationship between coal quality and dolerite proximity, two processes are proposed to explain the absence of the contact metamorphic effects expected from previous studies. Firstly dolerite emplacement dynamics may influence the size of the metamorphic aureole produced by an intrusion, invalidating intrusion size as a measure of thermal output. Secondly, hydrothermal fluids mobilised by the dolerite intrusions, either from the country rock or the intrusion itself may percolate through the coal and act as the metamorphic agent responsible for changing coal quality, by dissolving the volatile and semi-volatile components of the coal and transporting them to other locations. These two processes are sufficient to explain the lack of a clear "metamorphic effect" related to the dolerite intrusions. However, the perceived lack of a clear

  10. Finger Tendon Travel Associated with Sequential Trigger Nail Gun Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID

  11. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  12. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür

    2017-09-29

    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  13. A spatial analysis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases in the United States and their proximity to multidisciplinary ALS clinics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D Kevin; Graham, Shannon; Punjani, Reshma; Wilt, Grete; Kaye, Wendy; Maginnis, Kimberly; Webb, Lauren; Richman, Judy; Bedlack, Richard; Tessaro, Edward; Mehta, Paul

    2017-12-20

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that typically results in death within 2-5 years of initial symptom onset. Multidisciplinary ALS clinics (MDCs) have been established to provide specialty care to people living with the disease. To estimate the proximity of ALS prevalence cases to the nearest MDC in the US to help evaluate one aspect of access to care. Using 2013 prevalence data from the National ALS Registry, cases were geocoded by city using geographic information system (GIS) software, along with the locations of all MDCs in operation during 2013. Case-to-MDC proximity was calculated and analyzed by sex, race, and age group. During 2013, there were 72 MDCs in operation in 30 different states. A total of 15,633 ALS cases were geocoded and were distributed throughout all 50 states. Of these, 62.6% were male, 77.9% were white, and 76.2% were 50-79 years old. For overall case-to-MDC proximity, nearly half (44.9%) of all geocoded cases in the US lived >50 miles from an MDC, including approximately a quarter who lived >100 miles from an MDC. There was a statistically significant difference between distance to MDC by race and age group. The high percentage of those living more than 50 miles from the nearest specialized clinic underscores one of the many challenges of ALS. Having better access to care, whether at MDCs or through other modalities, is likely key to increasing survivability and obtaining appropriate end-of-life treatment and support for people with ALS.

  14. Single-incision surgery trocar-site hernia: an updated systematic review meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis by the Minimally Invasive Surgery Synthesis of Interventions Outcomes Network (MISSION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Stavros A; García-Alamino, Josep M; Hajibandeh, Shahab; Hajibandeh, Shahin; Weitzendorfer, Michael; Muysoms, Filip E; Granderath, Frank A; Chalkiadakis, George E; Emmanuel, Klaus; Antoniou, George A; Gioumidou, Meropi; Iliopoulou-Kosmadaki, Styliani; Mathioudaki, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2017-07-19

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new technique that aims to minimize abdominal wall trauma and improve cosmesis. Concerns have been raised about the risk of trocar-site hernia following SILS. This study aims to assess the risk of trocar-site hernia following SILS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery, and investigate whether current evidence is conclusive. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and OpenGrey. We considered randomized clinical trials comparing the risk of trocar-site hernia with SILS and conventional laparoscopic surgery. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Trial sequential analysis using the Land and DeMets method was performed to assess the possibility of type I error and compute the information size. Twenty-three articles reporting a total of 2471 patients were included. SILS was associated with higher odds of trocar-site hernia compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery (odds ratio 2.37, 95% CI 1.25-4.50, p = 0.008). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity or small-study effects. The information size was calculated at 1687 patients and the Z-curve crossed the O'Brien-Fleming α-spending boundaries at 1137 patients, suggesting that the evidence of higher risk of trocar-site hernia with SILS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery can be considered conclusive. Single-incision laparoscopic procedures through the umbilicus are associated with a higher risk of trocar-site hernia compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery.

  15. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The metabolic network of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Comparison of the approximate Bayesian computation via sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) and profile likelihood estimation (PLE) methods for determinability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currow David C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. Methods All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (using postcode to one nationally standardised measure of socio-economic deprivation – Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA; 2006 census data. Referral to palliative care services and characteristics of referrals were described through data collected routinely at clinical encounters. Inpatient location was measured from each person’s home postcode, and stratified by socio-economic disadvantage. Results This study covered July – December 2009 with data from 10,064 patients. People from the highest SEIFA group (least disadvantaged were significantly less likely to be referred to a specialist palliative care service, likely to be referred closer to death and to have more episodes of inpatient care for longer time. Physical proximity of a person’s home to inpatient care showed a gradient with increasing distance by decreasing levels of socio-economic advantage. Conclusion These data suggest that a simple relationship of low socioeconomic status and poor access to a referral-based specialty such as palliative care does not exist. Different patterns of referral and hence different patterns of care emerge.

  18. Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David C; Allingham, Samuel; Bird, Sonia; Yates, Patsy; Lewis, Joanne; Dawber, James; Eagar, Kathy

    2012-11-23

    A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (using postcode) to one nationally standardised measure of socio-economic deprivation - Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA; 2006 census data). Referral to palliative care services and characteristics of referrals were described through data collected routinely at clinical encounters. Inpatient location was measured from each person's home postcode, and stratified by socio-economic disadvantage. This study covered July - December 2009 with data from 10,064 patients. People from the highest SEIFA group (least disadvantaged) were significantly less likely to be referred to a specialist palliative care service, likely to be referred closer to death and to have more episodes of inpatient care for longer time. Physical proximity of a person's home to inpatient care showed a gradient with increasing distance by decreasing levels of socio-economic advantage. These data suggest that a simple relationship of low socioeconomic status and poor access to a referral-based specialty such as palliative care does not exist. Different patterns of referral and hence different patterns of care emerge.

  19. [Efficacy analysis of two-stage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for treating postoperative deep infection after surgeries for proximal humeral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F L; Jiang, C Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, Y M; Li, X

    2016-04-18

    To evaluate the clinical results of two-stage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for treating postoperative deep infection after surgeries for proximal humeral fractures. From January 2013 to December 2014, 8 consecutive patients with postoperative deep infection after surgeries for proximal humeral fractures who were treated with two-stage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty were retrospectively reviewed after the final follow-up. There were 1 man and 7 women with a mean age of (58.5±6.4) years, of whom 3 left shoulders and 5 right shoulders were involved. There were 2 patients with periprosthetic infection after hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fractures, and 6 patients with humeral head necrosis as well as implant-associated infection after open reduction internal fixation for proximal humeral fractures with the locking plate. The diagnosis of postoperative deep infection was confirmed by either the preoperative cultures or the intraoperative biopsies during the first-stage surgery. At the first-stage surgery, all the patients underwent a thorough debridement, and then an antibiotic-impregnated bone cement spacer was placed after the removal of prosthesis or locking plate. During the second-stage surgery, the cement spacer was removed, and then a revision shoulder arthroplasty with the reverse shoulder prosthesis was performed in all the patients who were routinely followed up after the second-stage surgery. The visual analogue score (VAS), Constant score and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score were employed to evaluate the postoperative shoulder function. The mean follow-up time was (19.9±8.0) months (range 12 to 35 months). At the end of the follow-up, the median forward elevation [100° (60°, 140°) vs. 25° (0°, 90°), P=0.011], the median external rotation [15° (0°, 50°) vs. 5° (0°, 20°), P=0.048], and the median internal rotation [L4 (buttock, T12) vs. buttock (buttock, L3), P=0.041] were all significantly improved

  20. Nonlocality in sequential correlation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Würflinger, Lars Erik; Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    As first shown by Popescu (1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 2619), some quantum states only reveal their nonlocality when subjected to a sequence of measurements while giving rise to local correlations in standard Bell tests. Motivated by this manifestation of ‘hidden nonlocality’ we set out to develop a general framework for the study of nonlocality when sequences of measurements are performed. Similar to Gallego et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 070401) our approach is operational, i.e. the task is to identify the set of allowed operations in sequential correlation scenarios and define nonlocality as the resource that cannot be created by these operations. This leads to a characterization of sequential nonlocality that contains as particular cases standard nonlocality and hidden nonlocality.

  1. Random sequential adsorption of cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-14

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  2. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  3. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  4. Dating phylogenies with sequentially sampled tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Tanja; Yang, Ziheng

    2013-09-01

    We develop a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating divergence times using sequentially sampled molecular sequences. This type of data is commonly collected during viral epidemics and is sometimes available from different species in ancient DNA studies. We derive the distribution of ages of nodes in the tree under a birth-death-sequential-sampling (BDSS) model and use it as the prior for divergence times in the dating analysis. We implement the prior in the MCMCtree program in the PAML package for divergence dating. The BDSS prior is very flexible and, with different parameters, can generate trees of very different shapes, suitable for examining the sensitivity of posterior time estimates. We apply the method to a data set of SIV/HIV-2 genes in comparison with a likelihood-based dating method, and to a data set of influenza H1 genes from different hosts in comparison with the Bayesian program BEAST. We examined the impact of tree topology on time estimates and suggest that multifurcating consensus trees should be avoided in dating analysis. We found posterior time estimates for old nodes to be sensitive to the priors on times and rates and suggest that previous Bayesian dating studies may have produced overconfident estimates.

  5. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  6. Initial evaluation of a biochemical cystic fibrosis newborn screening by sequential analysis of immunoreactive trypsinogen and pancreatitis-associated protein (IRT/PAP) as a strategy that does not involve DNA testing in a Northern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerburg, Olaf; Lindner, Martin; Muckenthaler, Martina; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Leible, Svenja; Feneberg, Reinhard; Kulozik, Andreas E; Mall, Marcus A; Hoffmann, Georg F

    2010-10-01

    Ethical concerns and disadvantages of newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) related to genetic testing have raised controversies and impeded implementation of CF NBS in some countries. In the present study, we used a prospective and sequential immunoreactive trypsinogene (IRT)/pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) strategy, with IRT as first and PAP as second tier, and validated this biochemical approach against the widely used IRT/DNA protocol in a population-based NBS study in southwest Germany. Prospective quantitation of PAP and genetic analysis for the presence of four mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene most prevalent in southwest Germany (F508del, R553X, G551D, G542X) were performed in all newborns with IRT > 99.0th percentile. NBS was rated positive when either PAP was ≥1.0 ng/mL and/or at least one CFTR mutation was detected. In addition, IRT > 99.9th percentile was also considered a positive rating. Positive rating led to referral to a CF centre for testing of sweat Cl(-) concentration. Out of 73,759 newborns tested, 98 (0.13%) were positive with IRT/PAP and 56 (0.08%) with IRT/DNA. After sweat testing of 135 CF NBS-positive infants, 13 were diagnosed with CF. Detection rates were similar for both IRT/PAP and IRT/DNA. One of the 13 diagnosed CF newborns had a PAP concentration <1.0 ng/mL. Sequential measurement of IRT/PAP provides good sensitivity and specificity and allows reliable and cost-effective CF NBS which circumvents the necessity of genetic testing with its inherent ethical problems.

  7. Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V

    1997-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.

  8. A retrospective analysis of the InterTan nail and proximal femoral nail anti-rotation-Asia in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao; Zhu, Xingfei; Hu, Jun; Liu, Yunjiang

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing surgery for treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures receiving either proximal femoral nails anti-rotation-Asia (PFNA-IIs) or InterTan nails (ITs). Between January 1, 2012, and June 31, 2015, 168 elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures enrolled in this study. The only intervention was ITs or PFNA-IIs of the unstable trochanteric femur fractures. Follow-up was at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. Intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Eight patients died, six were too infirmed for follow-up, and seven were lost during follow-up, leaving 147 patients meeting the criteria were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 20 months (range 16-26 months). Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding local complications (IT, n = 10 vs. PFNA-II, n = 20), varus collapse of the head/neck or femoral shaft fractures at the tip of the nail (IT, n = 1 vs. PFNA-II, n = 8), femoral neck shortening (IT, 4.4 ± 1.1 mm vs. PFNA-II, 7.4 ± 2.4 mm), fracture healing time (IT, 14.7 ± 2.1 weeks vs. PFNA-II, 15.7 ± 2.4 weeks), femoral shaft fractures (IT, n = 0 vs. PFNA-II, n = 4), rotational loss of reduction (IT, n = 0 vs. PFNA-II, n = 9), lateral cortex fractures of the proximal femur or lateral greater trochanter fractures (IT, n = 8 vs. PFNA-II, n = 1), operative time (IT, 71.9 ± 6.8 min vs. PFNA-II, 52.3 ± 4.0 min), intraoperative blood loss (IT, 190.6 ± 6.0 mL vs. PFNA-II, 180.9 ± 10.8 mL), fluoroscopy time (IT, 5.0 ± 0.48 min vs. PFNA-II, 2.8 ± 0.33 min), hospital stay (IT, 9.65 ± 0.95 days vs. PFNA-II, 8.58 ± 0.93 days), cut-out (IT, n = 0 vs. PFNA-II, n = 6), and tip-apex distance (IT, 26.7 ± 0.91 mm vs. PFNA-II, 23.2 ± 1.22 mm). No significant differences existed for the other observation indexes (p > 0.05). The IT nail may have more advantage for

  9. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  10. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of in situ proximity ligation for protein interaction analysis in a model of steatohepatitis with Mallory-Denk bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Zatloukal

    Full Text Available The in situ proximity ligation assay (isPLA is an increasingly used technology for in situ detection of protein interactions, post-translational modifications, and spatial relationships of antigens in cells and tissues, in general. In order to test its performance we compared isPLA with immunofluorescence microscopy by analyzing protein interactions in cytoplasmic protein aggregates, so-called Mallory Denk bodies (MDBs. These structures represent protein inclusions in hepatocytes typically found in human steatohepatitis and they can be generated in mice by feeding of 3,5-diethoxy-carbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC. We investigated the colocalization of all three key MDB components, namely keratin 8 (K8, keratin 18 (K18, and p62 (sequestosome 1 by isPLA and immunofluorescence microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of isPLA was assessed by using Krt8-/- and Krt18-/- mice as biological controls, along with a series of technical controls. isPLA signal visualization is a robust technology with excellent sensitivity and specificity. The biological relevance of signals generated critically depends on the performance of antibodies used, which requires careful testing of antibodies like in immunofluorescence microscopy. There is a clear advantage of isPLA in visualizing protein co-localization, particularly when antigens are present at markedly different concentrations. Furthermore, isPLA is superior to confocal microscopy with respect to spatial resolution of colocalizing antigens. Disadvantages compared to immunofluorescence are increased costs and longer duration of the laboratory protocol.

  12. Composite sequential Monte Carlo test for post-market vaccine safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivair R

    2016-04-30

    Group sequential hypothesis testing is now widely used to analyze prospective data. If Monte Carlo simulation is used to construct the signaling threshold, the challenge is how to manage the type I error probability for each one of the multiple tests without losing control on the overall significance level. This paper introduces a valid method for a true management of the alpha spending at each one of a sequence of Monte Carlo tests. The method also enables the use of a sequential simulation strategy for each Monte Carlo test, which is useful for saving computational execution time. Thus, the proposed procedure allows for sequential Monte Carlo test in sequential analysis, and this is the reason that it is called 'composite sequential' test. An upper bound for the potential power losses from the proposed method is deduced. The composite sequential design is illustrated through an application for post-market vaccine safety surveillance data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Sequential meta-analysis to determine the sufficiency of cumulative knowledge: The case of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.P.E.; Onghena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analysis has become a popular tool to statistically integrate results across studies in order to formulate more general conclusions on treatment effectiveness. Unfortunately, traditional meta-analytic applications fail to answer the question whether enough cumulative knowledge is available to

  14. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  15. Comparison of Sequential Designs of Computer Experiments in High Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupresanin, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johannesson, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We continue a long line of research in applying the design and analysis of computer experiments to the study of real world systems. The problem we consider is that of fitting a Gaussian process model for a computer model in applications where the simulation output is a function of a high dimensional input vector. Our computer experiments are designed sequentially as we learn about the model. We perform an empirical comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of several statistical criteria that have been used in sequential experimental designs. The specific application that motivates this work comes from climatology.

  16. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  17. A Bayesian sequential processor approach to spectroscopic portal system decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, K; Candy, J; Breitfeller, E; Guidry, B; Manatt, D; Gosnell, T; Chambers, D

    2007-07-31

    The development of faster more reliable techniques to detect radioactive contraband in a portal type scenario is an extremely important problem especially in this era of constant terrorist threats. Towards this goal the development of a model-based, Bayesian sequential data processor for the detection problem is discussed. In the sequential processor each datum (detector energy deposit and pulse arrival time) is used to update the posterior probability distribution over the space of model parameters. The nature of the sequential processor approach is that a detection is produced as soon as it is statistically justified by the data rather than waiting for a fixed counting interval before any analysis is performed. In this paper the Bayesian model-based approach, physics and signal processing models and decision functions are discussed along with the first results of our research.

  18. Sequential injection spectrophotometric determination of V(V) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-15

    Jan 15, 2009 ... Requimte, Serviço de Química-Física, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Aníbal Cunha, 164,. 4099-030 Porto, Portugal. Abstract. A fast and robust sequential injection analysis (SIA) methodology for routine determination of V(V) in environmental polluted waters is presented.

  19. Rapid and simultaneous determination of neptunium and plutonium isotopes in environmental samples by extraction chromatography using sequential injection analysis and ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2010-01-01

    procedures were investigated and compared for the adjustment of oxidation states of plutonium and neptunium to Pu(IV) and Np(IV), respectively. A two-step protocol using sulfite and concentrated nitric acid as redox reagents was proven to be the most effective method. The analytical results for both...... plutonium and neptunium in three reference materials were in agreement with the recommended or literature values at the 0.05 significance level. The developed method is suitable for the analysis of up to 10 g of soil and 20 g of seaweed samples. The extraction chromatographic separation within the SI system...... for a single sample takes less than 1.5 h. As compared to batchwise procedures, the developed method significantly improves the analysis efficiency, reduces the labor intensity and expedites the simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in emergency actions....

  20. A comparison of conventional maximum intensity projection with a new depth-specific topographic mapping technique in the CT analysis of proximal tibial subchondral bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, James D. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kontulainen, Saija A. [University of Saskatchewan, College of Kinesiology, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Masri, Bassam A.; Wilson, David R. [University of British Columbia, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The objective was to identify subchondral bone density differences between normal and osteoarthritic (OA) proximal tibiae using computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) and computed tomography topographic mapping of subchondral density (CT-TOMASD). Sixteen intact cadaver knees from ten donors (8 male:2 female; mean age:77.8, SD:7.4 years) were categorized as normal (n = 10) or OA (n = 6) based upon CT reconstructions. CT-OAM assessed maximum subchondral bone mineral density (BMD). CT-TOMASD assessed average subchondral BMD across three layers (0-2.5, 2.5-5 and 5-10 mm) measured in relation to depth from the subchondral surface. Regional analyses of CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD included: medial BMD, lateral BMD, and average BMD of a 10-mm diameter area that searched each medial and lateral plateau for the highest ''focal'' density present within each knee. Compared with normal knees, both CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD demonstrated an average of 17% greater whole medial compartment density in OA knees (p < 0.016). CT-OAM did not distinguish focal density differences between OA and normal knees (p > 0.05). CT-TOMASD focal region analyses revealed an average of 24% greater density in the 0- to 2.5-mm layer (p = 0.003) and 36% greater density in the 2.5- to 5-mm layer (p = 0.034) in OA knees. Both CT-OAM and TOMASD identified higher medial compartment density in OA tibiae compared with normal tibiae. In addition, CT-TOMASD indicated greater focal density differences between normal and OA knees with increased depth from the subchondral surface. Depth-specific density analyses may help identify and quantify small changes in subchondral BMD associated with OA disease onset and progression. (orig.)

  1. Proximal Neuromuscular Control Protects Against Hamstring Injuries in Male Soccer Players: A Prospective Study With Electromyography Time-Series Analysis During Maximal Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Danneels, Lieven; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-05-01

    With their unremittingly high incidence rate and detrimental functional repercussions, hamstring injuries remain a substantial problem in male soccer. Proximal neuromuscular control ("core stability") is considered to be of key importance in primary and secondary hamstring injury prevention, although scientific evidence and insights on the exact nature of the core-hamstring association are nonexistent at present. The muscle activation pattern throughout the running cycle would not differ between participants based on injury occurrence during follow-up. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty amateur soccer players participated in a multimuscle surface electromyography (sEMG) assessment during maximal acceleration to full-speed sprinting. Subsequently, hamstring injury occurrence was registered during a 1.5-season follow-up period. Hamstring, gluteal, and trunk muscle activity time series during the airborne and stance phases of acceleration were evaluated and statistically explored for a possible causal association with injury occurrence and absence from sport during follow-up. Players who did not experience a hamstring injury during follow-up had significantly higher amounts of gluteal muscle activity during the front swing phase ( P = .027) and higher amounts of trunk muscle activity during the backswing phase of sprinting ( P = .042). In particular, the risk of sustaining a hamstring injury during follow-up lowered by 20% and 6%, with a 10% increment in normalized muscle activity of the gluteus maximus during the front swing and the trunk muscles during the backswing, respectively ( P < .024). Muscle activity of the core unit during explosive running appeared to be associated with hamstring injury occurrence in male soccer players. Higher amounts of gluteal and trunk muscle activity during the airborne phases of sprinting were associated with a lower risk of hamstring injuries during follow-up. Hence, the present results provide a basis for improved

  2. Correlation Network Analysis reveals a sequential reorganization of metabolic and transcriptional states during germination and gene-metabolite relationships in developing seedlings of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomos A Deri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Holistic profiling and systems biology studies of nutrient availability are providing more and more insight into the mechanisms by which gene expression responds to diverse nutrients and metabolites. Less is known about the mechanisms by which gene expression is affected by endogenous metabolites, which can change dramatically during development. Multivariate statistics and correlation network analysis approaches were applied to non-targeted profiling data to investigate transcriptional and metabolic states and to identify metabolites potentially influencing gene expression during the heterotrophic to autotrophic transition of seedling establishment. Results Microarray-based transcript profiles were obtained from extracts of Arabidopsis seeds or seedlings harvested from imbibition to eight days-old. 1H-NMR metabolite profiles were obtained for corresponding samples. Analysis of transcript data revealed high differential gene expression through seedling emergence followed by a period of less change. Differential gene expression increased gradually to day 8, and showed two days, 5 and 7, with a very high proportion of up-regulated genes, including transcription factor/signaling genes. Network cartography using spring embedding revealed two primary clusters of highly correlated metabolites, which appear to reflect temporally distinct metabolic states. Principle Component Analyses of both sets of profiling data produced a chronological spread of time points, which would be expected of a developmental series. The network cartography of the transcript data produced two distinct clusters comprising days 0 to 2 and days 3 to 8, whereas the corresponding analysis of metabolite data revealed a shift of day 2 into the day 3 to 8 group. A metabolite and transcript pair-wise correlation analysis encompassing all time points gave a set of 237 highly significant correlations. Of 129 genes correlated to sucrose, 44 of them were known to be

  3. Lifelong Transfer Learning for Heterogeneous Teams of Agents in Sequential Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    handwriting recognition, social network analysis, image classification, maze navigation, simulated robot soccer, and robot control. However, transfer...making (SDM) tasks in dynamic environments with simulated and physical robots . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sequential decision making, lifelong learning, transfer...sequential decision-making (SDM) tasks in dynamic environments with both simple benchmark tasks and more complex aerial and ground robot tasks. Our work

  4. The Bacterial Sequential Markov Coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Nicola; Wilson, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria can exchange and acquire new genetic material from other organisms directly and via the environment. This process, known as bacterial recombination, has a strong impact on the evolution of bacteria, for example, leading to the spread of antibiotic resistance across clades and species, and to the avoidance of clonal interference. Recombination hinders phylogenetic and transmission inference because it creates patterns of substitutions (homoplasies) inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single evolutionary tree. Bacterial recombination is typically modeled as statistically akin to gene conversion in eukaryotes, i.e. , using the coalescent with gene conversion (CGC). However, this model can be very computationally demanding as it needs to account for the correlations of evolutionary histories of even distant loci. So, with the increasing popularity of whole genome sequencing, the need has emerged for a faster approach to model and simulate bacterial genome evolution. We present a new model that approximates the coalescent with gene conversion: the bacterial sequential Markov coalescent (BSMC). Our approach is based on a similar idea to the sequential Markov coalescent (SMC)-an approximation of the coalescent with crossover recombination. However, bacterial recombination poses hurdles to a sequential Markov approximation, as it leads to strong correlations and linkage disequilibrium across very distant sites in the genome. Our BSMC overcomes these difficulties, and shows a considerable reduction in computational demand compared to the exact CGC, and very similar patterns in simulated data. We implemented our BSMC model within new simulation software FastSimBac. In addition to the decreased computational demand compared to previous bacterial genome evolution simulators, FastSimBac provides more general options for evolutionary scenarios, allowing population structure with migration, speciation, population size changes, and recombination hotspots. FastSimBac is

  5. Principle and basic property of the sequential flow pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Maeno, Erina; Li, Xinyang; Yurimoto, Terumi; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    In the emergency care field, early treatment of acute heart or respiratory failure has been a global concern. In severe cases, patients are frequently required to be on an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) life support. To make the ECMO system more compact and portable, we proposed a sequential flow-type centrifugal pump named the sequential flow pump (SFP). In this study, principle and basic properties of this novel blood pump were examined by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and an experimental model. In the SFP, fluid is given centrifugal force sequentially twice with a single closed impeller. This sequential pressurization mechanism enables high-pressure output without high impeller speed. To realize easy integration of a blood pump with an artificial lung, the inlet and outlet ports are located at lateral side and center of the pump, respectively, which is the reverse configuration of conventional centrifugal pumps. The computational model was composed for CFD analysis and the experimental model was developed for the experiment of the actual pump. For both models, dimension of the impeller and volute was designed to be equal. In the CFD analysis, the SFP could generate higher performance than the single pressurization model with the same rotational speed of the impeller. Basic property of the experimental model was very similar to that of the computational model. The results showed the possibility that the SFP would be more suitable for the compact ECMO system than conventional centrifugal pumps.

  6. Challenging sequential approach to treatment resistant depression: cost-utility analysis based on the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(⁎)D) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; Montgomery, Stuart; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    In major depression, when a first antidepressant does not cause remission of symptoms (60%-75%), there are several options for continuing treatment in the next step. This study is a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of different second-line approaches. In a simulated trial outpatients with MDD were treated with citalopram for 13 weeks (level 1), then based on two alternative algorithms implemented from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Algorithm A: citalopram was continued until study endpoint (week 26). Algorithm B: patients who remitted during level 1 continued citalopram. Those who did not remit could opt for switching to another antidepressant (venlafaxine; sertraline) (b1) or adding bupropion to citalopram treatment (augmentation; b2). Algorithm B increased remission rate by 10.6% over Algorithm A (number needed to treat: 9.9; sensitivity range: 9.1-12.5). As a comparison, differences between active antidepressants and placebo are associated with NNT values of 6 to 8. In CUA Algorithm B was dominant with an ICER of $11,813 (sensitivity range=$1783 - $21,784), which is cost-effectiveness threshold (USA=$47,193). Among Algorithm B options, switching (b1) dominated Algorithm A with a smaller number of responders than augmentation approach (b2) (NNT 11 vs. 7.7), whereas ICER values were similar (b1: $14,738; b2: $15,458). However we cannot exclude a bias in selecting second treatment. This cost-utility analysis shows (in line with current guidelines) a benefit in modifying antidepressant treatment if response to first-line agent does not occur within 3 months, but not a clear-cut evidence in terms of NNT. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  8. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joints in dupuytren contracture: combined analysis of 4 phase 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamente, Marie A; Hurst, Lawrence C; Benhaim, Prosper; Cohen, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    To examine the results of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures from 4 phase 3 clinical trials of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Patients enrolled in Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II and JOINT I/II with one or more PIP joint contractures (20° to 80°) received CCH 0.58 mg/0.20 mL or placebo (Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II only) injected directly into a palpable cord. The percentage of PIP joints achieving clinical success (0° to 5° of full extension), clinical improvement (50% or more reduction in baseline contracture), and range of motion improvement at 30 days after the first and last CCH injections was assessed. The PIP joint contractures were classified into low (40° or less) and high (more than 40°) baseline severity. Adverse events were recorded. A total of 506 adults (mean age, 63 ± 10 y; 80% male) received 1,165 CCH injections in 644 PIP joint cords (mean, 1.6 injections/cord). Most patients (60%) received 1 injection, with 24%, 16%, and 1% receiving 2, 3, and 4 injections, respectively. Clinical success and clinical improvement occurred in 27% and 49% of PIP joints after one injection and in 34% and 58% after the last injection. Patients with lower baseline severity showed greater improvement and response was comparable between fingers, as were improvements in range of motion. Adverse events occurring in more than 10% of patients were peripheral edema (58%), contusion (38%), injection site hemorrhage (23%), injection site pain (21%), injection site swelling (16%), and tenderness (13%). This incidence was consistent with data reported in phase 3 trials. Two tendon ruptures occurred. No further ruptures occurred after a modified injection technique was adopted. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was effective and well tolerated in the short term in patients with Dupuytren PIP joint contractures. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  9. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  10. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV. PMID:18924623

  11. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  12. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  13. A SUBLOCUS OF THE MULTICOPY MICROSATELLITE MARKER CMS1 MAPS PROXIMAL TO SPINAL MUSCULAR-ATROPHY (SMA) AS SHOWN BY RECOMBINANT ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; COBBEN, JM; OSINGA, J; SCHEFFER, H; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    The critical region containing the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene is flanked by the 5q11-q13 markers, D5S435 and D5S557, as determined by linkage analysis. Here we present the results of an analysis of a Dutch SMA family with the multicopy microsatellite marker CMS1. A crossover is revealed in

  14. Treating the emotional and motivational inhibition of highly gifted underachievers with music psychotherapy: Meta-analysis of an evaluation study based on a sequential design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L

    The psychological and neuropsychological characteristics of gifted children and adolescents are analysed, as well as the emotional and behavioural risks linked to this condition. A prospective follow-up study of N=93 highly gifted students suffering from school failure at the beginning of adolescence was implemented. They were treated with an integrated form of music psychotherapy and verbal psychotherapy in 5 separate groups. The methodology of treatment combined active musical improvisation with the writing of stories or the production of drawings under musical induction, followed by verbal elaboration in the cognitive-psychodynamic psychotherapeutic tradition. The evaluation was based on a mixed-methods design, combining psychometric scales, projective tests and expressive tests. Comparative pretest-posttest, correlational and multidimensional analyses were computed, using non-parametric statistical procedures adapted to small samples and data belonging to a mixed level of measurement. We present a meta-analysis of the confirmatory results in 5 subgroups. There was a significant increase in the capacity of concentration, the capacity of imaginary and symbolic elaboration, the pictorial and literary creativity, self-esteem, the quality of coping strategies, as well as in school marks. There was a significant decrease in defensive functioning and in embitterment and resignation. The latent dimensions extracted with Optimal Scaling procedures from the correlational matrixes of the Delta values of TAT and TSD-Z were meaningful at the light of the state-of-the-arts. The results of the study confirm a prior theoretical modelization coming out of the preparatory stage of the research project. They are interpreted at the light of recent findings in developmental and clinical psychology of adolescence and they open many tracks for future research.

  15. Quantitative volumetric analysis of gliomas with sequential MRI and {sup 11}C-methionine PET assessment: patterns of integration in therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbizu, Javier; Marti-Climent, J.M.; Prieto, E.; Quincoces, G.; Vigil, C.; Penuelas, I.; Richter, J.A. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pamplona (Spain); Tejada, S.; Diez-Valle, R. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Idoate, M.A. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Pathology, Pamplona (Spain); Zubieta, J.L. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the volumetric integration patterns of standard MRI and {sup 11}C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) images in the surgery planning of gliomas and their relationship to the histological grade. We studied 23 patients with suspected or previously treated glioma who underwent preoperative {sup 11}C-methionine PET because MRI was imprecise in defining the surgical target contour. Images were transferred to the treatment planning system, coregistered and fused (BrainLAB). Tumour delineation was performed by {sup 11}C-methionine PET thresholding (vPET) and manual segmentation over MRI (vMRI). A 3-D volumetric study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of each modality to tumour target volume. All cases were surgically treated and histological classification was performed according to WHO grades. Additionally, several biopsy samples were taken according to the results derived either from PET or from MRI and analysed separately. Fifteen patients had high-grade tumours [ten glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and five anaplastic], whereas eight patients had low-grade tumours. Biopsies from areas with high {sup 11}C-methionine uptake without correspondence in MRI showed tumour proliferation, including infiltrative zones, distinguishing them from dysplasia and radionecrosis. Two main PET/MRI integration patterns emerged after analysis of volumetric data: pattern vMRI-in-vPET (11/23) and pattern vPET-in-vMRI (9/23). Besides, a possible third pattern with differences in both directions (vMRI-diff-vPET) could also be observed (3/23). There was a statistically significant association between the tumour classification and integration patterns described above (p < 0.001, {kappa} = 0.72). GBM was associated with pattern vMRI-in-vPET (9/10), low-grade with pattern vPET-in-vMRI (7/8) and anaplastic with pattern vMRI-diff-vPET (3/5). The metabolically active tumour volume observed in {sup 11}C-methionine PET differs from the volume of MRI

  16. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  17. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevan Isaac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot, and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values, with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01. Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01. It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern.

  18. The sequential propensity household projection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The standard method of projecting living arrangements and households in Australia and New Zealand is the 'propensity model', a type of extended headship rate model. Unfortunately it possesses a number of serious shortcomings, including internal inconsistencies, difficulties in setting living arrangement assumptions, and very limited scenario creation capabilities. Data allowing the application of more sophisticated dynamic household projection models are unavailable in Australia. OBJECTIVE The aim was create a projection model to overcome these shortcomings whilst minimising input data requirements and costs, and retaining the projection outputs users are familiar with. METHODS The sequential propensity household projection model is proposed. Living arrangement projections take place in a sequence of calculations, with progressively more detailed living arrangement categories calculated in each step. In doing so the model largely overcomes the three serious deficiencies of the standard propensity model noted above. RESULTS The model is illustrated by three scenarios produced for one case study State, Queensland. They are: a baseline scenario in which all propensities are held constant to demonstrate the effects of population growth and ageing, a housing crisis scenario where housing affordability declines, and a prosperity scenario where families and individuals enjoy greater real incomes. A sensitivity analysis in which assumptions are varied one by one is also presented. CONCLUSIONS The sequential propensity model offers a more effective method of producing household and living arrangement projections than the standard propensity model, and is a practical alternative to dynamic projection models for countries and regions where the data and resources to apply such models are unavailable.

  19. Sequential association rules in atonal music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Weyde, T.; Conklin, D.; Chew, E.; Childs, A.; Chuan, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class

  20. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.

    2014-12-15

    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  2. A mutational analysis of the cytosolic domain of the tomato Cf-9 disease-resistance protein shows that membrane-proximal residues are important for Avr9-dependent necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Apratim; Velusamy, Thilaga; Tee, Choon Yang; Jones, David A

    2016-05-01

    The tomato Cf-9 gene encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein that imparts race-specific resistance against the tomato leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum in response to the avirulence protein Avr9. Although the N-terminal half of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain of the Cf-9 protein determines its specificity for Avr9, the C-terminal half, including its small cytosolic domain, is postulated to be involved in signalling. The cytosolic domain of Cf-9 carries several residues that are potential sites for ubiquitinylation or phosphorylation, or signals for endocytic uptake. A targeted mutagenesis approach was employed to investigate the roles of these residues and cellular processes in Avr9-dependent necrosis triggered by Cf-9. Our results indicate that the membrane-proximal region of the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 plays an important role in Cf-9-mediated necrosis, and two amino acids within this region, a threonine (T835) and a proline (P838), are particularly important for Cf-9 function. An alanine mutation of T835 had no effect on Cf-9 function, but an aspartic acid mutation, which mimics phosphorylation, reduced Cf-9 function. We therefore postulate that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of T835 could act as a molecular switch to determine whether Cf-9 is in a primed or inactive state. Yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to show that the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 interacts with the cytosolic domain of tomato VAP27. This interaction could be disrupted by an alanine mutation of P838, whereas interaction with CITRX remained unaffected. We therefore postulate that a proline-induced kink in the membrane-proximal region of the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 may be important for interaction with VAP27, which may, in turn, be important for Cf-9 function. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  4. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    markets, detection of signals with unknown arrival time in seismology, navigation, radar and sonar signal processing, speech segmentation, and the...are less critical than for onset detection algorithms. A false alarm for the detection of an imminent tsunami obviously has severe and costly... detection (Part II). In Part III, we briefly describe certain important applications where theoretical results can be used efficiently, perhaps with

  5. Effect of Air Cooling and Vacuum Cooling Storage on the β-Carotene Content and Proximate Analysis (Water Content, pH, Total Protein and Content of Sugar) in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Martini, T.; Rini, K. S.; Okstafiyanti, L.

    2017-04-01

    The study of air cooling and vacuum cooling storage effect on the β-carotene content and proximate analysis in carrot has been studied. The aim of the research to determine the effective storage in carrot to improve the quality and the shelf life. Parameters measured during the 12 weeks of storage process were β-carotene, pH, water, sugar and protein content. Validation analysis for β-carotene method showed a good linearity (r 2 = 0.997) in a range of 0-8 mg/L and (r 2 = 0.999) in a range of 0-1 mg/L. The precision was exemplified by %RSD of 0.88%-7.48%. Mean recovery was 100.66% during accuracy studied. UV analysis revealed the LOD values were 0.009 mg/L and LOQ values were 0.032 mg/L. The decreased content of β-carotene, water, protein, and pH from carrot during vacuum cooling storage were higher than in the air cooling storage period. The sugar content for air cooling storage increased up to eight weeks and decreased at the end of storage while the vacuum cooling storage decreased from the beginning of the storage period. All the data indicates that the air cooling storage was more effective storage techniques for extending the shelf life of carrot compared to the vacuum cooling storage.

  6. The sequential trauma score - a new instrument for the sequential mortality prediction in major trauma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Wagner S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma

  7. Sequential Decay of 26F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrick, Hayden; Frank, Nathan; Kuchera, Anthony; Sword, Caleb; Brett, Jaclyn; Deyoung, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; Mona Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Unstable neutron rich nuclides show interesting characteristics including multi-neutron emission. By using Jacobi coordinates, multi-neutron emissions from unstable nuclides may be characterized. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory experiment, a 101.3 MeV/u 27Ne ion beam hit a liquid deuterium target, causing reactions which produced several nuclides. Many of these nuclides decayed, resulting in a charged fragment and one or more neutrons. A superconducting dipole magnet bent the path of the fragments into a series of charged-particle detectors. Neutrons from these decays were measured as they interacted with arrays of scintillating plastic bars called the MoNA-LISA. The four-momentum vectors of the charged particle and neutron(s) were used to reconstruct the invariant mass. 26F was formed by 1-proton stripping from the 27Ne beam, which resulted in either one or two neutrons emission. A GEANT4 simulation comparison to the experimental data shows that sequential neutron emission resulted from some of the 26F produced. The results of these comparisons will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1404236.

  8. Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.

  9. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  11. Online Learning and Sequential Anomaly Detection in Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxhammar, Rikard; Falkman, Göran

    2014-06-01

    Detection of anomalous trajectories is an important problem in the surveillance domain. Various algorithms based on learning of normal trajectory patterns have been proposed for this problem. Yet, these algorithms typically suffer from one or more limitations: They are not designed for sequential analysis of incomplete trajectories or online learning based on an incrementally updated training set. Moreover, they typically involve tuning of many parameters, including ad-hoc anomaly thresholds, and may therefore suffer from overfitting and poorly-calibrated alarm rates. In this article, we propose and investigate the Sequential Hausdorff Nearest-Neighbor Conformal Anomaly Detector (SHNN-CAD) for online learning and sequential anomaly detection in trajectories. This is a parameter-light algorithm that offers a well-founded approach to the calibration of the anomaly threshold. The discords algorithm, originally proposed by Keogh et al. , is another parameter-light anomaly detection algorithm that has previously been shown to have good classification performance on a wide range of time-series datasets, including trajectory data. We implement and investigate the performance of SHNN-CAD and the discords algorithm on four different labeled trajectory datasets. The results show that SHNN-CAD achieves competitive classification performance with minimum parameter tuning during unsupervised online learning and sequential anomaly detection in trajectories.

  12. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas

    1994-12-01

    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  13. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Comparative analysis of the visual performance after implantation of the toric implantable collamer lens in stable keratoconus: a 4-year follow-up after sequential procedure (CXL+TICL implantation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodgar, Farideh; Niazi, Feazollah; Sanginabadi, Azad; Niazi, Sana; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Alinia, Cyrus; Azargashb, Eznollah; Ghoreishi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    To report on 4-year postoperative visual performance with the toric implantable collamer lens (TICL) for stable keratoconus after sequential procedure (corneal collagen crosslinking plus TICL implantation). Forty eyes of 24 patients with stable keratoconus with myopia between 0.00 and -18.00 dioptres (D) and astigmatism between 1.25 and 8.00 D were evaluated in this prospective interventional study (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02833649). We evaluated refraction, visual outcomes, astigmatic changes analysed by Alpins vector, contrast sensitivity, aberrometry, modulation transfer functions (MTFs), defocus curve, and operative and postoperative complications. At 4-year follow-up, 45% had 20/20 vision or better and 100% had 20/40 or better uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA). Vector analysis of refractive astigmatism shows that the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) (3.20±1.46 D) was not significantly different from the target induced astigmatism (TIA) (3.14±1.42 D) (p=0.620). At 4 years postoperatively, none of the eyes showed a decrease in UCVA, in contrast to 24 eyes in which UCVA was increased by ≥1 lines, with contrast sensitivity and improvement in total aberrations and MTF value at 5 per degree (*p=0.004) after TICL implantation. The cumulative 4-year corneal endothelial cell loss was ≤5%. No patients reported dissatisfaction. At the end of follow-up, the vault was 658±54.33m (range, 500-711) and the intraocular pressure was 11.7±2.08 mm Hg. Occurrences of glare and night-driving troubles diminished after TICL surgery. The results from this standardised clinical investigation support TICL implantation from clinical and optical viewpoints in patients with stable keratoconus. NCT02833649, Pre-results.

  15. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  16. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Nigerian soups (Egusi soup and bitter leaf soup) were prepared and freeze - dried to produce instant soups. These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 ...

  17. Sequential ensemble-based optimal design for parameter estimation: SEQUENTIAL ENSEMBLE-BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.

  18. Effect of the Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Wax Emulsions on Proximate Analysis and Some Antioxidants of Soursop (Annona muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L.; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G.; García-Galindo, Hugo S.; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25°C (control), and at 16°C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20°C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analy...

  19. Effect of the Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Wax Emulsions on Proximate Analysis and Some Antioxidants of Soursop (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L. Moreno-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25°C (control, and at 16°C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20°C, 12 h, and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16°C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  20. Hand Proximity Differentially Affects Visual Working Memory for Color and Orientation in a Binding Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane P. Kelly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Observers determined whether two sequentially presented arrays of six lines were the same or different. Differences, when present, involved either a swap in the color of two lines or a swap in the orientation of two lines. Thus, accurate change detection required the binding of color and orientation information for each line within visual working memory. Holding viewing distance constant, the proximity of the arrays to the hands was manipulated. Placing the hands near the to-be-remembered array decreased participants’ ability to remember color information, but increased their ability to remember orientation information. This pair of results indicates that hand proximity differentially affects the processing of various types of visual information, a conclusion broadly consistent with functional and anatomical differences in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. It further indicates that hand proximity affects the likelihood that various object features will be encoded into integrated object files.

  1. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  2. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  3. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  4. Testis sparing surgery for sequential bilateral testicular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, M Derya

    2009-06-01

    We present our experience in performing testis sparing surgery (TSS) to treat sequential bilateral testicular tumors. We performed TSS on two patients with bilateral sequential testicular tumors. A 43-year-old patient (Case 1) and a 33-year-old patient (Case 2) had previous inguinal orchiectomy for seminoma. The patients were diagnosed with secondary testicular tumors in the contralateral testes on follow up. They were treated with TSS after frozen section analysis of the peritumoral testicular tissue. Pathologic evaluation of the removed tumors revealed immature teratoma and Leydig cell tumor. Both patients are disease free without local recurrence and do not have erectile dysfunction, and thus do not need androgen replacement therapy after a follow up of 6 months and 44 months, respectively. TSS after frozen section analysis appears to be a safe and feasible procedure that, in carefully selected cases, offers adequate cancer control, preserves sexual function, and provides psychological benefits.

  5. Managerial adjustment and its limits: sequential fault in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Cunha Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on explanations for sequential faults in administrative reform. It deals with the limits of managerial adjustment in an approach that attempts to connect theory and empirical data, articulating three levels of analysis. The first level presents comparative evidence of sequential fault within reforms in national governments through a set of indicators geared toward understanding changes in the role of the state. In light of analyses of a representative set of comparative studies on reform implementation, the second analytical level proceeds to identify four typical mechanisms that are present in explanations on managerial adjustment faults. In this way, we seek to configure an explanatory matrix for theories on sequential fault. Next we discuss the experience of management reform in the Brazilian context, conferring special attention on one of the mechanisms that creates fault: the control dilemma. The major hypotheses that guide our article are that reforms lead to sequential fault and that there are at least four causal mechanisms that produce reforms: a transactions costs involved in producing reforms; b performance legacy; c predominance of fiscal adjustment and d the control dilemma. These mechanisms act separately or in concert, and act to decrease chances for a transformation of State managerial patterns. Major evidence that is analyzed in these articles lend consistency to the general argument that reforms have failed in their attempts to reduce public expenses, alter patterns of resource allocation, reduce the labor force and change the role of the State. Our major conclusion is that reforms fail sequentially and managerial adjustment displays considerable limitations, particularly those of a political nature.

  6. Integrative genomic analysis in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells reveals that proximal NCOR1 binding positively regulates genes that govern erythroid differentiation and Imatinib sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark D.; van den Berg, Patrick R.; Russell, James L.; Singh, Prashant K.; Battaglia, Sebastiano; Campbell, Moray J.

    2015-01-01

    To define the functions of NCOR1 we developed an integrative analysis that combined ENCODE and NCI-60 data, followed by in vitro validation. NCOR1 and H3K9me3 ChIP-Seq, FAIRE-seq and DNA CpG methylation interactions were related to gene expression using bootstrapping approaches. Most NCOR1 combinations (24/44) were associated with significantly elevated level expression of protein coding genes and only very few combinations related to gene repression. DAVID's biological process annotation revealed that elevated gene expression was uniquely associated with acetylation and ETS binding. A matrix of gene and drug interactions built on NCI-60 data identified that Imatinib significantly targeted the NCOR1 governed transcriptome. Stable knockdown of NCOR1 in K562 cells slowed growth and significantly repressed genes associated with NCOR1 cistrome, again, with the GO terms acetylation and ETS binding, and significantly dampened sensitivity to Imatinib-induced erythroid differentiation. Mining public microarray data revealed that NCOR1-targeted genes were significantly enriched in Imatinib response gene signatures in cell lines and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. These approaches integrated cistrome, transcriptome and drug sensitivity relationships to reveal that NCOR1 function is surprisingly most associated with elevated gene expression, and that these targets, both in CML cell lines and patients, associate with sensitivity to Imatinib. PMID:26117541

  7. Testing three different sequential mediational interpretations of Beck's cognitive model of the development of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pössel, Patrick; Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn

    2014-01-01

    This study tested and compared three sequential interpretations of Beck's cognitive model of the development of depression (1996). The causal mediational interpretation identifies dysfunctional attitudes as most distal to depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive distortions, the cognitive triad, and negative automatic thoughts, with each construct successively more proximal to depressive symptoms. By contrast, the symptom model reverses the causal chain with negative automatic thoughts as the most proximal consequence and dysfunctional attitudes as the most distal consequence of depression. The bidirectional model merges both interpretations into one model. Previous studies on sequential interpretations of Beck's model have not included cognitive distortions or the cognitive triad and did not test the bidirectional model finding contradictory empirical evidence for the sequential order. In the 3-wave longitudinal study, 308 German university students without clinically significant depressive symptoms (245 female, average age: 23.69 years) completed self-report questionnaires measuring their dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive distortions, cognitive triad, negative automatic thoughts, and depressive symptoms. The bidirectional model with partial mediation fit the data best and cognitive distortions mediated the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts and vice versa. The findings have important consequences for the prevention of depression. Prevention programs may want to focus on cognitive distortions, the only construct in Beck's model that influences every other construct in the model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Statistical Analysis of the Effects of Drying Temperature and Pretreatment on the Proximate Composition of Dried Matured Green Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Yusuf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying has been identified as the efficient means of ensuring continuous food supply to the growing population of any country and to enable the farmers produce more high quality marketable products. In this study, the effects of drying temperature and pretreatment on the quality of dried mature green plantain (Musa paradisiaca were studied using an electrically-powered cabinet dryer. The product was dried from an initial moisture content of 62% (w.b to a moisture content of 11.9% (w.b. A factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD involving three levels of temperature (50, 60 and 70 0C; three levels of pretreatment (blanching, boiling and control and three replications were used. The quality analysis of the dried samples at different level of drying temperatures and pre-treatments was carried out for protein, fat, ash and fibre content and the data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software to determine the level of significance among the treatment factors on the dried samples. The protein, fat and fibre content decreased with increase in temperature but the ash content increased with increase in temperature. In pretreatments, control had the highest protein content of 4.27% at 60 0C, lowest fat content of 2.26% at 70 0 C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.68% and 1.82% respectively at 60 0C. Boiled sample also had the highest fat content of 4.27% at 50 0C, lowest fat content 2.26% at 70 0C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.88% and 1.73% respectively at 60 0C. lastly, blanched sample had the highest fat content of 4.11% at 50 0 C, lowest fat content 2.54% at 70 0C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.83% and 1.45% respectively at 60 0C.

  9. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the proximal femur and the pelvis in children and adolescents using an upright biplanar slot-scanning X-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuper, Kinga; Schlegl, Adam Tibor; Vermes, Csaba; Somoskeoey, Szabolcs; Than, Peter [University of Pecs, Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Clinical Centre, Pecs (Hungary); Leidecker, Eleonora [University of Pecs, Institute of Physiotherapy and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pecs (Hungary)

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvis and lower limbs play a key role in the development of orthopaedic disorders. This study aimed to establish normal reference standards for the measurement of gender-specific pelvic and femoral parameters in children and adolescents with the EOS 2-D/3-D system. EOS 2-D images of 508 individuals (ages 4-16 years) were obtained as part of routine diagnostics. Patients with lower limb abnormalities were excluded. Pelvic and femoral surface 3-D models were generated and clinical parameters calculated by sterEOS 3-D reconstruction software. Data were evaluated using Spearman correlation, paired-samples and independent-samples t-test and linear regression analysis. Changes in anatomical parameters were found to correlate with age and gender in (1) femoral mechanical axis length: 27.3-43.7 cm (males), 25.5-41.2 cm (females), (2) femoral head diameter: 29.4-46.1 mm (males), 27.7-41.3 mm (females), (3) femoral offset: 26.8-42.4 mm (males), 25.5-37.9 mm (females) and (4) femoral neck length: 35.1-52.9 mm (males), 32.8-48.1 mm (females). There was no gender-specific correlation for the neck shaft angle with values from 130.4 to 129.3 , for femoral torsion (22.5 -19.4 ), for sacral slope (39.0 -44.4 ) and for lateral pelvic tilt (5.1 mm-6.2 mm). Sagittal pelvic tilt exhibited no significant correlation with age showing average values of 6.5 . The EOS 2-D/3-D system proved to be a valuable method in the evaluation of female and male developmental changes in pelvic and lower limb anatomical parameters, in normal individuals younger than 16 years of age. (orig.)

  10. The effect of wavelet and discrete cosine transform compression of digital radiographs on the detection of subtle proximal caries. ROC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, R K W; Richter, A; d'Hoedt, B

    2008-01-01

    The study compared diagnostic performances of 2 different image compression methods: JPEG (discrete cosine transform; Joint Photographic Experts Group compression standard) versus JPEG2000 (discrete wavelet transform), both at a compression ratio of 12:1, from the original uncompressed TIFF radiograph with respect to the detection of non-cavitated carious lesions. Therefore, 100 approximal surfaces of 50 tooth pairs were evaluated on the radiographs by 10 experienced observers using a 5-point confidence scale. Observations were carried out on a standardized viewing monitor under subdued light conditions. The proportion of diseased surfaces was balanced to approximately 50% to avoid bias. True caries status was assessed by serial ground sectioning and microscopic evaluation. A non-parametric receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed non-significant differences between the 3 image modalities, as computed from the critical ratios z not exceeding +/-2 (JPEG/JPEG2000, z = -0.0339; TIFF/JPEG2000, z = 0.251;TIFF/JPEG, z = 0.914). The mean area beneath the curve was highest for TIFF (0.604) followed by JPEG2000 (0.593) and JPEG (0.591). Both intra-rater and inter-rater agreement were significantly higher for TIFF (kappa(intra) = 0.52; kappa(inter) = 0.40) and JPEG2000 images (kappa(intra) = 0.49; kappa(inter) = 0.38) than for JPEG images (kappa(intra) = 0.33; kappa(inter) = 0.35). Our results indicate that image compression with typical compression algorithms at rates yielding storage sizes of around 50 kB is sufficient even for the challenging task of radiographic detection of non-cavitated carious approximal lesions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. From Sequential Extended Regular Expressions to NFA with Symbolic Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimatti, Alessandro; Mover, Sergio; Roveri, Marco; Tonetta, Stefano

    Practical property specification languages such as the IEEE standard PSL use at their core Sequential Extended Regular Expressions (SERE). In order to enable the reuse of traditional verification techniques, it is necessary to translate SEREs into automata. SERE are regular expressions built over alphabets resulting from the state variables of the design under analysis. Thus, a traditional approach to generate the automaton would suffer from the fact that the size of the alphabet is exponential in the number of symbols in the design.

  12. Optimal sequential measurements for bipartite state discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Sarah; Barnett, Stephen M.; Weir, Graeme

    2017-05-01

    State discrimination is a useful test problem with which to clarify the power and limitations of different classes of measurement. We consider the problem of discriminating between given states of a bipartite quantum system via sequential measurement of the subsystems, with classical feed-forward of measurement results. Our aim is to understand when sequential measurements, which are relatively easy to implement experimentally, perform as well, or almost as well, as optimal joint measurements, which are in general more technologically challenging. We construct conditions that the optimal sequential measurement must satisfy, analogous to the well-known Helstrom conditions for minimum error discrimination in the unrestricted case. We give several examples and compare the optimal probability of correctly identifying the state via global versus sequential measurement strategies.

  13. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine premixed with dexmeditomidine compared with sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, ...

  14. Sequential testing problems for Poisson processes

    OpenAIRE

    Peskir, G; A.N. Shiryaev

    2000-01-01

    We present the explicit solution of the Bayesian problem of sequential testing of two simple hypotheses about the intensity of an observed Poisson process. The method of proof consists of reducing the initial problem to a free-boundary differential-difference Stephan problem and solving the latter by use of the principles of smooth and continuous fit. A rigorous proof of the optimality of the Wald’s sequential probability ratio test in the variational formulation of the prob...

  15. Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Masoud; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Liang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Awartani, Omar; You, Wei; Gadisa, Abay; Ade, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A sequential-casting ternary method is developed to create stratified bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, in which the two BHJ layers are spin cast sequentially without the need of adopting a middle electrode and orthogonal solvents. This method is found to be particularly useful for polymers that form a mechanically alloyed morphology due to the high degree of miscibility in the blend. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Simultaneous vs sequential adjustments in a duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Adyda; Karim, Sharmila; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In a duopoly situation, two firms can move towards the equilibrium point either sequentially or simultaneously. In the case of equal costs and equal initial outputs, numerical results in this paper show the effect of simultaneous adjustment and sequential adjustment on the length of time it takes for a firm to reach the Cournot equilibrium, and the total profit accumulated up until reaching the equilibrium point.

  17. Nonlinear Rescaling and Proximal-Like Methods in Convex Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Roman; Teboulle, Marc

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear rescaling principle (NRP) consists of transforming the objective function and/or the constraints of a given constrained optimization problem into another problem which is equivalent to the original one in the sense that their optimal set of solutions coincides. A nonlinear transformation parameterized by a positive scalar parameter and based on a smooth scaling function is used to transform the constraints. The methods based on NRP consist of sequential unconstrained minimization of the classical Lagrangian for the equivalent problem, followed by an explicit formula updating the Lagrange multipliers. We first show that the NRP leads naturally to proximal methods with an entropy-like kernel, which is defined by the conjugate of the scaling function, and establish that the two methods are dually equivalent for convex constrained minimization problems. We then study the convergence properties of the nonlinear rescaling algorithm and the corresponding entropy-like proximal methods for convex constrained optimization problems. Special cases of the nonlinear resealing algorithm are presented. In particular a new class of exponential penalty-modified barrier functions methods is introduced.

  18. Proximity television in Spain. Concessional processes, analysis of Population and GDP/ La televisión de proximidad en España. Procesos concesionales, análisis de la población y PIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Félix Ortega Mohedano; fortega@usal.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concessional process for the proximity digital terrestrial television in Spain is an open and incomplete process with a significant number of autonomous regions that are still waiting for the concession contests. We undertake an analysis of the main tendencies which arise from the awarded contests. The provisional study of the local television in the wake of the DTT, (Digital Terrestrial Television, refers to the arrival of new actors to the Spanish proximity audiovisual market. We propose an account of the DTT market from two spheres (local-insular and regional related to size, population and GDP in the different geographical areas. This work-in-progress shows a map of the situation of development and implementation of the digital technologies in the regional and local sphere. We analyse the concessional processes, and the relevance and potential profitability of the licence market. We also study the regional population structure and the GDP in the different audiovisual regions. El proceso concesional de la televisión de proximidad en España es un camino abierto en el que faltan todavía comunidades autónomas por adjudicar y/o convocar sus concursos. Realizamos un análisis de las tendencias derivadas de los concursos ya resueltos. El estudio provisional de la situación de la televisión local ante la TDT, (Televisión Digital Terrestre, se refiere al surgimiento de nuevos actores en el sistema español de comunicación como consecuencia de la apertura de nuevos espacios dentro del mercado audiovisual de proximidad. Proponemos una contabilización del mercado de la TDT sobre sus dos soportes (local-insular y autonómico en función del tamaño, estructura de la población alcanzada por cada licenciatario y PIB de las distintas demarcaciones. Este trabajo presenta un mapa del audiovisual de proximidad en España analizando los procesos concesionales, la importancia y rentabilidad potencial de los mercados y concesiones. Se realiza un an

  19. ZONA DE DESARROLLO PROXIMO, SUJETO Y SITUACIÓN. EL PROBLEMA DE LAS UNIDADES DE ANÁLISIS EN PSICOLOGÍA EDUCATIVA ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT, SUBJECT AND SITUATION. (THE PROBLEM OF UNITS OF ANALYSIS IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baquero Orueta Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En el presente trabajo intentaremos mostrar algunas de las implicancias de la obra de Vigotsky y los desarrollos de los Enfoques socioculturales en el campo psicoeducativo. Interesará principalmente describir sus efectos sobre la revisión del problema de la definición de unidades de análisis en la explicación de los procesos de desarrollo. A estos efectos se analizarán ciertos usos de la categoría de ZDP así como sus efectos posibles en el abordaje del fracaso escolar masivo.Abstract:This paper aims to present some of the implications that the work of Lev Vigotsky and other productions within the socio-cultural approaches have had in the field of educational psychology. It will be mainly focused on the contributions of these perspectives to the discussion about the units of analysis used to explain developmental processes. Certain uses of the Zone of Proximal Development concept will be analysed, as well as its possible effects in conceptualizing massive school failure.

  20. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what 'immunity' means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first 'immune' cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1-3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide 'layers' of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.