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Sample records for sequential electron proton

  1. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine a...

  2. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-08-02

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)═O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine and epinephrine are the most efficient food components reducing ferrylmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin, MbFe(II)O 2 , and metmyoglobin, MbFe(III), as revealed by multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares with second order rate constants of 33.6 ± 2.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 19 ± 5 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of -136 ± 18 J/mol K) and 228.9 ± 13.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 110 ± 7 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of 131 ± 25 J/mol K), respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The other tyrosine based food components were found to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin with similar reduction rates at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. These reduction reactions were enhanced by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH ⧧ and ΔS ⧧ ), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found to be able to reduce ferrylmyoglobin with a second order rate constant of 66 ± 28 L/mol/s as determined by a competitive kinetic method.

  3. Photocatalytic Conversion of Nitrobenzene to Aniline through Sequential Proton-Coupled One-Electron Transfers from a Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Stephen C. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University , 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, United States; Bettis Homan, Stephanie [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University , 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, United States; Weiss, Emily A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University , 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, United States

    2016-01-28

    This paper describes the use of cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) as visible-light photocatalysts for the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline through six sequential photoinduced, proton-coupled electron transfers. At pH 3.6–4.3, the internal quantum yield of photons-to-reducing electrons is 37.1% over 54 h of illumination, with no apparent decrease in catalyst activity. Monitoring of the QD exciton by transient absorption reveals that, for each step in the catalytic cycle, the sacrificial reductant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, scavenges the excitonic hole in ~5 ps to form QD•–; electron transfer to nitrobenzene or the intermediates nitrosobenzene and phenylhydroxylamine then occurs on the nanosecond time scale. The rate constants for the single-electron transfer reactions are correlated with the driving forces for the corresponding proton-coupled electron transfers. This result suggests, but does not prove, that electron transfer, not proton transfer, is rate-limiting for these reactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the QD–molecule systems shows that the photoproduct aniline, left unprotonated, serves as a poison for the QD catalyst by adsorbing to its surface. Performing the reaction at an acidic pH not only encourages aniline to desorb but also increases the probability of protonated intermediates; the latter effect probably ensures that recruitment of protons is not rate-limiting.

  4. Electron - proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-proton storage rings allow us to study the interaction between the two basic constituents of matter, electrons and quarks at very short distances. Such machines were first discussed in connection with the ISR but the idea was abandoned because of the anticipated low counting rate. The interest in electron-proton storage rings was rekindeled by the discovery of large pointlike cross sections in lepton-hardon interactions and several/sup 2-15/ projects have been discussed during the past decade. However, despite a glorious past, which includes the discovery of quarks and neutral currents, and a multitude of proposals no electron-proton storage ring has ever been built. What we might learn by studying electron-proton collisions at high energies is discussed. After some brief comments on present proposals the proposed DESY ep project HERA is described as an example of how to realize such a machine

  5. Monitoring sequential electron transfer with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Feezel, L.L.; Snyder, S.W.; Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Morris, A.L.; Rustandi, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    A completely general model which treats electron spin polarization (ESP) found in a system in which radical pairs with different magnetic interactions are formed sequentially has been described. This treatment has been applied specifically to the ESP found in the bacterial reaction center. Test cases show clearly how parameters such as structure, lifetime, and magnetic interactions within the successive radical pairs affect the ESP, and demonstrate that previous treatments of this problem have been incomplete. The photosynthetic bacterial reaction center protein is an ideal system for testing the general model of ESP. The radical pair which exhibits ESP, P 870 + Q - (P 870 + is the oxidized, primary electron donor, a bacteriochlorophyll special pair and Q - is the reduced, primary quinone acceptor) is formed via sequential electron transport through the intermediary radical pair P 870 + I - (I - is the reduced, intermediary electron acceptor, a bacteriopheophytin). In addition, it is possible to experimentally vary most of the important parameters, such as the lifetime of the intermediary radical pair and the magnetic interactions in each pair. It has been shown how selective isotopic substitution ( 1 H or 2 H) on P 870 , I and Q affects the ESP of the EPR spectrum of P 870 + Q - , observed at two different microwave frequencies, in Fe 2+ -depleted bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. Thus, the relative magnitudes of the magnetic properties (nuclear hyperfine and g-factor differences) which influence ESP development were varied. The results support the general model of ESP in that they suggest that the P 870 + Q - radical pair interactions are the dominant source of ESP production in 2 H bacterial reaction centers

  6. Tunneling induced electron transfer between separated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia; Meier, Christoph; Sola, Ignacio R.

    2018-04-01

    We study electron transfer between two separated protons using local control theory. In this symmetric system one can favour a slow transfer by biasing the algorithm, achieving high efficiencies for fixed nuclei. The solution can be parametrized using a sequence of a pump followed by a dump pulse that lead to tunneling-induced electron transfer. Finally, we study the effect of the nuclear kinetic energy on the efficiency. Even in the absence of relative motion between the protons, the spreading of the nuclear wave function is enough to reduce the yield of electronic transfer to less than one half.

  7. Deep-inelastic electron-proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainton, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    Recent measurements by the H1 collaboration at HERA of the cross section for deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering in which the proton interacts with minimal energy transfer and limited 4-momentum transfer squared are presented in the form of the contribution F 2 D(3) to the proton structure function F 2 . By parametrising the cross section phenomenologically in terms of a leading effective Regge pole exchange and comparing the result with a similar parametrisation of hadronic pp physics, the proton interaction is demonstrated to be dominantly of a diffractive nature. The quantitative interpretation of the parametrisation in terms of the properties of an effective leading Regge pole exchange, the pomeron (IP), shows that there is no evidence for a 'harder' BFKL-motivated IP in such deep-inelastic proton diffraction. The total contribution of proton diffraction to deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering is measured to be ∝10% and to be rather insensitive to Bjorken-x and Q 2 . A first measurement of the partonic structure of diffractive exchange is presented. It is shown to be readily interpreted in terms of the exchange of gluons, and to suggest that the bulk of diffractive momentum transfer is carried by a leading gluon. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of dynamical aspects of nonadiabatic electron, proton, and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, Elizabeth; Soudackov, Alexander; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical aspects of a model proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction in solution are analyzed with molecular dynamics simulations. The rate for nonadiabatic PCET is expressed in terms of a time-dependent probability flux correlation function. The impact of the proton donor-acceptor and solvent dynamics on the probability flux is examined. The dynamical behavior of the probability flux correlation function is dominated by a solvent damping term that depends on the energy gap correlation function. The proton donor-acceptor motion does not impact the dynamical behavior of the probability flux correlation function but does influence the magnitude of the rate. The approximations previously invoked for the calculation of PCET rates are tested. The effects of solvent damping on the proton donor-acceptor vibrational motion are found to be negligible, and the short-time solvent approximation, in which only equilibrium fluctuations of the solvent are considered, is determined to be valid for these types of reactions. The analysis of PCET reactions is compared to previous analyses of single electron and proton transfer reactions. The dynamical behavior is qualitatively similar for all three types of reactions, but the time scale of the decay of the probability flux correlation function is significantly longer for single proton transfer than for PCET and single electron transfer due to a smaller solvent reorganization energy for proton transfer

  9. Protons, Aerospace, and Electronics: A National Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Turflinger, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    The aerospace and semiconductor industries lost approx. 2000 hours annually of research access when IUCF closed. An ad hoc team between the U.S. government and industry was formed to evaluate other facility options. In this presentation, we will discuss: 1) Why aerospace, semiconductor manufacturers, and others are interested in proton facility access, as well as, 2) Some of the basics of a typical test for electronics, and 3) We"ll conclude with the brief current status on progress.

  10. Electron Capture in Proton Collisions with CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, P. C.; Schultz, D. R.; Kimura, M.; Gu, J.-P.; Hirsch, G.; Buenker, R. J.; Li, Y.

    1999-10-01

    Electron capture by protons following collisions with carbon monoxide is studied with a variety of theoretical approaches including quantal and semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) and classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) techniques. The MOCC treatments utilize potential surfaces and couplings computed for a range of H^+-CO orientation angles and C-O separations. Results including integral, differential, electronic state-selective, and vibrational state-selective cross sections will be presented for low- to intermediate-energies. Comparison with experiment will be made where possible and the relevance of the reaction in astrophysics and atmospheric physics will be discussed.

  11. Electron Cloud Simulations of a Proton Storage Ring Using Cold Proton Bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Lee, S.Y.; Macek, R.

    2008-01-01

    Using the ORBIT code we study the sensitivity of electron cloud properties with respect to different proton beam profiles, the secondary electron yield (SEY) parameter, and the proton loss rate. Our model uses a cold proton bunch to generate primary electrons and electromagnetic field for electron cloud dynamics. We study the dependence of the prompt and swept electron signals vs the bunch charge and the recovery of electron clouds after sweeping on the beam loss rate and the SEY. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured at the proton storage ring at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Our simulations indicate that the fractional proton loss rate in the field-free straight section may be an exponential function of proton beam charge and may also be lower than the averaged fractional proton loss rate over the whole ring.

  12. Electron clearing for the ISA proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The circulating protons in the ISABELLE intersecting storage ring accelerator will collide with the residual gas in the vacuum chamber. The electrons produced will tend to be captured by the potential well of the beam itself and result in a neutralization of the space charge of the beam. A detailed analysis is given of the various mechanisms which can be used to reduce the net degree of beam neutralization. It is concluded that the average neutralization will be about 10 -4 for a residual gas pressure of 3 x 10 -11 torr of hydrogen

  13. Electron, proton, neutron as spheroidical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to describe the electron and the proton at rest within the framework of Dirac's relativistic theory of particles as electro-magnetic stable, spheroidal particles like balloons with very thin envelopes. Their properties, especially their spins and their magnetic momenta, are exactly those, which have been measured at first and later on derived by Dirac. In this picture the neutron plays the role of a system of two concentric and synchronically rotating balloons with a small distance between them at a positive energetic minimum of balance at 1.26 MeV. The magnetic moment of this particle has a negative sign and is of the correct size. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Proton Relays in Electrochemical Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Benjamin; Fernandez, Laura; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of long-range electron transfer to proton transport over multiple sites plays a vital role in many biological and chemical processes. Recently a molecule with a hydrogen-bond relay inserted between the proton donor and acceptor sites in a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) system was studied electrochemically. The standard rate constants and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured experimentally for this system and a related single proton transfer system. In the present paper, these systems are studied theoretically using vibronically nonadiabatic rate constant expressions for electrochemical PCET. Application of this approach to proton relays requires the calculation of multidimensional proton vibrational wavefunctions and incorporation of multiple proton donor-acceptor motions. The calculated KIEs and relative standard rate constants for the single and double proton transfer systems are in agreement with the experimental data. The calculations indicate that the standard rate constant is lower for the double proton transfer system because of the smaller overlap integral between the ground state reduced and oxidized proton vibrational wavefunctions for this system, resulting in greater contributions from excited electron-proton vibronic states with higher free energy barriers. The decrease in proton donor-acceptor distances due to thermal fluctuations and the contributions from excited electron-proton vibronic states play important roles in proton relay systems. The theory suggests that the PCET rate constant may be increased by decreasing the equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distances or modifying the thermal motions of the molecule to facilitate the concurrent decrease of these distances. The submission of this journal article in ERIA is a requirement of the EFRC subcontract with Pennsylvania State University collaborators to get publications to OSTI.

  15. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  16. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  17. Atomic effects of electrons and protons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of electronic and atomic collisions are discussed. Impact ionization by electrons and protons, and electron bremsstrahlung processes are considered in some detail. Emphasis is also given to (uncorrelated and correlated) many-electron processes, which are of particular importance in collisions of highly-charged ions with atoms. 84 refs., 15 figs

  18. Beam heating in solar flares - Electrons or protons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; Karlicky, M.; Mackinnon, A.L.; Van Den Oord, G.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of electron and proton beam models as candidates for the impulsive phase heating of solar flares is discussed in relation to observational constants and theoretical difficulties. It is concluded that, while the electron beam model for flare heating still faces theoretical and observational problems, the problems faced by low and high energy proton beam models are no less serious, and there are facets of proton models which have not yet been studied. At the present, the electron beam model remains the most viable and best developed of heating model candidates. 58 refs

  19. Relativistic total and differential cross section proton--proton electron--positron pair production calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Circle Feynman diagrams for a specific permutation of variables along with their corresponding algebraic expressions are presented to evaluate [H] 2 for proton-proton electron-positron pair production. A Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced and is used to set up the multiple integral expression for the total pair production cross section. The technique is first applied to the Compton scattering problem and then to an arbitrary multiple integral. The relativistic total cross section for proton-proton electron-positron pair production was calculated for eight different values of incident proton energy. A variety of differential cross sections were calculated for the above energies. Angular differential cross section distributions are presented for the electron, positron, and proton. Invariant mass differential cross section distributions are done both with and without the presence of [H] 2 . Both WGHT and log 10 (TOTAL) distributions were also obtained. The general behavioral trends of the total and differential cross sections for proton-proton electron-positron pair production are presented. The range of validity for this calculation is from 0 to about 200 MeV

  20. Modeling the electron-proton telescope on Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of four sensors in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events in an energy range from 20 - 400 keV for electrons and 20 keV - 7 MeV for protons. It distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. We set up a Monte Carlo model of EPT using the GEANT4 framework, which we can use to simulate interactions of energetic particles in the sensor. Here we present simulation results of the energy coverage for different ion species, and we study how it is possible to distinguish between them.

  1. Dynamic of non relativistic electrons and protons in the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Junior, O.; Pinto Junior, O.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the dynamics of electrons and protons inside the plasmasphere is presented. These particles are subjected to the geomagnetic field and to plasmaspheric electric fields, given by simple static models, during magnetically quiet and disturbed periods. (author) [pt

  2. MIXING THE SOLAR WIND PROTON AND ELECTRON SCALES: EFFECTS OF ELECTRON TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY ON THE OBLIQUE PROTON FIREHOSE INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Viñas, A., E-mail: yana.maneva@wis.kuleuven.be [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons, unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma β and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  3. Mixing the Solar Wind Proton and Electron Scales: Effects of Electron Temperature Anisotropy on the Oblique Proton Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A.; Poedts, S.

    2016-01-01

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons,? unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma ß and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  4. Protonated serotonin: Geometry, electronic structures and photophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    The geometry and electronic structures of protonated serotonin have been investigated by the aim of MP2 and CC2 methods. The relative stabilities, transition energies and geometry of sixteen different protonated isomers of serotonin have been presented. It has been predicted that protonation does not exhibit essential alteration on the S1 ← S0 electronic transition energy of serotonin. Instead, more complicated photophysical nature in respect to its neutral analogue is suggested for protonated system owing to radiative and non-radiative deactivation pathways. In addition to hydrogen detachment (HD), hydrogen/proton transfer (H/PT) processes from ammonium to indole ring along the NH+⋯ π hydrogen bond have been predicted as the most important photophysical consequences of SERH+ at S1 excited state. The PT processes is suggested to be responsible for fluorescence of SERH+ while the HD driving coordinate is proposed for elucidation of its nonradiative deactivation mechanism.

  5. Dosimetric intercomparison between protons and electrons therapies applied to retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Flavia Vieira

    2008-01-01

    In this work we propose a construction of a simple human eye model in order to simulate the dosimetric response for a treatment with protons and electrons in a retinoblastoma cancer. The computational tool used in this simulation was the Geant4 code, in the version 4.9.1, all these package are free and permit simulate the interaction of radiation with matter. In our simulation we use a box with 4 cm side, with water, for represent the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetics beams of protons and electrons with energy range between 50 and 70 MeV for protons and 2 and 10 MeV for electrons. The simulation was based on the advanced hadron therapy example of the Geant 4 code. In these example the phantom is divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side and it is generated the energy deposited in each voxel. The simulation results show the energy deliver in each voxel, with these energie we can calculate the dose deposited in that region. We can see the dose profile of, proton and electron, and we can see in both cases that for protons the position of delivered dose is well know, that happen in the position where the proton stop, for electrons the energies is delivered along the way and pass the desired position for high dose deposition. (author)

  6. STARCODES, Stopping Power and Ranges for Electrons, Protons, He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The 'STAR CODES', ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR, calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, and helium ions (alphas), according to methods described in ICRU Reports 37 and 39. 2 - Method of solution: Collision stopping powers are calculated from the theory of Bethe (1930, 1932), with a density-effect correction evaluated according to Sternheimer (1952, 1982). The stopping-power formula contains an important parameter, the mean excitation energy (I-value), which characterizes the stopping properties of a material. The codes provide output for electrons in any stopping material (279 provided) and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials. The calculations include the 1) Collision stopping power, 2) Radiative stopping power (electrons only), 3) Nuclear stopping power (protons and helium ions), 4) Total stopping power, 5) CSDA range, 6) Projected range (protons and helium ions), 7) Density effect parameter (electrons), 8) Radiation yield (electrons), and 9) Detour factor (protons and helium ions). Standard energy grids and files of elements w/ionization-excitation information are included with lookup table capabilities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The minimum energies used in the calculations are at 1 KeV (protons and helium ions) and 10 KeV (electrons), and the maximum are 1 GeV. The standard energy grids are set at 81 for electrons, equally spaced (logarithmically), 133 for protons, and 122 for helium ions. The lower energy electron calculations (< 10 KeV) have up to 5-10% errors and are considered too fallable

  7. First Extraction of Transversity from a Global Analysis of Electron-Proton and Proton-Proton Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    We present the first extraction of the transversity distribution in the framework of collinear factorization based on the global analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering and in proton-proton collisions with a transversely polarized proton. The extraction relies on the knowledge of dihadron fragmentation functions, which are taken from the analysis of electron-positron annihilation data. For the first time, the transversity is extracted from a global analysis similar to what is usually done for the spin-averaged and helicity distributions. The knowledge of transversity is important for, among other things, detecting possible signals of new physics in high-precision low-energy experiments.

  8. Proton position near QB and coupling of electron and proton transfer in photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, R V; Poltev, S V; Kukushkin, A K

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the energy levels and wavefunctions of a proton in a histidine (His)-plastoquinone (PQ) system in the reaction centre (RC) of photosystem 2 of higher plants and the RC of purple bacteria for different redox states of PQ Q B . For oxidized Q B , the proton is located near His. For once-reduced PQ, it is positioned in the middle between the nitrogen of His and the oxygen of PQ. For twofold-reduced PQ, the proton is localized near the oxygen of PQ. Using the values of total energy of the system in these states, we have also estimated the frequency of proton oscillations. On the basis of these results we propose a hypothesis about the coupling of electron-proton transfer

  9. Progress in Fast Ignition Studies with Electrons and Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Akli, K. U.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Chen, C. D.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, E.; Fedosejevs, R.; Freeman, R. R.; Hey, D.; Higginson, D.; Key, M. H.; King, J. A.; Link, A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Offermann, D.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Pasley, J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Schumacher, D. W.; Stephens, R. B.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Wei, M. S.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2009-09-01

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) concept for initiating burn in a fusion capsule. In order to investigate critical aspects needed for a FI point design, experiments were performed to study 1) laser-to-electrons or protons conversion issues and 2) laser-cone interactions including prepulse effects. A large suite of diagnostics was utilized to study these important parameters. Using cone—wire surrogate targets it is found that pre-pulse levels on medium scale lasers such as Titan at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory produce long scale length plasmas that strongly effect coupling of the laser to FI relevant electrons inside cones. The cone wall thickness also affects coupling to the wire. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled as a function of target thickness, material. Conclusions from the proton and electron source experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed. In conclusion, a program of study will be presented based on understanding the fundamental physics of the electron or proton source relevant to FI.

  10. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2On after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects.

  11. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects. PMID:26798842

  12. On the electron to proton mass ratio and the proton structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole L.

    2013-01-01

    We derive an expression for the electron to nucleon mass ratio from a reinterpreted lattice gauge theory Hamiltonian to describe interior baryon dynamics. We use the classical electron radius as our fundamental length scale. Based on expansions on trigonometric Slater determinants for a neutral s...... and d valence quarks of the proton....

  13. Electron Cooling of Protons in a Nested Penning Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.S.; Gabrielse, G.

    1996-01-01

    Trapped protons cool via collisions with trapped electrons at 4 K.This first demonstration of sympathetic cooling by trapped species of opposite sign of charge utilizes a nested Penning trap. The demonstrated interaction of electrons and protons at very low relative velocities, where recombination is predicted to be most rapid, indicates that this may be a route towards the study of low temperature recombination. The production of cold antihydrogen is of particular interest, and electron cooling of highly stripped ions may also be possible. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  15. ELECTRON SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS ON THE NEUTRON AND PROTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkelman, Karl

    1963-06-15

    The electric and magnetic helicity form factors of the proton are measured at 4-momentum transfers (squared) of 25 to 45 f/sup -2/, by means of electron scattering by protons at high energies. The results are combined with other e/sup -/--p and e/sup -/--d experimental findings in order to show the proton form fuctors from 0 to 45 f/sup -2/ and the neutron form factors from 0 to 25 f/sup -2/. (T.F.H.)

  16. Proton location in metal hydrides using electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) of dilute paramagnetic ions establishes the site symmetry of these ions. In the case of metal hydrides the site symmetry is determined by the number and location of neighboring protons. Typical ESR spectra for trivalent erbium in scandium and yttrium hydrides are presented and analyzed, and this technique is shown to be a versatile microscopic probe of the location, net charge and occupation probability of nearby protons

  17. Impact of sequential proton density fat fraction for quantification of hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idilman, Ilkay S; Keskin, Onur; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Idilman, Ramazan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2014-05-01

    To determine the utility of sequential MRI-estimated proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) for quantification of the longitudinal changes in liver fat content in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 18 consecutive individuals (M/F: 10/8, mean age: 47.7±9.8 years) diagnosed with NAFLD, who underwent sequential PDFF calculations for the quantification of hepatic steatosis at two different time points, were included in the study. All patients underwent T1-independent volumetric multi-echo gradient-echo imaging with T2* correction and spectral fat modeling. A close correlation for quantification of hepatic steatosis between the initial MRI-PDFF and liver biopsy was observed (rs=0.758, phepatic steatosis. The changes in serum ALT levels significantly reflected changes in MRI-PDFF in patients with NAFLD.

  18. Studies of electron and proton isochoric heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Beg, F; Clarke, R; Clarke, D; Chen, M; Chung, H; Chen, S; Freeman, R; Green, J; Gu, P; Gregori, G; Highbarger, K; Habara, H; Hatchett, S; Hey, D; Heathcote, R; Hill, J; King, J; Kodama, R; Koch, J; Lancaster, K; Langdon, B; Murphy, C; Norreys, P; Neely, D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nakamura, H; Patel, N; Patel, P; Pasley, J; Snavley, R; Stephens, R; Stoeckl, C; Foord, M; Tabak, M; Theobald, W; Storm, M; Tanaka, K; Tempo, M; Toley, M; Town, R; Wilks, S; VanWoerkom, L; Weber, R; Yabuuchi, T; Zhang, B

    2006-01-01

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) proposal to use this technique to initiate burn in a fusion capsule. Experiments designed to investigate electron isochoric heating have measured heating in two limiting cases of interest to fast ignition, small planar foils and hollow cones. Data from Cu Kα fluorescence, crystal x-ray spectroscopy of Cu K shell emission, and XUV imaging at 68eV and 256 eV are used to test PIC and Hybrid PIC modeling of the interaction. Isochoric heating by focused proton beams generated at the concave inside surface of a hemi-shell and from a sub hemi-shell inside a cone have been studied with the same diagnostic methods plus imaging of proton induced Kα. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled. Conclusions from the proton and electron heating experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed

  19. Emittance growth induced by electron cloud in proton storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Coppa, G

    2006-01-01

    In proton and positron storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, a large number of electrons can accumulate in the beam pipe due to various mechanisms (photoemission, residual gas ionization, beam-induced multipacting). The so-formed electron cloud interacts with the positively charged bunches, giving rise to instabilities, emittance growth and losses. This phenomenon has been observed in several existing machines such as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), whose operation has been constrained by the electron-cloud problem, and it is a concern for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN. The interaction between the beam and the electron cloud has features which cannot be fully taken into account by the conventional and known theories from accelerators and plasma physics. Computer simulations are indispensable for a proper prediction and understanding of the instability dynamics. The main feature which renders the beam-cloud interactions so peculiar is that the the electron cloud...

  20. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two electrons and two muons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event with two identified muons and two identified electrons from a proton- proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: one Z decays to two muons, the other to two electrons. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal. The two muons are picked out as red tracks penetrating right through the detector. The two electrons are picked out as green tracks in the central, inner detector, matching narrow green clusters of energy in the barrel part of the calorimeters. The inset at the bottom right shows a map of the energy seen in the detector: the two big yellow spikes correspond to the two electrons.

  1. Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Donald C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Qweak experiment which ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, and completed data taking in May 2012, measured the weak charge of the proton QpW via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The helicity of the electron beam was flipped at approximately 1 kHz between left and right spin states. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 [1] with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of -279 ± 35(stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb. This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be pW = 0.064 ± 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of pW(SM) = 0.0708 ± 0.0003[2].

  2. Observation and spectroscopy of new proton-unbound isotopes {sup 30}Ar and {sup 29}Cl - an interplay of prompt two-proton and sequential decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukha, Ivan [Helmholzzentrum GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Previously unknown isotopes {sup 30}Ar and {sup 29}Cl have been identified by measurement of the trajectories of their in-flight decay products {sup 28}S+p+p and {sup 28}S+p, respectively. The analysis of angular correlations of the fragments provided information on decay energies and structure of the parent states. The lowest states in {sup 30}Ar, {sup 29}Cl point to a violation of isobaric symmetry in structure of these unbound nuclei. The two-proton decay has been identified in a transition region between simultaneous two-proton and sequential proton emissions from the {sup 30}Ar ground state, which is characterized by an interplay of three-body and two-body decay mechanisms. Such a phenomenon, never observed before, may be common in 2p-unbound nuclei, and could be of interest for other disciplines dealing with few-body systems. In addition, the dramatic change of odd-even mass staggering in 2p-unbound nuclei and the fine structure in the 2p decay of the {sup 30}Ar*(2.9 MeV) state were indicated. An Optical Time-Projection Chamber was used in the same experiment to observe beta decays of stopped {sup 31}Ar ions, which passed the secondary target intact. With this detector, β-delayed 3p emission from {sup 31}Ar was observed.

  3. Interaction of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches with dense plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A

    2012-01-01

    Here we discuss the possibility of employment of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches for generation of high plasma wakefields in dense plasmas due to the Cherenkov resonance plasma-bunch interaction. We estimate the maximum amplitude of such a wake and minimum system length at which the maximum amplitude can be generated at the given bunch parameters.

  4. Experiments on neutron-proton and neutron-electron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1975-01-01

    The paper reports on zero-energy experiments with neutrons, protons and electrons with a wavelength that is considerably longer than the particle expansion. Scattering amplitudes are measured for the reactions n + p and n + e. A neutron gravity refractometer is used. (WL/AK) [de

  5. Proton-antiproton colliding beam electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility of effective cooling of high-energy pp tilde beams (E=10 2 -10 3 GeV) in the colliding mode by accompanying radiationally cooled electron beam circulating in an adjacent storage ring is studied. The cooling rate restrictions by the pp tilde beam interaction effects while colliding and the beam self-heating effect due to multiple internal scattering are considered. Some techniques permitting to avoid self-heating of a cooling electron beam or suppress its harmful effect on a heavy particle beam cooling are proposed. According to the estimations the cooling time of 10 2 -10 3 s order can be attained [ru

  6. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G; Kuznetsov, G; Shiltsev, V; Still, D A; Valishev, A; Vorobiev, L G; Assmann, R; Kabantsev, A

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  7. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams

  8. Parity Violation in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering and the Proton's Strange Magnetic Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spayde, D. T.; Averett, T.; Barkhuff, D.; Beck, D. H.; Beise, E. J.; Benson, C.; Breuer, H.; Carr, R.; Covrig, S.; DelCorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron scattering from the proton at backward scattering angles. This asymmetry is sensitive to the strange magnetic form factor of the proton as well as electroweak axial radiative corrections. The new measurement of A=-4.92±0.61±0.73 ppm provides a significant constraint on these quantities. The implications for the strange magnetic form factor are discussed in the context of theoretical estimates for the axial corrections. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Secondary-electron-bremsstrahlung imaging for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka; Nagao, Yuto [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Ando, Koki; Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1 Hirate-cho, Kita-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kataoka, Jun [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kawachi, Naoki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    A feasibility study on an imaging technique of a therapeutic proton-beam trajectory using a gamma camera by measuring secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) was performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a beam-irradiation experiment. From the simulation and experimental results, it was found that a significant amount of SEB yield exists between the beam-injection surface and the range position along the beam axis and the beam trajectory is clearly imaged by the SEB yield. It is concluded that the SEB imaging is a promising technique for monitoring of therapeutic proton-beam trajectories.

  10. A study on the electric properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells under the combined radiation of low-energy protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huijie; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; He Shiyu; Yang Dezhuang; Sun Yanzheng; Sun Qiang; Lv Wei; Xiao Zhibin; Huang Caiyong

    2008-01-01

    Displacement damage induced by charged particle radiation is the main cause of degradation of orbital-service solar cells, while the radiation-induced ionization shows no permanent damage effect on their electrical properties. It is reported that in single crystal silicon solar cells, low-energy electron radiation does not exert permanent degradation of their properties, but the fluence of electron radiation exerts an influence on the damage magnitude under the combined radiation of protons and electrons. The electrical properties of the single-junction GaAs/Ge solar cells were investigated after irradiation by sequential and synchronous electron and proton beams. Low-energy electron radiation showed no effects on the change of the solar cell properties during sequential or synchronous irradiation, implying ionization during particle radiation could not exert influence on the displacement damage process to the solar cells under the experimental conditions

  11. Vector analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the vector analyzing power (VAP) for the elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons from protons at low energies using an effective theory of electrons, protons, and photons. We study all contributions through second order in E/M, where E and M are the electron energy and nucleon mass, respectively. The leading-order VAP arises from the imaginary part of the interference of one- and two-photon exchange amplitudes. Subleading contributions are generated by the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius as well as recoil corrections to the leading-order amplitude. Working to O(E/M) 2 , we obtain a prediction for A n that is free of unknown parameters and that agrees with the recent measurement of the VAP in backward angle ep scattering

  12. Effects of target plasma electron-electron collisions on correlated motion of fragmented H2+ protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to examined the effects of plasma target electron-electron collisions on H 2 + protons traversing it. Specifically, the target is deuterium in a plasma state with temperature T e =10 eV and density n=10 23 cm -3 , and proton velocities are v p =v th , v p =2v th , and v p =3v th , where v th is the electron thermal velocity of the target plasma. Proton interactions with plasma electrons are treated by means of the dielectric formalism. The interactions among close protons through plasma electronic medium are called vicinage forces. It is checked that these forces always screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H 2 + ion decreasing their relative distance. They also align the interproton vector along the motion direction, and increase the energy loss of the two protons at early dwell times while for longer times the energy loss tends to the value of two isolated protons. Nevertheless, vicinage forces and effects are modified by the target electron collisions. These collisions enhance the calculated self-stopping and vicinage forces over the collisionless results. Regarding proton correlated motion, when these collisions are included, the interproton vector along the motion direction overaligns at slower proton velocities (v p =v th ) and misaligns for faster ones (v p =2v th , v p =3v th ). They also contribute to a great extend to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H 2 + ion. This later effect is more significant in reducing projectile velocity

  13. Study of electron and proton isochoric heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Chen, M.H.; Chung, H.K.; Foord, M.E.; Gregori, G.; Hatchett, S.P.; Koch, J.A.; Lasinski, B.F.; Langdon, B.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Patel, P.; Snavely, R.A.; Tabak, M.; Town, R.; Wilks, S.C.; Akli, K.; Freeman, R.R.; Gu, P.; Hey, D.; Hill, J.M.; King, J.A.; Patel, N.; Zhang, B.; Freeman, R.R.; Stephens, R.B.; Beg, F.; Pasley, J.; Green, J.S.; Lancaster, K.; Murphy, C.D.; Norreys, P.A.; Green, J.S.; Murphy, C.D.; Habara, H.; Kodama, R.; Tanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.

    2006-01-01

    Isochoric heating by electrons has been measured in the two limiting cases of small area thin foils with dominant refluxing and cone-long-wire geometry with negligible refluxing in the wire. Imaging of Cu Kα cone fluorescence, crystal X-ray spectroscopy of Cu K shell emission, and X UV imaging at 68 eV and 256 eV are discussed. Laser power on target was typically 0.5 PW in 0.7 ps. Heating by focused proton beams generated at the concave inside surface of a hemi-shell and from a sub hemi-shell inside 30 degrees cone has been studied with the same diagnostic methods plus imaging of proton induced Kα. Conversion efficiency to protons has been measured and modeled. Conclusions from the experiments, links to theoretical understanding and relevance to fast ignition are outlined. (authors)

  14. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized

  15. Effect of proton transfer on the electronic coupling in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, Janusz; Makowska, Joanna; Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of single and double proton transfer within Watson-Crick base pairs on donor-acceptor electronic couplings, V da , in DNA are studied on the bases of quantum chemical calculations. Four dimers [AT,AT], [GC,GC], [GC,AT] and [GC,TA)] are considered. Three techniques - the generalized Mulliken-Hush scheme, the fragment charge method and the diabatic states method - are employed to estimate V da for hole transfer between base pairs. We show that both single- and double proton transfer (PT) reactions may substantially affect the electronic coupling in DNA. The electronic coupling in [AT,AT] is predicted to be most sensitive to PT. Single PT within the first base pair in the dimer leads to increase in the hole transfer efficiency by a factor of 4, while proton transfer within the second pair should substantially, by 2.7 times, decrease the rate of charge transfer. Thus, directional asymmetry of the PT effects on the electronic coupling is predicted. The changes in the V da matrix elements correlate with the topological properties of orbitals of donor and acceptor and can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of resonance structures of donor and acceptor. Atomic pair contributions to the V da matrix elements are also analyzed

  16. Electron identification and hadron contamination studies in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashi, Anisa [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The continuum of electron-positron pairs, produced in heavy-ion collisions, provides an excellent probe of the quark-gluon plasma and a possible chiral symmetry restoration, since these particles do not undergo strong final state interactions and hence carry information about the in-medium properties of hadrons to the detectors. To extract possible signatures, it is important to work with an electron sample of high purity, i.e. not contaminated by other particles. Dielectrons are also studied in proton-proton collisions to provide a crucial reference for the measurement in heavy-ion collisions. This poster presents an analysis performed on a data set of pp collisions at √(s) = 7 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The aim of this work is to optimize the electron identification and to reduce the hadron contamination. For that, three different combinations of particle identification (PID) criteria are compared regarding the statistical significance S/σ{sub S} of their dielectron signals and their electron purities. The analysis shows that one can achieve good electron identification efficiencies and high electron purities by combining the specific energy loss signals measured in the Inner Tracking System and the Time Projection Chamber with the information of the Time of Flight detector. With such a PID selection one obtains a dielectron signal with a purity higher than 82% reaching up to 96%, depending on the invariant mass.

  17. Challenges in reduction of dinitrogen by proton and electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Cornelis J M; Koper, Marc T M; Hetterscheid, Dennis G H

    2014-08-07

    Ammonia is an important nutrient for the growth of plants. In industry, ammonia is produced by the energy expensive Haber-Bosch process where dihydrogen and dinitrogen form ammonia at a very high pressure and temperature. In principle one could also reduce dinitrogen upon addition of protons and electrons similar to the mechanism of ammonia production by nitrogenases. Recently, major breakthroughs have taken place in our understanding of biological fixation of dinitrogen, of molecular model systems that can reduce dinitrogen, and in the electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen at heterogeneous surfaces. Yet for efficient reduction of dinitrogen with protons and electrons major hurdles still have to be overcome. In this tutorial review we give an overview of the different catalytic systems, highlight the recent breakthroughs, pinpoint common grounds and discuss the bottlenecks and challenges in catalytic reduction of dinitrogen.

  18. Effects of electrons on the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michno, M. J.; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Among the kinetic microinstabilities, the firehose instability is one of the most efficient mechanisms to restrict the unlimited increase of temperature anisotropy in the direction of an ambient magnetic field as predicted by adiabatic expansion of collision-poor solar wind. Indeed, the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy detected near 1 AU shows that it is constrained by the marginal firehose condition. Of the two types of firehose instabilities, namely, parallel and oblique, the literature suggests that the solar wind data conform more closely to the marginal oblique firehose condition. In the present work, however, it is shown that the parallel firehose instability threshold is markedly influenced by the presence of anisotropic electrons, such that under some circumstances, the cumulative effects of both electron and proton anisotropies could describe the observation without considering the oblique firehose mode.

  19. How Do We Know Protons, Electrons, and Quarks Really Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Scientific explanations often make use of things that cannot be seen or felt, such as protons, electrons, and quarks. Do these things really exist? If so, how do is it known that they exist? Imagine being enclosed in a completely dark room with no light at all and not being able to see a thing. Being chained to a chair somewhere in the room, and…

  20. Double electron capture by protons in collisions with H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Zepeda, M.H.; Gleason, Cristian; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hinojosa, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Double electron capture of protons in collisions with molecular hydrogen in the energy range 1.5-10 keV was studied by measuring the resulting H - velocity distributions. In this paper, a technique that provides experimental evidence about double capture mechanisms is proposed. In addition, cross-sections for this process were measured in the energy range of 1-5 keV.

  1. Comparison of the secondary electrons produced by proton and electron beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-r-kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The secondary electrons produced in water by electron and proton beams are compared with each other. The total ionization cross section (TICS) for an electron impact in water is obtained by using the binary-encounter-Bethe model. Hence, an empirical equation based on two adjustable fitting parameters is presented to determine the TICS for proton impact in media. In order to calculate the projectile trajectory, a set of stochastic differential equations based on the inelastic collision, elastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung emission are used. In accordance with the projectile trajectory, the depth dose deposition, electron energy loss distribution in a certain depth, and secondary electrons produced in water are calculated. The obtained results for the depth dose deposition and energy loss distribution in certain depth for electron and proton beams with various incident energies in media are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. The difference between the profiles for the depth dose deposition and production of secondary electrons for a proton beam can be ignored approximately. But, these profiles for an electron beam are completely different due to the effect of elastic scattering on electron trajectory.

  2. On a method for high-energy electron beam production in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested to produce high-energy electron beams in such a way that the ultrarelativistic protons give an amount of their kinetic energy to the electrons of a thin target, placed inside the working volume of the proton synchrotron. The kinematics of the elastic scattering of relativistic protons on electrons at rest is treated. Evaluation of a number of elastically-scattered electrons by 1000 GeV and 3000 GeV proton beams is presented. The method under consideration is of certain practical interest and may appear to be preferable in a definite energy range of protons and electrons

  3. Electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pertica, A.

    2013-04-22

    The build up of electron clouds inside a particle accelerator vacuum chamber can produce strong transverse and longitudinal beam instabilities which in turn can lead to high levels of beam loss often requiring the accelerator to be run below its design specification. To study the behaviour of electron clouds at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron, a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) based electron cloud detector has been developed. The detector is based on the Retarding Field Analyser (RFA) design and consists of a retarding grid, which allows energy analysis of the electron signal, and a MCP assembly placed in front of the collector plate. The MCP assembly provides a current gain over the range 300 to 25K, thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio and dynamic range of the measurements. This paper presents the first electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron. These results are compared against signals from a beam position monitor and a fast beam loss monitor installed at the same location.

  4. Sequential observations of brain edema with proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between morphological and metabolic changes in brain edema using proton magnetic resonance systems. The serial changes during the first 24 hours in the cold-injury trauma rat brain model were investigated by proton magnetic resonance imaging ( 1 H MRI) and high-resolution proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). We also analyzed the efficacy of AVS 1,2-bis (nicotinamide)-propane which can scavenge free radicals to the edema in this experiment. The edema was developing extensively via the corpus callosum in ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres as shown by gradually increased signal intensity on 1 H MRI. 1 H MRS initially showed accumulation of acetate and lactate, and transient increasing of glutamine. After 24 hours, the increased glutamine decreased below the control, alanine increased, and N-acetyl aspartate decreased with the edema development. AVS-treatment significantly suppressed edema development, increases of lactate and alanine and decreases of N-acetyl aspartate. We suggest that the cold-induced lesion contains anaerobic glycolysis deterioration and results in severe brain tissue breakdown. AVS is proved valuable for the treatment of this edema lesion. Clinical 1 H MRS showed prolonged lactate elevation and significant decreases of other metabolites in human ischemic stroke edema. In peritumoral edema, decreased N-acetyl aspartate gradually improved, and slightly elevated lactate disappeared after tumor removal. 1 H MRS feasibly characterizes the ischemic and peritumoral edema and makes a quantitative analysis in human brain metabolism. We believe the combined 1 H MRI and MRS study is a practical method to monitor the brain conditions and will make it easy and possible to find new therapeutic agents to some brain disorders. (author)

  5. SU-F-I-70: Investigation of Gafchromic EBT3 Film Energy Dependence Using Proton, Photon, and Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the energy dependence of Gafchromic EBT3 film over a range of clinically used proton, photon and electron energies. Methods: Proton beam energies of 117 and 204 MeV, corresponding respectively to ranges in water of 10 cm and 27 cm from a Mevion S250 double scatter system unit were used. Electron energies of 6 and 20 MeV and photon energies of 6 and 18 MV from a Varian Clinac 21EX Linac were used. Two pieces of film (5×5 cm"2) were irradiated sequentially for doses of 100, 500, and 1000 cGy for all energies and modalities. Films were placed on the central beam axis for a 10×10 cm"2 field size in the middle of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) for proton and in respective dmax for photon and electron energies. Films were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner on the central region of the scanning window using 48-bit, 300 dpi, and landscape orientation after 48 hours post-irradiation of film to account for optical density (OD) stabilization. Film analysis of the red channel was performed using ImageJ 1.48v (National Institutes of Health). Results: The energy dependency of EBT3 among all energies and modalities for all doses studied was small within measurement uncertainties (1σ = ± 4.1%). The mean net OD in red channel for films receiving the same dose in the same energy modality had standard deviations within 0.9% for photons, 4.9% for electrons and 1.8% for protons. It was observed that film pieces were activated during proton irradiation, e.g., 7 mR/hr at surface after 30 minutes of irradiation, lasting for 2 hours post irradiation. Conclusion: EBT3 energy dependency was evaluated for clinically used proton, photon, and electron energies. The film self-activation may have contributed to fog and negligible dose.

  6. Computational details of the Monte Carlo simulation of proton and electron tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Brenner, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The code PROTON simulates the elastic and nonelastic interactions of protons and electrons in water vapor. In this paper, the treatment of elastic angular scattering of electrons as utilized in PROTON is described and compared with alternate formalisms. The sensitivity of the calculation to different treatments of this process is examined in terms of proximity functions of energy deposition. 5 figures

  7. Multiple electron processes of He and Ne by proton impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhin, Pavel Nikolaevich; Montenegro, Pablo; Quinto, Michele; Monti, Juan; Fojon, Omar; Rivarola, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    A detailed investigation of multiple electron processes (single and multiple ionization, single capture, transfer-ionization) of He and Ne is presented for proton impact at intermediate and high collision energies. Exclusive absolute cross sections for these processes have been obtained by calculation of transition probabilities in the independent electron and independent event models as a function of impact parameter in the framework of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory. A binomial analysis is employed to calculate exclusive probabilities. The comparison with available theoretical and experimental results shows that exclusive probabilities are needed for a reliable description of the experimental data. The developed approach can be used for obtaining the input database for modeling multiple electron processes of charged particles passing through the matter.

  8. Electron capture by fast protons from helium-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R.; Purkait, M.

    2011-01-01

    Four-body formalism of boundary corrected continuum intermediate state (BCCIS-4B) approximation have been applied to calculate the single-electron capture cross sections by fast protons through some helium-like ions in a large energy range from 30-1000 keV. In this model, distortion has been taken into account in the entrance channel. In the final channel, the passive electron plays the role of screening of the target ion. However, continuum states of the projectile and the electron in the field of the residual target ion are included. The comparison of the results is made with those of other theoretical investigations and experimental findings. The present calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental findings. (authors)

  9. Mixed protonic-electronic conductors for hydrogen separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sun-Ju

    2003-10-01

    The chemical functionality of mixed protonic-electronic conductors arises out of the nature of the defect structure controlled by thermodynamic defect equilibria of the materials, and results in the ability to transport charged species. This dissertation is to develop a fundamental understanding of defect chemistry and transport properties of mixed protonic-electronic conducting perovskites for hydrogen separation membranes. Furthermore, it was aimed to develop the algorithm to predict how these properties affect the permeability in chemical potential gradients. From this objective, first of all, the appropriate equations governing proton incorporation into perovskite oxides were suggested and the computer simulation of defect concentrations across a membrane oxide under various conditions were performed. Electrical properties of p-type electronic defects at oxidizing conditions and n-type electrical properties of SrCe 0.95Eu0.05O3-delta at reducing atmospheres were studied. Defect equilibrium diagrams as a function of PO2 , PH2O ) produced from the Brouwer method were verified by computational simulation and electrical conductivity measurements. The chemical diffusion of hydrogen through oxide membranes was described within the framework of Wagner's chemical diffusion theory and it was solved without any simplifying assumptions on functional dependence of partial conductivity due to the successful numerical modeling of partial conductivities as a function of both hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures. Finally the hydrogen permeability of Eu and Sm doped SrCeO3-delta was studied as a function of temperature, hydrogen partial pressure gradient, and water vapor pressure gradient. The dopant dependence of hydrogen permeability was explained in terms of the difference in ionization energy and ionic radius of dopant.

  10. Selectron production in quasi-elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Hollik, W.

    1985-08-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of selectrons in quasi-elastic electron proton scattering at HERA energies. In the region of very small momentum transfer the cross section turns out to be large: e.g. sigma=36 pb for a selectron mass of 60 GeV, tsub(min) 2 ), and photino mass small compared to the selectron mass. Together with the clean experimental signature, this large cross section makes the reaction e+P->e+γ tilde+P one of the most promising HERA-processes in connection with the search for supersymmetric particles. (orig.)

  11. Multicomponent Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Proton and Electron Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Culpitt, Tanner; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2018-04-05

    The quantum mechanical treatment of both electrons and protons in the calculation of excited state properties is critical for describing nonadiabatic processes such as photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. Multicomponent density functional theory enables the consistent quantum mechanical treatment of more than one type of particle and has been implemented previously for studying ground state molecular properties within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework, where all electrons and specified protons are treated quantum mechanically. To enable the study of excited state molecular properties, herein the linear response multicomponent time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived and implemented within the NEO framework. Initial applications to FHF - and HCN illustrate that NEO-TDDFT provides accurate proton and electron excitation energies within a single calculation. As its computational cost is similar to that of conventional electronic TDDFT, the NEO-TDDFT approach is promising for diverse applications, particularly nonadiabatic proton transfer reactions, which may exhibit mixed electron-proton vibronic excitations.

  12. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.

    1995-01-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil

  13. Atypical cleavage of protonated N-fatty acyl amino acids derived from aspartic acid evidenced by sequential MS3 experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerche, Toufik Taalibi; Alves, Sandra; Le Faouder, Pauline; Warnet, Anna; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bouchekara, Mohamed; Belbachir, Mohammed; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Lipidomics calls for information on detected lipids and conjugates whose structural elucidation by mass spectrometry requires to rationalization of their gas phase dissociations toward collision-induced dissociation (CID) processes. This study focused on activated dissociations of two lipoamino acid (LAA) systems composed of N-palmitoyl acyl coupled with aspartic and glutamic acid mono ethyl esters (as LAA (*D) and LAA (*E) ). Although in MS/MS, their CID spectra show similar trends, e.g., release of water and ethanol, the [(LAA (*D/*E) +H)-C 2 H 5 OH] + product ions dissociate via distinct pathways in sequential MS 3 experiments. The formation of all the product ions is rationalized by charge-promoted cleavages often involving stepwise processes with ion isomerization into ion-dipole prior to dissociation. The latter explains the maleic anhydride or ketene neutral losses from N-palmitoyl acyl aspartate and glutamate anhydride fragment ions, respectively. Consequently, protonated palmitoyl acid amide is generated from LAA (*D), whereas LAA (*E) leads to the [*E+H-H 2 O] + anhydride. The former releases ammonia to provide acylium, which gives the C n H (2n-1) and C n H (2n-3) carbenium series. This should offer structural information, e.g., to locate either unsaturation(s) or alkyl group branching present on the various fatty acyl moieties of lipo-aspartic acid in further studies based on MS n experiments.

  14. Presolvated Electron Reaction with Methylacetoacetate: Electron Localization, Proton-Deuteron Exchange, and H-atom Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Alex; Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-produced electrons initiate various reaction processes that are important to radiation damage to biomolecules. In this work, the site of attachment of the prehydrated electrons with methylacetoacetate (MAA, CH3-CO-CH2-CO-OCH3) at 77 K and subsequent reactions of the anion radical (CH3-CO•−-CH2-CO-OCH3) in the temperature range (77 to ca. 170 K) have been investigated in homogeneous H2O and D2O aqueous glasses by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. At 77 K, the prehydrated electron attaches to MAA forming the anion radical in which the electron is delocalized over the two carbonyl groups. This species readily protonates to produce the protonated electron adduct radical CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-CO-OCH3. The ESR spectrum of CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-CO-OCH3 in H2O shows line components due to proton hyperfine couplings of the methyl and methylene groups. Whereas, the ESR spectrum of CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-CO-OCH3 in D2O glass shows only the line components due to proton hyperfine couplings of CH3 group. This is expected since the methylen protons in MAA are readily exchangeable in D2O. On stepwise annealing to higher temperatures (ca. 150 to 170 K), CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-CO-OCH3 undergoes bimolecular H-atom abstraction from MAA to form the more stable radical, CH3-CO-CH•-CO-OCH3. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) support the radical assignments. PMID:25255751

  15. Local electronic environment of protons in VHsub(x) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Shigeo; Fukai, Yuh

    1977-01-01

    The Knight shift (Ksub(H)) and the spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 of protons have been measured in vanadium-hydrogen alloys (VHsub(x)) with hydrogen concentration x=0.042 -- 0.736, at temperatures between 100 0 and 200 0 C. The resolution of +-1 ppm in the shift was attained by using a high-resolution spectrometer, and the effect of demagnetizing field was isolated by using a single sheet of foil as a specimen. This allowed the simultaneous determination of Ksub(H) and the bulk magnetic susceptibility. Ksub(H) measured relative to bare protons was found to be negative and change little with hydrogen concentration. No temperature dependence of the shift was observed, even across the phase transition. These results are interpreted in terms of a contact interaction with the uniform spin-polarization in the interstitial region and some additional contributions from H-induced states. An evidence for the electron-electron interaction in VHsub(x) is derived from comparison of Ksub(H) and T 1 . (auth.)

  16. Cosmic ray electrons and protons, and their antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezio, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays are a sample of solar, galactic, and extragalactic matter. Their origin, acceleration mechanisms, and subsequent propagation toward Earth have intrigued scientists since their discovery. These issues can be studied via analysis of the energy spectra and composition of cosmic rays. Protons are the most abundant component of the cosmic radiation, and many experiments have been dedicated to the accurate measurement of their spectra. Complementary information is provided by electrons, which comprise about 1% of the cosmic radiation. Because of their low mass, electrons experience severe energy losses through synchrotron emission in the galactic magnetic field and inverse Compton scattering of radiation fields. Electrons therefore provide information on the local galactic environment that is not accessible from the study of the cosmic ray nuclei. Antiparticles, namely antiprotons and positrons, are produced in the interaction between cosmic ray nuclei and the interstellar matter. They are therefore intimately linked to the propagation mechanisms of the parent nuclei. Novel sources of primary cosmic ray antiparticles of either astrophysical (e.g., positrons from pulsars) or exotic origin (e.g., annihilation of dark matter particles) may exist. The nature of dark matter is one of the most prominent open questions in science today. An observation of positrons from pulsars would open a new observation window on these sources. Several experiments equipped with state-of-the art detector systems have recently presented results on the energy spectra of electrons, protons, and their antiparticles with a significant improvement in statistics and better control of systematics The status of the field will be reviewed, with a focus on these recent scientific results. (author)

  17. Proton disorder in cubic ice: Effect on the electronic and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuio, Viviana; Pulci, Olivia; Cascella, Michele; Kupchak, Igor; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo

    2015-01-01

    The proton disorder in ice has a key role in several properties such as the growth mode, thermodynamical properties, and ferroelectricity. While structural phase transitions from proton disordered to proton ordered ices have been extensively studied, much less is known about their electronic and optical properties. Here, we present ab initio many body perturbation theory-based calculations of the electronic and optical properties of cubic ice at different levels of proton disorder. We compare our results with those from liquid water, that acts as an example of a fully (proton- and oxygen-)disordered system. We find that by increasing the proton disorder, a shrinking of the electronic gap occurs in ice, and it is smallest in the liquid water. Simultaneously, the excitonic binding energy decreases, so that the final optical gaps result to be almost independent on the degree of proton disorder. We explain these findings as an interplay between the local dipolar disorder and the electronic correlation

  18. On the proton exchange contribution to electron-hydrogen atom elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Tort, A.C.

    1979-05-01

    It is shown that the exchange contribution to the electron-proton potential Born term in elastic electron-hydrogen atom scattering arises as the non relativistic limit from the exchange of a proton between the two participant electrons - calculated from quantum electrodynamics including properly bound states (as solution of Bethe - Salpeter equation). (Author) [pt

  19. Proton beam shaped by “particle lens” formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Xu, Z. Z.; He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a “particle lens” in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a “fountain-like” pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  20. Parity Violation in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, IV, Grady Wilson [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from the proton at Jefferson Laboratory. The kinematic point (θlab = 12.3 deg. and (Q2) = 0.48 (GeV/c)2) is chosen to provide sensitivity to the strange electric form factor GsE. A 3.36 GeV beam of longitudinally polarized electrons was scattered from protons in a liquid hydrogen target. The scattered flux was detected by a pair of spectrometers which focussed the elastically-scattered electrons onto total-absorption detectors. The detector signals were integrated and digitized by a custom data acquisition system. A feedback system reduced systematic errors by controlling helicity-correlated beam intensity differences at the sub-ppm (part per million) level. The experimental result, A = 14.5 +/- 2.0 (stat) ± 1.1 (syst) ppm, is consistent with the electroweak Standard Model with no additional contributions from strange quarks. In particular, the measurement implies GSE + 0.39 GsM = 0.023 ± 0.040 ± 0.026 (ζGnE), where the last uncertainty is due to the estimated uncertainty in the neutron electric form factor GnE . This result represents the first experimental constraint of the strange electric form factor.

  1. Cooperative electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation with electron-proton-transfer mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of alcohols is a major focus of energy and chemical conversion efforts, with potential applications ranging from fuel cells to biomass utilization and fine-chemical synthesis. Small-molecule electrocatalysts for processes of this type are promising targets for further development, as demonstrated by recent advances in nickel catalysts for electrochemical production and oxidation of hydrogen. Complexes with tethered amines that resemble the active site of hydrogenases have been shown both to catalyse hydrogen production (from protons and electrons) with rates far exceeding those of such enzymes and to mediate reversible electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation with enzyme-like performance. Progress in electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation has been more modest. Nickel complexes similar to those used for hydrogen oxidation have been shown to mediate efficient electrochemical oxidation of benzyl alcohol, with a turnover frequency of 2.1 per second. These compounds exhibit poor reactivity with ethanol and methanol, however. Organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl), are the most widely studied electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. These catalysts exhibit good activity (1-2 turnovers per second) with a wide range of alcohols and have great promise for electro-organic synthesis. Their use in energy-conversion applications, however, is limited by the high electrode potentials required to generate the reactive oxoammonium species. Here we report (2,2‧-bipyridine)Cu/nitroxyl co-catalyst systems for electrochemical alcohol oxidation that proceed with much faster rates, while operating at an electrode potential a half-volt lower than that used for the TEMPO-only process. The (2,2‧-bipyridine)Cu(II) and TEMPO redox partners exhibit cooperative reactivity and exploit the low-potential, proton-coupled TEMPO/TEMPOH redox process rather than the high-potential TEMPO/TEMPO+ process. The results show how

  2. Atmospheric nitrous oxide produced by solar protons and relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.S.; Zipf, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    An alternative means of nitric oxide production in the stratosphere to that of direct formation in the upper atmosphere by solar proton (SP) events and by relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events from the Earth's radiation belt, is described. It is suggested that nitrous oxide is produced in the mesosphere and then migrates downward and is converted in the stratosphere to NO by the reaction N 2 O + O( 1 D) → 2 NO. Such a process could amplify the direct NO production by >10%. Mesospheric nitrous oxide mixing ratios increase to values as high as 6 x 10 -7 due to REP- and SP- related production. Lateral transport will reduce these high values but mesospheric mixing ratios of N 2 O in the high latitudes would approach 10 -7 , considerably greater than those expected on the basis of theories which neglect REP- and SP-related production of this species. (U.K.)

  3. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperrex, P.A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Mueller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-01-01

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given

  4. Very local interstellar spectra for galactic electrons, protons and helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potgieter, Marius S., E-mail: Marius.Potgieter@nwu.ac.za [Centre for Space Research, North-West University (South Africa)

    2014-07-01

    The local interstellar spectra (LIS) for cosmic rays at energies below ∼30 GeV/nuc are increasingly obscured from view at Earth by solar modulation, the lower the energy becomes. These charged particles encounter significant changes in the heliosphere, over an 11-year cycle, which include processes such as convection, diffusion, adiabatic energy losses and gradient, curvature and current sheet drifts. Particle drifts cause charge-sign-dependent modulation and a 22-year cycle, adding complexity to determining the respective very LIS from observations only at Earth. However, with measurements now made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in the vicinity of the helio pause, it is possible to determine a very LIS for galactic electrons between ∼5 and ∼120 MeV. At these low energies, also galactic protons observed in the outer heliosphere had been completely obscured by the so-called anomalous component which is accelerated inside the helio sheath. Since August 2012, these anomalous cosmic rays are substantially depleted at Voyager 1 so that for cosmic ray ions, it is now possible to obtain a lower limit to their very LIS. Combining numerical modelling of solar modulation with the accurate measurements by the PAMELA mission and with Voyager observations, the lower limit of the very LIS for electrons, protons and helium and other ions can be determined from ∼5 MeV and above. These spectra are called helio pause spectra which is considered to be the lowest possible very LIS. Also, from an astrophysics point of view, the determination of what can be called a very LIS, not just an averaged galactic spectrum, is encouraging. The mentioned aspects are discussed, focusing on a comparison of recent heliospheric observations and corresponding solar modulation modelling. (author)

  5. Electron cloud studies for the LHC and future proton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez Sánchez de la Blanca, César Octavio; Zimmermann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider. Its main objectives are to explore the validity of the standard model of particle physics and to look for new physics beyond it, at unprecedented collision energies and rates. A good luminosity performance is imperative to attain these goals. In the last stage of the LHC commissioning (2011-2012), the limiting factor to achieving the design bunch spacing of 25 ns has been the electron cloud effects. The electron cloud is also expected to be the most important luminosity limitation after the first Long Shut-Down of the LHC (LS1), when the machine should be operated at higher energy and with 25-ns spacing, as well as for the planned luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC) and future high energy proton colliders (HE-LHC and VHE-LHC). This thesis contributes to the understanding of the electron cloud observations during the first run of the LHC (2010-2012), presents the first beam dynamics analysis for the next generation of high en...

  6. Enhanced diffusion due to electrons, protons and quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigations of radiation enhanced diffusion in copper -30% zinc alloys using 17.65 MeV protons are reported and compared with results obtained for 2 MeV electrons. The activation energy of diffusion decreases considerably from 0.35 eV to 0.26 eV for displacement rates increasing from 3x10 -12 dpa.s -1 to 1.2x10 -8 dpa.s -1 , i.e. the migration activation energy of interstitials decreases for this dpa.s -1 range from 0.70 eV to 0.52 eV. Results of electron irradiations obtained for 0.050 and 0.10 mm thick specimens are compared. It is found that the diffusion rates increase considerably in the presence of dislocations and that the diffusion rates decrease for very low electron fluxes and high irradiation temperatures in the 0.050 mm thick specimens in comparison to the rates obtained in 0.10 mm thick specimens. A value of 0.95 eV was determined for the activation energy of the ordering rate after quenching from 250 0 C in water. This was attributed to the migration activation energy of vacancies

  7. SU-E-T-210: Comparison of Proton with Electron Boost in Breast Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y; Chang, A [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Liu, Y [INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Electron beams are commonly used for boost radiation following whole breast irradiation (WBI) to improve the in-breast local control. Proton beams have a finite range and a sharper distal dose falloff compared to electron beams, thus potentially sparing more heart and lung in breast treatment. The purpose of the study is to compare protons with electrons for boost breast treatment in terms of target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Methods: Six breast cancer patients were included in this study. All women received WBI to 45–50 Gy, followed by a 10–16.2 Gy boost with standard fractionation. If proton beams were used for the boost treatment, an electron plan was retrospectively generated for comparison using the same CT set and structures, and vice versa if electron beams were used for treatment. Proton plans were generated using the treatment planning system (TPS) with two to three uniform scanning proton beams. Electron plans were generated using the Pinnacle TPS with one single en face beam. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated and compared between proton and electron boost plans. Results: Proton plans show a similar boost target coverage, similar skin dose, and much better heart and lung sparing. For an example patient, V95% for PTV was 99.98% and skin (5 mm shell) received a max dose close to the prescription dose for both protons and electrons; however, V2 and V5 for the ipsilateral lung and heart were 37.5%, 17.9% and 19.9%, 4.9% respectively for electrons, but were essentially 0 for protons. Conclusions: This dosimetric comparison demonstrates that while both proton therapy and electron therapy provided similar coverage and skin dose, proton therapy could largely reduce the dose to lung and heart, thus leading to potential less side effects.

  8. Validation of a motion-robust 2D sequential technique for quantification of hepatic proton density fat fraction during free breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, B Dustin; Hernando, Diego; Ruby, Jeannine A; Ishii, Hiroshi; Shimakawa, Ann; Reeder, Scott B

    2018-04-17

    Current chemical-shift-encoded (CSE) MRI techniques for measuring hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) are sensitive to motion artifacts. Initial validation of a motion-robust 2D-sequential CSE-MRI technique for quantification of hepatic PDFF. Phantom study and prospective in vivo cohort. Fifty adult patients (27 women, 23 men, mean age 57.2 years). 3D, 2D-interleaved, and 2D-sequential CSE-MRI acquisitions at 1.5T. Three CSE-MRI techniques (3D, 2D-interleaved, 2D-sequential) were performed in a PDFF phantom and in vivo. Reference standards were 3D CSE-MRI PDFF measurements for the phantom study and single-voxel MR spectroscopy hepatic PDFF measurements (MRS-PDFF) in vivo. In vivo hepatic MRI-PDFF measurements were performed during a single breath-hold (BH) and free breathing (FB), and were repeated by a second reader for the FB 2D-sequential sequence to assess interreader variability. Correlation plots to validate the 2D-sequential CSE-MRI against the phantom and in vivo reference standards. Bland-Altman analysis of FB versus BH CSE-MRI acquisitions to evaluate robustness to motion. Bland-Altman analysis to assess interreader variability. Phantom 2D-sequential CSE-MRI PDFF measurements demonstrated excellent agreement and correlation (R 2 > 0.99) with 3D CSE-MRI. In vivo, the mean (±SD) hepatic PDFF was 8.8 ± 8.7% (range 0.6-28.5%). Compared with BH acquisitions, FB hepatic PDFF measurements demonstrated bias of +0.15% for 2D-sequential compared with + 0.53% for 3D and +0.94% for 2D-interleaved. 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were narrower for 2D-sequential (±0.99%), compared with 3D (±3.72%) and 2D-interleaved (±3.10%). All CSE-MRI techniques had excellent correlation with MRS (R 2 > 0.97). The FB 2D-sequential acquisition demonstrated little interreader variability, with mean bias of +0.07% and 95% LOA of ± 1.53%. This motion-robust 2D-sequential CSE-MRI can accurately measure hepatic PDFF during free breathing in a patient population with

  9. Investigation of the hadronic final state in electron-proton interactions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dake, A.

    1995-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the study of the hardronic final state in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering. Theexperiment described in this thesis is performed with such a high resolution that the substructure of the proton is probed by the electron beam with a resolution of less than 10 -15 cm. (orig./HSI)

  10. Investigation of the hadronic final state in electron-proton interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dake, A

    1995-09-18

    The main subject of this thesis is the study of the hardronic final state in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering. Theexperiment described in this thesis is performed with such a high resolution that the substructure of the proton is probed by the electron beam with a resolution of less than 10{sup -15} cm. (orig./HSI).

  11. Effect of protonation on the electronic properties of DNA base pairs: applications for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S; Pati, Swapan K

    2007-10-11

    Protonation of DNA basepairs is a reversible phenomenon that can be controlled by tuning the pH of the system. Under mild acidic conditions, the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the DNA basepairs undergoes a change. We study the effect of protonation on the electronic properties of the DNA basepairs to probe for possible molecular electronics applications. We find that, under mild acidic pH conditions, the A:T basepair shows excellent rectification behavior that is, however, absent in the G:C basepair. The mechanism of rectification has been discussed using a simple chemical potential model. We also consider the noncanonical A:A basepair and find that it can be used as efficient pH dependent molecular switch. The switching action in the A:A basepair is explained in the light of pi-pi interactions, which lead to efficient delocalization over the entire basepair.

  12. Evidence of sequential interatomic decay in argon trimers obtained by electron-triple-ion coincidence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X-J; Saito, N; Fukuzawa, H; Morishita, Y; Stoychev, S; Kuleff, A; Suzuki, I H; Tamenori, Y; Richter, R; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K

    2007-01-01

    Sequential interatomic decay, where the first step is an Auger decay with interatomic character and the second step is a pure interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), is identified in Ar trimers Ar 3 . The 2p hole state in Ar 3 decays via the L 2,3 M 1 M 2,3 Auger to the one-site two-hole states Ar ++ (3s -1 3p -1 )-Ar-Ar that couples to the two-site satellite states Ar + (3p -2 nl)-Ar + (3p -1 )-Ar. These states are subject to ICD to the states Ar + (3p -1 )-Ar + (3p -1 )-Ar + (3p -1 ), in which the nl electron fills the 3p hole in the same Ar site and one of the 3p electrons in the third Ar site is emitted as a slow ICD electron. This ICD process is identified unambiguously by electron-ion-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy in which the kinetic energy of the slow ICD electron and the kinetic energy release among the three Ar + ions are measured in coincidence. (fast track communication)

  13. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    The hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring. PMID:25298534

  14. Search for high mass resonances decaying into electron-positron pairs in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics was developed to describe the fundamental particles, which form matter, and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak force. Although most measurements are described with high accuracy, some observations indicate that the Standard Model is incomplete. Numerous extensions were developed to solve these limitations. Several of these extensions predict heavy resonances, so-called Z' bosons, that can decay into an electron positron pair. The particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland was built to collide protons at unprecedented center-of-mass energies, namely 7 TeV in 2011. With the data set recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector located at the LHC, the electron positron pair mass spectrum was measured up to high masses in the TeV range. The properties of electrons and the probability that other particles are mis-identified as electrons were studied in detail. Using the obtained information, a sophisticated Standard Model expectation was derived with data-driven methods and Monte Carlo simulations. In the comparison of the measurement with the expectation, no significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations were observed. Therefore exclusion limits for several Standard Model extensions were calculated. For example, Sequential Standard Model (SSM) Z' bosons with masses below 2.10 TeV were excluded with 95% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  15. Search for high mass resonances decaying into electron-positron pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeringer, Christian

    2013-04-25

    The Standard Model of particle physics was developed to describe the fundamental particles, which form matter, and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak force. Although most measurements are described with high accuracy, some observations indicate that the Standard Model is incomplete. Numerous extensions were developed to solve these limitations. Several of these extensions predict heavy resonances, so-called Z' bosons, that can decay into an electron positron pair. The particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland was built to collide protons at unprecedented center-of-mass energies, namely 7 TeV in 2011. With the data set recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector located at the LHC, the electron positron pair mass spectrum was measured up to high masses in the TeV range. The properties of electrons and the probability that other particles are mis-identified as electrons were studied in detail. Using the obtained information, a sophisticated Standard Model expectation was derived with data-driven methods and Monte Carlo simulations. In the comparison of the measurement with the expectation, no significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations were observed. Therefore exclusion limits for several Standard Model extensions were calculated. For example, Sequential Standard Model (SSM) Z' bosons with masses below 2.10 TeV were excluded with 95% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  16. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

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Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; 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Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; 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Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-07-15

    The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of $W$ and $Z$ bosons and $J/\\psi$ mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  17. Chemical dynamics of the first proton-coupled electron transfer of water oxidation on TiO2 anatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ye-Fei; Sit, Patrick; Selloni, Annabella

    2013-12-18

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a prototype, water-splitting (photo)catalyst, but its performance is limited by the large overpotential for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We report here a first-principles density functional theory study of the chemical dynamics of the first proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), which is considered responsible for the large OER overpotential on TiO2. We use a periodic model of the TiO2/water interface that includes a slab of anatase TiO2 and explicit water molecules, sample the solvent configurations by first principles molecular dynamics, and determine the energy profiles of the two electronic states involved in the electron transfer (ET) by hybrid functional calculations. Our results suggest that the first PCET is sequential, with the ET following the proton transfer. The ET occurs via an inner sphere process, which is facilitated by a state in which one electronic hole is shared by the two oxygen ions involved in the transfer.

  18. SU-F-I-70: Investigation of Gafchromic EBT3 Film Energy Dependence Using Proton, Photon, and Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T [University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the energy dependence of Gafchromic EBT3 film over a range of clinically used proton, photon and electron energies. Methods: Proton beam energies of 117 and 204 MeV, corresponding respectively to ranges in water of 10 cm and 27 cm from a Mevion S250 double scatter system unit were used. Electron energies of 6 and 20 MeV and photon energies of 6 and 18 MV from a Varian Clinac 21EX Linac were used. Two pieces of film (5×5 cm{sup 2}) were irradiated sequentially for doses of 100, 500, and 1000 cGy for all energies and modalities. Films were placed on the central beam axis for a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field size in the middle of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) for proton and in respective dmax for photon and electron energies. Films were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner on the central region of the scanning window using 48-bit, 300 dpi, and landscape orientation after 48 hours post-irradiation of film to account for optical density (OD) stabilization. Film analysis of the red channel was performed using ImageJ 1.48v (National Institutes of Health). Results: The energy dependency of EBT3 among all energies and modalities for all doses studied was small within measurement uncertainties (1σ = ± 4.1%). The mean net OD in red channel for films receiving the same dose in the same energy modality had standard deviations within 0.9% for photons, 4.9% for electrons and 1.8% for protons. It was observed that film pieces were activated during proton irradiation, e.g., 7 mR/hr at surface after 30 minutes of irradiation, lasting for 2 hours post irradiation. Conclusion: EBT3 energy dependency was evaluated for clinically used proton, photon, and electron energies. The film self-activation may have contributed to fog and negligible dose.

  19. Enhancement of the incoherent scattering plasma lines due to precipitating protons and secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernaa, N.; Havnes, O.; Jensen, J.O.; Trulsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitating protons in the energy range 1-100 keV are regularly present in the auroral ionosphere. These protons will produce enhancements in the intensity of the upshifted plasma line of the incoherently scattered spectrum. Similarly, secondary electrons produced by the precipitating protons give rise to enhanced plasma line intensities. For a quantitative discussion of these effects an experimentally measured proton flux is adapted and the corresponding secondary electron flux calculated. These particle fluxes are then applied in connection with the EISCAT radar facility. Both fluxes give rise to enhancements of the order of 20. It is possible to separate between proton and electron contributions to the enhanced plasma lines for scattering heights above the source region of secondary electrons. (Auth.)

  20. Theory of longitudinal instability for bunched electron and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of an original approach for the treatment of the longitudinal stability of high-intensity proton and electron bunches. The general analysis is divided in three steps. First, a search is made for a stationary bunch distribution which is matched to the external rf forces as well as to the current dependent induced fields. The existence of such distribution is questioned. Second, the stability of the stationary solution is checked by applying a small perturbation and observing whether this is initially damped or not. At this point a stability condition is derived in terms of current, surrounding impedance and bunch size. In the last step one should question what happens to the beam in case the stability condition is not satisfied. The problem here is the determination of the final bunch configuration. The originality of the approach stays in the combination of the three steps. All previous theories either consider only the first step or combine the second and third ones but disregard the first

  1. Secondary electron emission from 0.5--2.5-MeV protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, T.A.; Anno, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement of the secondary electron currents leaving Al, V, Fe, 316 stainless steel, Nb, and Mo foils undergoing 0.5--2.5-MeV proton and deuteron bombardment were made to determine the secondary electron emission ratios for these ions. The measured secondary electron yields were of the order of 1.0, with the deuterons producing generally higher yields than the protons

  2. Future proton and electron colliders: Dreams for the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper I have reviewed the possibilities for new colliders that might be available in the 1990's. One or more new proton should be available in the late-90s based on plans of Europe, the US and the USSR. The two very high energy machines, LHC and SSC, are quite expensive, and their construction will be more decided by the politicians' view on the availability of resources than by the physicists' view of the need for new machines. Certainly something will be built, but the question is when. New electron colliders beyond LEP II could be available in the late 1990's as well. Most of the people who have looked at this problem believe that at a minimum three years of RandD are required before a proposal can be made, two years will be required to convince the authorities to go ahead, and five years will be required to build such a machine. Thus the earliest time a new electron collider at high energy could be available is around 1988. A strong international RandD program will be required to meet that schedule. In the field of B factories, PSI's proposal is the first serious step beyond the capabilities of CESR. There are other promising techniques but these need more RandD. The least RandD would be required for the asymmetric storage ring systems, while the most would be required for high luminosity linear colliders. For the next decade, high energy physics will be doing its work at the high energy frontier with Tevatron I and II, UNK, SLC, LEP I and II, and HERA. The opportunities for science presented by experiments at these facilities are very great, and it is to be hoped that the pressure for funding to construct the next generation facilities will not badly affect the operating budgets of the ones we now have or which will soon be turning on. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Proton-coupled electron transfer versus hydrogen atom transfer: generation of charge-localized diabatic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-03-24

    The distinction between proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms is important for the characterization of many chemical and biological processes. PCET and HAT mechanisms can be differentiated in terms of electronically nonadiabatic and adiabatic proton transfer, respectively. In this paper, quantitative diagnostics to evaluate the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity are presented. Moreover, the connection between the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity and the physical characteristics distinguishing PCET from HAT, namely, the extent of electronic charge redistribution, is clarified. In addition, a rigorous diabatization scheme for transforming the adiabatic electronic states into charge-localized diabatic states for PCET reactions is presented. These diabatic states are constructed to ensure that the first-order nonadiabatic couplings with respect to the one-dimensional transferring hydrogen coordinate vanish exactly. Application of these approaches to the phenoxyl-phenol and benzyl-toluene systems characterizes the former as PCET and the latter as HAT. The diabatic states generated for the phenoxyl-phenol system possess physically meaningful, localized electronic charge distributions that are relatively invariant along the hydrogen coordinate. These diabatic electronic states can be combined with the associated proton vibrational states to generate the reactant and product electron-proton vibronic states that form the basis of nonadiabatic PCET theories. Furthermore, these vibronic states and the corresponding vibronic couplings may be used to calculate rate constants and kinetic isotope effects of PCET reactions.

  4. Influence of Proton Acceptors on the Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reaction Kinetics of a Ruthenium-Tyrosine Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, J Christian; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2017-11-22

    A polypyridyl ruthenium complex with fluorinated bipyridine ligands and a covalently bound tyrosine moiety was synthesized, and its photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactivity in acetonitrile was investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. Using flash-quench methodology with methyl viologen as an oxidative quencher, a Ru 3+ species is generated that is capable of initiating the intramolecular PCET oxidation of the tyrosine moiety. Using a series of substituted pyridine bases, the reaction kinetics were found to vary as a function of proton acceptor concentration and identity, with no significant H/D kinetic isotope effect. Through analysis of the kinetics traces and comparison to a control complex without the tyrosine moiety, PCET reactivity was found to proceed through an equilibrium electron transfer followed by proton transfer (ET-PT) pathway in which irreversible deprotonation of the tyrosine radical cation shifts the ET equilibrium, conferring a base dependence on the reaction. Comprehensive kinetics modeling allowed for deconvolution of complex kinetics and determination of rate constants for each elementary step. Across the five pyridine bases explored, spanning a range of 4.2 pK a units, a linear free-energy relationship was found for the proton transfer rate constant with a slope of 0.32. These findings highlight the influence that proton transfer driving force exerts on PCET reaction kinetics.

  5. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and α particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancev, Ivan; Milojevic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and α particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  6. Observation of high energy electrons and protons in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly by Ohzora Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuche, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    Observed results of the high energy electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.58 - 35 MeV) of the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly are presented. Two silicon Δ E-E telescopes on the ohzora satellite (EXOS-C, 1984-15A) were used to observe the high energy particle and the maximum intensity of electrons and protons. The powers of energy spectra above 1 MeV have different values from energy region below 1 MeV. The electron and proton intensities are greatest at pitch angle maximized at 90 0 . (author) [pt

  7. New Oxime Ligand with Potential for Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Claire; Sundberg, Jonas; McKenzie, Christine Joy

    Proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) is found in a range of oxidation-reduction reactions in biology.1 This mechanism is of interest for applications in energy conversion processes. The PCET reaction has been shown to be facilitated when the proton is transferred to an intramolecular basic sit...

  8. Electrostatic models of electron-driven proton transfer across a lipid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Nori, Franco; Mourokh, Lev G

    2011-01-01

    We present two models for electron-driven uphill proton transport across lipid membranes, with the electron energy converted to the proton gradient via the electrostatic interaction. In the first model, associated with the cytochrome c oxidase complex in the inner mitochondria membranes, the electrostatic coupling to the site occupied by an electron lowers the energy level of the proton-binding site, making proton transfer possible. In the second model, roughly describing the redox loop in a nitrate respiration of E. coli bacteria, an electron displaces a proton from the negative side of the membrane to a shuttle, which subsequently diffuses across the membrane and unloads the proton to its positive side. We show that both models can be described by the same approach, which can be significantly simplified if the system is separated into several clusters, with strong Coulomb interaction inside each cluster and weak transfer couplings between them. We derive and solve the equations of motion for the electron and proton creation/annihilation operators, taking into account the appropriate Coulomb terms, tunnel couplings, and the interaction with the environment. For the second model, these equations of motion are solved jointly with a Langevin-type equation for the shuttle position. We obtain expressions for the electron and proton currents and determine their dependence on the electron and proton voltage build-ups, on-site charging energies, reorganization energies, temperature, and other system parameters. We show that the quantum yield in our models can be up to 100% and the power-conversion efficiency can reach 35%.

  9. Electrostatic models of electron-driven proton transfer across a lipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Mourokh, Lev G [Department of Physics, Queens College, The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We present two models for electron-driven uphill proton transport across lipid membranes, with the electron energy converted to the proton gradient via the electrostatic interaction. In the first model, associated with the cytochrome c oxidase complex in the inner mitochondria membranes, the electrostatic coupling to the site occupied by an electron lowers the energy level of the proton-binding site, making proton transfer possible. In the second model, roughly describing the redox loop in a nitrate respiration of E. coli bacteria, an electron displaces a proton from the negative side of the membrane to a shuttle, which subsequently diffuses across the membrane and unloads the proton to its positive side. We show that both models can be described by the same approach, which can be significantly simplified if the system is separated into several clusters, with strong Coulomb interaction inside each cluster and weak transfer couplings between them. We derive and solve the equations of motion for the electron and proton creation/annihilation operators, taking into account the appropriate Coulomb terms, tunnel couplings, and the interaction with the environment. For the second model, these equations of motion are solved jointly with a Langevin-type equation for the shuttle position. We obtain expressions for the electron and proton currents and determine their dependence on the electron and proton voltage build-ups, on-site charging energies, reorganization energies, temperature, and other system parameters. We show that the quantum yield in our models can be up to 100% and the power-conversion efficiency can reach 35%.

  10. Electron loss from hydrogen-like highly charged ions in collisions with electrons, protons and light atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, K. N.; Andreev, O. Yu; Voitkiv, A. B.

    2018-03-01

    We consider electron loss from a hydrogen-like highly charged ion (HCI) in relativistic collisions with hydrogen and helium in the range of impact velocities v min ≤ v ≤ v max (v min and v max correspond to the threshold energy ε th for electron loss in collisions with a free electron and to ≈5 ε th, respectively) where any reliable data for loss cross sections are absent. In this range, where the loss process is characterized by large momentum transfers, we express it in terms of electron loss in collisions with equivelocity protons and electrons and explore by performing a detailed comparative study of these subprocesses. Our results, in particular, show that: (i) compared to equivelocity electrons protons are more effective in inducing electron loss, (ii) the relative effectiveness of electron projectiles grows with increase in the atomic number of a HCI, (iii) collisions with protons and electrons lead to a qualitatively different population of the final-state-electron momentum space and even when the total loss cross sections in these collisions become already equal the spectra of the outgoing electrons still remain quite different in almost the entire volume of the final-state-electron momentum space, (iv) in collisions with hydrogen and helium the contributions to the loss process from the interactions with the nucleus and the electron(s) of the atom could be rather well separated in a substantial part of the final-state-electron momentum space.

  11. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  12. Electron cloud instabilities in the Proton Storage Ring and Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blaskiewicz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron cloud instabilities in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring and those foreseen for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source are examined theoretically, numerically, and experimentally.

  13. Simulation results of the electron-proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Grunau, Jan; Paspirgilis, Rolf; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Kulemzin, Alexander; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of five instruments in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events. EPT covers an energy range from 20400 keV for electrons and 20 keV-7 MeV for protons and distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. EPT is designed using the GEometry ANd Tracking (GEANT) simulation toolkit developed by CERN for Monte Carlo calculations. Here we present the details of our simulations and the simulation results with respect to energy coverage and the geometrical factor of the EPT instrument. We also look at the far-field of the EPT magnets, which is important for electromagnetic cleanliness considerations.

  14. Electron, electron-bremsstrahlung and proton depth-dose data for space-shielding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    A data set has been developed, consisting of depth-dose distributions for omni-directional electron and proton fluxes incident on aluminum shields. The principal new feature of this work is the accurate treatment, based on detailed Monte Carlo calculations, of the electron-produced bremsstrahlung component. Results covering the energy region of interest in space-shielding calculations have been obtained for the absorbed dose (a) as a function of depth in a semi-infinite medium, (b) at the edge of slab shields, and (c) at the center of a solid sphere. The dose to a thin tissue-equivalent detector was obtained as well as that in aluminum. Various results and comparisons with other work are given.

  15. Channeling effect in electronic spectra produced by grazing impact of fast protons on insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C D; Gravielle, M S, E-mail: archubi@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Electron emission due to grazing scattering of fast protons from LiF and KCl surfaces is studied under axial incidence conditions. The differential emission probability is calculated within a distorted-wave formalism, taking into account axial channeled trajectories. For different emission angles, electronic spectra for proton incidence along the two principal crystal axes ([100] and [110]) are compared with those corresponding to an impact velocity in a random direction, finding effects associated with the channeling conditions.

  16. A short comparison of electron and proton transfer processes in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The main differences between electron and proton transfers that take place in biological systems are examined. The relation between the distance dependence of the rate constant and the mass of the transferred particle is analyzed in detail. Differences between the two processes have important consequences at the experimental level, which are discussed. The various mechanisms that ensure the coupling between electron and proton transfers are briefly described

  17. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  18. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated II-VI compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Balogh, A.G.; Baumann, H.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors present a study aimed at investigating the basic properties of radiation induced defects in ZnS and ZnO and the influence of the atmosphere on the annealing characteristics of the defects. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on both single- and polycrystalline samples, irradiated with 3 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. For ZnS it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air leads to significant oxidation and eventual transformation into ZnO

  19. Structure functions and final-state properties in deeply inelastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharraziha, H.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, we give a description of the detailed structure of the proton and a description of the final-state properties in electron-proton scattering. Qualitative results, in a purely gluonic scenario with the leading log approximation, and quantitative results, where quarks are included and some sub-leading corrections have been made, are presented. The quantitative results are in fair agreement with available experimental data and a Monte Carlo event generator for electron-proton scattering is presented. Further, a computer program for calculating QCD colour factors is presented

  20. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  1. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  2. Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure of NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.cn; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure and atomic local structure of N35EH-type NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by soft X-ray absorption spectrometry and Moessbauer spectrometry. The local coordination environment of Fe atoms changes after proton irradiation, and the average hyperfine field H{sub in} of the magnets decreases from 288.4 to 286.9 kOe. The effects of irradiation on Fe atoms local environment at different lattice sites are different. The near edge structure of Fe L{sub 3} edge is changed, indicating the density of unoccupied state of Fe 3d electrons increases after proton irradiation.

  3. Proton and electron deep dose profiles for retinoblastoma based on GEANT 4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Flavia V.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de; Ribeiro, Kilder L.

    2009-01-01

    Herein, the dosimetry responses to a retinoblastoma proton and electron radiation therapy were investigated. The computational tool applied to this simulation was the Geant4 code, version 4.9.1. The code allows simulating the charge particle interaction with eyeball tissue. In the present simulation, a box of 4 cm side water filled had represented the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetic beams of protons and electrons with spectra of 57 to 70 MeV for protons and 2 to 8 MeV for electrons. The simulation was guide by the advanced hadron therapy example distributed with the Geant4 code. The phantom was divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side. The energy deposited in each voxel was evaluated taken the direct beam at one face. The simulation results show the delivery energy and therefore the dose deposited in each voxel. The deep dose profiles to proton and electron were plotted. The well known Bragg peak was reproduced for protons. The maximum delivered dose defined the position at the proton stopped. However, to electrons, the absorbed energies were delivered along its path producing a more continuous distribution following the water depth, but also being stopped in the end of its path. (author)

  4. Proton and electron deep dose profiles for retinoblastoma based on GEANT 4 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Flavia V., E-mail: flaviafisica@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Ribeiro, Kilder L., E-mail: kilderlr@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Herein, the dosimetry responses to a retinoblastoma proton and electron radiation therapy were investigated. The computational tool applied to this simulation was the Geant4 code, version 4.9.1. The code allows simulating the charge particle interaction with eyeball tissue. In the present simulation, a box of 4 cm side water filled had represented the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetic beams of protons and electrons with spectra of 57 to 70 MeV for protons and 2 to 8 MeV for electrons. The simulation was guide by the advanced hadron therapy example distributed with the Geant4 code. The phantom was divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side. The energy deposited in each voxel was evaluated taken the direct beam at one face. The simulation results show the delivery energy and therefore the dose deposited in each voxel. The deep dose profiles to proton and electron were plotted. The well known Bragg peak was reproduced for protons. The maximum delivered dose defined the position at the proton stopped. However, to electrons, the absorbed energies were delivered along its path producing a more continuous distribution following the water depth, but also being stopped in the end of its path. (author)

  5. Electron transfer activation of a second water channel for proton transport in [FeFe]-hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A., E-mail: gavoth@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, James Franck Institute, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, Computation Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA and Computing, Environment and Life Sciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton transport mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with electron transport to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton transport mechanisms of the enzyme in different electronic states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single electronic state A{sup 2−}, a water wire was formed through which protons can be transported with a low free energy barrier. The remaining electronic states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton transport in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton transport in electronic state A{sup 2-} by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site.

  6. Electron transfer activation of a second water channel for proton transport in [FeFe]-hydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton transport mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with electron transport to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton transport mechanisms of the enzyme in different electronic states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single electronic state A 2− , a water wire was formed through which protons can be transported with a low free energy barrier. The remaining electronic states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton transport in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton transport in electronic state A 2- by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site

  7. Highlights of electron-proton deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltesse, J.

    1996-02-01

    Salient results on deep inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are reviewed. These include preliminary measurements of the proton structure function F 2 extending to new regimes at both high Q 2 and low Q 2 and x, studies of the hadronic final states and discussion on QCD interpretations of low x data. New determination of α s from jet rates in deep inelastic scattering based on 1994 data are presented. A consistent picture of the gluon density in the proton at low x from a variety of processes is obtained. (author)

  8. A quasilinear kinetic model for solar wind electrons and protons instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    In situ measurements confirm the anisotropic behavior in temperatures of solar wind species. These anisotropies associated with charge particles are observed to be relaxed. In collionless limit, kinetic instabilities play a significant role to reshape particles distribution. The linear analysis results are encapsulated in inverse relationship between anisotropy and plasma beta based observations fittings techniques, simulations methods, or solution of linearized Vlasov equation. Here amacroscopic quasilinear technique is adopted to confirm inverse relationship through solutions of set of self-consistent kinetic equations. Firstly, for a homogeneous and non-collisional medium, quasilinear kinetic model is employed to display asymptotic variations of core and halo electrons temperatures and saturations of wave energy densities for electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) instability sourced by, T⊥}>T{∥ . It is shown that, in (β ∥ , T⊥}/T{∥ ) phase space, the saturations stages of anisotropies associated with core and halo electrons lined up on their respective marginal stability curves. Secondly, for case of electrons firehose instability ignited by excessive parallel temperature i.e T⊥}>T{∥ , both electrons and protons are allowed to dynamically evolve in time. It is also observed that, the trajectories of protons and electrons at saturation stages in phase space of anisotropy and plasma beta correspond to proton cyclotron and firehose marginal stability curves, respectively. Next, the outstanding issue that most of observed proton data resides in nearly isotropic state in phase space is interpreted. Here, in quasilinear frame-work of inhomogeneous solar wind system, a set of self-consistent quasilinear equations is formulated to show a dynamical variations of temperatures with spatial distributions. On choice of different initial parameters, it is shown that, interplay of electron and proton instabilities provides an counter-balancing force to slow

  9. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  10. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  11. An investigation into the electron-proton discrimination capabilities of ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide an experimental indication of the rate at which protons mimic electrons in ionization calorimeters. A pseudo-theoretical electron cascade function was fitted to calorimeter events caused by 300 GeV accelerator protons in order to see what fraction of the protons looked like electrons. For calorimeters longer than one nuclear interaction length, the results were in good agreement with the theory which says that one process should make a singificant contribution to the mimicking of electrons by protons: the diffractive excitation of the incident proton, producing a π 0 while the incident proton continues on undeflected without further interactions. For calorimeters shorter than one nuclear interaction length a much higher mimic rate was seen, which is to be expected since hadrons produced with a π 0 can easily pass undetected through the calorimeter. These results can be used to estimate the contamination of the data of past experiments and as support for the prediction being used to design future experiments. (orig.)

  12. Solvation effect on isomer stability and electronic structures of protonated serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    Microsolvation effect on geometry and transition energies of protonated serotonin has been investigated by MP2 and CC2 quantum chemical methods. Also, conductor-like screening model, implemented recently in the MP2 and ADC(2) methods, was examined to address the bulk water environment's effect on the isomer stability and electronic transition energies of protonated serotonin. It has been predicted that the dipole moment of gas phase isomers plays the main role on the isomer stabilization in water solution and electronic transition shifts. Also, both red- and blue-shift effects have been predicted to take place on electronic transition energies, upon hydration.

  13. The effects of electron and proton radiation on GaSb infrared solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) infrared solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electrons and protons up to fluences of 1 times 10(exp 15) cm (-2) and 1 times 10(exp 12) cm (-2) respectively. In between exposures, current voltage and spectral response curves were taken. The GaSb cells were found to degrade slightly less than typical GaAs cells under electron irradiation, and calculations from spectral response curves showed that the damage coefficient for the minority carrier diffusion length was 3.5 times 10(exp 8). The cells degraded faster than GaAs cells under proton irradiation. However, researchers expect the top cell and coverglass to protect the GaSb cell from most damaging protons. Some annealing of proton damage was observed at low temperatures (80 to 160 C).

  14. Protonic and Electronic Charge Carriers in Solvated Biomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    was less than 1% of that expected from Couloub’s law]. When dryer samples (less than 5% water ), were electrolysed , the amount of oxygen could only be...2. The methodology involved the adsorption of water and other organic liquids on biomacromolecules and subsequent solid-state electrolysis. 3. The...in contrast, was not found in an electrolysis product even when water was the adsorbate., 6. -The conclusion is that protonic conductance in

  15. On the determination of the proton RMS-radius from electron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, F.; Simon, G.G.; Walther, V.H.; Wendling, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the proton rms radius should be determined from fiting a polynomial of second order to the low-q 2 form factors. The commonly used polynomial of first yields radius values which are too small. The proton rms radius has been redetermined from an analysis of the electron scattering data measured at three laboratories. The best fit value is [r 2 sub(E)]sup(1/2) = 0.87 +- 0.02 fm. (orig.) [de

  16. Singly differential electron emission cross sections for ionization of helium by protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, I.F.; Gagyi-Palffy, A.C.; Gulyas, L.; Tokesi, K.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Angular differential cross sections are calculated for electrons emitted in proton-helium collisions within the framework of the time-dependent coupled channel-method. The channel wave functions are constructed from Slater functions and Coulomb wave packets. As projectiles we consider protons with energies between 0.3 and 1.5 MeV. We compare our results with experimental data and other theoretical calculations using the first Born approximation, different distorted wave models and classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations

  17. Analysis of Proton Radiation Effects on Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different energy levels on a GaN-on-silicon high electron mobility transistor...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In this work, a physics-based simulation of non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different...Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage in

  18. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.S., E-mail: janet.schmidt@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bauche, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Biskup, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L.K.; Jones, O.R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F.M.; Vorozhtsov, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10–20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  19. Simultaneous and sequential transfer of proton and alpha-particle in the elastic 11B+16O scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamys, B.; Rudy, Z.; Kisiel, J.; Kwasniewicsz, E.; Wolter, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method to treat multi-nucleon transfer as the transfer of two - possible different - subclusters, as e.g. with ' 5 Li'=(α,p). As a consequence we take into account two reaction mechanisms, the one-step simultaneous and the two-step sequential transfer of the two clusters. We formulate the method of calculation of the simultaneous transfer form factor for two non-identifical particles and also of the two-cluster spectroscopic amplitudes from shell model wave functions. We apply the method to the elastic transfer reaction 11 B( 16 O, 11 B) 11 O together with the single α and p transfer reaction 11 B( 16 O, 15 N) 12 C for E lab between 30 and 60 MeV. We obtain a consistently good description of all the data by reasonable adjustment of the spectroscopic amplitudes. In particular we find that the simultaneous (αp) transfer is considerably more important than the sequential transfer indicating strong five-nucleon correlations in these light nuclei. (orig.)

  20. The PEP [positron-electron-proton] electron-positron ring: PEP Stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    The first stage of the positron-electron-proton (PEP) colliding-beam system which has been under joint study by a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory-Stanford Linear Accelerator Center team for the past two years, will be the electron-positron storage ring. The physics justification for the e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// ring is summarized briefly and the proposed facility is described. The ring will have six arcs having gross radii of about 220 m and six interaction regions located at the centers of straight sections about 130 m long. The longitudinal distance left free for experimental apparatus around the interaction regions will be 20 m. The range of operating beam energies will be from 5 GeV to 15 GeV. The design luminosity at 15 GeV will be 10 32 cm/sup /minus/2/s/sup/minus/1/, and the luminosity will vary approximately as the square of the beam energy. Alternative methods under consideration for adjusting the beam cross-section are discussed. The designs of the storage ring subsystems and of the conventional facilities including the experimental halls at the interaction regions are described. 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium zinc oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guodong; Wan, Changjin; Wan, Qing; Zhou, Jumei; Zhu, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage (1.5 V) indium zinc oxide (IZO)-based electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors (TFTs) gated by nanogranular proton conducting SiO 2 electrolyte films are fabricated on paper substrates. Both enhancement-mode and depletion-mode operation are obtained by tuning the thickness of the IZO channel layer. Furthermore, such flexible IZO protonic/electronic hybrid EDL TFTs can be used as artificial synapses, and synaptic stimulation response and short-term synaptic plasticity function are demonstrated. The protonic/electronic hybrid EDL TFTs on paper substrates proposed here are promising for low-power flexible paper electronics, artificial synapses and bioelectronics. (paper)

  2. Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Homogenous 2-Hydroxypyridine Dimer Electron Induced Proton Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, Alexandra; Stokes, Sarah; Wang, Yi; Hicks, Zachary; Zhang, Xinxing; Blando, Nicolas; Frock, Andrew; Marquez, Sara; Bowen, Kit; Bowen Lab JHU Team

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopic (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) studies on the dimer anion of (2-hydroxypyridine)2-are reported. The experimentally measured vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 1.21eV compares well with the theoretically predicted values. The 2-hydroxypyridine anionic dimer system was investigated because of its resemblance to the nitrogenous heterocyclic pyrimidine nucleobases. Experimental and theoretical results show electron induced proton transfer (EIPT) in both the lactim and lactam homogeneous dimers. Upon electron attachment, the anion can serve as the intermediate between the two neutral dimers. A possible double proton transfer process can occur from the neutral (2-hydroxypyridine)2 to (2-pyridone)2 through the dimer anion. This potentially suggests an electron catalyzed double proton transfer mechanism of tautomerization. Research supported by the NSF Grant No. CHE-1360692.

  3. Large Logarithms in the Beam Normal Spin Asymmetry of Elastic Electron--Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanasev; Mykola Merenkov

    2004-06-01

    We study a parity-conserving single-spin beam asymmetry of elastic electron-proton scattering induced by an absorptive part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. It is demonstrated that excitation of inelastic hadronic intermediate states by the consecutive exchange of two photons leads to logarithmic and double-logarithmic enhancement due to contributions of hard collinear quasi-real photons. The asymmetry at small electron scattering angles is expressed in terms of the total photoproduction cross section on the proton, and is predicted to reach the magnitude of 20-30 parts per million. At these conditions and fixed 4-momentum transfers, the asymmetry is rising logarithmically with increasing electron beam energy, following the high-energy diffractive behavior of total photoproduction cross section on the proton.

  4. Experimental Electron Cloud Studies in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Caspers, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Indications for a beam-induced electron cloud build-up are observed since 2000 for the nominal LHC beam in the PS to SPS transfer line and during the last turns before ejection from the PS. A new electron cloud setup was designed, built, and installed in the PS. It contains shielded button-type pickups, a dipole magnet, a vacuum gauge, and a dedicated stripline electrode to experimentally verify the beneficial effect of electron cloud clearing electrodes. During the 2007 run, the electron cloud effect was also clearly observed in the PS and efficient electron cloud suppression has been obtained for negative and positive bias voltages on the clearing electrode. Here, we present electron cloud measurements with different filling patterns and bunch spacings in the PS.

  5. Calculation of fusion gain in fast ignition with magnetic target by relativistic electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvazian, A.; Javani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fast ignition is a new method for inertial confinement fusion in which the compression and ignition steps are separated. In the first stage, fuel is compressed by laser or ion beams. In the second phase, relativistic electrons are generated by pettawat laser in the fuel. Also, in the second phase 5-35 MeV protons can be generated in the fuel. Electrons or protons can penetrate in to the ultra-dense fuel and deposit their energy in the fuel. More recently, cylindrical rather than spherical fuel chambers with magnetic control in the plasma domain have been also considered. This is called magnetized target fusion. Magnetic field has effects on relativistic electrons energy deposition rate in fuel. In this work, fast ignition method in cylindrical fuel chambers is investigated and transportation of the relativistic electrons and protons is calculated using MCNPX and FLUKA codes with 0.25 and 0.5 tesla magnetic field in single and dual hot spot. Furthermore, the transfer rate of relativistic electrons and high energy protons to the fuel and fusion gain are calculated. The results show that the presence of external magnetic field guarantees higher fusion gain, and relativistic electrons are much more appropriate objects for ignition. Magnetized target fusion in dual hot spot can be considered as an appropriate substitution for the current inertial confinement fusion techniques.

  6. Calculation of fusion gain in fast ignition with magnetic target by relativistic electrons and protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvazian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new method for inertial confinement fusion (ICF in which the compression and ignition steps are separated. In the first stage, fuel is compressed by laser or ion beams. In the second phase, relativistic electrons are generated by pettawat laser in the fuel. Also, in the second phase 5-35 MeV protons can be generated in the fuel. Electrons or protons can penetrate in to the ultra-dense fuel and deposit their energy in the fuel . More recently, cylindrical rather than spherical fuel chambers with magnetic control in the plasma domain have been also considered. This is called magnetized target fusion (MTF. Magnetic field has effects on relativistic electrons energy deposition rate in fuel. In this work, fast ignition method in cylindrical fuel chambers is investigated and transportation of the relativistic electrons and protons is calculated using MCNPX and FLUKA codes with 0. 25 and 0. 5 tesla magnetic field in single and dual hot spot. Furthermore, the transfer rate of relativistic electrons and high energy protons to the fuel and fusion gain are calculated. The results show that the presence of external magnetic field guarantees higher fusion gain, and relativistic electrons are much more appropriate objects for ignition. MTF in dual hot spot can be considered as an appropriate substitution for the current ICF techniques.

  7. Structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide induced by proton and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Mei; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Liang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide were investigated by electron, proton or both combined irradiations at 25 keV in a ground-based simulation facility. Three forms of irradiations could lead to the formation of the carbonized layer on the polymer surface that could increase the hardness and adhesive force of the material. Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation by reason of the higher linear energy transfer value, and combined irradiation resulted in the largest impact, but which was less than the sum of the radiation effects of electron and proton. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the changes in friction behavior are closely related with the carbonized layer, which was easily worn out in friction process and could introduce a shift from adhesion wear to three-body abrasive wear that reduced the wear rate and the friction coefficient. The friction process of irradiated samples could be divided into the initial stage and the steady stage. Three forms of irradiations all induced the high friction coefficient in the initial stage and the low friction coefficient in the steady stage, and the wear rate of the irradiated samples decreased in the order: electron irradiation>proton irradiation>combined irradiation. - Highlights: • Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation. • The effect of combined irradiation was less than that of the sum of electron and proton irradiation. • Three forms of irradiations all induced the high initial friction coefficient and the low steady-stage friction coefficient. • The initial friction stage means a fast-wearing adhesive process while the steady-state of the system is a three-body abrasion

  8. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-03-15

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from Z → ee, Z → eeγ and J/ψ → ee decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}, is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with E{sub T} = 15 GeV and 99% at E{sub T} = 50 GeV. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject electrons from background processes or misidentified hadrons, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify electrons at the ATLAS experiment varies from 65 to 95%, depending on the transverse momentum of the electron and background rejection. (orig.)

  9. Prospects for Measuring $\\Delta$G from Jets at HERA with Polarized Protons and Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    De Roeck, A.; Kunne, F.; Maul, M.; Schafer, A.; Wu, C.Y.; Mirkes, E.; Radel, G.

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of the polarized gluon distribution function Delta G(x) from photon-gluon fusion processes in electron-proton deep inelastic scattering producing two jets has been investigated. The study is based on the MEPJET and PEPSI simulation programs. The size of the expected spin asymmetry and corresponding statistical uncertainties for a possible measurement with polarized beams of electrons and protons at HERA have been estimated. The results show that the asymmetry can reach a few percent, and is not washed out by hadronization and higher order processes.

  10. Prospects for measuring ΔG from jets at HERA with polarized protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, A. de; Feltesse, J.; Kunne, F.; Maul, M.; Schaefer, A.; Wu, C.Y.; Mirkes, E.; Raedel, G.

    1996-09-01

    The measurement of the polarized gluon distribution function ΔG(x) from photon-gluon fusion processes in electron-proton deep inelastic scattering producing two jets has been investigated. The study is based on the MEPJET and PEPSI simulation programs. The size of the expected spin asymmetry and corresponding statistical uncertainties for a possible measurement with polarized beams of electrons and protons at HERA have been estimated. The results show that the asymmetry can reach a few percent, and is not washed out by hadronization and higher order processes. (orig.)

  11. Complete snake and rotator schemes for spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-11-01

    In order to maintain spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings, some generalized Siberian Snake scheme may be required to make the spin tune almost independent of energy and thus avoid depolarizing resonances. The practical problem of finding such schemes that, at reasonable technical effort, can be made to work over large energy ranges has been addressed before and is here revisited in a broadened view and with added new suggestions. As a result, possibly optimum schemes for electron rings (LEP) and proton rings are described. In the proposed LEP scheme, spin rotation is devised such that, at the interaction points, the spin direction is longitudinal as required for experiments. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of recoil photon polarisation in the electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, Jean

    1965-02-01

    This research thesis reports and discusses an experiment which aimed at checking the validity of the Born approximation at the first order in the elastic scattering of high energy electrons on protons. In this experiment, the recoil proton polarisation is measured in an elastic scattering of electrons with energy of 950 MeV and scattering at about 90 degrees in the mass centre system. The author describes the experimental installation, its operation and data collection, reports the analysis of photos and polarisation calculations and errors [fr

  13. Presolvated Electron Reactions with Methyl Acetoacetate: Electron Localization, Proton-Deuteron Exchange, and H-Atom Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Petrovici

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-produced electrons initiate various reaction processes that are important to radiation damage to biomolecules. In this work, the site of attachment of the prehydrated electrons with methyl acetoacetate (MAA, CH3-CO-CH2-COOCH3 at 77 K and subsequent reactions of the anion radical (CH3-CO•−-CH2-COOCH3 in the 77 to ca. 170 K temperature range have been investigated in homogeneous H2O and D2O aqueous glasses by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. At 77 K, the prehydrated electron attaches to MAA forming the anion radical in which the electron is delocalized over the two carbonyl groups. This species readily protonates to produce the protonated electron adduct radical CH3-C(•OH-CH2-COOCH3. The ESR spectrum of CH3-C(•OH-CH2-COOCH3 in H2O shows line components due to proton hyperfine couplings of the methyl and methylene groups. Whereas, the ESR spectrum of CH3-C(•OH-CH2-COOCH3 in D2O glass shows only the line components due to proton hyperfine couplings of CH3 group. This is expected since the methylene protons in MAA are readily exchangeable in D2O. On stepwise annealing to higher temperatures (ca. 150 to 170 K, CH3-C(•OH-CH2-COOCH3 undergoes bimolecular H-atom abstraction from MAA to form the more stable radical, CH3-CO-CH•-COOCH3. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT support the radical assignments.

  14. Presolvated electron reactions with methyl acetoacetate: electron localization, proton-deuteron exchange, and H-atom abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Alex; Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Sevilla, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Radiation-produced electrons initiate various reaction processes that are important to radiation damage to biomolecules. In this work, the site of attachment of the prehydrated electrons with methyl acetoacetate (MAA, CH3-CO-CH2-COOCH3) at 77 K and subsequent reactions of the anion radical (CH3-CO•--CH2-COOCH3) in the 77 to ca. 170 K temperature range have been investigated in homogeneous H2O and D2O aqueous glasses by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. At 77 K, the prehydrated electron attaches to MAA forming the anion radical in which the electron is delocalized over the two carbonyl groups. This species readily protonates to produce the protonated electron adduct radical CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-COOCH3. The ESR spectrum of CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-COOCH3 in H2O shows line components due to proton hyperfine couplings of the methyl and methylene groups. Whereas, the ESR spectrum of CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-COOCH3 in D2O glass shows only the line components due to proton hyperfine couplings of CH3 group. This is expected since the methylene protons in MAA are readily exchangeable in D2O. On stepwise annealing to higher temperatures (ca. 150 to 170 K), CH3-C(•)OH-CH2-COOCH3 undergoes bimolecular H-atom abstraction from MAA to form the more stable radical, CH3-CO-CH•-COOCH3. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) support the radical assignments.

  15. Electron performance measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2010 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; 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van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; 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Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-03-09

    Detailed measurements of the electron performance of the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported, using decays of the Z, W and J/psi particles. Data collected in 2010 at sqrt(s)=7 TeV are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of almost 40 pb^-1. The inter-alignment of the inner detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter, the determination of the electron energy scale and resolution, and the performance in terms of response uniformity and linearity are discussed. The electron identification, reconstruction and trigger efficiencies, as well as the charge misidentification probability, are also presented.

  16. Electronic stopping power calculation for water under the Lindhard formalism for application in proton computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A. F., E-mail: afguerreror@uqvirtual.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Del Quindío Cra 15 # 12N Armenia, Quindío (Colombia); Mesa, J., E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.br [Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu da UNESP Distrito de Rubião Jr. s/n°, 18618-000, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    Because of the behavior that charged particles have when they interact with biological material, proton therapy is shaping the future of radiation therapy in cancer treatment. The planning of radiation therapy is made up of several stages. The first one is the diagnostic image, in which you have an idea of the density, size and type of tumor being treated; to understand this it is important to know how the particles beam interacts with the tissue. In this work, by using de Lindhard formalism and the Y.R. Waghmare model for the charge distribution of the proton, the electronic stopping power (SP) for a proton beam interacting with a liquid water target in the range of proton energies 10{sup 1} eV - 10{sup 10} eV taking into account all the charge states is calculated.

  17. Studies of a nitroxide radical by EPR in monocrystal: interaction of protons and electronic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectra of a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxi-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TANOL II), introduced as impurity in a diamagnetic host, 4-hydroxi-2,6,6-tetramethylpiperedine (I), were investigated. The use of deuterated radical, 4-hydroxi-2,2,6,6 tetramethylpiperidine-d sub(17) -1, oxyl (PD-TANOL, III) improved the resolution of ESR spectra for most of orientations of magnetic field. The proton interqactions in the neighbourhood of magnetic group N-O were studied and superpyresfine tensors for two strongly coupled protons were determined. In order to study the influence of protons on electronic relaxation of radicals, the relaxation times T sub(1) and T sub(2) were estimated in the temperature range-160 sup(0)C - 25 sup(0)C for several orientations, and comparing data for protonated and deuterated radicals II and III, using the continuous wave saturation method. (author)

  18. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  19. Electron cloud development in the Proton Storage Ring and in the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We have applied our simulation code ''POSINST'' to evaluate the contribution to the growth rate of the electron-cloud instability in proton storage rings. Recent simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud in the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source(SNS) at Oak Ridge, and updated results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos are presented in this paper. A key ingredient in our model is a detailed description of the secondary emitted-electron energy spectrum. A refined model for the secondary emission process including the so-called true secondary, rediffused and backscattered electrons has recently been included in the electron-cloud code

  20. Physics results from the first electron-proton collider HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, A de

    1995-03-01

    After two years of experimenting at the new ep collider HERA many new results have been obtained. In this report we have presented results on interactions of high energy photons with matter, and showed that similar to hadronic interactions, hard scattering is observed in these collisions. The different photoproduction processes have been isolated, and a first attempt was made to measure the structure of the photon at HERA. A new region has been explored for deep inelastic scattering interactions. The proton structure is probed to very small values of Bjorken-x, showing a large increase of with decreasing x. Events with a large rapidity gap have been observed and are identified as diffractive scattering. The first electroweak results became available by studying the production of charged current events. Searches for new, exotic phenomena were made, but no evidence for the breakdown of the standard model has been found. (orig.)

  1. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-03-27

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at $\\sqrt{\\mathrm{s}}$ = 8 TeV. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from $Z\\rightarrow ee$, $Z\\rightarrow ee\\gamma$ and $J/\\psi \\rightarrow ee$ decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$, is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with $E_\\mathrm{T}=15$ GeV and 99% at $E_\\mathrm{T} = 50$ GeV. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject backgrounds from background electrons or misi...

  2. Nonadiabatic rate constants for proton transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution: Effects of quadratic term in the vibronic coupling expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-11-21

    Rate constant expressions for vibronically nonadiabatic proton transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions are presented and analyzed. The regimes covered include electronically adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions, as well as high-frequency and low-frequency proton donor-acceptor vibrational modes. These rate constants differ from previous rate constants derived with the cumulant expansion approach in that the logarithmic expansion of the vibronic coupling in terms of the proton donor-acceptor distance includes a quadratic as well as a linear term. The analysis illustrates that inclusion of this quadratic term in the framework of the cumulant expansion framework may significantly impact the rate constants at high temperatures for proton transfer interfaces with soft proton donor-acceptor modes that are associated with small force constants and weak hydrogen bonds. The effects of the quadratic term may also become significant in these regimes when using the vibronic coupling expansion in conjunction with a thermal averaging procedure for calculating the rate constant. In this case, however, the expansion of the coupling can be avoided entirely by calculating the couplings explicitly for the range of proton donor-acceptor distances sampled. The effects of the quadratic term for weak hydrogen-bonding systems are less significant for more physically realistic models that prevent the sampling of unphysical short proton donor-acceptor distances. Additionally, the rigorous relation between the cumulant expansion and thermal averaging approaches is clarified. In particular, the cumulant expansion rate constant includes effects from dynamical interference between the proton donor-acceptor and solvent motions and becomes equivalent to the thermally averaged rate constant when these dynamical effects are neglected. This analysis identifies the regimes in which each rate constant expression is valid and thus will be important for future applications to proton

  3. Nonadiabatic rate constants for proton transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution: Effects of quadratic term in the vibronic coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Rate constant expressions for vibronically nonadiabatic proton transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions are presented and analyzed. The regimes covered include electronically adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions, as well as high-frequency and low-frequency proton donor-acceptor vibrational modes. These rate constants differ from previous rate constants derived with the cumulant expansion approach in that the logarithmic expansion of the vibronic coupling in terms of the proton donor-acceptor distance includes a quadratic as well as a linear term. The analysis illustrates that inclusion of this quadratic term in the framework of the cumulant expansion framework may significantly impact the rate constants at high temperatures for proton transfer interfaces with soft proton donor-acceptor modes that are associated with small force constants and weak hydrogen bonds. The effects of the quadratic term may also become significant in these regimes when using the vibronic coupling expansion in conjunction with a thermal averaging procedure for calculating the rate constant. In this case, however, the expansion of the coupling can be avoided entirely by calculating the couplings explicitly for the range of proton donor-acceptor distances sampled. The effects of the quadratic term for weak hydrogen-bonding systems are less significant for more physically realistic models that prevent the sampling of unphysical short proton donor-acceptor distances. Additionally, the rigorous relation between the cumulant expansion and thermal averaging approaches is clarified. In particular, the cumulant expansion rate constant includes effects from dynamical interference between the proton donor-acceptor and solvent motions and becomes equivalent to the thermally averaged rate constant when these dynamical effects are neglected. This analysis identifies the regimes in which each rate constant expression is valid and thus will be important for future applications to proton

  4. Backscattered electron emission after proton impact on carbon and gold films: Experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespeels, F.; Heuskin, A.C. [University of Namur, PMR, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Scifoni, E. [TIFPA-INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); GSI-Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysik, Max Planck-Strasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraemer, M. [GSI-Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Biophysik, Max Planck-Strasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lucas, S., E-mail: stephane.lucas@unamur.be [University of Namur, PMR, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    This work aims at measuring the proton induced secondary electron energy spectra from nanometer thin films. Backscattered electron energy spectra were measured within an energy range from 0 to 600 eV using a Retarding Field Analyser (RFA). This paper presents energy spectra obtained for proton (0.5 MeV; 1 MeV; 1.5 MeV; 2 MeV) irradiation of thin carbon films (50 and 100 nm thick) and thin gold film (200 nm). These experimental spectra were compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on TRAX code and Geant4 simulation toolkit. Good agreement between experimental, TRAX and Geant4 results were observed for the carbon target. For the gold target, we report major differences between both Monte Carlo environments. Limitation of Geant4 models for low energy electron emission was highlighted. On the contrary, TRAX simulations present encouraging results for the modeling of low-energy electron emission from gold target.

  5. Status of the experimental studies of the electron cloud at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Browman, A.A.; Borden, M.J.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; McCrady, R.C.; Spickermann, T.J.; Zaugg, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The electron cloud (EC) at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) has been studied extensively for the past several years with an overall aim to identify and measure its important characteristics, the factors that influence these characteristics, and to relate these to the two-stream (e-p) transverse instability long observed at PSR. Some new results since PAC2001 are presented.

  6. Threshold velocity in the production of convoy electrons induced by protons crossing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.; Bernardi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, results are presented for the measurements of convoy electrons Y (Vp) in function of velocity Vp of the emerging protons of the surface in the energy range.4 2 ), aluminium (180A) and gold (150A) using coaxial cylindric spectrometer. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. Perturbation of the Electron Transport Mechanism by Proton Intercalation in Nanoporous TiO2 Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, A. F.; Zhu, K.; Erslev, P. T.; Kim, J. Y.; Neale, N. R.; Frank, A. J.

    2012-04-11

    This study addresses a long-standing controversy about the electron-transport mechanism in porous metal oxide semiconductor films that are commonly used in dye-sensitized solar cells and related systems. We investigated, by temperature-dependent time-of-flight measurements, the influence of proton intercalation on the electron-transport properties of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films exposed to an ethanol electrolyte containing different percentages of water (0-10%). These measurements revealed that increasing the water content in the electrolyte led to increased proton intercalation into the TiO{sub 2} films, slower transport, and a dramatic change in the dependence of the thermal activation energy (E{sub a}) of the electron diffusion coefficient on the photogenerated electron density in the films. Random walk simulations based on a microscopic model incorporating exponential conduction band tail (CBT) trap states combined with a proton-induced shallow trap level with a long residence time accounted for the observed effects of proton intercalation on E{sub a}. Application of this model to the experimental results explains the conditions under which E{sub a} dependence on the photoelectron density is consistent with multiple trapping in exponential CBT states and under which it appears at variance with this model.

  8. Test report: Electron-proton spectrometer qualification test unit, qualification test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Qualification tests of the electron-proton spectrometer test unit are presented. The tests conducted were: (1) functional, (2) thermal/vacuum, (3) electromagnetic interference, (4) acoustic, (5) shock, (6) vibration, and (7) humidity. Results of each type of test are presented in the form of data sheets.

  9. EMF measurements on mixed protonic/electronic conductors for hydrogen membrane applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Phair, John

    2010-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements are often used to estimate the transport number of conducting species in ionic and mixed conductors. In this work, the applicability of the method to systems, where both protonic, oxide-ionic and electronic conduction is significant, was examined. The effect...

  10. Database for inelastic collisions of lithium atoms with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweinzer, J; Brandenburg, R; Bray, [No Value; Hoekstra, R; Aumayr, F; Janev, RK; Winter, HP

    New experimental and theoretical cross-section data for inelastic collision processes of Li atoms in the ground state and excited states (up to n = 4) with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions have been reported since the database assembled by Wutte et al. [ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA

  11. Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peña, C.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GEp, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GEp from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ɛ ) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ɛ at Q2=1.45 GeV2 . This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2 - 3 GeV2 .

  12. Radiation damage to uracil and water by proton and electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheier, P.; Hanel, G.; Denifl, S; Gstir, B.; Maerk, T.D.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Coupier, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The inelastic interaction of protons (in the energy range from 20 keV to 150 keV) and electrons (from thermal energies up to 20 eV) with water and uracil, the latter a building block of the RNA has been studied in two laboratories with specially designed experimental setups. These measurements are motivated from a present lack of understanding how on a molecular level damage to living cells and organisms is caused. A unique way of simultaneous detection of the product ions after swift proton (or hydrogen) impact and the analysis of the charge state of the projectile after the collision allows to distinguish between direct ionization (e.g., projectile remains a proton) and electron capture events (e.g., proton becomes neutralized). The latter process turns out to be more destructive, i.e. leads to a higher yield of fragmentation. For electrons both the formation of positively and negatively charged ions has been investigated. We discovered that already thermal electrons lead with a rather large cross section to a dissociation of the uracil molecule producing an anion and a fast hydrogen radical. (author)

  13. High energy electron and proton observations in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nagata, K.; Kohno, T.; Murakami, H.

    1988-01-01

    The method developed by researchers of cooperation agreement between Japan and Brazil, to observe high energy particles in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly, is described. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and protons, using silicon detectors of good energy resolution and two spectrometers with different geometrical factors, on board of the OHZORA satellite, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Protons, ions, electrons and the future of the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D C

    2010-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the most widely used high performance microscope in all fields of science but it is now reaching the theoretical limits of its performance. While advances in sources, optics, and detectors, can result in some improvement in performance the ultimate resolution is limited by fundamental physical constraints. One potential alternative is a scanning microscope utilizing light ions such as H+ and He+ . Such an instrument shares all of the benefits of the conventional SEM but is free from the constraints encountered when using electrons and could significantly extend the scope and success of scanning microscopy.

  15. Dosimetric intercomparison between protons and electrons therapies applied to retinoblastoma; Intercomparacao dosimetrica entre terapias de protons e eletrons aplicada ao retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Flavia Vieira

    2008-07-01

    In this work we propose a construction of a simple human eye model in order to simulate the dosimetric response for a treatment with protons and electrons in a retinoblastoma cancer. The computational tool used in this simulation was the Geant4 code, in the version 4.9.1, all these package are free and permit simulate the interaction of radiation with matter. In our simulation we use a box with 4 cm side, with water, for represent the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetics beams of protons and electrons with energy range between 50 and 70 MeV for protons and 2 and 10 MeV for electrons. The simulation was based on the advanced hadron therapy example of the Geant 4 code. In these example the phantom is divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side and it is generated the energy deposited in each voxel. The simulation results show the energy deliver in each voxel, with these energie we can calculate the dose deposited in that region. We can see the dose profile of, proton and electron, and we can see in both cases that for protons the position of delivered dose is well know, that happen in the position where the proton stop, for electrons the energies is delivered along the way and pass the desired position for high dose deposition. (author)

  16. On the description of electronic final states in the K-shell ionization by protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aashamar, O.; Kocbach, L.

    1976-06-01

    The choice of free electronic wave functions in the description of K-shell ionization by protons is discussed. The previously known discrepancies between PWBA and SCA results are shown to be entirely due to two different choices of electronic wave functions. Calculations in the SCA framework with Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions are reported. Some general features of the SCA calculations are discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Simultaneous electron-proton irradiation of crucible grown and float-zone silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    The realisation of an irradiation chamber which permits simultaneous irradiations by electrons, protons, photons and in-situ measurements of solar cells main parameters (diffusion length, I.V. characteristics) is described. Results obtained on 20 solar cells n/p 10Ωcm made in silicon pulled crystals and 20 solar cells n/p 10Ωcm made in silicon float-zone simultaneously irradiated with electrons and photons are given [fr

  18. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge state...... of the precursor from n = 7 to n = 11 and then remains constant when n increases further. The absolute size of the cross section ranges from 100 to 200 A2. The electron loss is modeled as an electron transfer process between lysozyme cations and molecular oxygen....

  19. Superparticle production in high-energy electron-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyshev, V.F.; Rekalo, M.P.; Stoletnij, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The analytical formulae for total and differential cross sections of the ep → e-tildeγ-tilde process, taking into account the polarization of both initial beams, are obtained. It is shown that the employment of longitudinally polarized initial beams provides a tool for varying relative contributions of left and right electrons superpartners and detecting their mass difference

  20. Proton and Neutron Irradiation Tests of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand the about ten times larger radiation environment of the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC which comprises the heart of the readout electronics has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests where performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters - like gain and input impedance - as a function of the fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with a triangular input pulse of...

  1. Proton and Neutron Irradiation Tests of Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106910

    2012-01-01

    The readout electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter will have to withstand the about ten times larger radiation environment of the future high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to their design values. The GaAs ASIC which comprises the heart of the readout electronics has been exposed to neutron and proton radiation with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the HL-LHC. Neutron tests were performed at the NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, where a 36 MeV proton beam is directed on a thick heavy water target to produce neutrons. The proton irradiation was done with 200 MeV protons at the PROSCAN area of the Proton Irradiation Facility at the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. In-situ measurements of S-parameters in both tests allow the evaluation of frequency dependent performance parameters - like gain and input impedance - as a function of the fluence. The linearity of the ASIC response has been measured directly in the neutron tests with a triangular input pulse of ...

  2. Recent experimental progress in the study of electron and proton beating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M. H.; Akli, K.; Beg, F.; Chen, M. H.; Chen, Z.; Chung, H. K.; Fournier, K.; Freeman, R. R.; Green, J. S.; Gu, P.; Gregori, J.; Habara, H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D.; Hill, J. M.; Izawa, Y.; King, J. A.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kodama, R.; Koch, J. A.; Lancaster, K.; Lasinski, B. F.; Langdon, B.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Lei, A.; Moon, S. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Norreys, P. A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, N.; Patel, P.; Pasley, J.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B.; Stoeckl, C.; Tabak, M.; Tampo, M.; Theobold, W.; Tanaka, K. A.; Town, R. J. P.; Toyama, Y.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wilks, S. C.; Yabuuchi, T.; Zhang, B.; Zheng, J.

    2005-01-01

    The results of recent collaborative experimental campaigns at the RAL PW and 100 TW and Gekko PW laser facilities, which have extended our understanding of electron and proton heating for fast ignition are presented. Heating by electrons has been measured by imaging Cu Ka fluorescence, from crystal and single hit CCD spectroscopy of Cu K shell emission, from two color XUV imaging (68eV and 270 eV) and from streaked 68eV imaging. Heating in solid foil targets, ultra- low mass foil targets and cone targets coupled to fibers and other FI surrogates has been studied using 0.5 to 10 ps pulse duration and powers up to 1 PW. Cone coupling to an imploded plasma has been examined using Cu Ka to diagnose the electron flux in the imploded material. Heating by focused proton beams generated at the concave inside surface of a hemi shell has been studied with similar diagnostic methods. Temperatures at the rear surface of proton heated solid foils have exceeded those produced by direct electron heating. Variation of heating with depth and the transverse pattern of heating have been measured. The spatial distribution of electron flux in a Cu hemi- shell used as a proton source has been determined by imaging Ka fluorescence. Conversion efficiency to protons has been measured from radio-chromic film data. Conclusions from the experiments, links to theoretical understanding and relevance to fast ignition are outlined. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. (Author)

  3. Relative effectiveness of electron-proton damage on organic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomei, P.; Cabrini, A.

    1988-01-01

    With aim to verify the validity of simulation with photon irradiators, of damage caused on internal containment coatings by beta plus gamma mixed field following to a LOCA in LWR, irradiation tests with Co 60 photon and with nearly 1.5 MeV mean energy electrons have been performed. Changes of some properties of coating film have been verified versus absorbed doses up to 1000 KGy (100 Mrad). A special technique for measurement of dose absorbed in thin film of coating has been tested, to be related to absorbed dose in organic dosimeters and in water (Fricke solution) dosimeter. The changes of considered properties (tensile strength, ease to decontamination, color, brightness) do not allow at the moment, to determine undoubtedly the degree of equivalence between radiation damage to coatings by two types of radiation. A strong backscatter effect mainly evident in electron irradiation, has been pointed out, which contribute to damage to coating film

  4. CHARGE-2/C, Flux and Dose Behind Shield from Electron, Proton, Heavy Particle Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucker, W.R.; Lilley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The CHARGE code computes flux spectra, dose and other response rates behind a multilayered spherical or infinite planar shield exposed to isotopic fluxes of electrons, protons and heavy charged particles. The doses, or other responses, to electron, primary proton, heavy particle, electron Bremsstrahlung, secondary proton, and secondary neutron radiations are calculated as a function of penetration into the shield; the materials of each layer may be mixtures of elements contained in the accompanying data library, or supplied by the user. The calculation may optionally be halted before the entire shield is traversed by specifying a minimum total dose rate; the computation stops when the dose drops below this value. The ambient electron, proton and heavy particle spectra may be specified in tabular or functional form. These incident charged particle spectra are divided into energy bands or groups, the number or spacing of which are controlled by input data. The variation of the group boundary energies and group spectra as a function of shield penetration uniquely determines charged particle dose rates and secondary particle production rates. The charged particle shielding calculation is essentially the integration of the range- energy equation which expresses the variation of particle energy wit distance travelled. 2 - Method of solution: The 'straight-ahead' approximation is used throughout, that is the changes in particle direction of motion due to elastic scattering are ignored. This approximation is corrected, in the case of electrons, by applying transmission factors obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. Inelastic scattering between protons and the shielding material is assumed to produce two classes of secondaries 1) Cascade protons and neutrons, emitted in the same direction as the primaries 2) Evaporation neutrons, emitted isotropically. The transmission of secondary protons is analyzed in exactly the same way as the

  5. Contrasting dynamics of electrons and protons in the near-Earth plasma sheet during dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Andrey Y.; Grigorenko, Elena E.; Kronberg, Elena A.; Koleva, Rositza; Ganushkina, Natalia Y.; Kozak, Ludmila; Daly, Patrick W.

    2018-05-01

    The fortunate location of Cluster and the THEMIS P3 probe in the near-Earth plasma sheet (PS) (at X ˜ -7-9 RE) allowed for the multipoint analysis of properties and spectra of electron and proton injections. The injections were observed during dipolarization and substorm current wedge formation associated with braking of multiple bursty bulk flows (BBFs). In the course of dipolarization, a gradual growth of the BZ magnetic field lasted ˜ 13 min and it was comprised of several BZ pulses or dipolarization fronts (DFs) with duration ≤ 1 min. Multipoint observations have shown that the beginning of the increase in suprathermal ( > 50 keV) electron fluxes - the injection boundary - was observed in the PS simultaneously with the dipolarization onset and it propagated dawnward along with the onset-related DF. The subsequent dynamics of the energetic electron flux was similar to the dynamics of the magnetic field during the dipolarization. Namely, a gradual linear growth of the electron flux occurred simultaneously with the gradual growth of the BZ field, and it was comprised of multiple short ( ˜ few minutes) electron injections associated with the BZ pulses. This behavior can be explained by the combined action of local betatron acceleration at the BZ pulses and subsequent gradient drifts of electrons in the flux pile up region through the numerous braking and diverting DFs. The nonadiabatic features occasionally observed in the electron spectra during the injections can be due to the electron interactions with high-frequency electromagnetic or electrostatic fluctuations transiently observed in the course of dipolarization. On the contrary, proton injections were detected only in the vicinity of the strongest BZ pulses. The front thickness of these pulses was less than a gyroradius of thermal protons that ensured the nonadiabatic acceleration of protons. Indeed, during the injections in the energy spectra of protons the pronounced bulge was clearly observed in a

  6. Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for 0.4 2 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Razmik Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, J.W.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Buz Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Stepan Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 2 2 . These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q 2 range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab

  7. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of these data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality factors to consider the consistency between radiation weighting factors and Q-L relationship. The effective dose conversion coefficients obtained in this work were in good agreement with those recently evaluated by using FLUKA code for photons and electrons with all energies, and neutrons and protons below 500 MeV. There were some discrepancy between two data owing to the difference of cross sections in the nuclear reaction models. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalents for high energy radiations based on Q-L relation in ICRP Publication 60 were evaluated only in this work. The previous comparison between effective dose and effective dose equivalent made it clear that the radiation weighting factors for high energy neutrons and protons were overestimated and the modification was required. (author)

  8. Radiation modification and interaction mechanism of polypropylene and polyethylene by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghou

    1988-10-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation effects on isotactic polypropylene (PP) and low-density polyethylene (PE) films by protons and electrons is reported. Electrons can make polyethylene cross-linked and polypropylene crached while protons can improve the PP mechanical properties and deteriorate polyethylene with increasing the irradiation dose. The structural analysis shows that conversion between α and β phases occurs and the crystallinity remains constant in the electron-irradiated polypropylene whereas the network structure is formed by allyl-type radicals in the e - -irradiated polyethylene. The infrared spectra indicate that conformational changes have taken place in the polypropylene under proton bombardment, such as the transition from an ordered to a disordered state in the crystalline region, the formation of double bonds as well as trans-conformations. This leads to the cross-linking between macromolecules of polypropylene at the proper irradiation doses, thus enhancing its mechanical properties. The cross-linking of polypropylene by proton bombardment observed and its properties may have some potential applications

  9. Final Report for 'Modeling Electron Cloud Diagnostics for High-Intensity Proton Accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Electron clouds in accelerators such as the ILC degrade beam quality and limit operating efficiency. The need to mitigate electron clouds has a direct impact on the design and operation of these accelerators, translating into increased cost and reduced performance. Diagnostic techniques for measuring electron clouds in accelerating cavities are needed to provide an assessment of electron cloud evolution and mitigation. Accurate numerical modeling of these diagnostics is needed to validate the experimental techniques. In this Phase I, we developed detailed numerical models of microwave propagation through electron clouds in accelerating cavities with geometries relevant to existing and future high-intensity proton accelerators such as Project X and the ILC. Our numerical techniques and simulation results from the Phase I showed that there was a high probability of success in measuring both the evolution of electron clouds and the effects of non-uniform electron density distributions in Phase II.

  10. Electron capture in proton collisions with alkali atoms as a three-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakov, G.V.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Kadyrov, A.S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A previous paper proposed an approach to the calculation of electron transfer reactions in ion-atomic collisions based on the Faddeev three-body equations written in the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas form. In the present work this approach is used to describe the electron capture in proton collisions with alkali atoms. The results of calculation of the total and partial cross sections for charge exchange in proton collisions with Li, Na, K and Rb atoms are presented. The calculated total cross sections are in good agreement with experiment for light target atoms. In going over to heavier targets, the theoretical total cross sections, while agreeing in form, tend to be larger than the experimental ones. The calculated partial cross sections for electron capture into the 2s state of the H atom are also in agreement with experiment. Some other partial cross sections were also calculated. (author)

  11. MODULATION OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAY PROTONS AND ELECTRONS DURING AN UNUSUAL SOLAR MINIMUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Gieseler, J.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Potgieter, M. S.; Ferreira, S. E. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the latest Ulysses out-of-ecliptic orbit the solar wind density, pressure, and magnetic field strength have been the lowest ever observed in the history of space exploration. Since cosmic ray particles respond to the heliospheric magnetic field in the expanding solar wind and its turbulence, the weak heliospheric magnetic field as well as the low plasma density and pressure are expected to cause the smallest modulation since the 1970s. In contrast to this expectation, the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) proton flux at 2.5 GV measured by Ulysses in 2008 does not exceed the one observed in the 1990s significantly, while the 2.5 GV GCR electron intensity exceeds the one measured during the 1990s by 30%-40%. At true solar minimum conditions, however, the intensities of both electrons and protons are expected to be the same. In contrast to the 1987 solar minimum, the tilt angle of the solar magnetic field has remained at about 30 deg. in 2008. In order to compare the Ulysses measurements during the 2000 solar magnetic epoch with those obtained 20 years ago, the former have been corrected for the spacecraft trajectory using latitudinal gradients of 0.25% deg. -1 and 0.19% deg. -1 for protons and electrons, respectively, and a radial gradient of 3% AU -1 . In 2008 and 1987, solar activity, as indicated by the sunspot number, was low. Thus, our observations confirm the prediction of modulation models that current sheet and gradient drifts prevent the GCR flux to rise to typical solar minimum values. In addition, measurements of electrons and protons allow us to predict that the 2.5 GV GCR proton intensity will increase by a factor of 1.3 if the tilt angle reaches values below 10 deg.

  12. Electron-muon coincidences in proton-proton collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A G; Darriulat, Pierre; Eggert, K; Hungerbühler, V; Jenni, Peter; Lapuyade, C; Modis, T; Pérez, P; Renshall, H; Richter, Burton; Smadja, G; Strauss, J; Strolin, P; Tarnopolsky, G J; Teiger, J; Tur, C; Vialle, J P; Zaccone, Henri; Zallo, A; Zylberstejn, A

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment carried out at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings with a highly selective electron spectrometer system and a magnetized iron filter to detect muons, the authors have observed 32+or-16 dilepton events of the type p+p to mu /sup +or-/+e/sup -or+/+... The integrated luminosity of the experiment was (2.0+or-0.1)*10/sup 37/ cm /sup -2/, and the over-all detection efficiency 0.14+or-0.07. Interpreting this signal as due to charmed meson-pair production, the authors estimate a model-dependent acceptance of 6.5*10/sup -5/ per event, and a cross-section sigma (p+p to D+D+...)=(18+or-9) mu b, with a scale uncertainty of 50% due to the detection efficiency. (9 refs).

  13. Comparison of dose distribution for proton beams and electrons: advantages and disadvantages; Comparacao de distribuicao de dose para feixes de protons e eletrons: vantagens e desvantagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Joao T.M.; Ferreira, Maira B.; Braga, Victor B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This study consists of a simulation of cancer therapy using a beam of protons and electrons. By comparing dose distribution curves for both beams we have showed the advantages and disadvantages of both therapies. The study was performed with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code for a brain tumor, and it was found that the presence of the Bragg peak in proton beam allows a higher dose deposition in tumor and protection of adjacent tissues, while the electron beam has an entry dose in the tissue higher than the proton, yielding to the tissue neighbors of the tumor, unnecessary radiation. Moreover, it was also found significant production of neutrons from the proton beam, showing its main disadvantage. The continuation of this work will add the comparison with clinical beams of photons. (author)

  14. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated ZnO and ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Logar, B.; Baumann, H.

    1997-01-01

    A study aimed at investigating basic properties of radiation induced effects in ZnO and ZnS has been presented. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on polycrystalline samples. For ZnO it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics and several annealing stages were observed, related to the annealing of variously sized vacancy complexes. The lifetime in defected, proton irradiated polycrystalline ZnS samples, grown by chemical vapour deposition, indicates the formation of large defect complexes. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C leads to significant oxidation and transformation into ZnO. 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated ZnO and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Logar, B. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Mascher, P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Balogh, A.G. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Baumann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1997-10-01

    A study aimed at investigating basic properties of radiation induced effects in ZnO and ZnS has been presented. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on polycrystalline samples. For ZnO it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics and several annealing stages were observed, related to the annealing of variously sized vacancy complexes. The lifetime in defected, proton irradiated polycrystalline ZnS samples, grown by chemical vapour deposition, indicates the formation of large defect complexes. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C leads to significant oxidation and transformation into ZnO. 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Atomic retention and near infrared photoluminescence from PbSe nanocrystals fabricated by sequential ion implantation and electron beam annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R.J.; Kennedy, J.; Fang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals of PbSe have been fabricated in a silicon dioxide matrix by sequential low energy ion implantation followed by an electron beam annealing step. Transmission electron microscopy reveals PbSe nanocrystals with typical sizes between 3 and 10 nm in the sub-surface region. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used to study the total atomic retention, as a function of implanted atoms, following annealing. Photoluminescence was observed in various samples, at 4 K, as a broad peak between 1.4 and 2.0 μm, with observation of a dependence of the peak wavelength on annealing temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed for samples with a high retention of implanted atoms, demonstrating the importance of nanocrystal density for achieving ambient temperature emission in these systems

  17. Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, Vania K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Evans, D.S.; Albert, Jay; Connors, M

    2008-01-01

    The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's

  18. The calculation of proton and secondary electron stopping powers in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouane, Abdelhak; Inchaouh, Jamal; Ouaskit, Said; Fathi, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The stopping power of energetic protons in liquid water has been calculated using a new model based on different theoretical and semi-empirical approaches. In this model, we consider the relativistic corrections along with the electronic and nuclear stopping power. The present work accounts for the different interactions made with electrons and nuclei inside the target. Interactions of the incident particle with the target's electrons dominate in the high energy regime; in the low energy regime, the interactions of the projectile with the target nuclei contribute importantly and are included in the calculation. We also compute the stopping cross sections and the stopping power of secondary electrons ejected from proton and hydrogen ionization impact, and generated by hydrogen electron loss processes. The consideration of secondary electrons' stopping power can contribute to the study of nano-dosimetry. Our results are in good agreement with existing experimental data. This calculation model can be useful for different applications in medical physics and space radiation health, such as hadron therapy for cancer treatment or radiation protection for astronauts. - Highlights: ► We discussed the stopping cross sections at the Bragg peak region of primary and secondary processes. ► We considered the corrections of incident particle energy focusing on the Rudds semi-empirical model. ► We calculated the electronic and nuclear stopping power, and we deduced the total stopping power. ► We calculated the stopping power of the secondary electrons.

  19. Proton and neutron densities from elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1979-01-01

    Elastic electron scattering has now determined extremely fine details of the shape of the nuclear groound state. The combination of (e,e) and muonic X-rays data are giving informations that are among the most precise on nuclear structure. This enables to see all the limitations of existing theories. However, we begin to have a very coherent description of nuclei with the self consistent field theories to a few percent. A very significant progress has been achieved with the calculations of RPA correlations in the round state in a self consistent way. Only recent experiments (on medium and heavy nuclei) of some significance for the understanding of the structure of the nucleus are reviewed

  20. Electron emission and energy loss in grazing collisions of protons with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M. S.; Miraglia, J. E.; Aldazabal, I.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V. H.; Aumayr, F.; Lederer, S.; Winter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from LiF, KCl, and KI crystal surfaces during grazing collisions of swift protons is studied using a first-order distorted-wave formalism. Owing to the localized character of the electronic structure of these surfaces, we propose a model that allows us to describe the process as a sequence of atomic transitions from different target ions. Experimental results are presented for electron emission from LiF and KI and energy loss from KI surfaces. Calculations show reasonable agreement with these experimental data. The role played by the charge of the incident particle is also investigated

  1. Target electron collision effects on energy loss straggling of protons in an electron gas at any degeneracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on proton energy loss straggling in plasmas at any degeneracy. Targets are considered fully ionized so electronic energy loss is only due to the free electrons. The analysis is focused on targets with electronic density around solid values n e ≅10 23 cm -3 and with temperature around T≅10 eV; these targets are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases. These types of plasma targets have not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum-mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Then electron collisions in the exact quantum-mechanical straggling calculation are considered. Now the energy loss straggling is enhanced for energies smaller than the energy before the maximum, then decreases around this maximum, and finally tends to the same values with respect to noncollisional calculation. Differences with the same results but not taking into account these collisions are as far as 17% in the cases analyzed. As an example, proton range distributions have been calculated to show the importance of an accurate energy straggling calculation

  2. Footprints of electron correlation in strong-field double ionization of Kr close to the sequential-ionization regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokai; Wang, Chuncheng; Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Ma, Pan; Hu, Wenhui; Luo, Sizuo; Fu, Libin; Ding, Dajun

    2017-09-01

    By combining kinematically complete measurements and a semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation we study the correlated-electron dynamics in the strong-field double ionization of Kr. Interestingly, we find that, as we step into the sequential-ionization regime, there are still signatures of correlation in the two-electron joint momentum spectrum and, more intriguingly, the scaling law of the high-energy tail is completely different from early predictions on the low-Z atom (He). These experimental observations are well reproduced by our generalized semiclassical model adapting a Green-Sellin-Zachor potential. It is revealed that the competition between the screening effect of inner-shell electrons and the Coulomb focusing of nuclei leads to a non-inverse-square central force, which twists the returned electron trajectory at the vicinity of the parent core and thus significantly increases the probability of hard recollisions between two electrons. Our results might have promising applications ranging from accurately retrieving atomic structures to simulating celestial phenomena in the laboratory.

  3. The current status of development of the electron and proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Boden, Sebastian; Martin-Garcia, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Schuster, Bjoern; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, scheduled for launch in January 2017, will study how the sun creates the inner heliosphere. Therefore, the spacecraft will perform in situ and remote sensing measurements of the sun on a high inclination orbit with a perihelion of about 60 solar radii, making it possible to observe the poles of the sun from nearby. The Energetic Particle Detector suite on-board of Solar Orbiter will measure particles of a wide energy range and from multiple directions. One of the important sensors of the EPD suite is the Electron and Proton Telescope. It consists of two antiparallel telescopes with two silicon detectors respectively and is designed to detect electrons between 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 keV to 7 MeV. EPT relies on a magnet/foil technique to discriminate between electrons and protons. Its design is driven by mass allocation, the thermal environment, power consumption and electronic noise; especially the magnet system must guarantee stray fields low enough to be compliant with the Solar Orbiter EMC requirements. Here, we present the current status of the Structural/Thermal Model and Engineering Model assembly as well as the integration and testing of the prototype.

  4. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  5. Proton stoichiometry of electron transport in rodent tumor mitoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J; Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1988-02-01

    The mechanistic vectorial H+/O translocation ratios characteristic of energy-conserving sites 2 + 3 and site 3 of the respiratory chain of two tumor cell lines were determined using succinate and ferrocytochrome c, respectively, as electron donors. The measurements were carried out on mitoplasts in order to allow ferrocytochrome c free access to its binding site on the inner mitochondrial membrane. The tumor cell lines used were Ehrlich ascites tumor and the AS30-D ascites tumor. K+ was used as charge-compensating cation in the presence of valinomycin. The O2 uptake rate measurements were made with a fast-responding membrane-less electrode whose response time was closely matched with that of a pH electrode. The rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection during the apparent zero-order rate phase of respiration, analyzed by computer, were extrapolated to zero time. The observed H+/O ratios for succinate oxidation in both tumors exceeded 7 and approached 8 and the H+/O ratios for the cytochrome oxidase reaction closely approached 4.0, in agreement with data or normal mitochondria. However, the rates of H+ back decay in the tumor mitochondria are relatively high and may influence the net efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under intracellular conditions.

  6. Fluxes of energetic protons and electrons measured on board the Oersted satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cabrera

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Charged Particle Detector (CPD on board the Oersted satellite (649 km perigee, 865 km apogee and 96.48° inclination currently measures energetic protons and electrons. The measured peak fluxes of E>1 MeV electrons are found to confirm the predictions of AE8-MAX, though they occur at a geographical position relatively shifted in the SAA. The fluxes of protons are one order of magnitude higher than the predictions of AP8-MAX in the energy range 20-500 MeV. This huge discrepancy between AP8 and recent measurements in LEO was already noticed and modelled in SAMPEX/PSB97 and TPM-1 models. Nevertheless some other LEO measurements such as PROBA and CORONA-F result in flux values in good agreement with AP8 within a factor 2. The anisotropy of the low-altitude proton flux, combined with measurement performed on board three-axis stabilised satellites, has been suspected to be one possible source of the important discrepancies observed by different missions. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of anisotropy on flux measurements conducted using the CPD instruments. On the basis of the available data, we confirm the inaccuracy of AP8 at LEO and suggest methods to improve the analysis of data in future flux measurements of energetic protons at low altitudes.

  7. Site competition on metal surfaces: an electron spectroscopic study of sequential adsorption on W(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkilberg, M.; Menzel, D.

    1977-01-01

    Using UPS and XPS, the sequential adsorption of hydrogen + carbon monoxide, and of hydrogen + oxygen, on W(110) has been studied at room temperature. Adsorption of CO on a H-covered surface is rapid and leads to total displacement of hydrogen. The resulting CO layer however, is different from that formed on the clean surface under identical conditions, in that it consists of a higher percentage of virgin CO, while considerably more β-CO forms on the clean surface. Oxygen does not adsorb on a H-covered surface, nor displace hydrogen. It is concluded that hydrogen most probably occupies the same sites utilized by dissociative adsorption of CO and oxygen, while virgin CO can also occupy different sites; its adsorption can thus lead to interactional weakening of the H-surface bond. (Auth.)

  8. SHIELDOSE, Doses from Electron and Proton Irradiation in Space Vehicle Al Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The ability to predict absorbed dose within a spacecraft due to a specified radiation environment is important for design and planning considerations pertaining to the reliability of electronic components and to the radiological safety of on-board personnel. This computer code SHIELDOSE evaluates the absorbed dose as a function of depth in aluminum shielding material of spacecraft, given the electron and proton fluences encountered in orbit. 2 - Method of solution: It makes use of pre-calculated, monoenergetic depth-dose data for an isotropic, broad-beam fluence of radiation incident on uniform aluminum plane media. Such data are particularly suitable for routine dose predictions in situations where the geometrical and compositional complexities of the spacecraft are not known. Furthermore, restricting our consideration to these rather simple geometries has allowed for the development of accurate electron and electron-Bremsstrahlung data sets based on detailed transport calculations rather than on more approximate methods. The present version of SHIELDOSE calculates, for arbitrary proton and electron incident spectra, the dose absorbed in small volumes of the detector materials Al, H 2 O (tissue-equivalent detector), Si and SiO 2 , in the following aluminum shield geometries: (1) in a semi- infinite plane medium, as a function of depth; (2) at the transmission surface of a plane slab, as a function of slab thickness; and (3) at the center of a solid sphere, as a function of sphere radius. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - No. of depth Z for which dose calculation is desired (IMAX) ≤50; - No. of prints used in the numerical evaluation of the integral over the incident proton spectrum (NPTSP) ≤301; - No. of points used in the numerical evaluation of the internal over the incident electron spectrum (NPTSE) ≤101; - No. of energy for which the solar-flare-proton spectrum is read in (JSMAX), incident

  9. Absolute Hydration Free Energy of Proton from First Principles Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute hydration free energy of the proton, DGhyd298(H+), is one of the fundamental quantities for the thermodynamics of aqueous systems. Its exact value remains unknown despite extensive experimental and computational efforts. We report a first-principles determination of DGhyd298(H+) by using the latest developments in electronic structure theory and massively parallel computers. DGhyd298(H+) is accurately predicted to be -262.4 kcal/mol based on high-level, first-principles solvation-included electronic structure calculations. The absolute hydration free energies of other cations can be obtained by using appropriate available thermodynamic data in combination with this value. The high accuracy of the predicted absolute hydration free energy of proton is confirmed by applying the same protocol to predict DGhyd298(Li+)

  10. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y; Sato, O; Tanaka, S I; Tsuda, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    2003-01-01

    In the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations, radiation weighting factors were introduced in the place of quality factors, the tissue weighting factors were revised, and effective doses and equivalent doses of each tissues and organs were defined as the protection quantities. Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of theses data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality fact...

  11. n l -> n' l' transition rates in electron and proton - Rydberg atom collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinceanu, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Electrons and protons drive the recombination dynamics of highly excited Rydberg atoms in cold rarefied plasmas found in astrophysical conditions such as primordial recombination or star formation in H-II clouds. It has been recognized that collisions induce both energy and angular momentum transitions in Rydberg atoms, although in different proportions, depending on the initial state, temperature and the given species considered in the collision (electron or proton). Most studies focused on one collision type at a time, under the assumption that collision types are independent or their effects are not competing. The classical Monte-Carlo trajectory simulations presented in this work calculate the rates for both energy and angular momentum transfers and show their interdependence. For example, energy transfer with small angular momentum change are more efficient for target states with initial large angular momentum. The author acknowledges support received from the National Science Foundation through a Grant for the Center for Research on Complex Networks (HRD-1137732).

  12. The SAMPLE experiment: Parity-violating electron scattering from the proton and deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, M.; Arrington, J.; Beck, D.; Beise, E.; Candell, E.; Cardman, L.; Carr, R.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Duncan, F.; Farkhondeh, M.; Filippone, B.; Forest, T.; Gao, H.; Korsch, W.; Kowalski, S.; Lung, A.; McKeown, R.; Mohring, R.; Mueller, B.; Napolitano, J.; Simicevic, N.; Terburg, B.; Witkowski, M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence on nucleon structure has provided indications that some strange quark matrix elements can be comparable to those involving up and down quarks. The SAMPLE experiment will determine the strange magnetic form factor G s M at Q 2 =0.1 (GeV/c) 2 from a measurement of the asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from the proton. The error on the extraction of G s M is ultimately limited by a theoretical uncertainty---the uncertain electroweak hadronic radiative correction to the axial form factor, R T=1 A . To address this issue, the collaboration is also approved to measure the asymmetry in parity-violating quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron. The combination of the proton and deuteron measurements will yield a value of G s M that is almost completely free of the uncertainty in R T=1 A

  13. Spin structure function measurements with polarized protons and electrons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.D.; Deshpande, A.; Forte, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Ridolfi, G.

    1995-01-01

    Useful insights into the spin structure functions of the nucleon can be achieved by measurements of spin-dependent asymmetries in inclusive scattering of high energy polarized electrons by high energy polarized protons at HERA. Such an experiment would be a natural extension of the polarized lepton-nucleon scattering experiments presently carried out at CERN and SLAC. We present here estimates of possible data in the extended kinematic range of HERA and associated statistical errors. (orig.)

  14. The determination of parameters of shower initiated in imaging calorimeter by electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, S.V.; Voronov, S.A.; Karelin, A.V.; Koldobskij, S.A.; Runtso, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the report on several methods of shower axis reconstruction and methods of search for the starting point of the shower are presented. They were developed for 'thin' sampling imaging calorimeters. For this purpose we used a Monte-Carlo simulation of interaction of electrons and protons with a silicon-tungsten calorimeter of PAMELA satellite-borne experiment. After some adaptation, these methods could be applied for different types of calorimeters

  15. Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms and solids for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshiaki.

    1990-12-01

    Based on a wave packet theory (Phys. Rev. A40, 2188(1989); Phys. Stat. Sol. (B)156,49(1989)), partial and total electronic cross sections of target elements in atomic and solid phases with atomic number Z ranging from 2 (He) to 92 (U) are tabulated shell by shell for protons with velocity v from 0.2V 0 to 2OV 0 (V 0 =2.18 x 10 8 cm/s). (author)

  16. Unbunched beam electron-proton instability in the PSR and advanced hadron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tai-Sen; Pisent, A.; Neuffer, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the possibility of the occurrence of transverse instability induced by trapped electrons in unbunched beams in the Proton Storage Ring and the proposed Advance Hadron Facility (AHF) at Los Alamos, as well as in the proposed Kaon Factory at TRIUMF. We found that the e-p instability may be possible for unbunched beams in the PSR but is unlikely to occur in the advanced hadron facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  17. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  18. Collective acceleration of protons by the plasma waves in a counterstreaming electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.

    1987-03-01

    A novel advanced accelerator is proposed. The counterstreaming electron beam accelerator relies on the same physical mechanism as that of the plasma accelerator but replaces the stationary plasma in the plasma accelerator by a magnetized relativistic electron beam, drifting antiparallel to the driving source and the driven particles, as the wave supporting medium. The plasma wave in a counterstreaming electron beam can be excited either by a density-ramped driving electron beam or by properly beating two laser beams. The fundamental advantages of the counterstreaming electron beam accelerator over the plasma accelerator are a longer and tunable plasma wavelength, a longer pump depletion length or a larger transformer ratio, and easier pulse shaping for the driving source and the driven beam. Thus the energy gain of the driven particles can be greatly enhanced whereas the trapping threshold can be dramatically reduced so as to admit the possibility for proton acceleration

  19. Recurrent modulation of galactic cosmic ray electrons and protons: Ulysses COSPIN/KET observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B.; Blake, J.B.; Paizis, C.; Bothmer, V.; Kunow, H.; Wibberenz, G.; Burger, R.A.; Potgieter, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Since measurements of space probes in the interplanetary space became available it has been known that associated with the occurrence of recurrent fast and slow solar wind streams, forming Corotating Interaction Regions, recurrent variations in the cosmic ray nuclei flux are observed. As pointed out recently by Jokipii and Kota (2) recurrent modulation for positively and negatively charged particles may be different. In the time interval extending from July 1992 to July 1994, Ulysses on its journey to high heliographic latitudes registered ∼20 stable and long-lasting Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs). In this work we use data from the Cosmic Ray and Solar Particle Investigation Kiel Electron Telescope (COSPIN/KET) instrument on board Ulysses to study the recurrent variation of 2.5 GV electrons and protons. We find that 1) electrons are indeed periodically modulated, but that 2) the periodicity of ∼29 days is longer than the period of ∼26 days for protons, and that 3) the amplitude is larger than the one observed for protons

  20. The current status of model development of the electron and proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Boden, Sebastian; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan I.; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, scheduled for launch in January 2017, will study how the sun creates the inner heliosphere. Therefore, the spacecraft will perform in situ and remote sensing measurements of the sun on a high inclination orbit with a perihelion of about 60 solar radii, making it possible to observe the poles of the sun from nearby. The Energetic Particle Detector suite on-board of Solar Orbiter will measure particles of a wide energy range and from multiple directions. One of the important sensors of the EPD suite is the Electron Proton Telescope. It consists of two antiparallel telescopes with two silicon detectors respectively and is designed to detect electrons between 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 keV to 7 MeV. EPT relies on a magnet/foil technique to discriminate between electrons and protons. Here, we present the testing of the Structural and Thermal Model, which has already been delivered to ASTRIUM for spacecraft level tests as well as the integration and testing of the Engineering Model, which already provides full electrical functionality.

  1. Mixed conduction protonic/electronic ceramic for high temperature electrolysis anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupil, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    This thesis validates the concept of mixed electron/proton ceramic conductors to be used as anode materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer. The materials developed are based on cobaltites of alkaline-earth metals and rare earth elements commonly used for their high electronic conductivity in the temperature range of 300-600 C. The stability of each material has been assessed during 350 h in air and moist air. After checking the chemical compatibility with the BaZr 0.9 Y 0.1 O 3 electrolyte material, eight compositions have been selected: BaCoO 3 , LaCoO 3 , Sr 0.5 La 0.5 CoO 3 , Ba 0.5 La 0.5 CoO 3 , GdBaCo 2 O 5 , NdBaCo 2 O 5 , SmBaCo 2 O 5 and PrBaCo 2 O 5 . The thermal evolution of the oxygen stoichiometry of each material was determined by coupling iodo-metric titration and TGA in dry air. TGA in moist air has allowed determining the optimum temperature range for which proton incorporation is possible and maximized. Proton incorporation profiles have been determined on two cobaltites using SIMS and nuclear microanalysis in the ERDA configuration. Deuterium diffusion coefficients have been determined confirming the proton mobility in these materials. Under moist air, NdBaCo 2 O 5 is shown to incorporate rapidly a significant number of protons that spread homogeneously within the material bulk. Anode microstructure optimization has allowed reaching at 450 C and 600 C total resistance values on symmetrical cell highly promising. (author) [fr

  2. Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Helle, M.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ∼1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called ''bucket jumping'' where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.

  3. Single-electron analysis and open charm cross section in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasel, Markus

    2012-11-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's highest energy hadron collider, providing protonproton collisions currently at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=8 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV. This opens a new energy regime, which allows the study of QCD in elementary pp-collisions and in the extreme environment of Pb-Pb collisions, as well as providing a discovery potential for rare and exotic particles. ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC. The experiment is optimised to provide excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities, in particular at low-p{sub t}, where the bulk of the particles is produced in heavy-ion collisions as well as in proton-proton collisions. The production of heavy quarks is described in proton-proton collisions by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations. Thus, the measurement of heavy-quark production in proton-proton collisions serves as a test of pQCD. Measurements performed at SPS, RHIC, and Tevatron experiments showed a good agreement with pQCD, where the data were usually at the upper limit of the prediction. In addition, measurements in proton-proton collisions serve as reference for heavy-ion collisions, in which heavy quarks are essential probes for parton energy loss in a deconfined medium. Heavy-quark production can be studied either with hadronic or in semi-leptonic decay channels. The analysis presented in this thesis is performed in the semi-electronic decay channel with the ALICE apparatus. A crucial device for the electron selection is the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), which provides an important contribution to the electron-pion separation for momenta larger than 1 GeV/c. In November 2010, the first data were recorded with the experiment. The electron selection performance was studied for the first time on real data using data-driven methods. A pion-rejection factor of 23 at a momentum of 2 GeV/c was obtained using a likelihood method on

  4. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence induced by sequential hot electron and hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Kalle; Kuosmanen, Päivi; Pusa, Matti [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kulmala, Oskari [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 (Finland); Håkansson, Markus [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari, E-mail: sakari.kulmala@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-03-17

    Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution is proposed to occur when oxide-coated aluminum electrode is anodically pulse-polarized by a voltage pulse train containing sufficiently high-voltage anodic pulses. The effects of anodic pulses are studied by using an aromatic Tb(III) chelate as a probe known to produce intensive hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) with plain cathodic pulses and preoxidized electrodes. The presently studied system allows injection of hot electrons and holes successively into aqueous electrolyte solutions and can be utilized in detecting electrochemiluminescent labels in fully aqueous solutions, and actually, the system is suggested to be quite close to a pulse radiolysis system providing hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals as the primary radicals in aqueous solution without the problems and hazards of ionizing radiation. The analytical power of the present excitation waveforms are that they allow detection of electrochemiluminescent labels at very low detection limits in bioaffinity assays such as in immunoassays or DNA probe assays. The two important properties of the present waveforms are: (i) they provide in situ oxidation of the electrode surface resulting in the desired oxide film thickness and (ii) they can provide one-electron oxidants for the system by hole injection either via F- and F{sup +}-center band of the oxide or by direct hole injection to valence band of water at highly anodic pulse amplitudes. - Highlights: • Hot electrons injected into aqueous electrolyte solution. • Generation of hydrated electrons. • Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution. • Generation of hydroxyl radicals.

  5. Status of experimental studies of electron cloud effects at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Browman, A.A.; Borden, M.J.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; McCrady, R.C.; Spickermann, T.J.; Zaugg, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Various electron cloud effects (ECE) including the two-stream (e-p) instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) have been studied extensively for the past five years with the goal of understanding the phenomena, mitigating the instability and ultimately increasing beam intensity. The specialized diagnostics used in the studies are two types of electron detectors, the retarding field analyzer and the electron sweepmg detector - which have been employed to measure characteristics of the electron cloud as functions of time, location in the ring and various influential beam parameters - plus a short stripline beam position monitor used to measure high frequency motion of the beam centroid. Highlights of this research program are summarized along with more detail on recent results obtained since the ECLOUD'02 workshop. Recent work mcludes a number of parametric studies of the various factors that affect the electron cloud signals, studies of the sources of initial or 'seed' electrons, additional observations of electron cloud dissipation after the beam pulse is extracted, studies of the 'first pulse instability' issue, more data on electron suppression as a cure for the instability, and observations of the effect of a one-turn weak kick on intense beams in the presence of a significant electron cloud.

  6. Electron Cloud Generation and Trapping in a Quadrupole Magnet at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, Robert J.; Browman, Andrew A.; Ledford, John E.; TechSource, Santa Fe; Los Alamos; Borden, Michael J.; O'Hara, James F.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Spickermann, Thomas; Zaugg, Thomas J.; Pivi, Mauro T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR) have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the 'prompt' electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the 'swept' electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100 (micro)s. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole

  7. Electron cloud generation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Macek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the “prompt” electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the “swept” electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100  μs. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole.

  8. Identifying Intermediates of Sequential Electron and Hydrogen Loss from a Dicarbonylcobalt Hydride Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krafft, M. J.; Bubrin, M.; Paretzki, A.; Lissner, F.; Fiedler, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 26 (2013), s. 6781-6784 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD11086 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cobalt * Electron transfer * ferrocene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.336, year: 2013

  9. Pseudo-diode based on protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang Ming; Liu, Yang Hui; Zhu, Li Qiang; Xiao, Hui; Song, An Ran

    2018-01-01

    Current rectification behavior has been proved to be essential in modern electronics. Here, a pseudo-diode is proposed based on protonic/electronic hybrid indium-gallium-zinc oxide electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor. The oxide EDL transistors are fabricated by using phosphorous silicate glass (PSG) based proton conducting electrolyte as gate dielectric. A diode operation mode is established on the transistor, originating from field configurable proton fluxes within the PSG electrolyte. Current rectification ratios have been modulated to values ranged between ˜4 and ˜50 000 with gate electrode biased at voltages ranged between -0.7 V and 0.1 V. Interestingly, the proposed pseudo-diode also exhibits field reconfigurable threshold voltages. When the gate is biased at -0.5 V and 0.3 V, threshold voltages are set to ˜-1.3 V and -0.55 V, respectively. The proposed pseudo-diode may find potential applications in brain-inspired platforms and low-power portable systems.

  10. Dosimetric impact of a CT metal artefact suppression algorithm for proton, electron and photon therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jikun; Sandison, George A; Hsi, W-C; Ringor, Michael; Lu Xiaoyi

    2006-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation is essential to precision radiation treatment planning and this accuracy depends upon anatomic and tissue electron density information. Modern treatment planning inhomogeneity corrections use x-ray CT images and calibrated scales of tissue CT number to electron density to provide this information. The presence of metal in the volume scanned by an x-ray CT scanner causes metal induced image artefacts that influence CT numbers and thereby introduce errors in the radiation dose distribution calculated. This paper investigates the dosimetric improvement achieved by a previously proposed x-ray CT metal artefact suppression technique when the suppressed images of a patient with bilateral hip prostheses are used in commercial treatment planning systems for proton, electron or photon therapies. For all these beam types, this clinical image and treatment planning study reveals that the target may be severely underdosed if a metal artefact-contaminated image is used for dose calculations instead of the artefact suppressed one. Of the three beam types studied, the metal artefact suppression is most important for proton therapy dose calculations, intermediate for electron therapy and least important for x-ray therapy but still significant. The study of a water phantom having a metal rod simulating a hip prosthesis indicates that CT numbers generated after image processing for metal artefact suppression are accurate and thus dose calculations based on the metal artefact suppressed images will be of high fidelity

  11. A coincidence-type ion-electron converter detector for low-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, O.; Weinzierl, P.; Dobrozemsky, R.; Stratowa, C.

    1981-04-01

    A coincidence type ion-electron converter detector has been developed and used - together with an electrostatic energy-analyser - for precision measurements of the energy distribution of recoil protons from free-neutron decay. The most important aspect of the development was, besides keeping the background below 0,2 counts/sec in the presence of a certain radiation background, to achieve a high and energy-independent counting probability for protons with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. With an acceleration voltage of about 25 kV and Al-foils (20 to 35 ug/cmsup2) as converter, we obtained counting efficiences of 70 to 85 percent. The design and performance of the detector system, employing six foils with different sensitive areas, are described and discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Proton-coupled electron transfer promotes the reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by uric acid under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The hypervalent muscle pigment ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O, is not reduced by urate monoanions at physiological conditions despite a strong driving force of around 30 kJ mol1 while for low pH, uric acid was found to reduce protonated ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O,H+, efficiently in a bimolecular...... reaction with k1 ¼ 1.1 0.1 103 L mol1 s1, DH‡ ¼ 66.1 0.1 kJ mol1 and DS‡ ¼ 35.2 0.2 J mol1 K1. For intermediate pH, like for anaerobic muscles and for meat, proton-oupled electron transfer occurs in a transition state, {MbFe(IV)]O/H+/urate}‡, which is concluded to be formed from uric acid and Mb...... in uric acid concentration may serve as an inherent protection against radical formation by ferrylmyoglobin...

  13. Measurements of Electron Proton Elastic Cross Sections for 0.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin Mcilhany; David Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, M.A.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 distinct kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q2 < 5.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q2 range, where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. This data set shows good agreement with previous cross section measurements, indicating that if a heretofore unknown systematic error does exist in the cross section measurements, then it is intrinsic to all such measurements

  14. Electronic and steric influences of pendant amine groups on the protonation of molybdenum bis (dinitrogen) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heiden, Zachariah M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mock, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The synthesis of a series of PEtPNRR' (PEtPNRR' = Et₂PCH₂CH₂P(CH₂NRR')₂, R = H, R' = Ph or 2,4-difluorophenyl; R = R' = Ph or iPr) diphosphine ligands containing mono- and disubstituted pendant amine groups, and the preparation of their corresponding molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') is described. In situ IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies monitoring the stepwise addition of (HOTf) to trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes in THF at -40 °C show that the electronic and steric properties of the R and R' groups of the pendant amines influence whether the complexes are protonated at Mo, a pendant amine, a coordinated N2 ligand, or a combination of these sites. For example, complexes containing mono-aryl substituted pendant amines are protonated at Mo and pendant amine to generate mono- and dicationic Mo–H species. Protonation of the complex containing less basic diphenyl-substituted pendant amines exclusively generates a monocationic hydrazido (Mo(NNH₂)) product, indicating preferential protonation of an N₂ ligand. Addition of HOTf to the complex featuring more basic diisopropyl amines primarily produces a monocationic product protonated at a pendant amine site, as well as a trace amount of dicationic Mo(NNH₂) product that contain protonated pendant amines. In addition, trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(depe) (depe = Et₂PCH₂CH₂PEt₂) without a pendant amine was synthesized and treated with HOTf, generating a monocationic Mo(NNH₂) product. Protonolysis experiments conducted on select complexes in the series afforded trace amounts of NH₄⁺. Computational analysis of the series of trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes provides further insight into the proton affinity values of the metal center, N

  15. A comparison of ionizing radiation damage in CMOS devices from 60Co gamma rays, electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Baoping; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi

    2009-01-01

    Radiation hardened CC4007RH and non-radiation hardened CC4011 devices were irradiated using 60 Co gamma rays, 1 MeV electrons and 1-9 MeV protons to compare the ionizing radiation damage of the gamma rays with the charged particles. For all devices examined, with experimental uncertainty, the radiation induced threshold voltage shifts (ΔV th ) generated by 60 Co gamma rays are equal to that of 1 MeV electron and 1-7 MeV proton radiation under 0 gate bias condition. Under 5 V gate bias condition, the distinction of threshold voltage shifts (ΔV th ) generated by 60 Co gamma rays and 1 MeV electrons irradiation are not large, and the radiation damage for protons below 9 MeV is always less than that of 60 Co gamma rays. The lower energy the proton has, the less serious the radiation damage becomes. (authors)

  16. On the idea of low-energy nuclear reactions in metallic lattices by producing neutrons from protons capturing "heavy" electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennfors, Einar

    2013-02-01

    The present article is a critical comment on Widom and Larsens speculations concerning low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) based on spontaneous collective motion of protons in a room temperature metallic hydride lattice producing oscillating electric fields that renormalize the electron self-energy, adding significantly to the effective electron mass and enabling production of low-energy neutrons. The frequency and mean proton displacement estimated on the basis of neutron scattering from protons in palladium and applied to the Widom and Larsens model of the proton oscillations yield an electron mass enhancement less than one percent, far below the threshold for the proposed neutron production and even farther below the mass enhancement obtained by Widom and Larsen assuming a high charge density. Neutrons are not stopped by the Coulomb barrier, but the energy required for the neutron production is not low.

  17. Zinc vacancy and oxygen interstitial in ZnO revealed by sequential annealing and electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, K. E.; Galeckas, A.; Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Farlow, G. C.; Svensson, B. G.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    By combining results from positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy with data from Hall effect measurements, the characteristic deep level emission centered at ˜1.75 eV and exhibiting an activation energy of thermal quenching of 11.5 meV is associated with the zinc vacancy. Further, a strong indication that oxygen interstitials act as a dominating acceptor is derived from the analysis of charge carrier losses induced by electron irradiation with variable energy below and above the threshold for Zn-atom displacement. We also demonstrate that the commonly observed green emission is related to an extrinsic acceptorlike impurity, which may be readily passivated by oxygen vacancies.

  18. Effect of pulsed hollow electron-lens operation on the proton beam core in LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the HL-LHC. In order to further increase the diffusion rates for a fast halo removal as e.g. desired before the squeeze, the electron lens (e-lens) can be operated in pulsed mode. In case of profile imperfections in the electron beam the pulsing of the e-lens induces noise on the proton beam which can, depending on the frequency content and strength, lead to emittance growth. In order to study the sensitivity to the pulsing pattern and the amplitude, a beam study (machine development MD) at the LHC has been proposed for August 2016 and we present in this note the preparatory simulations and estimates.

  19. Theoretical studies of π-electron delocalization and localization on intramolecular proton transfer in the ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongliang; Huang, Pengru; Yi, Pinggui; Xu, Fen; Sun, Lixian

    2018-02-01

    Proton transfer processes of 15 benzimidazole compounds are studied by density functional theory methods, and natural orbital energy index (NOEI) is introduced. Here, NOEI and nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) are applied to estimate the π-electron localization and delocalization, respectively. Proton transfer potential energy surfaces are calculated to explore these processes, and the results show that the changes of the π-electron delocalization of the phenyl (pyridyl) is the main factors for the stability of keto form. There is high correlation between the π-electron delocalization and the proton transfer barrier. When the π-electron localization is considered, the regression increases the correlation coefficient, increasing from 0.9663 to 0.9864. NOEI index is sensitive to π-electron localization; it is a beneficial and useful complement to NICS.

  20. First observation of neutral current proton electron scattering at √s = 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuya

    1993-02-01

    Neutral current proton electron scattering at center of mass energy 295 GeV was observed for the first time, using the newly built proton electron collider HERA (Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage) and the general purpose detector ZEUS. The distributions of Q 2 , Bjorken-x(x) and Bjorken-y(y) were compared with the expectation based on the standard electroweak theory and QCD. Regarding the investigation of high-Q 2 region, an event of Q 2 ∼ 1000 GeV 2 was observed for the first time. From the x-distribution of the events, a limit on the mass and the coupling of an exotic s-channel resonance of a quark-lepton system (leptoquark) was obtained. The mass limit is 72 GeV(97 GeV) at 95% confidence level for a scalar type leptoquark with a left-handed (right-handed) electromagnetic coupling to ordinary leptons. The leptoquark is assumed to be weak-isoscalar. To realize this experiment a uranium scintillator sandwich type calorimeter was developed. Equal response to electrons and hadrons (e/h = 1), which is essential for the good energy resolution for hadrons, has been achieved. One of the main characteristics of this calorimeter is a possibility of calibration utilizing of its own uranium radioactivity. The grain variation of each channel can be detected with an accuracy of ± 1 %. (J.P.N.) 65 refs

  1. Catalytic alkylation of remote C-H bonds enabled by proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gilbert J; Zhu, Qilei; Miller, David C; Gu, Carol J; Knowles, Robert R

    2016-11-10

    Despite advances in hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) catalysis, there are currently no molecular HAT catalysts that are capable of homolysing the strong nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonds of N-alkyl amides. The motivation to develop amide homolysis protocols stems from the utility of the resultant amidyl radicals, which are involved in various synthetically useful transformations, including olefin amination and directed carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond functionalization. In the latter process-a subset of the classical Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag reaction-amidyl radicals remove hydrogen atoms from unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds. Although powerful, these transformations typically require oxidative N-prefunctionalization of the amide starting materials to achieve efficient amidyl generation. Moreover, because these N-activating groups are often incorporated into the final products, these methods are generally not amenable to the direct construction of carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds. Here we report an approach that overcomes these limitations by homolysing the N-H bonds of N-alkyl amides via proton-coupled electron transfer. In this protocol, an excited-state iridium photocatalyst and a weak phosphate base cooperatively serve to remove both a proton and an electron from an amide substrate in a concerted elementary step. The resultant amidyl radical intermediates are shown to promote subsequent C-H abstraction and radical alkylation steps. This C-H alkylation represents a catalytic variant of the Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag reaction, using simple, unfunctionalized amides to direct the formation of new C-C bonds. Given the prevalence of amides in pharmaceuticals and natural products, we anticipate that this method will simplify the synthesis and structural elaboration of amine-containing targets. Moreover, this study demonstrates that concerted proton-coupled electron transfer can enable homolytic activation of common organic functional groups that are energetically inaccessible using

  2. Double ionization of H2 caused by two sequential projectile-electron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.K.; Wood, R.M.; Ezell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The impact-parameter calculations of Hansteen et al. [J. Phys. B 17, 3545 (1984)] for K-shell ionization are used to predict the cross sections for the double ionization of H 2 and He by H + and D + projectiles as a function of projectile velocity. The calculated values in the case of the H 2 target are typically a factor of 12 lower than the measured values, but the calculations and measurements show similar velocity dependencies. The results indicate that for projectile energies less than 1 MeV/amu, the double-ionization process of H 2 occurs mainly by two independent interactions between the electrons and projectile. For the He target, the calculated and measured values for the double-ionization cross section are much closer in magnitude, but the calculations predict a more rapid falloff with projectile velocity than is observed

  3. Proton probe measurement of fast advection of magnetic fields by hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, L; Thomas, A G R; Nilson, P M; Kaluza, M C; Dangor, A E; Evans, R G; Fernandes, P; Haines, M G; Kamperidis, C; Kingham, R J; Ridgers, C P; Sherlock, M; Wei, M S; Najmudin, Z; Krushelnick, K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Notley, M; Minardi, S; Rozmus, W; Tatarakis, M

    2011-01-01

    A laser generated proton beam was used to measure the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target. At intensities of 10 15 W cm −2 , the significant hot electron production and strong heat fluxes result in non-local transport becoming important to describe the magnetic field dynamics. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov–Fokker–Planck modeling shows that fast advection of the magnetic field from the focal region occurs via the Nernst effect at significantly higher velocities than the sound speed, v N /c s ≈ 10.

  4. Correlation of displacement effects produced by electrons, protons, and neutrons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lint, V.A.J.; Gigas, G.; Barengoltz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The correlation of displacement effects produced by electrons, protons, and neutrons in silicon is studied. Available data from the literature is employed. In particular the scope of the study is limited to the degradation of excess carrier lifetime and device electrical parameters directly related to it. The degree to which displacement effects may be correlated in order to predict semiconductor device response based on response data to another type of radiation is discussed. Useful ranges of the correlation factors (K/sub tau/ ratios) as a function of device majority carrier type, device resistivity, and injection level are presented. A significant dependence on injection level for the correlation factors is found

  5. The boundary-corrected second Born (B2B) approximation: proton-hydrogen electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, D.P.; Bransden, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    The probability amplitude for proton-hydrogen ground-state electron capture at 125 keV in the boundary-corrected second Born approximation has been evaluated numerically by retaining all significant bound and continuum hydrogenic intermediate states for which the orbital angular momentum l ≤ 3. The differential cross section is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for scattering angles less than about 1 mrad in the centre of mass system. The value of the boundary-corrected second Born total cross section is similar to that obtained in the boundary-corrected first Born approximation. (author)

  6. A search for excited fermions in electron-proton collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-10-01

    A search for excited states of the standard model fermions was performed using the ZEUS detector at the HERA electron-proton collider, operating at a centre of mass enery of 296 GeV. In a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.55 pb -1 , no evidence was found for any resonant state decaying into final states composed of a fermion and a gauge boson. Limits on the coupling strength times branching ratio of excited fermions are presented for masses between 50 GeV and 250 GeV, extending previous search regions significantly. (orig.)

  7. Inorganic proton conducting electrolyte coupled oxide-based dendritic transistors for synaptic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Zhou, Ju Mei; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-05-07

    Ionic/electronic hybrid devices with synaptic functions are considered to be the essential building blocks for neuromorphic systems and brain-inspired computing. Here, artificial synapses based on indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte films are fabricated on glass substrates. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation are successfully mimicked in an individual bottom-gate transistor. Most importantly, dynamic logic and dendritic integration established by spatiotemporally correlated spikes are also mimicked in dendritic transistors with two in-plane gates as the presynaptic input terminals.

  8. Empirical Fit to Precision Inclusive Electron-Proton Cross Sections in the Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.E. Christy; Peter Bosted

    2007-01-01

    An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-proton cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer 0 (le) Q 2 2 and final state invariant mass 1.1 2 ∼ 7.5 GeV 2 , and photoproduction data at Q 2 = 0. Compared to previous fits, the present fit covers a wider kinematic range, fits both transverse and longitudinal cross sections, and features smooth transitions to the photoproduction data at Q 2 =0 and DIS data at high Q 2 and W

  9. Intensity maps of MeV electrons and protons below the radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, T.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuchi, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    The global distributions of energetic electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.64 - 35 MeV) are shown in the form of contour maps. The data were obtained by two sets of energetic particle telescopes on board the satellite OHZORA. The observed altitude range is 350 - 850 Km. Ten degress meshes in longitude and latitude were used to obtain the intensity contours. A pitch angle distribution of J(α) = J(90). sin n α with n = 5 A is assumed to get the average intensity in each mesh. (author) [pt

  10. Sequential Pattern Mining of Electronic Healthcare Reimbursement Claims: Experiences and Challenges in Uncovering How Patients are Treated by Physicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Hobson, Tanner C [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We examine the use of electronic healthcare reimbursement claims (EHRC) for analyzing healthcare delivery and practice patterns across the United States (US). We show that EHRCs are correlated with disease incidence estimates published by the Centers for Disease Control. Further, by analyzing over 1 billion EHRCs, we track patterns of clinical procedures administered to patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), heart disease (HD) and breast cancer (BC) using sequential pattern mining algorithms. Our analyses reveal that in contrast to treating HD and BC, clinical procedures for ASD diagnoses are highly varied leading up to and after the ASD diagnoses. The discovered clinical procedure sequences also reveal significant differences in the overall costs incurred across different parts of the US, indicating a lack of consensus amongst practitioners in treating ASD patients. We show that a data-driven approach to understand clinical trajectories using EHRC can provide quantitative insights into how to better manage and treat patients. Based on our experience, we also discuss emerging challenges in using EHRC datasets for gaining insights into the state of contemporary healthcare delivery and practice in the US.

  11. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, I. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: ialdazabal@sq.ehu.es; Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arnau, A. [Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Ponce, V.H. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2005-05-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed.

  12. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, I.; Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed

  13. Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; R. Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; C. Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; R. Hasty; A. Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; J. Liu; Berenice Loupias; A. Lung; Glen MacLachlan; Dominique Marchand; J.W. Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; Daniella Mckee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Melissa Nakos; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; G.R. Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; G. Warren; S.P. Wells; Steven Williamson; S.A. Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2005-06-01

    We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q{sup 2} dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

  14. Electronic properties of semiinsulating GaAs irradiated by protons

    CERN Document Server

    Brudnyj, V N

    2001-01-01

    The n-to-p-type transformation of the conductivity and the decrease of resistivity (rho) down to 10 sup 2 Ohm cm (300 K) have been observed in a semi insulating GaAs (rho approx = (3-4) 10 sup 8 Ohm cm) upon proto n (5 MeV) bombardment with the dose up to D = 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2. The temperature dependence of rho in heavy irradiated samples indicates that the conductivity is determined by the electron hopping within the temperature range (400-120) K and by the changeable hopping length at T <= 120 K. In proton irradiated low resistivity samples, the electronic switching effects have been revealed near 20 K. Isochronal annealing of the radiation-induced defects is investigated in the temperature range (20-750) deg C

  15. Optical and electrical properties of some electron and proton irradiated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Tripathy, S.P.; Sinha, D.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Ghosh, S.; Khathing, D.T.; Mueller, M.; Fink, D.; Chung, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ion beam treatment studies have been carried out to investigate the potential for improvements in conductivity properties of the polymers Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE), Polyimide (PI), Polyethyleneterepthalate (PET) and Polypropylene (PP), after 2 MeV electron and 62 MeV proton irradiation. The shift in optical absorption edges as observed by UV-VIS spectra of the irradiated polymers has been correlated to the optical band-gap using Tauc's expression. A decrease in the optical band-gap has been observed in irradiated PP and PTFE, but no considerable change was found for the optical band-gaps of PET and PI. Further AC conductivity measurements confirmed an increase in conductivity in electron irradiated PP

  16. Transverse Beam Spin Asymmetries in Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Robert Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; Charles Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; Richard HASTY; Alice Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; Jianglai Liu; Berenice Loupias; Allison Lung; Dominique Marchand; Jeffery Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; David McKee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Glen Warren; Steven Wells; Steven Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2007-08-01

    We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic scattering of transversely-polarized 3 GeV electrons from unpolarized protons at Q^2 values of 0.15 and 0.25 (GeV/c)^2 with results of A_n = -4.06 +- 0.99(stat) +- 0.63(syst) and A_n = -4.82 +- 1.87(stat) +- 0.98(syst) ppm. These results are inconsistent with calculations solely using the elastic nucleon intermediate state, and generally agree with calculations with significant inelastic hadronic intermediate state contributions. A_n provides a direct probe of the imaginary component of the two-photon exchange amplitude, the complete description of which is important in the interpretation of data from precision electron-scattering experiments.

  17. Comparison of Enamel and Stainless Steel Electron Cloud Clearing Electrodes Tested in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Mahner, C; Wendel, JC

    2010-01-01

    During the 2007 run with the nominal LHC proton beam, electron cloud has been clearly identified and characterized in the PS using a dedicated setup with shielded button-type pickups. Efficient electron cloud suppression could be achieved with a stainless steel stripline-type electrode biased to negative and positive voltages up to ± 1 kV. For the 2008 run, a second setup was installed in straight section 84 of the PS where the stainless steel was replaced by a stripline composed of an enamel insulator with a resistive coating. In contrast to ordinary stripline electrodes this setup presents a very low beam coupling impedance and could thus be envisaged for long sections of high-intensity machines. Here, we present first comparative measurements with this new type of enamel clearing electrode using the nominal LHC beam with 72 bunches and 25 ns bunch spacing.

  18. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  19. In Vivo Application of Proton-Electron Double-Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Shun; Krishna, Murali C.; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Utsumi, Hideo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Proton-electron double-resonance imaging (PEDRI) employs electron paramagnetic resonance irradiation with low-field magnetic resonance imaging so that the electron spin polarization is transferred to nearby protons, resulting in higher signals. PEDRI provides information about free radical distribution and, indirectly, about the local microenvironment such as partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), tissue permeability, redox status, and acid-base balance. Recent Advances: Local acid-base balance can be imaged by exploiting the different resonance frequency of radical probes between R and RH+ forms. Redox status can also be imaged by using the loss of radical-related signal after reduction. These methods require optimized radical probes and pulse sequences. Critical Issues: High-power radio frequency irradiation is needed for optimum signal enhancement, which may be harmful to living tissue by unwanted heat deposition. Free radical probes differ depending on the purpose of PEDRI. Some probes are less effective for enhancing signal than others, which can reduce image quality. It is so far not possible to image endogenous radicals by PEDRI because low concentrations and broad line widths of the radicals lead to negligible signal enhancement. Future Directions: PEDRI has similarities with electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) because both techniques observe the EPR signal, directly in the case of EPRI and indirectly with PEDRI. PEDRI provides information that is vital to research on homeostasis, development of diseases, or treatment responses in vivo. It is expected that the development of new EPR techniques will give insights into novel PEDRI applications and vice versa. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1345–1364. PMID:28990406

  20. Stoichiometric relationship between energy-dependent proton ejection and electron transport in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    The number of protons ejected during electron transport per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site (the H+/site ratio) was measured in rat liver mitochondria by three different methods under conditions in which transmembrane movements of endogenous phosphate were minized or eliminated. (1) In the Ca2+ pulse method, between 3.5 and 4.0 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1.75 to 2.0 Ca2+ ions were accumulated per 2 e- per site during Ca2+ induced electron transport in the presence of rotenone, when measured under conditions in which movements of endogenous phosphate were negligible. Since entry of 3-hydroxybutyrate requires its protonation to the free acid these data correspond to an H+/site ratio of 3.5-4.0 (2) In the oxygen pulse method addition of known amounts of oxygen to anaerobic mitochondria in the presence of substrate yielded H+/site ratios of 3.0 when phosphate transport was eliminated by addition of N-ethylmaleimide or by anaerobic washing to remove endogenous phosphate. In the absence of such measures the observed H+/site ratio was 2.0. (3) In the reductant pulse method measurement of the initial steady rates of H+ ejection and oxygen consumption by mitochondria in an aerobic medium after addition of substrate gave H+/site near 4.0 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; in the absence of the inhibitor the observed ratio was only 2.0. These and other experiments reported indicate that the values of 2.0 earlier obtained for the H+/site ratio by Mitchell and Moyle [Biochem J. (1967) 105, 1147-1162] and others were underestimates due to the unrecognized masking of H+ ejection by movements of endogenous phosphate. The results presented here show that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport is at least 3.0 and may be as high as 4.0. PMID:1061146

  1. Board Level Proton Testing Book of Knowledge for NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This book of knowledge (BoK) provides a critical review of the benefits and difficulties associated with using proton irradiation as a means of exploring the radiation hardness of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) systems. This work was developed for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Board Level Testing for the COTS task. The fundamental findings of this BoK are the following. The board-level test method can reduce the worst case estimate for a board's single-event effect (SEE) sensitivity compared to the case of no test data, but only by a factor of ten. The estimated worst case rate of failure for untested boards is about 0.1 SEE/board-day. By employing the use of protons with energies near or above 200 MeV, this rate can be safely reduced to 0.01 SEE/board-day, with only those SEEs with deep charge collection mechanisms rising this high. For general SEEs, such as static random-access memory (SRAM) upsets, single-event transients (SETs), single-event gate ruptures (SEGRs), and similar cases where the relevant charge collection depth is less than 10 µm, the worst case rate for SEE is below 0.001 SEE/board-day. Note that these bounds assume that no SEEs are observed during testing. When SEEs are observed during testing, the board-level test method can establish a reliable event rate in some orbits, though all established rates will be at or above 0.001 SEE/board-day. The board-level test approach we explore has picked up support as a radiation hardness assurance technique over the last twenty years. The approach originally was used to provide a very limited verification of the suitability of low cost assemblies to be used in the very benign environment of the International Space Station (ISS), in limited reliability applications. Recently the method has been gaining popularity as a way to establish a minimum level of SEE performance of systems that require somewhat higher reliability performance than previous applications. This sort of application of

  2. Electron correlation in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2012-01-01

    The differential and total cross sections for single charge exchange in p-He collisions have been calculated within the framework of four-body boundary corrected continuum intermediate state (BCCIS-4B) approximation. The effect of dynamic electron correlations is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potentials.

  3. Study of charmed baryon Λ+sub(c) associated with an electron release in proton-proton collisions at √s = 63 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajot, G.

    1980-01-01

    The production of the charmed baryon Λ + sub(c) in proton-proton collisions at 63 GeV is studied. The experiment was performed at the C.E.R.N. - I.S.R. on the S.F.M. The event is recorded if an electron is recognized, this electron coming from the semi-leptonic decay of the anticharmed particle accompanying the Λ + sub(c). The total cross section for the production of the pair anticharmed particle Λ + sub(c) is estimated by several models. By comparison with others experiments producing Λ + sub(c) at the I.S.R., one deduces that the model d sigma/dy = cte best agrees with the experimental data [fr

  4. Measurements of the inclusive electron cross-section in proton-proton collisions at sqrt s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents measurements of the inclusive differential cross-section of electron production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. From a data sample of 1.4 pb-1 collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the electron cross-section measurement is presented as a function of transverse momentum, pT , in the range 7 < pT < 26 GeV and within pseudorapidity |eta| < 2.0, correcting for all detector effects. After removal of the Drell-Yan contribution, the measured differential cross-section is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions for heavy-flavour production obtained from Fixed Order NLO calculations with Next-to-Leading-Log high-pT resummation.

  5. Measurements of the inclusive electron cross-section in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents the measurement of the inclusive differential cross-section as a function of the transverse momentum pT for electron production in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. From a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.3 pb-1 collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the electron cross-sections is measured in the range 7

  6. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Schulte, Daniel; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above th...

  7. Free radicals imaged in vivo in the rat by using proton-electron double-resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurie, D.J.; Nicholson, Ian; Foster, M.A.; Mallard, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique called proton-electron double-resonance imaging is described for imaging free radicals in aqueous samples. The method is a combination of proton NMR imaging with nuclear electron double resonance. The results of using this technique to image free radicals in vivo in the rat are presented. Rats were injected intravenously with a nitroxide free radical solution and a series of images was obtained from which the clearance of the free radical through the liver and kidneys could be observed. (author)

  8. Measurements of sin2 θ/sub w/ from studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This talk is intended as a brief report on studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons. Measurements of the ratios of muon antineutrino and muon neutrino elastic scattering on protons, and the corresponding ratio for elastic scattering on electrons minimize systematic experimental errors, and lead directly to values of the fundamental parameter of the electroweak interaction, the Weinberg Angle, with minimal ambiguity. Accordingly, the principal motivation in carrying out these studies was the desire to obtain and compare precise values of the Weinberg Angle from both the semileptonic and leptonic reactions as still another test of the basic validity of the standard electroweak theory. 10 refs., 11 figs

  9. The PEP [positron-electron-proton] electron-positron ring: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    The first stage of the positron-electron-protron (PEP) colliding-beam system, which has been under joint study by a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Stanford Linear Accelerator Center team for the past two years, will be the electron-positron storage ring. The physics justification for the e + e/sup /minus// ring is summarized briefly and the proposed facility is described. The ring will have six arcs having gross radii of about 220 m and six interaction regions located at the centers of straight sections about 130 m long. The longitudinal distance left free for experimental apparatus around the interaction regions was set provisionally at 20 m. The range of operating beam energies will be from 5 GeV to 15 GeV. The design luminosity at 15 GeV will be 10 32 cm/sup /minus/2/s/sup /minus/1/, and the luminosity will vary approximately as the square of the beam energy. Alternative methods under consideration for adjusting the beam cross section are discussed. The designs of the storage ring subsystems and of the conventional facilities including the experimental halls at the interaction regions are described. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The rapid secondary electron imaging system of the proton beam writer at CIBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.N.B.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Teo, E.J.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed a proliferation of research involving proton beam (p-beam) writing. This has prompted investigations into means of optimizing the process of p-beam writing so as to make it less time consuming and more efficient. One such avenue is the improvement of the pre-writing preparatory procedures that involves beam focusing and sample alignment which is centred on acquiring images of a resolution standard or sample. The conventional mode of imaging used up to now has utilized conventional nuclear microprobe signals that are of a pulsed nature and are inherently slow. In this work, we report the new imaging system that has been introduced, which uses proton induced secondary electrons. This in conjunction with software developed in-house that uses a National Instruments DAQ card with hardware triggering, facilitates large data transfer rates enabling rapid imaging. Frame rates as much as 10 frames/s have been achieved at an imaging resolution of 512 x 512 pixels

  11. Radiation protection of the operation of accelerator facilities. On high energy proton and electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the radiation protection raised by accelerated particles with energy higher than several hundreds MeV in strong accelerator facilities were discussed in comparison with those with lower energy in middle- and small-scale facilities. The characteristics in the protection in such strong accelerator facilities are derived from the qualitative changes in the interaction between the high energy particles and materials and from quantitative one due to the beam strength. In the former which is dependent on the emitting mechanism of the radiation, neutron with broad energy spectrum and muon are important in the protection, and in the latter, levels of radiation and radioactivity which are proportional to the beam strength are important. The author described details of the interaction between high energy particles and materials: leading to the conclusion that in the electron accelerator facilities, shielding against high energy-blemsstrahlung radiation and -neutron is important and in the proton acceleration, shielding against neutron is important. The characteristics of the radiation field in the strong accelerator facilities: among neutron, ionized particles and electromagnetic wave, neutron is most important in shielding since it has small cross sections relative to other two. Considerations for neutron are necessary in the management of exposure. Multiplicity of radionuclides produced: which is a result of nuclear spallation reaction due to high energy particles, especially to proton. Radioactivation of the accelerator equipment is a serious problem. Other problems: the interlock systems, radiation protection for experimenters and maintenance of the equipment by remote systems. (K.H.). 11 refs

  12. Development of a raster electronics system for expanding the APT proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapelle, S.; Hubbard, E.L.; Smith, T.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Schulze, M.E.; Shafer, R.E. [General Atomics, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A 1700 MeV, 100 mA proton linear accelerator is being designed for Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). A beam expansion system is required to uniformly irradiate a 19 x 190 cm tritium production target. This paper describes a beam expansion system consisting of eight ferrite dipole magnets to raster the beam in the x- and y-planes and also describes the salient features of the design of the electronics that are unique to the expander. Eight Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)-based modulators drive the raster magnets with triangular current waveforms that are synchronized using phase-locked loops (PLLs) and voltage controlled crystal oscillators (VCXOs). Fault detection circuitry shuts down the beam before the target can be damaged by a failure of the raster system. Test data are presented for the prototype system.

  13. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  14. Exclusive ρ0 production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-07-01

    The exclusive production of ρ 0 mesons in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector. Cross sections have been measured in the range 7 2 2 for γ*p centre of mass (c.m.) energies from 40 to 130 GeV. The γ*p→ρ 0 p cross section exhibits a Q -(4.2±0.8 -0.5 +1.4 ) dependence and both longitudinally and transversely polarised ρ 0 's are observed. The γ*p→ρ 0 p0 cross section rises strongly with increasing c.m. energy, when compared with NMC data at lower energy, which cannot be explained by production through soft pomeron exchange. The data are compared with perturbative QCD calculations where the rise in the cross section reflects the increase in the gluon density at low x. (orig.)

  15. Variability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio on cosmological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, M.; Reimers, D.

    2008-10-01

    The search for a possible variation of fundamental physical constants isnewsworthy more than ever. A multitude of methods were developed. So far theonly seemingly significant indication of a cosmological variation existsfor the proton-to-electron massratio as stated by Reinhold et al. [1]. The measuredindication of variation is based on the combined analysis of H2 absorptionsystems in the spectra of Q0405-443 and Q0347-383 at zabs=2.595 and zabs=3.025, respectively. The high resolution data of the latteris reanalyzed in this work to examine the influence of different fittingprocedures and further potential nonconformities. This analysis cannotreproduce the significance achieved by the previous works.

  16. Accurate prediction of the ammonia probes of a variable proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Thiel, W.; Špirko, V.

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of 14NH3, 15NH3, 14ND3 and 15ND3 is carried out variationally using the TROVE approach. Variational calculations are robust and accurate, offering a new way to compute sensitivity coefficients. Particular attention is paid to the Δk = ±3 transitions between the accidentally coinciding rotation-inversion energy levels of the ν2 = 0+, 0-, 1+ and 1- states, and the inversion transitions in the ν4 = 1 state affected by the `giant' l-type doubling effect. These transitions exhibit highly anomalous sensitivities, thus appearing as promising probes of a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. Moreover, a simultaneous comparison of the calculated sensitivities reveals a sizeable isotopic dependence which could aid an exclusive ammonia detection.

  17. Magnetic sublevel population in 1s-2p excitation of helium by fast electrons and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godunov, A.L.; McGuire, J.H. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Merabet, H.; Bruch, R.; Hanni, J. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Schipakov, V.S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk, (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-14

    We report experimental and theoretical results for the magnetic sublevel population of the helium atom in collisions with fast (v{sub i}=3-9 au) electrons and protons. Cross sections for excitation of magnetic sublevels with M=0 and {+-}1 have been obtained using polarization measurements of emitted radiation in combination with differential cross sections. Calculations have been carried out using the expansion of the transition amplitude in the Born series over the projectile-target interaction through the second order. Results of calculations are in agreement with experimental data. We find that the particle-antiparticle Z{sup {+-}} difference exceeds the statistical error of measurement up to collision velocities v{sub i}{approx}6 au for excitation of sublevels with M=0. (author)

  18. Quark decay functions as measured in electron positron annihilation and semi-inclusive process in electron proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, R.

    1988-01-01

    The modern theory describing the strong interaction, which holds the quarks together in the hadrons, is quantum chromodynamics (QCD), in which the interaction is mediated by the exchange of spin 1 particles called gluons. Today good qualitative agreement between the theory and experimental results has been found in the investigation of the interactions in which there is a large momentum transfer. This situation has prompted us to look for other detailed tests of the theory. We study the order α s measurement of the MS parton decay functions, which play an important role in the application of high order perturbative QCD calculations. We calculate the hard scattering cross section for e + + e - → parton + anything. Then, by carefully analyzing the electron positron annihilation data, we obtain the order α s MS quark decay function. We also study the gluon bremsstrahlung effects predicted by QCD in a semi-inclusive process at the future HERA electron proton collider, p + e - → h + e - + X. In analogy to studies of Drell-Yan process we study the transverse momentum distribution and angular distribution of the final state hadrons, which are sensitive to the gluon bremsstrahlung effects. Then we investigate the general structure of the hadronic tensor, which appears in the formula for the cross section, including both the parity conserving and parity violating terms. Using the soft gluon resummation technique, the singular and the nonsingular structure functions are all calculated for the process p + e - → γ → h + e - + X

  19. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption

  20. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  1. Differential cross sections for non-sequential double ionization of He by 52 eV photons from the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurka, M; Rudenko, A; Jiang, Y H; Kuehnel, K U; Foucar, L; Feist, J; Pazourek, R; Nagele, S; Horner, D A; Rescigno, T N; McCurdy, C W; Schoeffler, M; Belkacem, A; Schulz, M; Herrwerth, O; Lezius, M; Kling, M F; Duesterer, S; Treusch, R; Schneider, B I

    2010-01-01

    Two-photon double ionization of He is studied at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) by inspecting He 2+ momentum (P-vector(He 2+ )) distributions at 52 eV photon energy. We demonstrate that recoil ion momentum distributions can be used to infer information about highly correlated electron dynamics and find the first experimental evidence for 'virtual sequential ionization'. The experimental data are compared with the results of two calculations, both solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We find good overall agreement between experiment and theory, with significant differences for cuts along the polarization direction that cannot be explained by the experimental resolution alone.

  2. The physics interests of a 10 TeV proton synchrotron, 400 x 400 GeV2 proton storage rings, and electron-proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1976-01-01

    This report consists of a collection of documents produced by two Study Groups, one on a multi-TeV Proton Synchrotron and the other on 400 x 400 GeV 2 Proton Storage Rings. In both studies the reactions of interest in the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions are discussed. The technical feasibility of the relevant experiments is investigated by attempting. in each case, the design of an experimental set-up. Event rates are estimated using currently p revailing theoretical models and by extrapolation of results at present accelerators. In addition to the work of the two Study Groups, a section on the physics interests and technical problems of ep Storage Rings is included. (author)

  3. Correlations for damage in diffused-junction InP solar cells induced by electron and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Takamoto, T.; Taylor, S.J.; Walters, R.J.; Summers, G.P.; Flood, D.J.; Ohmori, M.

    1997-01-01

    The damage to diffused-junction n + -p InP solar cells induced by electron and proton irradiations over a wide range of energy from 0.5 to 3 MeV and 0.015 to 20 MeV, respectively, has been examined. The experimental electron and proton damage coefficients have been analyzed in terms of displacement damage dose, which is the product of the particle fluence and the calculated nonionizing energy loss [G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, R. Shapiro, S. R. Messenger, and R. J. Walters, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1300 (1993).] Degradation of InP cells due to irradiation with electrons and protons with energies of more than 0.5 MeV show a single curve as a function of displacement damage dose. Based on the deep-level transient spectroscopy analysis, damage equivalence between electron and proton irradiation is discussed. InP solar cells are confirmed to be substantially more radiation resistant than Si and GaAs-on-Ge cells. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  5. Energy distributions of H+ fragments ejected by fast proton and electron projectiles in collision with H2O molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A. L. F. de; Lecointre, J.; Luna, H.; Montenegro, E. C.; Shah, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the kinetic energy distribution spectra of H + fragment ions released during radiolysis of water molecules in collision with 20, 50, and 100 keV proton projectiles and 35, 200, 400, and 1000 eV electron projectiles are reported using a pulsed beam and drift tube time-of-flight based velocity measuring technique. The spectra show that H + fragments carrying a substantial amount of energy are released, some having energies well in excess of 20 eV. The majority of the ions lie within the 0-5 eV energy range with the proton spectra showing an almost constant profile between 1.5 and 5 eV and, below this, increasing gradually with decreasing ejection energy up to the near zero energy value while the electron spectra, in contrast, show a broad maximum between 1 and 3 eV and a pronounced dip around 0.25 eV. Beyond 5 eV, both projectile spectra show a decreasing profile with the electron spectra decreasing far more rapidly than the proton spectra. Our measured spectra thus indicate that major differences are present in the collision dynamics between the proton and the electron projectiles interacting with gas phase water molecules.

  6. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Jin Yu [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yuan, Zhi Guo, E-mail: ncityzg@163.com [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  7. Ionization of atoms or ions by electron or proton impact; calculations with the classical three-body theory. ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesten, L.G.J.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations on the threshold ionization of H, He + and Li 2+ by electrons have been performed to study the so-called 'post-collision interaction' (P.C.I.) effects which appear to affect the threshold ionization process significantly. These effects are caused by the long range Coulomb interactions between the two electrons as they move away from the nucleus. The long range interactions are fully taken into account in the classical three-body collision theory. In quantum mechanical theories, however, it is difficult to account for these interactions. This theory has been used to study the ionization of He + -ions by electron impact up to much higher energies (up till ten times the threshold energy). The results are compared with experimental results of Dolder et al. (1961) and with results of quantum mechanical calculations. Results are given for ionization of helium atoms by electron or proton impact. This collision process, in which four particles are involved, can under certain circumstances be treated as a collision process in which only three particles are involved. Calculations are performed concerning: a) cross sections for ionization of metastable helium atoms by electron impact, b) cross sections for ionization of ground-state helium atoms by fast proton impact (energy and angular distributions of ejected electrons), c) generalized oscillator strengths for ionization of helium by fast proton impact

  8. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 Å of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58· is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer.

  9. Phase-Space Density Analyses of the AE-8 Trapped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayton, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, μ, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of μ and K, and for 3.5 R E E , the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R E for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits μ-dependent local minima around L = 5 R E . Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K c . Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons

  10. Tracking the Structural and Electronic Configurations of a Cobalt Proton Reduction Catalyst in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina [Institute; Guda, Alexander [International; Picon, Antonio; Lehmann, C. Stefan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Doumy, Gilles; March, Anne Marie; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi [Institute; Soldatov, Alexander [International; Llobet, Antoni [Institute; Departament; Southworth, Stephen H.

    2016-08-09

    Time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (X-TAS) has been used to study the light induced hydrogen evolution reaction catalyzed by a highly stable cobalt complex, [Ru(bpy)3]2+ photosensitizer and an equimolar mixture of sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid electron donor in pure water. XANES and EXAFS analysis of a binary mixture of the octahedral Co(III) pre-catalyst and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ after illumination, revealed in-situ formation of a square pyramidal Co(II) intermediate, with electron transfer kinetics of 51 ns. On the other hand, X-TAS experiments of the complete photocatalytic system in the presence of the electron donor showed the formation of a square planar Co(I) intermediate species within a few nanoseconds followed by its decay in the microsecond timescales. The Co(I) structural assignment is supported by calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). At longer reaction times, we observe the formation of the initial Co(III) species concomitant to the decay of Co(I), thus closing the catalytic cycle. The experimental X-ray absorption spectra of the molecular species formed along the catalytic cycle are modeled using a combination of molecular orbital DFT calculations (DFT-MO) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). These findings allowed us to unequivocally assign the full mechanistic pathway followed by the catalyst as well as to determine the rate limiting step of the process, which consists in the protonation of the Co(I). This study provides a complete kinetics scheme for the hydrogen evolution reaction by a cobalt catalyst, revealing unique information for the development of better catalysts for the reductive side of hydrogen fuel cells.

  11. Effect of proton and electron-irradiation intensity on radiation-induced damages in silicon bioolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Yu.A.; Gorin, B.M.; Kozhevnikov, V.P.; Mikhnovich, V.V.; Gusev, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    The increase of radiation-induced damages of bipolar n-p-n transistors 8-12 times with the irradiation intensity decrease by protons from 4.07x1010 to 2.5x107 cm-2 x c-1 has been found experimentally. damages of p-n-p transistors vary in the opposite way - they are decreased 2-3 times with the irradiation intensity decrease within the same limits. the dependence of damages on intansity of proton irradiation occurs at the dose rate by three orders less than it has been observed for electron irradiation. the results obtained are explained by the dependence of radiation defectoformation reactions on charge state of defects with account for the role of formation of disordering regions upon proton irradiation [ru

  12. Determination of strange form factors of nucleon by parity violation asymmetry by polarized electron-proton elastic scattering; Mesure des facteurs de forme etranges du nucleon par asymetrie de violation de parite dans la diffusion elastique electron polarise-proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardillier, Johann [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1999-09-21

    In the quark model, the proton is described as a system of three quarks UUD. However, recent experiments (CERN, SLAC) have shown that the strange quarks may contribute in a significant way to the mass and the spin of the proton. The HAPPEX experiment gives one further knowledge about the question of the role the strange quarks play inside the proton. It measures parity violating asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from a proton because the latter is sensitive to the contribution of the strange quarks to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The observed asymmetry is in the order of a few ppm (part per million). The main difficulty of the experiment is to identify, to estimate and to minimize, as much as possible, all the systematic effects which could give rise to false asymmetries. This thesis discusses the principle of the HAPPEX experiment, its implementation at the Jefferson Lab (JLab), the processing and the analysis of the data, the systematic errors, and finally presents the result of the first data taking (1999) and its present interpretation. The HAPPEX experiment has measured, at Q{sup 2} = 0.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}, a strange quarks contribution of (1.0 {+-} 2.3)% to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The statistics and the systematic effects (measure of the electron beam polarization and knowledge of the neutron electric form factor) contribute equally to the error. (author)

  13. The local skin dose conversion coefficients of electrons, protons and alpha particles calculated using the Geant4 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian

    2013-10-01

    The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code.

  14. Search for supersymmetric partners of electrons and muons in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Postiau, Nicolas; Starling, Elizabeth; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Wang, Qun; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Linwei; Li, Qiang; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ayala, Edy; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Elgammal, Sherif; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahrous, Ayman; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ehataht, Karl; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Keller, Henning; Knutzen, Simon; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Teyssier, Daniel; Flügge, Günter; Hlushchenko, Olena; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Sert, Hale; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Haranko, Mykyta; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Myronenko, Volodymyr; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Tholen, Heiner; Vagnerini, Antonio; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mitra, Soureek; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kontaxakis, Pantelis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Major, Péter; Nagy, Marton Imre; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Tiwari, Praveen Chandra; Bahinipati, Seema; Kar, Chandiprasad; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sandeep, Kaur; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Gola, Mohit; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ashok; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ranjan, Kirti; Shah, Aashaq; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bharti, Monika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Mondal, Kuntal; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Bhat, Muzamil Ahmad; Dugad, Shashikant; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Ciocca, Claudia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Bragagnolo, Alberto; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Cometti, Simona; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Soldi, Dario; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Kim, Hyunsoo; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Jeon, Dajeong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavine, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Dimova, Tatyana; Kardapoltsev, Leonid; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitskii, Sergei; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Baidali, Sergei; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Rodríguez Bouza, Víctor; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; García Alonso, Andrea; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; Cucciati, Giacomo; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Fasanella, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Pigazzini, Simone; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kumar, Arun; Li, You-ying; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Penning, Bjoern; Sakuma, Tai; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Taylor, Joseph; Titterton, Alexander; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Martelli, Arabella; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Singh, Gurpreet; Stoye, Markus; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Madrid, Christopher; McMaster, Brooks; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Coubez, Xavier; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Kukral, Ota; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Wang, Sicheng; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Sun, Menglei; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Pena, Cristian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Cadamuro, Luca; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehdi; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Mills, Corrinne; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Alhusseini, Mohammad; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Kim, Doyeong; Maravin, Yurii; Mendis, Dalath Rachitha; Mitchell, Tyler; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Wong, Kak; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Dulemba, Joseph Lynn; Fallon, Colin; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Taus, Rhys; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Luo, Sifu; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Verweij, Marta; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    A search for direct production of the supersymmetric (SUSY) partners of electrons or muons is presented in final states with two opposite-charge, same-flavor leptons (electrons and muons), no jets, and large missing transverse momentum. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016. The search uses the $ {M_{\\text{T}}} $ two variable, which generalizes the transverse mass for systems with two invisible objects and provides a discrimination against standard model backgrounds containing W bosons. The observed yields are consistent with the expectations from the standard model. The search is interpreted in the context of simplified SUSY models and probes slepton masses up to approximately 290, 400, and 450 GeV, assuming right-handed only, left-handed only, and both right- and left-handed sleptons (mass degenerate selectrons and smuons), and a massless lightest supersymmetric particl...

  15. Bookshelf (Neutrino Interactions with Electrons and Protons - Edited by Alfred K. Mann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luigi Di Lella

    1994-01-01

    Subtitled 'an account of an Experimental Program in Particle Physics in the 1980s', this book is a collection of 13 reprinted papers presenting experimental results from experiment E-734 originally proposed in 1978 to measure the elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos from electrons and protons using the neutrino beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This experiment took data during the 1980s and the apparatus was dismantled in 1990. Its main results cover measurements of the weak mixing angle, and some measurements which were not in the original proposal, such as limits on the electromagnetic properties of the muon neutrino and on the mixing between electron- and muon-neutri-nos. The collaboration, with 35 physicists participating, included Osaka and KEK and was the earliest formal collaboration in high energy physics between American and Japanese institutions. This book gives only a very partial account of neutrino physics in the 1980s. Because of the relatively low neutrino energy of only few GeV, E- 734 physics did not include the study of deep inelastic scattering which has greatly contributed to the understanding of the nucleon structure in terms of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. Furthermore, because of the low event rate at the low neutrino energy, most of the E-734 results have been superseded by the more precise results obtained by higher energy neutrino experiments at CERN and Fermilab, however with the exceptions of the limits on neutrino mixing and of the measurement of the neutral current cross-section for neutrino and antineutrino elastic scattering. It is not clear to me why the American Institute of Physics has chosen to publish this book in a series 'Key Papers in Physics'.

  16. Fast method for in-flight estimation of total dose from protons and electrons using RADE Minstrument on JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Xiao, Hualin

    2017-04-01

    The primary concern of the ESA JUICE mission to Jupiter is the harsh particle radiation environment. Ionizing particles introduce radiation damage by total dose effects, displacement damages or single events effects. Therefore, both the total ionizing dose and the displacement damage equivalent fluence must be assessed to alert spacecraft and its payload as well as to quantify radiation levels for the entire mission lifetime. We present a concept and implementations steps for simplified method used to compute in flight a dose rate and total dose caused by protons. We also provide refinement of the method previously developed for electrons. The dose rates values are given for predefined active volumes located behind layers of materials with known thickness. Both methods are based on the electron and proton flux measurements provided by the Electron and Proton Detectors inside the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) located on-board of JUICE. The trade-off between method accuracy and programming limitations for in-flight computations are discussed. More comprehensive and precise dose rate computations based on detailed analysis of all stack detectors will be made during off-line data processing. It will utilize full spectral unfolding from all RADEM detector subsystems.

  17. Numerical Studies of Electron Acceleration Behind Self-Modulating Proton Beam in Plasma with a Density Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Petrenko, A.; Sosedkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Presently available high-energy proton beams in circular accelerators carry enough momentum to accelerate high-intensity electron and positron beams to the TeV energy scale over several hundred meters of the plasma with a density of about 1e15 1/cm^3. However, the plasma wavelength at this density is 100-1000 times shorter than the typical longitudinal size of the high-energy proton beam. Therefore the self-modulation instability (SMI) of a long (~10 cm) proton beam in the plasma should be used to create the train of micro-bunches which would then drive the plasma wake resonantly. Changing the plasma density profile offers a simple way to control the development of the SMI and the acceleration of particles during this process. We present simulations of the possible use of a plasma density gradient as a way to control the acceleration of the electron beam during the development of the SMI of a 400 GeV proton beam in a 10 m long plasma. This work is done in the context of the AWAKE project --- the proof-of-prin...

  18. Determination of strange form factors of nucleon by parity violation asymmetry by polarized electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardillier, Johann

    1999-01-01

    In the quark model, the proton is described as a system of three quarks UUD. However, recent experiments (CERN, SLAC) have shown that the strange quarks may contribute in a significant way to the mass and the spin of the proton. The HAPPEX experiment gives one further knowledge about the question of the role the strange quarks play inside the proton. It measures parity violating asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from a proton because the latter is sensitive to the contribution of the strange quarks to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The observed asymmetry is in the order of a few ppm (part per million). The main difficulty of the experiment is to identify, to estimate and to minimize, as much as possible, all the systematic effects which could give rise to false asymmetries. This thesis discusses the principle of the HAPPEX experiment, its implementation at the Jefferson Lab (JLab), the processing and the analysis of the data, the systematic errors, and finally presents the result of the first data taking (1999) and its present interpretation. The HAPPEX experiment has measured, at Q 2 = 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 , a strange quarks contribution of (1.0 ± 2.3)% to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The statistics and the systematic effects (measure of the electron beam polarization and knowledge of the neutron electric form factor) contribute equally to the error. (author)

  19. D-region electron density and effective recombination coefficients during twilight – experimental data and modelling during solar proton events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osepian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of electron density in the lower D-region (below 70 km altitude are rarely made. This applies both with regard to measurements by ground-based facilities and by sounding rockets, and during both quiet conditions and conditions of energetic electron precipitation. Deep penetration into the atmosphere of high-energy solar proton fluxes (during solar proton events, SPE produces extra ionisation in the whole D-region, including the lower altitudes, which gives favourable conditions for accurate measurements using ground-based facilities. In this study we show that electron densities measured with two ground-based facilities at almost the same latitude but slightly different longitudes, provide a valuable tool for validation of model computations. The two techniques used are incoherent scatter of radio waves (by the EISCAT 224 MHz radar in Tromsø, Norway, 69.6° N, 19.3° E, and partial reflection of radio-waves (by the 2.8 MHz radar near Murmansk, Russia, 69.0° N, 35.7° E. Both radars give accurate electron density values during SPE, from heights 57–60 km and upward with the EISCAT radar and between 55–70 km with the partial reflection technique. Near noon, there is little difference in the solar zenith angle between the two locations and both methods give approximately the same values of electron density at the overlapping heights. During twilight, when the difference in solar zenith angles increases, electron density values diverge. When both radars are in night conditions (solar zenith angle >99° electron densities at the overlapping altitudes again become equal. We use the joint measurements to validate model computations of the ionospheric parameters f+, λ, αeff and their variations during solar proton events. These parameters are important characteristics of the lower ionosphere structure which cannot be determined by other methods.

  20. Recovery of damage in rad-hard MOS devices during and after irradiation by electrons, protons, alphas, and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Shapiro, P.; August, L. S.; Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the recovery properties of rad-hard MOS devices during and after irradiation by electrons, protons, alphas, and gamma rays. The results indicated that complex recovery properties controlled the damage sensitivities of the tested parts. The results also indicated that damage sensitivities depended on dose rate, total dose, supply bias, gate bias, transistor type, radiation source, and particle energy. The complex nature of these dependencies make interpretation of LSI device performance in space (exposure to entire electron and proton spectra) difficult, if not impossible, without respective ground tests and analyses. Complete recovery of n-channel shifts was observed, in some cases within hours after irradiation, with equilibrium values of threshold voltages greater than their pre-irradiation values. This effect depended on total dose, radiation source, and gate bias during exposure. In contrast, the p-channel shifts recovered only 20 percent within 30 days after irradiation.

  1. Polarized photons from a silicon crystal in a 31 GeV electron beam at the Serpukhov proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Maisheev, V.A.; Arakelyan, E.A.; Armaganyan, A.A.; Avakyan, R.O.; Bayatyan, G.L.; Grigoryan, N.K.; Kechechyan, A.O.; Knyazyan, S.G.; Margaryan, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    Tagged photons coherently emitted in a silicon crystal by the 31 GeV electron beam of intensity 4 x 10 4 ppp and beam pulse duration of up to 1.7 s have been obtained at the Serpukhov proton accelerator. The photon intensities were I approx. 10 -1 - 10 -2 γ/e - in five almost equal energy bins within the total range k = (8.2-24.2) GeV. The calculated linear polarizations were P approx. 50-20%, respectively. Narrow peaks in the radiation intensity were observed when varying the orientation of a silicon crystal which could not be explained. The method for the experimental alignment of a crystal in electron beams at the proton accelerator has been described. (orig.)

  2. ESTAR, PSTAR, ASTAR. A PC package for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A PC package is documented for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions in matter for energies from 1 keV up to 10 GeV. Stopping powers and ranges for electrons can be calculated for any element, compound or mixture. Stopping powers and ranges of protons and helium ions can be calculated for 74 materials (26 elements and 48 compounds and mixtures). The files are stored on two HD diskettes in compressed form. Both executable files for IBM PC and Fortran-77 source files are provided. All three programs require 5.2 Mb of disk space. This set of two diskettes with detailed documentation is available upon request, cost free, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  3. One- and two-phonon mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo in high-resolution electron and proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Botha, N.T.; Burda, O.; Carter, J.; Fearick, R.W.; Foertsch, S.V.; Fransen, C.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Neveling, R.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Scholten, O.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F.D.; Wambach, J.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC and proton scattering experiments at iThemba LABS permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2 + states of the nucleus 94 Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2 + states is extracted

  4. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO 3 − ) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO 3 − injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. - Highlights: • Sequential addition of acetate and NO 3 − removed PAHs and mitigated sediment odor. • Acetate is a suitable co-substrate used for PAHs degradation in river sediment. • NO 3 − Injection was effective for sediment odor and blackish appearance mitigation. • Integrated method is suggested in complicated real case with multi-remedial target. - Sequential addition of co-substrate and electron acceptor was capable of effectively removing PAHs and addressing sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance.

  5. Fundamental Insights into Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Soybean Lipoxygenase from Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Free Energy Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2018-02-28

    The proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase has served as a prototype for understanding hydrogen tunneling in enzymes. Herein this PCET reaction is studied with mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy simulations. The free energy surfaces are computed as functions of the proton donor-acceptor (C-O) distance and the proton coordinate, and the potential of mean force is computed as a function of the C-O distance, inherently including anharmonicity. The simulation results are used to calculate the kinetic isotope effects for the wild-type enzyme (WT) and the L546A/L754A double mutant (DM), which have been measured experimentally to be ∼80 and ∼700, respectively. The PCET reaction is found to be exoergic for WT and slightly endoergic for the DM, and the equilibrium C-O distance for the reactant is found to be ∼0.2 Å greater for the DM than for WT. The larger equilibrium distance for the DM, which is due mainly to less optimal substrate binding in the expanded binding cavity, is primarily responsible for its higher kinetic isotope effect. The calculated potentials of mean force are anharmonic and relatively soft at shorter C-O distances, allowing efficient thermal sampling of the shorter distances required for effective hydrogen tunneling. The primarily local electrostatic field at the transferring hydrogen is ∼100 MV/cm in the direction to facilitate proton transfer and increases dramatically as the C-O distance decreases. These simulations suggest that the overall protein environment is important for conformational sampling of active substrate configurations aligned for proton transfer, but the PCET reaction is influenced primarily by local electrostatic effects that facilitate conformational sampling of shorter proton donor-acceptor distances required for effective hydrogen tunneling.

  6. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. (authors)

  8. Calculation of effective atomic number and electron density of essential biomolecules for electron, proton, alpha particle and multi-energetic photon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur

    2015-07-01

    Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.

  9. Vacuum Potentials for the Two Only Permanent Free Particles, Proton and Electron. Pair Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Johansson, J X

    2012-01-01

    The two only species of isolatable, smallest, or unit charges +e and −e present in nature interact with the universal vacuum in a polarisable dielectric representation through two uniquely defined vacuum potential functions. All of the non-composite subatomic particles containing one-unit charges, +e or −e, are therefore formed in terms of the IED model of the respective charges, of zero rest masses, oscillating in either of the two unique vacuum potential fields, together with the radiation waves of their own charges. In this paper we give a first principles treatment of the dynamics of charge in a dielectric vacuum, based on which, combined with solutions for the radiation waves obtained previously, we subsequently derive the vacuum potential function for a given charge q, which we show to be quadratic and consist each of quantised potential levels, giving therefore rise to quantised characteristic oscillation frequencies of the charge and accordingly quantised, sharply-defined masses of the IED particles. By further combining with relevant experimental properties as input information, we determine the IED particles built from the charges +e, −e at their first excited states in the respective vacuum potential wells to be the proton and the electron, the observationally two only stable (permanently lived) and 'free' particles containing one-unit charges. Their antiparticles as produced in pair productions can be accordingly determined. The characteristics of all of the other more energetic single-charged non-composite subatomic particles can also be recognised. We finally discuss the energy condition for pair production, which requires two successive energy supplies to (1) first disintegrate the bound pair of vaculeon charges +e, −e composing a vacuuon of the vacuum and (2) impart masses to the disintegrated charges.

  10. Phase-Space Density Analyses of the AE-8 Trapped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.E. Cayton

    2005-08-12

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.

  11. Phase-Space Density Analysis of the AE-8 Traped Electron and the AP-8 Trapped Proton Model Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Cayton

    2005-08-01

    The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.

  12. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO2 nanogranular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO 2 nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics

  13. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO{sub 2} nanogranular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO{sub 2} nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  14. Conversion electron spectroscopy at the FMA focal plane: Decay studies of proton-rich N {approximately} 82 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The FMA has proven to be an ideal instrument for the detailed study of the decay of microsecond isomers behind the focal plane following mass selection. In reactions leading to the population of nuclei with isomeric lifetimes longer than their flight time through the device, decay gamma rays and conversion electrons can be detected in an environment free from the backgrounds of prompt radiation and delta electrons. This was a very successful technique to study proton (h{sub 11/2}){sup n} seniority isomers in nuclei with Z > 64 and N {approximately} 82. Since isomeric decay gamma rays are emitted isotropically, conversion electrons are essential for the assignment of multipolarities in these nuclei. Furthermore, the low-energy transitions that depopulate isomeric states are typically highly converted and can escape gamma-ray detection, but they can be identified by their conversion electrons.

  15. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  16. Electron attachment to the guanine-cytosine nucleic acid base pair and the effects of monohydration and proton transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Jaeger, Heather M; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-05-17

    The guanine-cytosine (GC) radical anion and its interaction with a single water molecule is studied using ab initio and density functional methods. Z-averaged second-order perturbation theory (ZAPT2) was applied to GC radical anion for the first time. Predicted spin densities show that the radical character is localized on cytosine. The Watson-Crick monohydrated GC anion is compared to neutral GC·H2O, as well as to the proton-transferred analogue on the basis of structural and energetic properties. In all three systems, local minima are identified that correspond to water positioned in the major and minor grooves of macromolecular DNA. On the anionic surface, two novel structures have water positioned above or below the GC plane. On the neutral and anionic surfaces, the global minimum can be described as water interacting with the minor groove. These structures are predicted to have hydration energies of 9.7 and 11.8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Upon interbase proton-transfer (PT), the anionic global minimum has water positioned in the major groove, and the hydration energy increases to 13.4 kcal mol(-1). PT GC·H2O(•-) has distonic character; the radical character resides on cytosine, while the negative charge is localized on guanine. The effects of proton transfer are further investigated through the computed adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of GC and monohydrated GC, and the vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the corresponding anions. Monohydration increases the AEAs and VDEs by only 0.1 eV, while proton-transfer increases the VDEs substantially (0.8 eV). The molecular charge distribution of monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical anion depends heavily on interbase proton transfer.

  17. Ab initio study of the excited-state coupled electron-proton-transfer process in the 2-aminopyridine dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The low-lying 1 ππ* excited states of the 2-aminopyridine dimer have been investigated with multi-reference ab initio methods (CASSCF and MRMP2). The 2-aminopyridine dimer can be considered as a mimetic model of Watson-Crick DNA base pairs. The reaction path and the energy profile for single proton transfer in the lowest 1 ππ* inter-monomer charge-transfer state have been obtained. A weakly avoided crossing of the 1 ππ* surface with the electronic ground-state surface has been found near the single-proton-transfer minimum of the 1 ππ* surface. From the splitting of the adiabatic surfaces at the avoided crossing, an internal-conversion lifetime of the excited state of <100 ps has been estimated. The potential relevance of these results for the rationalization of radiation-induced mutations and the photostability of the genetic code is briefly discussed

  18. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-01-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10 10 to 2.5 x 10 7 cm -2 sec -1 . In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation

  19. On the necessity of taking into account the contribution of multiphoton exchanges into electron-proton deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savrin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that the multiphoton exchanges give a substantial contribution to the electron-proton inclusive scattering is formulated. The hypothesis explains the observed violation of the Bjorken scaling law. As it is shown, the mechanism of such intensification of multiple exchanges may by connected with the properties of the processes of hadron multiproduction in the deep inelastic field. This results in the necessity to calculate the inclusive cross section in all electromagnetic coupling constant orders. This has been done in the framework of the density matrix method. As a result the deep inelastic scattering cross section calculated without application of the perturbation theory reveals a new property of the scaling invariance and leads to the natural relationship of structural functions with electromagnetic proton form-factors on the exclusive threshold

  20. Calibration of an electron/proton monitor for the earth's radiation belt at 4 R/sub E/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Argo, H.V.; Baker, D.N.

    1982-03-01

    A charged particle dosimeter (the Burst Detector Dosimeter or BDD) was designed and fabricated and will be flown on certain of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) series of spacecraft. The BDD will monitor the dose received by the GPS spacecraft from the fluxes of electrons and protons in the Earth's radiation belt. The BDD uses absorbers in front of silicon sensors to determine the energy thresholds for measuring incident particle fluxes; and the magnitude of energy loss in a single sensor distinguishes between ions and electrons over a wide range of energies. Our electron calibrations were performed to determine accurately the energy response function of the dosimeter. The experimentally determined energy and angular responses are used to determine the equivalent energy thresholds and geometric factors for idealized step function responses

  1. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) in Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-08

    actuated) by a counterbalanced hydrogen bond located farther away. To realize such goals, it is necessary to study this effect further. In particular, if...Thus in direct analogy to photoconductivity in a semiconductor, one arrives at a proton photoconductivity effect . We have exploited this analogy to

  2. Corrosion phenomena in electron, proton and synchrotron X-ray microprobe analysis of Roman glass from Qumran, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, K.; Aerts, A.; Vincze, L.; Adams, F.; Yang, C.; Utui, R.; Malmqvist, K.; Jones, K. W.; Radtke, M.; Garbe, S.; Lechtenberg, F.; Knöchel, A.; Wouters, H.

    1996-04-01

    A series of 89 glass fragments of Roman glass are studied using electron, proton and synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission from microscopic areas on the sample surface. The glass originates from Qumran, Jordan and was buried for 1900 years. The weathering layers that result from the extended contact with ground water have been studied, next to the trace composition of the original glass of these pieces. The latter information indicates that at Qumran, large quantities of glass objects were being used in Ancient times. Cross-sectional profiles of the glass show a complex migration behaviour of various groups of major and trace elements.

  3. Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS proton storage rings by tailoring the bunch profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source(SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electroncloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure

  4. A Deterministic Electron, Photon, Proton and Heavy Ion Radiation Transport Suite for the Study of the Jovian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    A deterministic suite of radiation transport codes, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), which describe the transport of electrons, photons, protons, and heavy ions in condensed media is used to simulate exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons, protons and carbon-oxygen-sulfur (C-O-S) trapped heavy ions in the Jovian radiation environment. The particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron and photon deterministic transport algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light particle and heavy ion deterministic transport algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means for the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, proton and heavy ion radiation exposure assessments in complex space structures. In this paper, the radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), the 105 days at Europa mission fluence energy spectra provided by JPL is used to produce the corresponding dose-depth curve in silicon behind an aluminum shield of 100 mils ( 0.7 g/sq cm). The transport suite can also accept ray-traced thickness files from a computer-aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point. In that regard, using a low-fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe, the transport suite was verified by comparing with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for orbits JOI--J35 of the Galileo extended mission (1996-2001). For the upcoming EJSM mission with a potential launch date of 2020, the transport suite is used to compute

  5. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  6. Energy and angular distributions of secondary electrons from 5--100-keV-proton collisions with hydrogen and nitrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudd, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    Cross sections for the ejection of electrons from hydrogen and nitrogen by protons have been measured as a function of the energy and angle of ejection of the electrons at incident proton energies of 5--70 keV and 100 keV for hydrogen. The range of angles measured was 10--160 0 and the electron energy range was 1.5--300 eV. The doubly differential cross sections were also integrated over angle, over electron energy, or over both to obtain singly differential and total cross sections for electron production. Average electron energies were also calculated from the data. The angular distributions of electrons are peaked in the forward direction but become more isotropic as the proton energy decreases. Nitrogen yields a more isotropic distribution than hydrogen. In this range of proton energies the cross sections integrated over angle are found to fall off approximately exponentially with electron energy, and a simple empirical equation has been found that describes the singly differential and total cross sections within a factor of 2 for several targets. A theoretical interpretation of this result in terms of the molecular promotion model is given in which Meyerhof's method of calculating cross sections for K-shell excitation is applied for the first time to the ionization of outer shells of atoms

  7. Probing strong-field electron-nuclear dynamics of polyatomic molecules using proton motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markevitch, Alexei N.; Smith, Stanley M.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.

    2007-01-01

    Proton ejection during Coulomb explosion is studied for several structure-related organic molecules (anthracene, anthraquinone, and octahydroanthracene) subjected to 800 nm, 60 fs laser pulses at intensities from 0.50 to 4.0x10 14 W cm -2 . The proton kinetic energy distributions are found to be markedly structure specific. The distributions are bimodal for anthracene and octahydroanthracene and trimodal for anthraquinone. Maximum (cutoff) energies of the distributions range from 50 eV for anthracene to 83 eV for anthraquinone. The low-energy mode (∼10 eV) is most pronounced in octahydroanthracene. The dependence of the characteristic features of the distributions on the laser intensity provides insights into molecular specificity of such strong-field phenomena as (i) nonadiabatic charge localization and (ii) field-mediated restructuring of polyatomic molecules polarized by a strong laser field

  8. A deterministic electron, photon, proton and heavy ion transport suite for the study of the Jovian moon Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2011-01-01

    A Langley research center (LaRC) developed deterministic suite of radiation transport codes describing the propagation of electron, photon, proton and heavy ion in condensed media is used to simulate the exposure from the spectral distribution of the aforementioned particles in the Jovian radiation environment. Based on the measurements by the Galileo probe (1995-2003) heavy ion counter (HIC), the choice of trapped heavy ions is limited to carbon, oxygen and sulfur (COS). The deterministic particle transport suite consists of a coupled electron photon algorithm (CEPTRN) and a coupled light heavy ion algorithm (HZETRN). The primary purpose for the development of the transport suite is to provide a means to the spacecraft design community to rapidly perform numerous repetitive calculations essential for electron, photon, proton and heavy ion exposure assessment in a complex space structure. In this paper, the reference radiation environment of the Galilean satellite Europa is used as a representative boundary condition to show the capabilities of the transport suite. While the transport suite can directly access the output electron and proton spectra of the Jovian environment as generated by the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) Galileo interim radiation electron (GIRE) model of 2003; for the sake of relevance to the upcoming Europa Jupiter system mission (EJSM), the JPL provided Europa mission fluence spectrum, is used to produce the corresponding depth dose curve in silicon behind a default aluminum shield of 100 mils (∼0.7 g/cm 2 ). The transport suite can also accept a geometry describing ray traced thickness file from a computer aided design (CAD) package and calculate the total ionizing dose (TID) at a specific target point within the interior of the vehicle. In that regard, using a low fidelity CAD model of the Galileo probe generated by the authors, the transport suite was verified versus Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for orbits JOI-J35 of the Galileo probe

  9. Radiation defects and electron disordering in proton-irradiated diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschenko, V.E.; Soloviev, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The absorption spectra are studied in the region of the fundamental absorption band and its longwave boundary for the 0.6 μm thick diamond films deposited onto Al 2 O 3 single crystal underlayers and irradiated by 100 keV and 50 keV protons at fluences of 10 13 -10 16 cm -2 . The E 0 β (6.10-5.9eV) and E 0 α (5.51-5.43eV) maxima and the exponential tails towards lower energies are resolved in the spectra of initial films. The halfwidths of the maxima and a weak temperature dependence of their parameters and of the Urbach tail slope are indicative of disordering of the film structure. The intrinsic maxima near and above the indirect absorption boundary in diamond Γ 25 '-Δ are identified with transitions in the disordered cubic and hexagonal phases of the diamond films. The proton irradiation stimulates the intensity redistribution of the intrinsic maxima, the absorption enhancement, and the change of the Urbach tail slope. The character of radiolysis has been found to depend on the composition of the nonirradiated carbon films and on proton fluence. (author). 8 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and of the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, Y.; Bosted, P.; Kvaltine, N.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pierce, J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at laboratory angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual deep inelastic region kinematics, Q2>1 GeV2 and the final-state invariant mass W >2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  11. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Kvaltine, Nicholas; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moskov; Anderson, Mark; Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Biselli, Angela; Bono, Jason; Briscoe, William; Brock, Joseph; Brooks, William; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Carlin, Christopher; Carman, Daniel; Celentano, Andrea; Chandavar, Shloka; Colaneri, Luca; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Cortes, Olga; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; El Alaoui, Ahmed; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Fersch, Robert; Fleming, Jamie; Forest, Tony; Garcon, Michel; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Ghandilyan, Yeranuhi; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Girod-Gard, Francois-Xavier; Giovanetti, Kevin; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guegan, Baptiste; Guler, Nevzat; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hanretty, Charles; Harrison, Nathan; Hattawy, Mohammad; Hicks, Kenneth; Ho, Dao; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Keller, Daniel; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Koirala, Suman; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lenisa, Paolo; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; Mayer, Michael; McKinnon, Bryan; Meekins, David; Mineeva, Taisiya; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Montgomery, Rachel; MOUTARDE, Herve; Movsisyan, Aram; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Pappalardo, Luciano; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, K; Peng, Peng; Phillips, J J; Pierce, Joshua; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdniakov, Serguei; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Raue, Brian; Rimal, Dipak; Ripani, Marco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Roy, Priyashree; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Sharabian, Youri; Simonyan, Ani; Smith, Claude; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Sytnik, Valeriy; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vernarsky, Brian; Vlasov, Alexander; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Walford, Natalie; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Zonta, Irene

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at lab angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual DIS kinematics, Q^2>1 GeV^2 and the final-state invariant mass W>2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q^2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative QCD, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  12. Electrochemical/chemical oxidation of bisphenol A in a four-electron/two-proton process in aprotic organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Ya Yun; Yue, Yanni; Li, Yongxin; Webster, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bisphenol A undergoes a chemically irreversible voltammetric oxidation process. • Chemical oxidation was performed to overcome adsorption effects that cause electrode fouling. • A new product was isolated from chemical oxidation with 4 mol equiv. of the one-electron oxidant, NO + . • The oxidative mechanism was proposed to be a four-electron/two-proton process. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A (BPA) was examined using cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis and chemical oxidation in aprotic organic solvents. It was found that BPA undergoes a chemically irreversible voltammetric oxidation process to form compounds that cannot be electrochemically converted back to the starting materials on the voltammetric timescale. To overcome the effects of electrode fouling during controlled potential electrolysis experiments, NO + was used as a one-electron chemical oxidant. A new product, hydroxylated bisdienone was isolated from the chemical oxidation of BPA with 4 mol equiv of NO + SbF 6 − in low water content CH 3 CN. The structure of the cation intermediate species was deduced and it was proposed that BPA is oxidized in a four-electron/two-proton process to form a relatively unstable dication which reacts quickly in the presence of water in acetonitrile (in a mechanism that is similar to phenols in general). However, as the water content of the solvent increased it was found that the chemical oxidation mechanism produced a nitration product in high yield. The findings from this study provide useful insights into the reactions that can occur during oxidative metabolism of BPA and highlight the possibility of the role of a bisdienone cation as a reactive metabolite in biological systems

  13. Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals in aqueous solutions; electron transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasović, Brunislav; Bonifačić, Marija

    2011-06-01

    Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals CO2-rad , rad CH 2OH, rad CH(CH 3)OH, and rad CH(CH 3)O - have been studied in oxygen free aqueous solutions in the presence of organic additives: formate, methanol or ethanol. For radicals production 60Co γ-radiolysis was employed and the yield of bromide was measured by means of ion chromatography. Both radical anions have reducing potential negative enough to transfer an electron to BrU producing bromide ion and U rad radical. High yields of bromide have been measured increasing proportional to the concentration of the corresponding organic additives at a constant dose rate. This is characteristic for a chain process where regeneration of radical ions occurs by H-atom abstraction by U rad radical from formate or ethanol. Results with the neutral radicals conformed earlier proposition that the reduction reaction of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals proceeds by the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism ( Matasović and Bonifačić, 2007). Thus, while both rad CH 2OH and rad CH(CH 3)OH did not react with BrU in water/alcohol solutions, addition of bicarbonate and acetate in mmol dm -3 concentrations, pH 7, brought about chain debromination to occur in the case of rad CH(CH 3)OH radical as reactant. Under the same conditions phosphate buffer, a base with higher bulk proton affinity, failed to have any influence. The results are taken as additional proofs for the specific complex formation of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals with suitable bases which enhances radicals' reduction potential in comparison with only water molecules as proton acceptors. Rate constants for the H-atom abstraction from ethanol and formate by U rad radicals have been estimated to amount to about ≥85 and 1200 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, respectively.

  14. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  15. Protonated ions as systemic trapping agents for noble gases: From electronic structure to radiative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurel, O; Pauzat, F; Pilmé, J; Ellinger, Y; Bacchus-Montabonel, M-C; Mousis, O

    2017-10-07

    The deficiencies of argon, krypton, and xenon observed in the atmosphere of Titan as well as anticipated in some comets might be related to a scenario of sequestration by H 3 + in the gas phase at the early evolution of the solar nebula. The chemical process implied is a radiative association, evaluated as rather efficient in the case of H 3 + , especially for krypton and xenon. This mechanism of chemical trapping might not be limited to H 3 + only, considering that the protonated ions produced in the destruction of H 3 + by its main competitors present in the primitive nebula, i.e., H 2 O, CO, and N 2 , might also give stable complexes with the noble gases. However the effective efficiency of such processes is still to be proven. Here, the reactivity of the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe, with all protonated ions issued from H 2 O, CO, and N 2 , expected to be present in the nebula with reasonably high abundances, has been studied with quantum simulation method dynamics included. All of them give stable complexes and the rate coefficients of their radiative associations range from 10 -16 to 10 -19 cm 3 s -1 , which is reasonable for such reactions and has to be compared to the rates of 10 -16 to 10 -18 cm 3 s -1 , obtained with H 3 + . We can consider this process as universal for all protonated ions which, if present in the primitive nebula as astrophysical models predict, should act as sequestration agents for all three noble gases with increasing efficiency from Ar to Xe.

  16. Total cross section for Z0 production in electron proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.; Wallet, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    We present an exact calculation of the total cross section sigmasub(t)sub(o)sub(t) of the Z 0 production in e - +p→e - +Z 0 +X processes. We find a total cross section sigmasub(t)sub(o)sub(t)approx. equal to2.2x10 -36 cm 2 for an energy in the center of mass of 300 GeV and a Z 0 mass of 90 GeV, which is quite a measurable result in some e - proton collider experiments, like HERA or SPS/LEP. (orig.)

  17. Exclusive $\\varrho^{0}$ production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Grothe, M; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Pfeiffer, M; Rembser, C; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Capua, M; Garfagnini, A; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Iga, Y; Johnson, K; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Mainusch, J; Manczak, O; Monteiro, T; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Brümmer, N; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Fernández, J P; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Martínez, M; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Tickner, J R; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Waters, D S; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Oh, B Y; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Schwarzer, O; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B

    1995-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections for events with a large rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction from the reaction ep \\rightarrow jet \\; + \\; X with quasi-real photons have been measured with the ZEUS detector. The cross sections refer to jets with transverse energies E_T^{jet}>8~GeV. The data show the characteristics of a diffractive process mediated by pomeron exchange. Assuming that the events are due to the exchange of a pomeron with partonic structure the qith, W H02

  18. Thermodynamics of various F420 coenzyme models as sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-06-14

    32 F420 coenzyme models with alkylation of the three different N atoms (N1, N3 and N10) in the core structure (XFH(-)) were designed and synthesized and the thermodynamic driving forces (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the 32 XFH(-) releasing hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and electrons, the thermodynamic driving forces of the 32 XFH˙ releasing protons and hydrogen atoms and the thermodynamic driving forces of XF(-)˙ releasing electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The effects of the methyl group at N1, N3 and N10 and a negative charge on N1 and N10 atoms on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were examined; the results show that seating arrangements of the methyl group and the negative charge have remarkably different effects on the thermodynamic properties of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates. The effects of the substituents at C7 and C8 on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were also examined; the results show that the substituents at C7 and C8 have good Hammett linear free energy relationships with the six thermodynamic parameters. Meanwhile, a reasonable determination of possible reactions between members of the F420 family and NADH family in vivo was given according to a thermodynamic analysis platform constructed using the elementary step thermodynamic parameter of F420 coenzyme model 2FH(-) and NADH model MNAH releasing hydride ions in acetonitrile. The information disclosed in this work can not only fill a gap in the chemical thermodynamics of F420 coenzyme models as a class of very important organic sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons, but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of F420 coenzyme.

  19. Search for scalar and vector leptoquarks in electron-proton collisions at √S = 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazumi, Masashi

    1993-12-01

    A search for a resonant state coupled to an electron-quark pair has been performed using collisions of the electron beam of 26.7 GeV and the proton beam of 820 GeV. With the integrated luminosity of 26.6 ± 1.6 nb -1 , scalar and vector leptoquarks have been searched for in the neutral current and charged current samples. The selected events agreed well with the prediction of the Standard Model, and no evidence has been found for production of leptoquarks decaying into e - + jet or ν + jet. Limits on the coupling strength of scalar (vector) leptoquarks to electron and quark have been determined for masses from 50 (40) GeV to 225 GeV. A limit on the leptoquark mass has been also obtained at the 95% confidence level assuming that either left-handed or right-handed coupling exists to the electron-quark pair with electroweak strength. The mass limit depends on the cross section determined by the choice of quantum numbers. Leptoquarks are ruled out for masses below 216 GeV with the largest cross section and below 105 GeV with the smallest cross section. (author) 102 refs

  20. Simulation of wake potentials induced by relativistic proton bunches in electron clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2012-07-01

    Electron clouds limit the intensity of modern high intensity hadron accelerators. Presently electron clouds are the main limiting factor for the LHC operation with 25 ns bunch trains. The bunches passing through an electron cloud induce a wake field. When the electron cloud density exceeds a certain threshold beam instabilities occur. The presence of electron clouds results in a shift of the synchronous phase, which increases if the bunch spacing is reduced. For LHC and SPS conditions we compare the longitudinal electron cloud wake potentials and stopping powers obtained using a simplified 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell code with fully electromagnetic simulations using VORPAL. In addition we analyze the wake fields induced by displaced or tilted bunches.

  1. Proton Irradiation-Induced Metal Voids in Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ABBREVIATIONS 2DEG two-dimensional electron gas AlGaN aluminum gallium nitride AlOx aluminum oxide CCD charged coupled device CTE coefficient of...frequency of FETs. Such a device may also be known as a heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET), modulation-doped field-effect transistor (MODFET...electrons. This charge attracts electrons to the interface, forming the 2DEG channel. The HEMT includes a heterojunction of two semiconducting

  2. Kinetic description of electron-proton instability in high-intensity proton linacs and storage rings based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Davidson

    1999-05-01

    electrons is negligibly small. We introduce the ion plasma frequency squared defined by ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}=4πn[over ^]_{b}Z_{b}^{2}e^{2}/γ_{b}m_{b}, and the fractional charge neutralization defined by f=n[over ^]_{e}/Z_{b}n[over ^]_{b}, where n[over ^]_{b} and n[over ^]_{e} are the characteristic ion and electron densities. The equilibrium and stability analysis is carried out for arbitrary normalized beam intensity ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}}, and arbitrary fractional charge neutralization f, consistent with radial confinement of the beam particles. For the moderately high beam intensities envisioned in the proton linacs and storage rings for the Accelerator for Production of Tritium and the Spallation Neutron Source, the normalized beam intensity is typically ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}}≲ 0.1. For heavy ion fusion applications, however, the transverse beam emittance is very small, and the space-charge-dominated beam intensity is much larger, with ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}}≲ 2γ_{b}^{2}. The stability analysis shows that the instability growth rate Imω increases with increasing normalized beam intensity ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}} and increasing fractional charge neutralization f. In addition, the instability is strongest (largest growth rate for perturbations with azimuthal mode number ℓ=1, corresponding to a simple (dipole transverse displacement of the beam ions and the background electrons. For the case of overlapping step-function density profiles for the beam ions and background electrons, corresponding to monoenergetic ions and electrons, a key result is that there is no threshold in beam intensity ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}} or fractional charge neutralization f for the onset of instability. Finally, for the case of continuously varying density profiles with parabolic profile shape, a semiquantitative estimate is made of the effects of the corresponding spread in (depressed betatron frequency on stability

  3. Multiple ionization of noble gases by 2.0 MeV proton impact: comparison with equi-velocity electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W.S.; Santos, A.C.F.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Absolute single- and multiple-ionization cross sections of rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) have been measured for collisions with 2.0 MeV p + . A comparison is made with equi-velocity electron impact ionization cross sections as well as with the available proton impact data. For the light rare gases the single-ionization cross sections are essentially the same for both proton and electron impacts, but increasing differences appear for the heavier targets. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  4. Search for WH production with a light Higgs boson decaying to prompt electron-jets in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; 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Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Göpfert, Thomas; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, Gordana; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Möser, Nicolas; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    A search is performed for WH production with a light Higgs boson decaying to hidden-sector particles resulting in clusters of collimated electrons, known as electron-jets. The search is performed with 2.04 fb-1 of data collected in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV. One event satisfying the signal selection criteria is observed, which is consistent with the expected background rate. Limits on the product of the WH production cross section and the branching ratio of a Higgs boson decaying to prompt electron-jets are calculated as a function of a Higgs boson mass in the range from 100 GeV to 140 GeV.

  5. Single-electron analysis and open charm cross section in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Fasel, Markus

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world’s highest energy hadron collider, providing protonproton collisions currently at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. This opens a new energy regime, which allows the study of QCD in elementary pp-collisions and in the extreme environment of Pb-Pb collisions, as well as providing a discovery potential for rare and exotic particles. ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC. The experiment is optimised to provide excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities, in particular at low-$p_{t}$, where the bulk of the particles is produced in heavy-ion collisions as well as in proton-proton collisions. The production of heavy quarks is described in proton-proton collisions by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations. Thus, the measurement of heavy-quark production in proton-proton collisions serves as a test of pQCD. Measurements performed at SPS, RHIC, and Tevat...

  6. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO 3 - ) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO 3 - injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beam pinging, sweeping, shaking, and electron/ion collecting, at the Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.; Macek, R.J.; Plum, M.A.; Wang, T.S.F.

    1993-01-01

    We have built, installed and tested a pinger for use as a general diagnostic at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). Two 4-m-long parallel-plate electrodes with a plate spacing of 10.2 cm provide kicks of up to 1.1 mrad. A pair of solid-state pulsers may be operated in a single-pulse mode for beam pinging (tune measurements) or in a burst mode at up to 700 kHz pulse rates for beam sweeping. During our 1992 operating period we used the pinger for beam sweeping, for beam shaking, for measuring the tune shift, and we have used it as an ion chamber. Using the pinger as an ion chamber during production conditions has yielded some surprising results

  8. PENTrack-a simulation tool for ultracold neutrons, protons, and electrons in complex electromagnetic fields and geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, W.; Kikawa, T.; Losekamm, M. J.; Paul, S.; Picker, R.

    2017-06-01

    Modern precision experiments trapping low-energy particles require detailed simulations of particle trajectories and spin precession to determine systematic measurement limitations and apparatus deficiencies. We developed PENTrack, a tool that allows to simulate trajectories of ultracold neutrons and their decay products-protons and electrons-and the precession of their spins in complex geometries and electromagnetic fields. The interaction of ultracold neutrons with matter is implemented with the Fermi-potential formalism and diffuse scattering using Lambert and microroughness models. The results of several benchmark simulations agree with STARucn v1.2, uncovered several flaws in Geant4 v10.2.2, and agree with experimental data. Experiment geometry and electromagnetic fields can be imported from commercial computer-aided-design and finite-element software. All simulation parameters are defined in simple text files allowing quick changes. The simulation code is written in C++ and is freely available at github.com/wschreyer/PENTrack.git.

  9. Electron capture into the n = 3 states of hydrogen by proton impact on CO, CO2, and N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyd, D.H.; Dawson, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for electron capture into the 3s, 3p, and 3d states of hydrogen have been measured for 2.2--8.2-keV proton impact on CO, CO 2 , and N 2 O. The relative magnitudes of the 3s, 3p, and 3d cross sections for CO are very similar to cross sections previously measured for elemental gases. The CO 2 and N 2 O cross sections have a very different relative distribution among the 3s, 3p, and 3d states compared to all other gases studied in this laboratory, with the 3p cross section being so small that only an estimate of the upper limit to the cross section was possible

  10. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  11. Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.

  12. The mechanism of electron gating in proton pumping cytochrome c oxidase: the effect of pH and temperature on internal electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, P; Malmström, B G

    1987-10-29

    Electron-transfer reactions following flash photolysis of the mixed-valence cytochrome oxidase-CO complex have been measured at 445, 598 and 830 nm between pH 5.2 and 9.0 in the temperature range of 0-25 degrees C. There is a rapid electron transfer from the cytochrome a3-CuB pair to CuA (time constant: 14200 s-1), which is followed by a slower electron transfer to cytochrome a. Both the rate and the amplitude of the rapid phase are independent of pH, and the rate in the direction from CuA to cytochrome a3-CuB is practically independent of temperature. The second phase depends strongly on pH due to the titration of an acid-base group with pKa = 7.6. The equilibrium at pH 7.4 corresponds to reduction potentials of 225 and 345 mV for cytochrome a and a3, respectively, from which it is concluded that the enzyme is in a different conformation compared to the fully oxidized form. The results have been used to suggest a series of reaction steps in a cycle of the oxidase as a proton pump. Application of the electron-transfer theory to the temperature-dependence data suggests a mechanism for electron gating in the pump. Reduction of both cytochrome a and CuA leads to a conformational change, which changes the structure of cytochrome a3-CuB in such a way that the reorganizational barrier for electron transfer is removed and the driving force is increased.

  13. Two-Photon Exchange Effects in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Myriam James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Two methods, Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer, can be used to extract the proton form factor ratio μp GEp/GMp, but they do not yield the same results. It is thought that the disagreement is due to two photon exchange corrections to the differential cross sections. High precision proton Rosenbluth extractions were carried out at 102 kinematics points spanning 16 values of momentum transfer Q2, from 0.40 to 5.76 GeV2. Reduced cross sections were found to 1.1% or better for Q2 less than 3 GeV2 increasing to 4% at 5.76 GeV2 The form factor ratios were determined to 1:5-3% for Q2 < 1.5 GeV2, increasing to 9% by 3 GeV2 and rapidly above. Our data agrees with prior Rosenbluth, improving upon it the 1.0 - 2.0 GeV2 range to conclusively show a separation from polarization transfer where it had not been certain before. In addition, reduced cross sections at each Q2 were tested for nonlinearity in the angular variable. Such a departure from linearity would be a signature of two photon exchange effects, and prior data had not been sufficiently precise to show nonzero curvature. Our data begins to hint at negative curvature but does not yet show a significant departure from zero.

  14. Proton induced X-ray emission and electron microscopy analysis of induced mutants of sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbambo, Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available of elements in preferential accumulation tissues and entire changes in cellular localization. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of the mutants resolved changes in size, shape, ultra-structure and packed cell volumes of protein- and starch bodies...

  15. Investigation of impact-parameter dependent double differential electron emission probabilities in proton-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiwietz, G.

    1986-07-01

    The process of ionization in ion-atom collisions was investigated. Thus absolute double differential electron emission yields were measured for the collision system H + +He. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results partially calculated in this work. For the coincidence measurements an electron time-of-flight spectrometer with a large solid angle was constructed. For the measurement of the scattered projectiles a fast position sensitive ion detector and a data preprocessing unit were developed. (orig.)

  16. A quantum chemical study of the mechanism for proton-coupled electron transfer leading to proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.; Siegbahn, Per E. M.

    2010-10-01

    The proton pumping mechanism in cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain, has been investigated using hybrid DFT with large chemical models. In previous studies, a gating mechanism was suggested based on electrostatic interpretations of kinetic experiments. The predictions from that analysis are tested here. The main result is that the suggestion of a positively charged transition state for proton transfer is confirmed, while some other suggestions for the gating are not supported. It is shown that a few critical relative energy values from the earlier studies are reproduced with quite high accuracy using the present model calculations. Examples are the forward barrier for proton transfer from the N-side of the membrane to the pump-loading site when the heme a cofactor is reduced, and the corresponding back leakage barrier when heme a is oxidised. An interesting new finding is an unexpected double-well potential for proton transfer from the N-side to the pump-loading site. In the intermediate between the two transition states found, the proton is bound to PropD on heme a. A possible purpose of this type of potential surface is suggested here. The accuracy of the present values are discussed in terms of their sensitivity to the choice of dielectric constant. Only one energy value, which is not critical for the present mechanism, varies significantly with this choice and is therefore less certain.

  17. Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals in aqueous solutions; electron transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matasovic, Brunislav [Division of Physical Chemistry, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bonifacic, Marija, E-mail: bonifacic@irb.h [Division of Physical Chemistry, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-06-15

    Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals {sup {center_dot}C}O{sub 2}{sup -}, {sup {center_dot}C}H{sub 2}OH, {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})OH, and {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})O{sup -} have been studied in oxygen free aqueous solutions in the presence of organic additives: formate, methanol or ethanol. For radicals production {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiolysis was employed and the yield of bromide was measured by means of ion chromatography. Both radical anions have reducing potential negative enough to transfer an electron to BrU producing bromide ion and U{sup {center_dot}} radical. High yields of bromide have been measured increasing proportional to the concentration of the corresponding organic additives at a constant dose rate. This is characteristic for a chain process where regeneration of radical ions occurs by H-atom abstraction by U{sup {center_dot}} radical from formate or ethanol. Results with the neutral radicals conformed earlier proposition that the reduction reaction of {alpha}-hydroxyalkyl radicals proceeds by the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism (). Thus, while both {sup {center_dot}C}H{sub 2}OH and {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})OH did not react with BrU in water/alcohol solutions, addition of bicarbonate and acetate in mmol dm{sup -3} concentrations, pH 7, brought about chain debromination to occur in the case of {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})OH radical as reactant. Under the same conditions phosphate buffer, a base with higher bulk proton affinity, failed to have any influence. The results are taken as additional proofs for the specific complex formation of {alpha}-hydroxyalkyl radicals with suitable bases which enhances radicals' reduction potential in comparison with only water molecules as proton acceptors. Rate constants for the H-atom abstraction from ethanol and formate by U{sup {center_dot}} radicals have been estimated to amount to about {>=}85 and 1200 dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1

  18. N2 Dissociation In The Mesosphere Due To Secondary Electrons During A Solar Proton Event: The Effect On Atomic Nitrogen and Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verronen, P. T.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Turunen, E.; Ulich, Th.

    Solar proton events have an effect on the middle atmospheric odd nitrogen chem- istry. During a solar proton event high energy protons enter Earth's middle atmosphere where they ionize ambient gas. Ionization leads to production of atomic nitrogen, and further to production of nitric oxide, through ion chemistry. In addition, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 providing an additional source of atomic nitrogen. We have calculated mesospheric N2 dissociation rate due to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide at altitudes between 50 and 90 km. It was found that N2 is efficiently dis- sociated in the lower mesosphere by secondary electrons, with rates up to 103 cm-3 s-1 at 50 km. Thus, secondary electrons significantly add to odd nitrogen produc- tion. As a result of N2 dissociation, atomic nitrogen is greatly enhanced in both N(4S) and N(2D) states by 259% and 1220% maximum increases at 50 km, respectively. This further leads to a maximum increase of 16.5% in NO concentration at 61 km via chemical reactions. In our study a Monte Carlo model was used to calculate the total ionization rate and secondary electrons flux due to precipitating protons. These where then used as input to a detailed ion and neutral chemistry model and a steady-state solution was calcu- lated for two cases: With and without N2 dissociation due to secondary electrons.

  19. Comparison between static LFC and Mermin dielectric functions on proton stopping in a degenerate electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universisdad de Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real E13071 (Spain)], E-mail: ManuelD.Barriga@uclm.es

    2009-07-11

    If plasmas are considered fully ionized, the electronic stopping of a charged particle that traverses them will only be due to free electrons. This stopping can be obtained in first view through random phase approximation (RPA). However, free electrons interact between them affecting the stopping. These interactions can be taken into account in the dielectric formalism in two different ways: the local field correction (LFC) and the Mermin dielectric functions. LFC produces an enhancement in stopping before the maximum and recovers the RPA values just after it. The Mermin method also produces first a high increase at very low energies, then a small enhancement at low energies and finally decreases below RPA values before and after the maximum. Differences between the two methods are very important at very low energies and 30% around the stopping maximum.

  20. Comparison between static LFC and Mermin dielectric functions on proton stopping in a degenerate electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2009-01-01

    If plasmas are considered fully ionized, the electronic stopping of a charged particle that traverses them will only be due to free electrons. This stopping can be obtained in first view through random phase approximation (RPA). However, free electrons interact between them affecting the stopping. These interactions can be taken into account in the dielectric formalism in two different ways: the local field correction (LFC) and the Mermin dielectric functions. LFC produces an enhancement in stopping before the maximum and recovers the RPA values just after it. The Mermin method also produces first a high increase at very low energies, then a small enhancement at low energies and finally decreases below RPA values before and after the maximum. Differences between the two methods are very important at very low energies and 30% around the stopping maximum.

  1. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  2. Improving the Weizsäcker-Williams approximation in electron-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1993-01-01

    We critically examine the validity of the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation in electron-hadron collisions. We show that in its commonly used form it can lead to large errors, and we show how to improve it in order to get accurate results. In particular, we present an improved form that is valid beyond the leading logarithmic approximation in the case when a small-angle cut is applied to the scattered electron. Furthermore we include comparisons of the approximate expressions with the exact electroproduction calculation in the case of heavy-quark production.

  3. Structure, thermodynamic and electronic properties of carbon-nitrogen cubanes and protonated polynitrogen cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Andreeva, Nadezhda A.

    2017-12-01

    Energy generation and storage are at the center of modern civilization. Energetic materials constitute quite a large class of compounds with a high amount of stored chemical energy that can be released. We hereby use a combination of quantum chemistry methods to investigate feasibility and properties of carbon-nitrogen cubanes and multi-charged polynitrogen cations in the context of their synthesis and application as unprecedented energetic materials. We show that the stored energy increases gradually with the nitrogen content increase. Nitrogen-poor cubanes retain their stabilities in vacuum, even at elevated temperatures. Such molecules will be probably synthesized at some point. In turn, polynitrogen cations are highly unstable, except N8H+, despite they are isoelectronic to all-carbon cubane. Kinetic stability of the cation decays drastically as its total charge increases. High-level thermodynamic calculations revealed that large amounts of energy are liberated upon decompositions of polynitrogen cations, which produce molecular nitrogen, acetylene, and protons. The present results bring a substantial insights to the design of novel high-energy compounds.

  4. Reactivity of hydropersulfides toward the hydroxyl radical unraveled: disulfide bond cleavage, hydrogen atom transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Josep M; Crehuet, Ramon; Adhikari, Sarju; Francisco, Joseph S; Xia, Yu

    2018-02-14

    Hydropersulfides (RSSH) are highly reactive as nucleophiles and hydrogen atom transfer reagents. These chemical properties are believed to be key for them to act as antioxidants in cells. The reaction involving the radical species and the disulfide bond (S-S) in RSSH, a known redox-active group, however, has been scarcely studied, resulting in an incomplete understanding of the chemical nature of RSSH. We have performed a high-level theoretical investigation on the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (˙OH) toward a set of RSSH (R = -H, -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)OH, -CN, and -NO 2 ). The results show that S-S cleavage and H-atom abstraction are the two competing channels. The electron inductive effect of R induces selective ˙OH substitution at one sulfur atom upon S-S cleavage, forming RSOH and ˙SH for the electron donating groups (EDGs), whereas producing HSOH and ˙SR for the electron withdrawing groups (EWGs). The H-Atom abstraction by ˙OH follows a classical hydrogen atom transfer (hat) mechanism, producing RSS˙ and H 2 O. Surprisingly, a proton-coupled electron transfer (pcet) process also occurs for R being an EDG. Although for RSSH having EWGs hat is the leading channel, S-S cleavage can be competitive or even dominant for the EDGs. The overall reactivity of RSSH toward ˙OH attack is greatly enhanced with the presence of an EDG, with CH 3 SSH being the most reactive species found in this study (overall rate constant: 4.55 × 10 12 M -1 s -1 ). Our results highlight the complexity in RSSH reaction chemistry, the extent of which is closely modulated by the inductive effect of the substituents in the case of the oxidation by hydroxyl radicals.

  5. Electron photon spectra at atmospheric depths 260 and 400 gm/cm2 derived from the Goddard primary proton spectrum using Fermilab data and usual cascade theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.P.; Gautam, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The integral electron photon spectra of cosmic rays at airplane altitude and Lenin Peak (altitudes 260 and 400 g-cm -2 air) have been estimated from the primary proton spectrum of Goddard Space Flight Group using Fermilab data of pp→π +- +X and conventional cascade theory. The derived electron-photon spectra fits well the experimental data of Ohta et al. (1975) and Cherdyntseva and Nikol'skii (1976) for energies above 4 TeV

  6. Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: the early evolution of biological energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2012-03-09

    Life is a persistent, self-specified set of far from equilibrium chemical reactions. In modern microbes, core carbon and energy metabolism are what keep cells alive. In very early chemical evolution, the forerunners of carbon and energy metabolism were the processes of generating reduced carbon compounds from CO(2) and the mechanisms of harnessing energy as compounds capable of doing some chemical work. The process of serpentinization at alkaline hydrothermal vents holds promise as a model for the origin of early reducing power, because Fe(2+) in the Earth's crust reduces water to H(2) and inorganic carbon to methane. The overall geochemical process of serpentinization is similar to the biochemical process of methanogenesis, and methanogenesis is similar to acetogenesis in that both physiologies allow energy conservation from the reduction of CO(2) with electrons from H(2). Electron bifurcation is a newly recognized cytosolic process that anaerobes use generate low potential electrons, it plays an important role in some forms of methanogenesis and, via speculation, possibly in acetogenesis. Electron bifurcation likely figures into the early evolution of biological energy conservation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Molecular simulations in electrochemistry : Electron and proton transfer reactions mediated by flavins in different molecular environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kılıç, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to address specific questions about the role of solvent reorganization on electron transfer in different environments and about the calculation of acidity constant, as well. Particularly, we focus on molecular simulation of flavin in water and different protein (BLUF and

  8. Beam-Beam Interaction, Electron Cloud and Intrabeam Scattering for Proton Super-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Y

    2003-01-01

    Super-bunches are long bunches with a flat longitudinal profile, which could potentially increase the LHC luminosity in a future upgrade. We present example parameters and discuss a variety of issues related to such superbunches, including beam-beam tune shift, tune footprints, crossing schemes, luminosity, intrabeam scattering, and electron cloud. We highlight the benefits, disadvantages and open questions.

  9. Ruthenium and iron complexes with benzotriazole and benzimidazole derivatives as simple models for proton-coupled electron transfer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Reginaldo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron and ruthenium complexes of the type [M-LH]n (where M = RuII,III(NH35(2+,3+, RuII,III(edta2-,- [edta = ethylenedinitrilotetraacetate], or FeII,III(CN5(3-,2- and LH = benzotriazole or benzimidazole were prepared and characterized in aqueous solutions by means of electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical methods. Special emphasis was given to the pH-dependent redox processes, exhibited by all the investigated complexes. From their related Pourbaix diagrams, which displayed a typically Nernstian behavior, the pKa and formal reduction potential values were extracted. In addition, these E1/2 versus pH curves were also used to illustrate the partitioning relationship concerning the redox and acid-base species, and their interconversion equilibria. The active area in which the dependence of the M III/M II couple on the pH takes place, as delimited by pKaIII and pKaII, was taken into account in order to evaluate the usefulness of such simple complexes as models for proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET. The results were interpreted in terms of the acceptor/donor electronic character of the ligands and sigma,pi-metal-ligand interactions in both redox states of the metal ion.

  10. Toward a Determination of the Proton-Electron Mass Ratio from the Lamb-Dip Measurement of HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.-G.; Liu, A.-W.; Pachucki, K.; Komasa, J.; Sun, Y. R.; Wang, J.; Hu, S.-M.

    2018-04-01

    Precision spectroscopy of the hydrogen molecule is a test ground of quantum electrodynamics (QED), and it may serve for the determination of fundamental constants. Using a comb-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer, for the first time, we observed the Lamb-dip spectrum of the R (1 ) line in the overtone of hydrogen deuteride (HD). The line position was determined to be 217 105 182.79 ±0.03stat±0.08syst MHz (δ ν /ν =4 ×10-10 ), which is the most accurate rovibrational transition ever measured in the ground electronic state of molecular hydrogen. Moreover, from calculations including QED effects up to the order meα6, we obtained predictions for this R (1 ) line as well as for the HD dissociation energy, which are less accurate but signaling the importance of the complete treatment of nonadiabatic effects. Provided that the theoretical calculation reaches the same accuracy, the present measurement will lead to a determination of the proton-to-electron mass ratio with a precision of 1.3 parts per billion.

  11. Nonlinear theory for axisymmetric self-similar two-dimensional oscillations of electrons in cold plasma with constant proton background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider simultaneous oscillations of electrons moving both along the axis of symmetry and also in the direction perpendicular to the axis. We derive a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations which describe self-similar oscillations of cold electrons in a constant proton density background (np = n0 = constant). These three equations represent an exact class of solutions. For weak nonlinear conditions, the frequency spectra of electric field oscillations exhibit split frequency behavior at the Langmuir frequency ωp0 and its harmonics, as well as presence of difference frequencies at low spectral values. For strong nonlinear conditions, the spectra contain peaks at frequencies with values ωp0(n +m √{2 }) , where n and m are integer numbers (positive and negative). We predict that both spectral types (weak and strong) should be observed in plasmas where axial symmetry may exist. To illustrate possible applications of our theory, we present a spectrum of electric field oscillations observed in situ in the solar wind by the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft during the passage of a type III solar radio burst.

  12. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize some of the information about the nucleon-nucleon force which has been obtained by comparing recent calculations of proton-proton bremsstrahlung with cross section and analyzing power data from the new TRIUMF bremsstrahlung experiment. Some comments are made as to how these results can be extended to neutron-proton bremsstrahlung. (Author) 17 refs., 6 figs

  13. The rate of second electron transfer to QB(-) in bacterial reaction center of impaired proton delivery shows hydrogen-isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, Ágnes; Wraight, Colin A; Maróti, Péter

    2015-02-01

    The 2nd electron transfer in reaction center of photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a two step process in which protonation of QB(-) precedes interquinone electron transfer. The thermal activation and pH dependence of the overall rate constants of different RC variants were measured and compared in solvents of water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O). The electron transfer variants where the electron transfer is rate limiting (wild type and M17DN, L210DN and H173EQ mutants) do not show solvent isotope effect and the significant decrease of the rate constant of the second electron transfer in these mutants is due to lowering the operational pKa of QB(-)/QBH: 4.5 (native), 3.9 (L210DN), 3.7 (M17DN) and 3.1 (H173EQ) at pH7. On the other hand, the proton transfer variants where the proton transfer is rate limiting demonstrate solvent isotope effect of pH-independent moderate magnitude (2.11±0.26 (WT+Ni(2+)), 2.16±0.35 (WT+Cd(2+)) and 2.34±0.44 (L210DN/M17DN)) or pH-dependent large magnitude (5.7 at pH4 (L213DN)). Upon deuteration, the free energy and the enthalpy of activation increase in all proton transfer variants by about 1 kcal/mol and the entropy of activation becomes negligible in L210DN/M17DN mutant. The results are interpreted as manifestation of equilibrium and kinetic solvent isotope effects and the structural, energetic and kinetic possibility of alternate proton delivery pathways are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hydrogen diffusion and electron tunneling in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niki, Haruo; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Oshiro, Morihito; Yogi, Mamoru [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Seki, Ichiro; Fukuhara, Mikio [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Using the Fourier transform of the echo envelope, the proton line shapes, spin-lattice relaxation time, and spin-spin relaxation time have been measured in a (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy at 1.83 T ({approx}78 MHz) and at temperatures between 1.8 and 300 K. First, the spectral line width decreases abruptly between 1.8 and 2.1 K. Next, it remains almost constant at 13 kHz up to {approx}150 K. Finally, the line width decreases as the temperature increases from {approx}150 to 300 K. The initial decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the distribution of the external field, which is caused by the penetration of vortices in the superconducting state. The subsequent leveling off in the spectral line width is ascribed to the dipole-dipole interaction between protons when hydrogen atoms are trapped into vacancies among the Zr-centered icosahedral Zr{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Nb{sub 3} clusters. The final decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the motional narrowing of the width that is caused by the movement of hydrogen atoms. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation time showed that at temperature above 150 K and the activation energy of 8.7 kJ/mol allowed the hydrogen atoms to migrate among the clusters. The distance between the hydrogen atoms is estimated to be 2.75 A. Hydrogen occupancies among clusters in the (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy play an important role in the diffusion behavior and in the electronic properties of this alloy.

  15. Electron trapping and acceleration by the plasma wakefield of a self-modulating proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, K.V.; Petrenko, A.V.; Amorim, L.D.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R.A.; Silva, L.O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Muggli, P.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that co-linear injection of electrons or positrons into the wakefield of the self-modulating particle beam is possible and ensures high energy gain. The witness beam must co-propagate with the tail part of the driver, since the plasma wave phase velocity there can exceed the light velocity, which is necessary for efficient acceleration. If the witness beam is many wakefield periods long, then the trapped charge is limited by beam loading effects. The initial trapping is better for positrons, but at the acceleration stage a considerable fraction of positrons is lost from the wave. For efficient trapping of electrons, the plasma boundary must be sharp, with the density transition region shorter than several centimeters. Positrons are not susceptible to the initial plasma density gradient.

  16. Implementation of Carbon Thin Film Coatings in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) for Electron Cloud Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Basso, T; Edwards, P; Mensi, M; Sublet, A; Taborelli, M

    2014-01-01

    Low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) carbon thin films eradicate electron multipacting in accelerator beam pipes. Two magnetic cells of the SPS were coated with such material and installed. In total more than forty vacuum vessels and magnet interconnections were treated. The feasibility of the coating process was validated. The performance of the carbon thin film will be tested with LHC nominal beams after the end of the long shutdown 1. Particular attention will be drawn to the long term behaviour. This paper presents the sputtering techniques used to coat the different components; their characterization (SEY measurements on coupons, RF multipacting tests and pump down curves); and the technology to etch the carbon film in case of a faulty coating. The strategy to coat the entire SPS will also be described.

  17. An Essay on Numerology of the Proton to Electron Mass Ratio (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritov A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few mathematical expressions for calculation pro ton to electron mass ratio presented. Some of them are new and some are not. They have been analysed in terms of their simplicity, numerical significance and precision. Expressions are listed in the structured manner with comments. The close attention should be paid to a comparison of the formula similarity via their precision. A brief review of the different attempts in similar search is given.

  18. Parity-Violating Electron Deuteron Scattering and the Proton's Neutral Axial Vector Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron at the backward angles at electron beam energy of 125 MeV [Q 2 =0.038 (GeV/c) 2 ]. This quantity provides a determination of the neutral weak axial vector form factor of the nucleon. In addition to the tree level amplitude associated with Z-exchange, the neutral weak axial vector form factor as measured in electron scattering can potentially receive large electroweak corrections, including the anapole moment, that are absent in neutrino scattering. The measured asymmetry A -3.51 ± 0.57 (stat) ± 0.58 (sys) ppm is consistent with theoretical predictions. We also report on updated results of the previous experiment at 200 MeV [Q 2 = 0.091 (GeV/c) 2 ] on a deuterium target. The updated results are also consistent with theoretical predictions on the neutral weal axial vector form factor

  19. An experimental study of the role of autoionizing states of H2 (D2) in the production of energetic protons (deuterons) by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1982-06-01

    The autoionizing state study seemed interesting to be taken up again in energy ranges corresponding to formation thresholds, a device well adapted to this range was available concerning electron measurements. Among other things, the overlapping autoionizing states have been displayed; proton kinetic energy distribution appropriate to each state at its formation threshold have been got. The whole of these results represents a proton (and D + ) production mechanism study contribution via autoionizing states. The theory used to describe autoionization cross-section calculations are recalled. Experimental results are presented, discussed, compared to experimental results and theoretical predictions [fr

  20. Fluorescence quenching of derivatives of anthracene by organic electron donors and acceptors in acetonitrile. Electron and proton transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac, Marek; Najbar, Jan; Wirz, Jakob

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of anthracene derivatives by organic electron donors (amines) and acceptors was investigated using stationary fluorescence measurements. The dependence of log( kq) on Δ Get shows Rehm-Weller-type behavior. The formation of anion radicals of anthracene, bianthryl, and 9-cyanoanthracene was detected by flash photolysis in systems containing aromatic amines (aniline, 2-bromoaniline, 4-bromoaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-bromo-N,N-dimethylaniline, N,N-diethylaniline, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). The radical yields decreased and triplet yields increased when bromo derivatives of amines were used as donor quenchers, indicating the heavy-atom effect on spin conversion within radical pairs. The importance of the heavy-atom effect decreased when the energy gap between the charge transfer and molecular triplet states was small. The formation of separated radicals decreased when primary amines were used as quenchers which indicated the existence of an additional path of deactivation of the radical pair. The behavior of amines as quenchers of bianthryl and anthracene is compared with that of inorganic anion quenchers.

  1. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_\\textit{FB}$) of $Z$ boson decays in electron-positron pairs with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    König, Sebastian

    In this thesis the measurement of the effective weak mixing angle $\\sin^2{\\theta_W^{\\mathrm{eff}}}$ in proton-proton collisions is described. The results are extracted from the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_\\textit{FB}$) in electron-positron final states at the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The $A_\\textit{FB}$ is defined upon the distribution of the polar angle between the incoming quark and outgoing lepton. The signal process used in this study is the reaction $pp\\to Z/\\gamma^*+X\\to e^+e^-+X$ taking a total integrated luminosity of 4.8 fb$^{-1}$ of data into account. The data was recorded at a proton-proton center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The weak mixing angle is a central parameter of the electroweak theory of the Standard Model (SM) and relates the neutral current interactions of electromagnetism and weak force. The higher order corrections on $\\sin^2{\\theta_W^{\\mathrm{eff}}}$ are related to other SM parameters like the mass of the Higgs boson. Because of the symmetric initial...

  2. Interaction of protons with the C{sub 60} molecule: calculation of deposited energies and electronic stopping cross sections (v{sub {<=}}5 au)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P. [Laboratoire CAR, IRSAMC, UMR 5589 CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: pmc@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Rentenier, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Laboratoire CAR, IRSAMC, UMR 5589 CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    2001-09-28

    The energy deposited by a proton in a C{sub 60} molecule is calculated over a broad collision velocity range from 0.1 to 5 au, using the free-electron gas model of Lindhard and Winther (1964 Mat. Fys. Medd. K Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. 34) and the C{sub 60} electron density distribution calculated by Puska and Nieminen. The energy lost by the proton is maximum near 1.8 au collision velocity in contrast with the saturation found in the low-velocity regime, in the 0.25-0.5 au velocity range, by Kunert and Schmidt. From the impact parameter dependence we deduce the distributions of deposited energies, the averaged energy losses and the C{sub 60} electronic stopping cross sections. It is found that the C{sub 60} molecule behaves as a carbon foil giving very similar absolute stopping cross sections per atom. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  3. Controlling the properties of ultraintense laser-proton sources using transverse refluxing of hot electrons in shaped mass-limited targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresca, O; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Gray, R J; Quinn, M N; McKenna, P; Aurand, B; Bagnoud, V; Fils, J; Kuehl, T; Zielbauer, B; Li, C; Li, Y T; Lin, X X; Evans, R G; Roth, M; Neely, D

    2011-01-01

    We report on the transverse refluxing of energetic electrons in mass-limited foil targets irradiated with high intensity (1 x 10 19 W cm -2 ), picosecond laser pulses. It is shown experimentally that the maximum energies of protons accelerated by sheath fields formed at the rear and at the edges of the target increase with decreasing target size. This is due to the modification of the sheath field by the energetic electrons which spread laterally along the target surface and reflect from the edges. In addition, it is shown that this transverse refluxing of energetic electrons can be used to tailor the spatial-intensity distribution of the proton beam by engineering the shape and size of the target.

  4. Controlling the properties of ultraintense laser-proton sources using transverse refluxing of hot electrons in shaped mass-limited targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresca, O; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Gray, R J; Quinn, M N; McKenna, P [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Aurand, B; Bagnoud, V; Fils, J; Kuehl, T; Zielbauer, B [PHELIX Department, GSI mbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Li, C; Li, Y T; Lin, X X [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Evans, R G [Plasma Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roth, M [Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Neely, D, E-mail: paul.mckenna@strath.ac.uk [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    We report on the transverse refluxing of energetic electrons in mass-limited foil targets irradiated with high intensity (1 x 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}), picosecond laser pulses. It is shown experimentally that the maximum energies of protons accelerated by sheath fields formed at the rear and at the edges of the target increase with decreasing target size. This is due to the modification of the sheath field by the energetic electrons which spread laterally along the target surface and reflect from the edges. In addition, it is shown that this transverse refluxing of energetic electrons can be used to tailor the spatial-intensity distribution of the proton beam by engineering the shape and size of the target.

  5. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Q-Weak Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ., Nuruzzaman [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (B_n) on H_2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic B_n is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of B_n background studies, we made the first measurement of B_n in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be B_n = 42.82 ± 2.45 (stat) ± 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy E_beam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 deg, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. B_n from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma^* Delta Delta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ~10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually an