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Sample records for sequences demonstrate latitudinal

  1. Latitudinal Gradients in Induced and Constitutive Resistance against Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Chen, Wen; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-08-01

    Plants are hypothesized to evolve increased defense against herbivores at lower latitudes, but an increasing number of studies report evidence that contradicts this hypothesis. Few studies have examined the evolution of constitutive and induced resistance along latitudinal gradients. When induction is not considered, underlying patterns of latitudinal clines in resistance can be obscured because plant resistance represents a combination of induced and constitutive resistance, which may show contrasting patterns with latitude. Here, we asked if there are latitudinal gradients in constitutive versus induced resistance by using genotypes of Oenothera biennis (Onagraceae) sampled along an 18° latitudinal gradient. We conducted two bioassay experiments to compare the resistance of plant genotypes against one generalist (Spodoptera exigua) and one specialist (Acanthoscelidius acephalus) herbivore. These insects were assayed on: i) undamaged control plants, ii) plants that had been induced with jasmonic acid, and iii) plants induced with herbivore damage. Additionally, we examined latitudinal gradients of constitutive and induced chemical resistance by measuring the concentrations of total phenolics, the concentration of oxidized phenolics, and the percentage of phenolics that were oxidized. Spodoptera exigua showed lower performance on plants from lower latitudes, whereas A. acephalus showed no latitudinal pattern. Constitutive total phenolics were greater in plants from lower latitudes, but induced plants showed higher total phenolics at higher latitudes. Oxidative activity was greatest at higher latitudes regardless of induction. Overall, both latitude and induction have an impact on different metrics of plant resistance to herbivory. Further studies should consider the effect of induction and herbivore specialization more explicitly, which may help to resolve the controversy in latitudinal gradients in herbivory and defense.

  2. Latitudinal migration of sunspots based on the ESAI database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Li, Fu-Yu; Feng, Wen

    2018-01-01

    The latitudinal migration of sunspots toward the equator, which implies there is propagation of the toroidal magnetic flux wave at the base of the solar convection zone, is one of the crucial observational bases for the solar dynamo to generate a magnetic field by shearing of the pre-existing poloidal magnetic field through differential rotation. The Extended time series of Solar Activity Indices (ESAI) elongated the Greenwich observation record of sunspots by several decades in the past. In this study, ESAI’s yearly mean latitude of sunspots in the northern and southern hemispheres during the years 1854 to 1985 is utilized to statistically test whether hemispherical latitudinal migration of sunspots in a solar cycle is linear or nonlinear. It is found that a quadratic function is statistically significantly better at describing hemispherical latitudinal migration of sunspots in a solar cycle than a linear function. In addition, the latitude migration velocity of sunspots in a solar cycle decreases as the cycle progresses, providing a particular constraint for solar dynamo models. Indeed, the butterfly wing pattern with a faster latitudinal migration rate should present stronger solar activity with a shorter cycle period, and it is located at higher latitudinal position, giving evidence to support the Babcock-Leighton dynamo mechanism.

  3. The genetic effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes over a tropical latitudinal gradient: diversification of an Atlantic Forest passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Horta, Fernando M; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Meyer, Diogo; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-05-01

    The increase in biodiversity from high to low latitudes is a widely recognized biogeographical pattern. According to the latitudinal gradient hypothesis (LGH), this pattern was shaped by differential effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes across a latitudinal gradient. Here, we evaluate the effects of climatic changes across a tropical latitudinal gradient and its implications to diversification of an Atlantic Forest (AF) endemic passerine. We studied the intraspecific diversification and historical demography of Sclerurus scansor, based on mitochondrial (ND2, ND3 and cytb) and nuclear (FIB7) gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three well-supported clades associated with distinct latitudinal zones. Coalescent-based methods were applied to estimate divergence times and changes in effective population sizes. Estimates of divergence times indicate that intraspecific diversification took place during Middle-Late Pleistocene. Distinct demographic scenarios were identified, with the southern lineage exhibiting a clear signature of demographic expansion, while the central one remained more stable. The northern lineage, contrasting with LGH predictions, exhibited a clear sign of a recent bottleneck. Our results suggest that different AF regions reacted distinctly, even in opposite ways, under the same climatic period, producing simultaneously favourable scenarios for isolation and contact among populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Latitudinal shifts of introduced species: possible causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Dov F. Sax; Hong Qian; Regan Early

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to document shifts in the latitudinal distributions of non-native species relative to their own native distributions and to discuss possible causes and implications of these shifts. We used published and newly compiled data on intercontinentally introduced birds, mammals and plants. We found strong correlations between the latitudinal distributions...

  5. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  6. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Heather E; Bergland, Alan O; O'Brien, Katherine R; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Latitudinal Variation of Germane in Jovian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Wang et al (2016) presented a chemical-dynamical model for Jupiter's atmosphere that predicted abundances of Germane and other disequilibrium species as a function of latitude, under the assumption that only vertical transport is relevant and no horizontal advection occurs. The model disagrees with the latitudinal distributions derived from high-resolution spectral data acquired from the CRIRES instrument at the VLT as described in Giles et al. 2017. Wang et al. 2016 predicts a maximum molar abundance of Germane at (0.7±0.2) ppb with depletion at higher latitudes, while Giles et al. 2017 predicts a constant molar abundance of Germane at 0.58 ppb with no depletion. We explore an empirical horizontal term for the diffusive transport coefficient as a function of latitude, which does not produce a satisfactory result unless highly arbitrary variations of the vertical eddy mixing term as a function of latitude are imposed. We therefore also explore a horizontal wind from the equator that produces a constant latitudinal profile by transporting Germane-rich gas to the poles, effectively producing a Hadley cell. References: Giles, R. S., Fletcher, L. N., & Irwin, P. G. (2017). Latitudinal variability in Jupiter's tropospheric disequilibrium species: GeH 4, AsH 3 and PH 3. Icarus, 289, 254-269. Wang, D., Lunine, J.I., Mousis, O., 2016. Modeling the disequilibrium species for Jupiter and Saturn: implications for Juno and Saturn entry probe. Icarus 276, 21-38.

  8. Latitudinal dynamics of SAR-arcs relative to the local time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.N.; Ievenko, I.B.

    1991-01-01

    In November-December, 1988, January-April, 1989-1990, at the Maymaga station in Yakutia according to spectrophotometric data 47 events of the occurrence of red stable middle-latitudinal arcs (SAR-arcs) were recorded. On the basis of these data the latitudinal dynamics of SAR-arcs was studied depending on the local time and geomagnetic disturbance level. The uniform equatorial shift of SAR arcs in the night time is noticed, and a sharp increase of the speed of this motion can be caused by the nonstationary character of the magnetospheric activity

  9. Orbital forcing and role of the latitudinal insolation/temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Basil A.S. [University of Newcastle, School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); ARVE Group, ISTE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Brewer, Simon [CEREGE, Europole de l' Arbois, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2009-02-15

    Orbital forcing of the climate system is clearly shown in the Earths record of glacial-interglacial cycles, but the mechanism underlying this forcing is poorly understood. Traditional Milankovitch theory suggests that these cycles are driven by changes in high latitude summer insolation, yet this forcing is dominated by precession, and cannot account for the importance of obliquity in the Ice Age record. Here, we investigate an alternative forcing based on the latitudinal insolation gradient (LIG), which is dominated by both obliquity (in summer) and precession (in winter). The insolation gradient acts on the climate system through differential solar heating, which creates the Earths latitudinal temperature gradient (LTG) that drives the atmospheric and ocean circulation. A new pollen-based reconstruction of the LTG during the Holocene is used to demonstrate that the LTG may be much more sensitive to changes in the LIG than previously thought. From this, it is shown how LIG forcing of the LTG may help explain the propagation of orbital signatures throughout the climate system, including the Monsoon, Arctic Oscillation and ocean circulation. These relationships are validated over the last (Eemian) Interglacial, which occurred under a different orbital configuration to the Holocene. We conclude that LIG forcing of the LTG explains many criticisms of classic Milankovitch theory, while being poorly represented in climate models. (orig.)

  10. Tree growth and its climate signal along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients: comparison of tree rings between Finland and the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lyu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal and altitudinal gradients can be utilized to forecast the impact of climate change on forests. To improve the understanding of how these gradients impact forest dynamics, we tested two hypotheses: (1 the change of the tree growth–climate relationship is similar along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, and (2 the time periods during which climate affects growth the most occur later towards higher latitudes and altitudes. To address this, we utilized tree-ring data from a latitudinal gradient in Finland and from two altitudinal gradients on the Tibetan Plateau. We analysed the latitudinal and altitudinal growth patterns in tree rings and investigated the growth–climate relationship of trees by correlating ring-width index chronologies with climate variables, calculating with flexible time windows, and using daily-resolution climate data. High latitude and altitude plots showed higher correlations between tree-ring chronologies and growing season temperature. However, the effects of winter temperature showed contrasting patterns for the gradients. The timing of the highest correlation with temperatures during the growing season at southern sites was approximately 1 month ahead of that at northern sites in the latitudinal gradient. In one out of two altitudinal gradients, the timing for the strongest negative correlation with temperature at low-altitude sites was ahead of treeline sites during the growing season, possibly due to differences in moisture limitation. Mean values and the standard deviation of tree-ring width increased with increasing mean July temperatures on both types of gradients. Our results showed similarities of tree growth responses to increasing seasonal temperature between latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. However, differences in climate–growth relationships were also found between gradients due to differences in other factors such as moisture conditions. Changes in the timing of the most

  11. Latitudinal and longitudinal variation in aerosol characteristics from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical and chemical properties of aerosols are strong ... Keywords. Aerosol optical characteristics; latitudinal and longitudinal variations; Bay of Bengal; Arabian Sea; pre- ...... of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the ...

  12. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  13. Contrasting latitudinal patterns of life-history divergence in two genera of new world thrushes (Turdinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Andy J.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Several long-standing hypotheses have been proposed to explain latitudinal patterns of life-history strategies. Here, we test predictions of four such hypotheses (seasonality, food limitation, nest predation and adult survival probability) by examining life-history traits and age-specific mortality rates of several species of thrushes (Turdinae) based on field studies at temperate and tropical sites and data gathered from the literature. Thrushes in the genus Catharus showed the typical pattern of slower life-history strategies in the tropics while co-occuring Turdus thrushes differed much less across latitudes. Seasonality is a broadly accepted hypothesis for latitudinal patterns, but the lack of concordance in latitudinal patterns between co-existing genera that experience the same seasonal patterns suggests seasonality cannot fully explain latitudinal trait variation in thrushes. Nest-predation also could not explain patterns based on our field data and literature data for these two genera. Total feeding rates were similar, and per-nestling feeding rates were higher at tropical latitudes in both genera, suggesting food limitation does not explain trait differences in thrushes. Latitudinal patterns of life histories in these two genera were closely associated with adult survival probability. Thus, our data suggest that environmental influences on adult survival probability may play a particularly strong role in shaping latitudinal patterns of life-history traits.

  14. Latitudinal variations of TEC over Europe obtained from GPSobservations

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    P. Wielgosz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS technique has opened broad possibilities to study the TEC distribution on a regular basis. In this paper, the latitudinal dependence of TEC over Europe for geographic latitudes ranging from 40°N to 75°N is presented. We discuss the day-to-day variations of the latitudinal TEC profiles for a period of 1999 to 2001 for both quiet and disturbed magnetic conditions. More than 4300 TEC profiles were created from the TEC maps with a one-hour interval. GPS data from 65 European permanent stations were used to produce the TEC maps. The comparison of GPS-derived TEC profiles with the IRI model is also discussed.

    Key words. Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; ionospheric disturbances

  15. Latitudinal variations of TEC over Europe obtained from GPSobservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wielgosz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS technique has opened broad possibilities to study the TEC distribution on a regular basis. In this paper, the latitudinal dependence of TEC over Europe for geographic latitudes ranging from 40°N to 75°N is presented. We discuss the day-to-day variations of the latitudinal TEC profiles for a period of 1999 to 2001 for both quiet and disturbed magnetic conditions. More than 4300 TEC profiles were created from the TEC maps with a one-hour interval. GPS data from 65 European permanent stations were used to produce the TEC maps. The comparison of GPS-derived TEC profiles with the IRI model is also discussed. Key words. Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; ionospheric disturbances

  16. Latitudinal variation in cold hardiness in introduced Tamarix and native Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Roelle, James E.; Gaskin, John F.; Pepper, Alan E.; Manhart, James R.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of clinal variation in an invasive plant, we compared cold hardiness in the introduced saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix chinensis, and hybrids) and the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoidessubsp. monilifera). In a shadehouse in Colorado (41°N), we grew plants collected along a latitudinal gradient in the central United States (29–48°N). On 17 occasions between September 2005 and June 2006, we determined killing temperatures using freeze-induced electrolyte leakage and direct observation. In midwinter, cottonwood survived cooling to −70°C, while saltcedar was killed at −33 to −47°C. Frost sensitivity, therefore, may limit northward expansion of saltcedar in North America. Both species demonstrated inherited latitudinal variation in cold hardiness. For example, from September through January killing temperatures for saltcedar from 29.18°N were 5–21°C higher than those for saltcedar from 47.60°N, and on September 26 and October 11, killing temperatures for cottonwood from 33.06°N were >43°C higher than those for cottonwood from 47.60°N. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci showed that southern saltcedars are more closely related to T. chinensis while northern plants are more closely related to T. ramosissima. Hybridization may have introduced the genetic variability necessary for rapid evolution of the cline in saltcedar cold hardiness.

  17. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  18. Potential latitudinal variation in orodigestive tract cancers in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A latitudinal relationship has been found between the ... Africa should be focused in terms of regional variations to make best use of the fiscal allocation ..... Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Precursors and problematic.

  19. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  20. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  1. Widespread range expansions shape latitudinal variation in insect thermal limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Lesley T.

    2016-06-01

    Current anthropogenic impacts, including habitat modification and climate change, may contribute to a sixth mass extinction. To mitigate these impacts and slow further losses of biodiversity, we need to understand which species are most at risk and identify the factors contributing to current and future declines. Such information is often obtained through large-scale, comparative and biogeographic analysis of lineages or traits that are potentially sensitive to ongoing anthropogenic change--for instance to predict which regions are most susceptible to climate change-induced biodiversity loss. However, for this approach to be generally successful, the underlying causes of identified geographical trends need to be carefully considered. Here, I augment and reanalyse a global data set of insect thermal tolerances, evaluating the contribution of recent and contemporary range expansions to latitudinal variation in thermal niche breadth. Previous indications that high-latitude ectotherms exhibit broad thermal niches and high warming tolerances held only for species undergoing range expansions or invasions. In contrast, species with stable or declining geographic ranges exhibit latitudinally decreasing absolute thermal tolerances and no latitudinal variation in tolerance breadths. Thus, non-range-expanding species, particularly insular or endemic species, which are often of highest conservation priority, are unlikely to tolerate future climatic warming at high latitudes.

  2. The genetic content of chromosomal inversions across a wide latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Simões

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence regarding the role of chromosomal inversions in relevant biological processes such as local adaptation and speciation. A classic example of the adaptive role of chromosomal polymorphisms is given by the clines of inversion frequencies in Drosophila subobscura, repeatable across continents. Nevertheless, not much is known about the molecular variation associated with these polymorphisms. We characterized the genetic content of ca. 600 individuals from nine European populations following a latitudinal gradient by analysing 19 microsatellite loci from two autosomes (J and U and the sex chromosome (A, taking into account their chromosomal inversions. Our results clearly demonstrate the molecular genetic uniformity within a given chromosomal inversion across a large latitudinal gradient, particularly from Groningen (Netherlands in the north to Málaga (Spain in the south, experiencing highly diverse environmental conditions. This low genetic differentiation within the same gene arrangement across the nine European populations is consistent with the local adaptation hypothesis for th evolutionof chromosomal polymorphisms. We also show the effective role of chromosomal inversions in maintaining different genetic pools within these inverted genomic regions even in the presence of high gene flow. Inversions represent thus an important barrier to gene flux and can help maintain specific allelic combinations with positive effects on fitness. Consistent patterns of microsatellite allele-inversion linkage disequilibrium particularly in loci within inversions were also observed. Finally, we identified areas within inversions presenting clinal variation that might be under selection.

  3. A latitudinal study of oxygen isotopes within horsehair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; McConnell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the hypothesis that 'if oxygen isotope ratios deplete with decreasing temperature then a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horsehair from Oxfordshire to Iceland will show a latitudinal depletion gradient'. By looking at oxygen isotope values at different geographical positions, we can track the relationship with latitude and with different regional climate features. This will provide a firmer understanding of how to compare climate records from different locations. Additionally, a comparison of the horse breeds from this study to those analysed within previous studies will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horsehair. A total of 24 horses were sampled on the 7th March from Thordale Stud in Shetland, the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland, the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. By starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. The samples were analysed for oxygen isotope values using an IRMS coupled within a Sercon HTEA. Preliminary results show a latitudinal gradient is evident on comparison between the locations, consistent with the findings of Darling and Talbot's study of fresh water isotopes in the British Isles (2003). These results support the hypothesis, showing that a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland showing a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures. Darling, W. and Talbot, J. (2003). The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 1. Rainfall. Hydrol. Earth System Science, 7(2), pp.163-181.

  4. Latitudinal diversity gradients in Mesozoic non-marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, David B.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Valdes, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-11-01

    The latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG)-the pattern of increasing taxonomic richness with decreasing latitude-is prevalent in the structure of the modern biota. However, some freshwater taxa show peak richness at mid-latitudes; for example, extant Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises) exhibit their greatest diversity at 25° N, a pattern sometimes attributed to recent bursts of climatically mediated species diversification. Here, we test whether this pattern also characterizes the Mesozoic distribution of turtles, to determine whether it was established during either their initial diversification or as a more modern phenomenon. Using global occurrence data for non-marine testudinate genera, we find that subsampled richness peaks at palaeolatitudes of 15-30° N in the Jurassic, 30-45° N through the Cretaceous to the Campanian, and from 30° to 60° N in the Maastrichtian. The absence of a significant diversity peak in southern latitudes is consistent with results from climatic models and turtle niche modelling that demonstrate a dearth of suitable turtle habitat in Gondwana during the Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Our analyses confirm that the modern testudinate LBG has a deep-time origin and further demonstrate that LBGs are not always expressed as a smooth, equator-to-pole distribution.

  5. Latitudinal variation of the solar photospheric intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Rast, Mark P.; Ortiz, Ada; Meisner, Randle W.

    2007-01-01

    We have examined images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in search of latitudinal variation in the solar photospheric intensity. Along with the expected brightening of the solar activity belts, we have found a weak enhancement of the mean continuum intensity at polar latitudes (continuum intensity enhancement $\\sim0.1 - 0.2%$ corresponding to a brightness temperature enhancement of $\\sim2.5{\\rm K}$). This appears to be thermal in ...

  6. Asymmetric changes of growth and reproductive investment herald altitudinal and latitudinal range shifts of two woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Jump, Alistair S

    2015-02-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of the geographical distribution of a species, where range expansions or contractions may occur. Current demographical status at geographical range limits can help us to predict population trends and their implications for the future distribution of the species. Thus, understanding the comparability of demographical patterns occurring along both altitudinal and latitudinal gradients would be highly informative. In this study, we analyse the differences in the demography of two woody species through altitudinal gradients at their southernmost distribution limit and the consistency of demographical patterns at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the complete distribution range. We focus on Pinus sylvestris and Juniperus communis, assessing their demographical structure (density, age and mortality rate), growth, reproduction investment and damage from herbivory on 53 populations covering the upper, central and lower altitudes as well as the treeline at central latitude and northernmost and southernmost latitudinal distribution limits. For both species, populations at the lowermost altitude presented older age structure, higher mortality, decreased growth and lower reproduction when compared to the upper limit, indicating higher fitness at the treeline. This trend at the treeline was generally maintained through the latitudinal gradient, but with a decreased growth at the northern edge for both species and lower reproduction for P. sylvestris. However, altitudinal and latitudinal transects are not directly comparable as factors other than climate, including herbivore pressure or human management, must be taken into account if we are to understand how to infer latitudinal processes from altitudinal data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Latitudinal variation in cranial dimorphism in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    This study examines latitudinal and insular variation in the expression of sexual dimorphism in cranial length in three geographical groupings of Macaca fascicularis. In addition, the relationship between cranial length dimorphism (CLD) and sex-specific size is examined. The results of the study identified a significant relationship between CLD and latitude for only one of the three geographic groupings. Sex-specific relationships between cranial length and CLD were detected. The pattern of these relationships varied by geographic grouping. This study is important because it demonstrates that despite very similar levels of CLD in a single primate species, there exists important geographic variability in the correlates of that dimorphism. I suggest that geographically varying ecological factors may influence sex-specific natural selection and the intensity of CLD in M. fascicularis. Gaining a better understanding of this geographical variability will require that future research examines morphological variation, including CLD, within its corresponding ecological and social contexts. Such research should be comparative, and incorporate multiple geographically separated populations with disparate environmental settings.

  8. Intra-Specific Latitudinal Clines in Leaf Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus and their Underlying Abiotic Correlates in Ruellia Nudiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Covelo, Felisa; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Terán, Jorge C Berny Mier Y; Mooney, Kailen A; Moreira, Xoaquín

    2018-01-12

    While plant intra-specific variation in the stoichiometry of nutrients and carbon is well documented, clines for such traits have been less studied, despite their potential to reveal the mechanisms underlying such variation. Here we analyze latitudinal variation in the concentration of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon (C) and their ratios across 30 populations of the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora. In addition, we further determined whether climatic and soil variables underlie any such latitudinal clines in leaf traits. The sampled transect spanned 5° latitude (ca. 900 km) and exhibited a four-fold precipitation gradient and 2 °C variation in mean annual temperature. We found that leaf P concentration increased with precipitation towards lower latitudes, whereas N and C did not exhibit latitudinal clines. In addition, N:P and C:P decreased towards lower latitudes and latitudinal variation in the former was weakly associated with soil conditions (clay content and cation exchange capacity); C:N did not exhibit a latitudinal gradient. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of addressing and disentangling the simultaneous effects of abiotic factors associated with intra-specific clines in plant stoichiometric traits, and highlight the previously underappreciated influence of abiotic factors on plant nutrients operating under sharp abiotic gradients over smaller spatial scales.

  9. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A La Sorte

    Full Text Available Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutr......We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment...... and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...... cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10-values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10: 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10: 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental...

  11. Temperature-stress resistance and tolerance along a latitudinal cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wos

    Full Text Available The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but-unexpectedly-they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches.

  12. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Tiosano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR, using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes’ functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes.

  13. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  14. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-06-01

    Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients). Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial assemblages. Surface

  15. Search for possible latitudinal ecotypes in Dumontia contorta (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietema, H.; van den Hoek, C.

    1984-09-01

    Effects of daylength and temperature on the formation of erect fronds (macrothalli) from crusts (microthalli) of Dumontia contorta (S. G. Gmel.) Rupr. from three localities in Nova Scotia and one locality in Southern Iceland were investigated and compared to such effects shown by strains from three different East Atlantic localities (Isle of Man; Zeeland, S. W. Netherlands; and Roscoff, Brittany, France). Although these strains showed small differences in their temperature-daylength responses, these could not be interpreted as latitudinal adaptations, and consequently no latitudinal ecotypes could be found for Dumontia contorta in the N. Atlantic Ocean. Upright fronds are formed at a broad temperature range of about 4°-18°C and at daylengths ≤ 13 h. Only in the southernmost part of its distribution area can high autumnal temperatures be expected to block the reappearance of upright fronds after passage of the critical daylength in September. In the larger part of the distribution area even summer temperatures are not high enough to block formation of uprights and here apparently only short daylengths initiate the reappearance of young upright fronds in autumn. The consequences of these aspects of the life history regulation for the geographic distribution are discussed.

  16. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  17. On the physical causes of ENSO events and the ITCZ's extreme latitudinal displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We predict the maximum latitudinal shifts of the Inter-Tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over land masses due to variations in the surface or near-surface temperature fields. We also predict the mean locations of the ITCZ over oceans during northern hemisphere (NH) and southern hemisphere (SH) summers. All our predictions are shown to agree well with observations. Finally, on the basis of the association between the latitudinal location of the eastern pacific portion of the ITCZ and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events as well as some previous related work (Njau, 1985a; 1985b; 1986; 1987; 1988), we suggest possible physical causes of the ENSO events. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha...... of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory....

  19. Latitudinal variation in seasonal activity and mortality in ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Jinelle H; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Weatherhead, Patrick J

    2010-06-01

    The ecology of ectotherms should be particularly affected by latitude because so much of their biology is temperature dependent. Current latitudinal patterns should also be informative about how ectotherms will have to modify their behavior in response to climate change. We used data from a total of 175 adult black ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) radio-tracked in Ontario, Illinois, and Texas, a latitudinal distance of >1500 km, to test predictions about how seasonal patterns of activity and mortality should vary with latitude. Despite pronounced differences in temperatures among study locations, and despite ratsnakes in Texas not hibernating and switching from diurnal to nocturnal activity in the summer, seasonal patterns of snake activity were remarkably similar during the months that snakes in all populations were active. Rather than being a function of temperature, activity may be driven by the timing of reproduction, which appears similar among populations. Contrary to the prediction that mortality should be highest in the most active population, overall mortality did not follow a clinal pattern. Winter mortality did increase with latitude, however, consistent with temperature limiting the northern distribution of ratsnakes. This result was opposite that found in the only previous study of latitudinal variation in winter mortality in reptiles, which may be a consequence of whether or not the animals exhibit true hibernation. Collectively, these results suggest that, at least in the northern part of their range, ratsnakes should be able to adjust easily to, and may benefit from, a warmer climate, although climate-based changes to the snakes' prey or habitat, for example, could alter that prediction.

  20. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  1. Latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of energetic auroral protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lorentzen

    Full Text Available Using a collision by collision model from Lorentzen et al., the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of single auroral protons are calculated. The proton energies varies from 1 to 50 keV, and are released into the atmosphere at 700 km altitude. The dipole magnetic field has a dip-angle of 8 degrees. Results show that the main dispersion region is at high altitudes (300-350 km and occurs during the first few charge exchange collisions. As the proton travels further down the atmosphere the mean free path becomes smaller, and as a result the spreading effect will not be as pronounced. This means that the first few charge exchange collisions fully determines the width of both the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion. The volume emission rate was calculated for energies between 1 and 50 keV, and it was found that dayside auroral hydrogen emissions rates were approximately 10 times weaker than nightside emission rates. Simulations were also performed to obtain the dependence of the particle dispersion as a function of initial pitch-angle. It was found that the dispersion varies greatly with initial pitch-angle, and the results are summarized in two tables; a main and an extreme dispersion region.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; · particle precipitation · Space plasma physics · (transport processes

  2. Latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of energetic auroral protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lorentzen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a collision by collision model from Lorentzen et al., the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of single auroral protons are calculated. The proton energies varies from 1 to 50 keV, and are released into the atmosphere at 700 km altitude. The dipole magnetic field has a dip-angle of 8 degrees. Results show that the main dispersion region is at high altitudes (300-350 km and occurs during the first few charge exchange collisions. As the proton travels further down the atmosphere the mean free path becomes smaller, and as a result the spreading effect will not be as pronounced. This means that the first few charge exchange collisions fully determines the width of both the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion. The volume emission rate was calculated for energies between 1 and 50 keV, and it was found that dayside auroral hydrogen emissions rates were approximately 10 times weaker than nightside emission rates. Simulations were also performed to obtain the dependence of the particle dispersion as a function of initial pitch-angle. It was found that the dispersion varies greatly with initial pitch-angle, and the results are summarized in two tables; a main and an extreme dispersion region.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; · particle precipitation · Space plasma physics · (transport processes

  3. Latitudinal variation of the polar cusp during a geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.

    1982-01-01

    Large amplitude latitudinal variation of the polar cusp position was observed during the intense geomagnetic storm of 15--16 February 1980. The observation of the polar cusp, identified as the region of intense but extremely soft electron precipitation, was made by two nearly noon-midnight orbit DMSP satellites over both northern and southern hemispheres. The latitudinal shift of the polar cusp is observed to be related to the intensity variation of the ring current indicated by the hourly Dst values. The polar cusp region moved from its normal location at approx.76 0 gm lat down to approx.62 0 gm lat at the peak of this storm. This movement took about 5 hours and was detected over both hemispheres. A drastic variation in the width of the cusp region was also observed; it is very narrow (approx.1 0 ) during the equatorial shift and expands to > or approx. =5 0 during the poleward recovery. Variation of the polar cusp latitude with that of the Dst index was also seen during the period before the intense storm

  4. ACTN3 allele frequency in humans covaries with global latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Friedlander

    Full Text Available A premature stop codon in ACTN3 resulting in α-actinin-3 deficiency (the ACTN3 577XX genotype is common in humans and reduces strength, muscle mass, and fast-twitch fiber diameter, but increases the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle. Linkage disequilibrium data suggest that the ACTN3 R577X allele has undergone positive selection during human evolution. The allele has been hypothesized to be adaptive in environments with scarce resources where efficient muscle metabolism would be selected. Here we test this hypothesis by using recently developed comparative methods that account for evolutionary relatedness and gene flow among populations. We find evidence that the ACTN3 577XX genotype evolved in association with the global latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that environmental variables related to latitudinal variation, such as species richness and mean annual temperature, may have influenced the adaptive evolution of ACTN3 577XX during recent human history.

  5. Trophic diversity, size and biomass spectrum of Bay of Bengal nematodes: A study case on depth and latitudinal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Kapuli Gani Mohamed Thameemul; Lyla, Somasundharanair; Khan, Syed Ajmal; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2017-09-01

    Depth and latitudinal patterns of nematode functional attributes were investigated from 35 stations of Bay of Bengal (BoB) continental shelf. We aim to address whether depth and latitudinal variations can modify nematode community structure and their functional attributes (trophic diversity, size and biomass spectra). Global trend of depth and latitudinal related variations have also been noticed from BoB shelf in terms of nematode abundance and species richness, albeit heterogeneity patterns were encountered in functional attributes. Index of trophic diversity values revealed higher trophic diversity across the BoB shelf and suggested variety of food resource availability. However, downstream analysis of trophic status showed depth and latitude specific patterns but not reflected in terms of size and biomass spectrum. The peaks at different positions clearly visualized heterogeneity in distribution patterns for both size and biomass spectrum and also there was evidence of availability of diversified food resources. Nematode biomass spectra (NBS) constructed for nematode communities showed shift in peak biomass values towards lower to moderate size classes particularly in shallower depth but did not get reflected in latitudes. However, Chennai and Parangipettai transects demonstrated shift in peak biomass values towards higher biomass classes explaining the representation of higher nematode abundance. Our findings concluded that depth and latitudes are physical variables; they may not directly affect nematode community structure and functional attributes but they might influence the other factors such as food availability, sediment deposition and settlement rate. Our observations suggest that the local factors (seasonal character) of phytodetrital food flux can be very important for shaping the nematode community structure and success of nematode functional heterogeneity patterns across the Bay of Bengal shelf.

  6. Latitudinal environmental gradients and diel variability influence abundance and community structure of Chaetognatha in Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Al-aidaroos, Ali M.

    2016-08-15

    The Red Sea has been recognized as a unique region to study the effects of ecohydrographic gradients at a basin-wide scale. Its gradient of temperature and salinity relates to the Indian Ocean monsoon and associated wind-driven transport of fertile and plankton-rich water in winter from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea. Subsequent evaporation and thermohaline circulation increase the salinity and decrease water temperatures toward the North. Compared with other ocean systems, however, relatively little is known about the zooplankton biodiversity of the Red Sea and how this relates to Red Sea latitudinal gradients. Among the most abundant zooplankton taxa are Chaetognatha, which play an important role as secondary consumers in most marine food webs. Since Chaetognatha are sensitive to changes in temperature and salinity, we surmised latitudinal changes in their biodiversity, community structure and diel variability along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Samples were collected at nine coral reefs spanning approximately 1500km, from the Gulf of Aqaba in the northern Red Sea to the Farasan Archipelago in the southern Red Sea. Thirteen Chaetognatha species belonging to two families (Sagittidae and Krohnittidae) were identified. Latitudinal environmental changes and availability of prey (i.e. Copepoda, Crustacea) altered Chaetognatha density and distribution. The cosmopolitan epiplanktonic Flaccisagitta enflata (38.1%) dominated the Chaetognatha community, and its abundance gradually decreased from South to North. Notable were two mesopelagic species (Decipisagitta decipiens and Caecosagitta macrocephala) in the near-reef surface mixed layers at some sites. This was related to wind-induced upwelling of deep water into the coral reefs providing evidence of trophic oceanic subsidies. Most Sagittidae occurred in higher abundances at night, whereas Krohnittidae were more present during the day. Chaetognatha with developing (stage II) or mature ovaries (stage III) were more active

  7. Different Planctomycetes diversity patterns in latitudinal surface seawater of the open sea and in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qinglong; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2008-04-01

    The 16S rRNA gene approach was applied to investigate the diversity of Planctomycetes in latitudinal surface seawater of the Western Pacific Ocean. The results revealed that the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade dominated the Planctomycetes community at all surface seawater sites while the minority genera Gemmata and Planctomyces were only found at sites H5 and H2 respectively. Although the clone frequency of the PRB clade seemed stable (between 83.3% and 94.1%) for all surface seawater sites, the retrieved Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade presented unexpected diversity. Interestingly, low latitude seawater appeared to have higher diversity than mid-latitudes. integral-LIBSHUFF software analysis revealed significantly different diversity patterns between in latitudinal surface seawater and in the sediment of South China Sea station M2896. Our data suggested that different hydrological and geographic features contributed to the shift of Planctomycetes diversity in marine environments. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic assessment of Planctomycetes in latitudinal surface seawater of the open sea and the first comparison of diversity pattern between surface seawater and sediments and has broadened our understanding of Planctomycetes diversity in marine environments.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Growth Variation of Pinus heldreichii Christ. Growing along a Latitudinal Gradient in Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Trees growing at high elevations are particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this study, tree-ring chronologies of Pinus heldreichii Christ. have been developed to examine their dynamism along a 350 km latitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in 6 high elevation sites along a latitudinal gradient from Kosovo and Albania. Two opposite cores from 148 healthy and dominant P. heldreichii trees were taken using an increment borer. Th...

  9. Latitudinal distribution of earthquakes in the Andes and its peculiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Levin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been growing interest in problems related to searching global spatiotemporal regularities in the distribution of seismic events on the Earth. The worldwide catalogs ISC were used for search of spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (EQ in the Pacific part of South America. We extracted all EQ from 1964 to 2004 with Mb>=4.0. The total number of events under study is near 30 000. The entire set of events was divided into six magnitude ranges (MR: 4.0<=Mb<4.5; 4.5<=Mb<5.0; 5.0<=Mb<5.5; 5.5<=Mb<6.0; 6.0<=Mb<6.5; and 6.5<=Mb. Further analysis was performed separately for each MR. The latitude distributions of the EQ number for all MR were studied. The whole region was divided in several latitudinal intervals (size of each interval was either 5° or 10°. The number of events in each latitudinal interval was normalized two times. After normalization we obtained the relative seismic event number generated per one kilometer of plate boundary. The maximum of seismic activity in the Pacific part of the South America is situated in latitude interval 20°–30° S. The comparative analysis was executed for the latitude distributions of the EQ number and the EQ energy released. Then the distributions of EQ hypocenter location in latitude and in depth were studied. The EQ sources for the high latitudes (up to 35° S are located on the depth (H between 20–80 km. It was shown, that full interval of depth in each latitudinal belt generally divides into three parts (clusters with close-cut separation boundaries (K1 – with 0K2 – with 120K3 – with H>=500 km.

  10. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinière, Jérôme; van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  11. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  12. Smart trick at the border. Latitudinal control transformer increases import capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Starting in June 2002, energy consumers in the Netherlands can get more electric power from abroad. Without expensive system extensions, TenneT now has some 1000 MW of extra capacity available. And that is not all. Two latitudinal control transformers are able to control the capacity of the link as desired: 16 positions for import, and 16 for export [nl

  13. The influence of band sum area, domain extent, and range sizes on the latitudinal mid-domain effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romdal, Tom Skovlund; Colwell, Robert K.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    of latitudinal distributions of New World birds (3706 species) on a 1° scale. Two previously published data sets for other taxa are also considered. We adjusted band sums (number of species per latitudinal band) for longitudinal area by constructing species-area curves for each band. Area-corrected richness...... patterns differed substantially from raw band sums, although both confirmed a strong, mid-tropical peak in richness. An MDE model accounted for 47% of the adjusted pattern, whereas area alone explained 13% of variation. Area-adjusted band sum data proved preferable to coastal transect data from the same...

  14. Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, E J; Morgan-Richards, M; Trewick, S A

    2013-06-01

    Species density is higher in the tropics (low latitude) than in temperate regions (high latitude) resulting in a latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). The LBG must be generated by differential rates of speciation and/or extinction and/or immigration among regions, but the role of each of these processes is still unclear. Recent studies examining differences in rates of molecular evolution have inferred a direct link between rate of molecular evolution and rate of speciation, and postulated these as important drivers of the LBG. Here we review the molecular genetic evidence and examine the factors that might be responsible for differences in rates of molecular evolution. Critical to this is the directionality of the relationship between speciation rates and rates of molecular evolution.

  15. Radar measurements of the latitudinal variation of auroral ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.R.; Baron, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Chatanika, Alaska, incoherent scatter radar has been used to measure the spatial variation of auroral ionization. A two-dimensional (altitude, latitude) cross-sectional map of electron densities in the ionosphere is produced by scanning in the geomagnetic meridian plane. The altitutde variation of ionization is used to infer the differential energy distribution of the incident auroral electrons. The latitudinal variation of this energy distribution and the total energy input are obtained by use of the meridian-scanning technique. Examples are shown of observations made during an active aurora

  16. Seasonal latitudinal and secular variations in temperature trend - evidence for influence of anthropogenic sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, D E; Schwartz, S E; Wagener, R; Benkovitz, C M [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institute of Oceanography

    1993-11-19

    Tropospheric aerosols increase the shortwave reflectivity of the Earth-atmosphere system both by scattering light directly, in the absence of clouds, and by enhancing cloud reflectivity. The radiative forcing of climate exerted by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, derived mainly from SO[sub 2] emitted from fossil fuel combustion, is opposite that due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and is estimated to be of comparable average magnitude in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. However, persuasive evidence of climate response to this forcing has thus far been lacking. Here we examine patterns of seasonal and latitudinal variations in temperature anomaly trend for evidence of such a response. Pronounced minima in the rate of temperature increase in summer months in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes are consistent with the latitudinal distribution of anthropogenic sulfate and changes in the rate of SO[sub 2] emissions over the industrial era.

  17. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of lower atmospheric inertial gravity wave energy revealed by US radiosonde data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Huang, C.M. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Zhou, Q. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    The latitudinal and seasonal variations of gravity wave (GW) potential energy density (E{sub P}), kinetic energy density (E{sub K}), and total energy density (E{sub T}), i.e, the sum of potential and kinetic energy densities in the tropospheric (typically 2-10 km) and lower stratospheric (typically 18- 25 km) segments have been derived from 10 years (1998- 2007) of radiosonde observations over 92 United States stations in the Northern Hemisphere. The latitudinal variation of E{sub P} in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with satellite observations. However, E{sub K} and E{sub T} in the lower stratosphere are different from satellite observations and the difference is believed to be linked with the latitudinal dependence of GW sources. Our analysis reveals that GW energy properties exhibit distinctive latitudinal and seasonal variations. The upward-propagating GW energy in the troposphere is larger than that in the lower stratosphere at low latitudes but the opposite holds true at high latitudes. The transition latitude, where the upward- propagating energies in the two altitude regions are the same, occurs at 35 N throughout the year. So striking differences between GW activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are not likely explained only by the background wind Doppler shifting due to strong tropospheric jets. Our analysis indicates that the region around tropopause, roughly from 10 km to 18 km, is an important source region, especially at latitudes below 35 N. Our studies strongly suggest that in order to fully understand the global GW activity in the lower atmosphere, the GW kinetic energy and its geographical and seasonal variations should be included, and more attention should be given to GWs in the troposphere and GW sources within the intermediate region, especially the upper troposphere. (orig.)

  18. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of lower atmospheric inertial gravity wave energy revealed by US radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal and seasonal variations of gravity wave (GW potential energy density (EP, kinetic energy density (EK, and total energy density (ET, i.e, the sum of potential and kinetic energy densities in the tropospheric (typically 2–10 km and lower stratospheric (typically 18–25 km segments have been derived from 10 years (1998–2007 of radiosonde observations over 92 United States stations in the Northern Hemisphere. The latitudinal variation of EP in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with satellite observations. However, EK and ET in the lower stratosphere are different from satellite observations and the difference is believed to be linked with the latitudinal dependence of GW sources. Our analysis reveals that GW energy properties exhibit distinctive latitudinal and seasonal variations. The upward-propagating GW energy in the troposphere is larger than that in the lower stratosphere at low latitudes but the opposite holds true at high latitudes. The transition latitude, where the upward- propagating energies in the two altitude regions are the same, occurs at 35° N throughout the year. So striking differences between GW activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are not likely explained only by the background wind Doppler shifting due to strong tropospheric jets. Our analysis indicates that the region around tropopause, roughly from 10 km to 18 km, is an important source region, especially at latitudes below 35° N. Our studies strongly suggest that in order to fully understand the global GW activity in the lower atmosphere, the GW kinetic energy and its geographical and seasonal variations should be included, and more attention should be given to GWs in the troposphere and GW sources within the intermediate region, especially the upper troposphere.

  19. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  20. Evolution of avian clutch size along latitudinal gradients: do seasonality, nest predation or breeding season length matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, E M; Caprano, T; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2010-05-01

    Birds display a latitudinal gradient in clutch size with smaller clutches in the tropics and larger in the temperate region. Three factors have been proposed to affect this pattern: seasonality of resources (SR), nest predation and length of the breeding season (LBS). Here, we test the importance of these factors by modelling clutch size evolution within bird populations under different environmental settings. We use an individual-based ecogenetic simulation model that combines principles from population ecology and life history theory. Results suggest that increasing SR from the tropics to the poles by itself or in combination with a decreasing predation rate and LBS can generate the latitudinal gradient in clutch size. Annual fecundity increases and annual adult survival rate decreases from the tropics to the poles. We further show that the annual number of breeding attempts that (together with clutch size) determines total annual egg production is an important trait to understand latitudinal patterns in these life history characteristics. Field experiments that manipulate environmental factors have to record effects not only on clutch size, but also on annual number of breeding attempts. We use our model to predict the outcome of such experiments under different environmental settings.

  1. Functional microarray analysis of nitrogen and carbon cycling genes across an Antarctic latitudinal transect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Kang, S.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Soil-borne microbial communities were examined via a functional gene microarray approach across a southern polar latitudinal gradient to gain insight into the environmental factors steering soil N- and C-cycling in terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of functional gene

  2. Latitudinal and altitudinal controls of Titan's dune field morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Ewing, R.; Janssen, M. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Encrenaz, P.; the Cassini Radar Team

    2012-01-01

    Dune fields dominate ˜13% of Titan's surface and represent an important sink of carbon in the methane cycle. Herein, we discuss correlations in dune morphometry with altitude and latitude. These correlations, which have important implications in terms of geological processes and climate on Titan, are investigated through the microwave electromagnetic signatures of dune fields using Cassini radar and radiometry observations. The backscatter and emissivity from Titan's dune terrains are primarily controlled by the amount of interdune area within the radar footprint and are also expected to vary with the degree of the interdunal sand cover. Using SAR-derived topography, we find that Titan's main dune fields (Shangri-La, Fensal, Belet and Aztlan) tend to occupy the lowest elevation areas in Equatorial regions occurring at mean elevations between ˜-400 and ˜0 m (relative to the geoid). In elevated dune terrains, we show a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio and possibly a thinner sand cover in the interdune areas. A similar correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north. The altitudinal trend among Titan's sand seas is consistent with the idea that sediment source zones most probably occur in lowlands, which would reduce the sand supply toward elevated regions. The latitudinal preference could result from a gradual increase in dampness with latitude due to the asymmetric seasonal forcing associated with Titan's current orbital configuration unless it is indicative of a latitudinal preference in the sand source distribution or wind transport capacity.

  3. Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents a summary of a comprehensive analysis of the same subject conducted by Roelof et al. (1981). It is pointed out that the tandem earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP 7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Attention is given to the method of data analysis, and the separation of field-aligned and latitudinal gradients. It is found that latitudinal gradients approximately equal to or greater than 1 percent per deg in the cosmic ray intensity were a common feature of the interplanetary medium between 1 and 5 AU in 1977-78. Except in the most disturbed periods, cosmic ray intensities are well-ordered in field-aligned structures.

  4. Latitudinal variation of the topside electron temperature at different levels of solar activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.; Třísková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2009), s. 693-700 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNH06CD17C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electron temperature * Solar activity variation * Latitudinal dependence Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2009

  5. Latitudinal variation of air sea fluxes in the western Indian Ocean during austral summer and fall

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Daily and zonal (latitudinal belt) averages of heat and momentum fluxes were computed using bulk aerodynamic formulae, from the meteorological parameters measured onboard 'M.S. Thuleland' during the sixth Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica...

  6. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha, high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha, or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia. Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern.

  7. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  8. Latitudinal oscillations of plasma within the Io torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, W. D.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium latitude and the period of oscillations about this equilibrium latitude are calculated for a plasma in a centrifugally dominated tilted dipole magnetic field representing Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. It is found that for a hot plasma the equilibrium latitude in the magnetic equator, for a cold plasma it is the centrifugal equator, and for a warm plasma it is somewhere in between. An illustrative model is adopted in which atoms are sputtered from the Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io and escape Io's gravity to be subsequently ionized some distance from Io. Finally, it is shown that ionization generally does not occur at the equilibrium altitude, and that the resulting latitudinal oscillations provide an explanation for the irregularities in electron concentration within the torus, as reported by the radioastronomy experiment aboard Voyager I.

  9. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Arnosti

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars. Genomic investigations provide information about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76°S to 79°N to hydrolyze a range of high molecular weight organic substrates and thereby initiate organic matter degradation. These data demonstrate the existence of a latitudinal gradient in the range of complex substrates available to heterotrophic microbial communities, paralleling the global gradient in bacterial species richness. As changing climate increasingly affects the marine environment, changes in the spectrum of substrates accessible by microbial communities may lead to shifts in the location and rate at which marine DOC is respired. Since the inventory of DOC in the ocean is comparable in magnitude to the atmospheric CO(2 reservoir, such a change could profoundly affect the global carbon cycle.

  10. Gradiente latitudinal de riqueza de espécies de formigas em cerrado: regra de Rapoport e efeitos da produtividade e heterogeneidade

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Carla Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    O gradiente latitudinal de riqueza de espécies (GLRE) é um padrão bem documentado para diversos grupos de organismos. Apesar de várias hipóteses terem sido levantadas para explicar o gradiente algumas são tidas como mais promissoras, tais como as relacionadas à energia, a heterogeneidade ambiental, ao tempo evolutivo e ao efeito do domínio mediano. O objetivo dessa tese é testar a existência do gradiente latitudinal de riqueza de espécies de formigas arborícolas em cerrado, assim como testar ...

  11. Assessment of tannin variation in Tamarisk foliage across a latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, A.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Friedman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain phenotypic traits of plants vary with latitude of origin. To understand if tannin concentration varies among populations of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) according to a latitudinal gradient, an analytical method was adapted from an enological tannin assay. The tannin content (wet basis) of tamarisk foliage collected from 160 plants grown in a common garden ranged from 8.26 to 62.36 mg/g and was not correlated with the latitude of the original North American plant collection site. Tannins do not contribute to observed differences in herbivory observed among these tamarisk populations.

  12. Regional and latitudinal patterns of soft-bottom macrobenthic invertebrates along French coasts: Results from the RESOMAR database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Régis K.; Lavesque, Nicolas; Grall, Jacques; Labrune, Céline; Gremare, Antoine; Bachelet, Guy; Blanchet, Hugues; Bonifácio, Paulo; Bouchet, Vincent M. P.; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Desroy, Nicolas; Gentil, Franck; Guerin, Laurent; Houbin, Céline; Jourde, Jérôme; Laurand, Sandrine; Le Duff, Michel; Le Garrec, Vincent; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Olivier, Frédéric; Orvain, Francis; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Thiebaut, Éric; Gauthier, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to describe the patterns of soft bottom macrozoobenthic richness along French coasts. It is based on a collaborative database developed by the "Réseau des Stations et Observatoires Marins" (RESOMAR). We investigated patterns of species richness in sublittoral soft bottom habitats (EUNIS level 3) at two different spatial scales: 1) seaboards: English Channel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea and 2) 0.5° latitudinal and longitudinal grid. Total observed richness, rarefaction curves and three incidence-based richness estimators (Chao2, ICE and Jacknife1) were used to compare soft bottom habitats species richness in each seaboard. Overall, the Mediterranean Sea has the highest richness and despite higher sampling effort, the English Channel hosts the lowest number of species. The distribution of species occurrence within and between seaboards was assessed for each major phylum using constrained rarefaction curves. The Mediterranean Sea hosts the highest number of exclusive species. In pairwise comparisons, it also shares a lower proportion of taxa with the Bay of Biscay (34.1%) or the English Channel (27.6%) than that shared between these two seaboards (49.7%). Latitudinal species richness patterns along the Atlantic and English Channel coasts were investigated for each major phylum using partial LOESS regression controlling for sampling effort. This showed the existence of a bell-shaped latitudinal pattern, highlighting Brittany as a hotspot for macrobenthic richness at the confluence of two biogeographic provinces.

  13. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component: Coronal Imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements by Ulysses have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,) of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the corona, the plasma, beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in field strength will relax due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens quickly enough so that the field is essentially uniform by 5 - 10 solar radius, apparently remaining so as it is carried to beyond 1 AU. Here, we illustrate the coronal relaxation with a qualitative physical argument and by reference to a detailed Magneto HydroDynamics (MHD) simulation.

  14. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  15. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl P. Andam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.

  16. Environmental plasticity of Pinot noir grapevine leaves: A trans-European study of morphological and biochemical changes along a 1,500-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Antonella; Csepregi, Kristóf; Neugart, Susanne; Zipoli, Gaetano; Večeřová, Kristýna; Jakab, Gábor; Jug, Tjaša; Llorens, Laura; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Ranieri, Annamaria; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Schreiner, Monika; Teszlák, Péter; Tittmann, Susanne; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, Dolors; Jansen, Marcel A K; Hideg, Éva

    2017-11-01

    A 2-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun-acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from 12 locations across a 36.69-49.98°N latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments. Leaf UV-absorbing pigments, total antioxidant capacities, and phenolic compounds increased with increasing sumUVR, whereas total carotenoids and xanthophylls decreased. Despite of this reallocation of metabolic resources from carotenoids to phenolics, an increase in xanthophyll-cycle pigments (the sum of the amounts of three xanthophylls: violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin) with increasing sumUVR indicates active, dynamic protection for the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, increased amounts of flavonoids (quercetin glycosides) and constitutive β-carotene and α-tocopherol pools provide antioxidant protection against reactive oxygen species. However, rather than a continuum of plant acclimation responses, principal component analysis indicates clusters of metabolic states across the explored 1,500-km-long latitudinal gradient. This study emphasizes the physiological component of plant responses to latitudinal gradients and reveals the physiological plasticity that may act to complement genetic adaptations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Latitudinal environmental gradients and diel variability influence abundance and community structure of Chaetognatha in Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Al-aidaroos, Ali M.; Karati, Kusum K.; El-sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Devassy, Reny P.; Kü rten, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    is known about the zooplankton biodiversity of the Red Sea and how this relates to Red Sea latitudinal gradients. Among the most abundant zooplankton taxa are Chaetognatha, which play an important role as secondary consumers in most marine food webs. Since

  18. Mean annual precipitation explains spatiotemporal patterns of Cenozoic mammal beta diversity and latitudinal diversity gradients in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fraser

    Full Text Available Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma--present, and (ii climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP estimated from paleosols (∼ 450 mm/year and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential.

  19. Latitudinal distribution of total ozone and NO[sub 2] over the Atlantic Ocean according to measurements in May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elokhov, A.S; Gruzdev, A.N. (Inst. Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1992-07-01

    Measurements of the total ozone and NO[sub 2] content conducted on board a ship in the 40 deg S - 40 deg N latitudinal belt in the Atlantic Ocean in the second half of May 1988 are reported. The main features of the latitudinal distributions of total ozone and NO[sub 2] are similar. Both distributions have minima in the equatorial zone of the Southern Hemisphere, and both the ozone and NO[sub 2] contents increase from tropical to subtropical latitudes. This increase is the strongest in the subtropical jet stream zone. The fine structure of the studied distributions is also revealed, and its relationship to stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes in the tropopause folding region is discussed. The evening total NO[sub 2] content systematically exceeds that of the morning due to diurnal variations. 20 refs.

  20. Speciation and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Insights from the Global Distribution of Endemic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Patrick J; Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-06-01

    The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG. Here we examine the global distribution of endemic lake fishes to determine how lake age, area, and latitude each affect the probability of speciation and the extent of diversification occurring within a lake. We analyzed the distribution of endemic fishes worldwide (1,933 species and subspecies from 47 families in 2,746 lakes) and find that the probability of a lake containing an endemic species and the total number of endemics per lake increase with lake age and area and decrease with latitude. Moreover, the geographic locations of endemics in 34 of 41 families are found at lower latitudes than those of nonendemics. We propose that the greater diversification of fish at low latitudes may be driven in part by ecological opportunities promoted by tropical climates and by the coevolution of species interactions.

  1. Origination and immigration drive latitudinal gradients in marine functional diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Berke

    Full Text Available Global patterns in the functional attributes of organisms are critical to understanding biodiversity trends and predicting biotic responses to environmental change. In the first global marine analysis, we find a strong decrease in functional richness, but a strong increase in functional evenness, with increasing latitude using intertidal-to-outer-shelf bivalves as a model system (N = 5571 species. These patterns appear to be driven by the interplay between variation in origination rates among functional groups, and latitudinal patterns in origination and range expansion, as documented by the rich fossil record of the group. The data suggest that (i accumulation of taxa in spatial bins and functional categories has not impeded continued diversification in the tropics, and (ii extinctions will influence ecosystem function differentially across latitudes.

  2. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  3. Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelof, E.C.; Decker, R.B.; Krimigis, S.M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The tandem Earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP-7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Anti-coincidence solid-state detectors on the Voyager 1/2 LECP experiment measure nucleons > or approximately 20 MeV/nuc with large (28 cm 2 ) omnidirectional geometry factors. Anti-coincidence scintillators on the IMP-7/8 CPME with omnidirectional geometry factors comparable to those on Voyager measure nucleons > or approximately 35 MeV/nuc. Because the Voyagers are well-connected via the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to the near-Earth vicinity throughout their transit from 1-5 AU (September 1977 - February 1979), we obtained the first direct measurement of field-aligned gradients, i.e., those that do not depend upon ''corotation'' from one spacecraft to another over many days. Another new result is the unambiguous identification of nonuniform latitudinal gradients approximately 2-5% degree -1 in structures lasting 10-30 days. There is additional evidence for somewhat smaller latitudinal gradients, north to south and probably mixed with small field-aligned gradients -1 , which persist for several solar rotations

  4. The latitudinal inventory of sup(137)Cs in vegetation and topsoil in northern Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison-Benson, E.; Svoboda, J.; Taylor, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The latitudinal distribution of fallout sup(137)Cs in Canada has been determined along a transect extending from 50 degrees to 82 degrees N in 1980. The sup(137)Cs content of lichens, bryophytes, and cushionlike vascular species was measured at 16 sites between Brandon, Manitoba, and Alert, Ellesmere Island. Lichen species were shown to be the most effecive biological monitors of sup(137)Cs deposition because of their specific morphology, longevity, and slow growth rates. Dry, exposed ridges were the sites of the highest sup(137)Cs retention by plants. sup(137)Cs levels in vegetation followed a bell-shaped distribution along the transect and the maximum accumulation was measured in samples collected between 60 degrees and 70 degrees N ((10 nCi msup(-2) at 63 degrees N) (1 Ci = 37 GBq). This distribution is the combined results of the original latitudinal deposition of sup(137)Cs, the expired portion of its physical half-life, and the efficiency of biotic and abiotic removal processes along the studied corridor. It is suggested that the long-term implications of sup(137)Cs in the northern food chain ought to be followed and studied more closely in the light of the data presented

  5. Sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe: a climate-driven patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V; Söderman, Guy; Labina, Eugenia S; Zverev, Vitali; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the latitudinal patterns in biotic interactions, and especially in herbivory, is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. We used sap-feeding insects as a model group to test the hypotheses that the strength of plant-herbivore interactions in boreal forests decreases with latitude and that this latitudinal pattern is driven primarily by midsummer temperatures. We used a replicated sampling design and quantitatively collected and identified all sap-feeding insects from four species of forest trees along five latitudinal gradients (750-1300 km in length, ten sites in each gradient) in northern Europe (59 to 70°N and 10 to 60°E) during 2008-2011. Similar decreases in diversity of sap-feeding insects with latitude were observed in all gradients during all study years. The sap-feeder load (i.e. insect biomass per unit of foliar biomass) decreased with latitude in typical summers, but increased in an exceptionally hot summer and was independent of latitude during a warm summer. Analysis of combined data from all sites and years revealed dome-shaped relationships between the loads of sap-feeders and midsummer temperatures, peaking at 17 °C in Picea abies, at 19.5 °C in Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens and at 22 °C in B. pendula. From these relationships, we predict that the losses of forest trees to sap-feeders will increase by 0-45% of the current level in southern boreal forests and by 65-210% in subarctic forests with a 1 °C increase in summer temperatures. The observed relationships between temperatures and the loads of sap-feeders differ between the coniferous and deciduous tree species. We conclude that climate warming will not only increase plant losses to sap-feeding insects, especially in subarctic forests, but can also alter plant-plant interactions, thereby affecting both the productivity and the structure of future forest ecosystems. © 2014

  6. Latitudinal distribution of the solar wind properties in the low- and high-pressure regimes: Wind observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe

    Full Text Available The solar wind properties depend on λ, the heliomagnetic latitude with respect to the heliospheric current sheet (HCS, more than on the heliographic latitude. We analyse the wind properties observed by Wind at 1 AU during about 2.5 solar rotations in 1995, a period close to the last minimum of solar activity. To determine λ, we use a model of the HCS which we fit to the magnetic sector boundary crossings observed by Wind. We find that the solar wind properties mainly depend on the modulus |λ|. But they also depend on a local parameter, the total pressure (magnetic pressure plus electron and proton thermal pressure. Furthermore, whatever the total pressure, we observe that the plasma properties also depend on the time: the latitudinal gradients of the wind speed and of the proton temperature are not the same before and after the closest HCS crossing. This is a consequence of the dynamical stream interactions. In the low pressure wind, at low |λ|, we find a clear maximum of the density, a clear minimum of the wind speed and of the proton temperature, a weak minimum of the average magnetic field strength, a weak maximum of the average thermal pressure, and a weak maximum of the average β factor. This overdense sheet is embedded in a density halo. The latitudinal thickness is about 5° for the overdense sheet, and 20° for the density halo. The HCS is thus wrapped in an overdense sheet surrounded by a halo, even in the non-compressed solar wind. In the high-pressure wind, the plasma properties are less well ordered as functions of the latitude than in the low-pressure wind; the minimum of the average speed is seen before the HCS crossing. The latitudinal thickness of the high-pressure region is about 20°. Our observations are qualitatively consistent with the numerical model of Pizzo for the deformation of the heliospheric current sheet and plasma sheet.

    Key words: Interplanetary physics (solar wind

  7. A Latitudinal Metabolome of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Kido Soule, M. C.; Longnecker, K.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial consortia function via the exchange and transformation of small organic molecules or metabolites. These metabolites make up a pool of rapidly cycling organic matter in the ocean that is challenging to characterize due to its low concentrations. We seek to determine the distribution of these molecules and the factors that shape their abundance and flux. Through measurements of the abundance of a core set of metabolites, including nucleic acids, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and signaling molecules, we gain a real-time snapshot of microbial activity. We used a targeted metabolomics technique to profile metabolite abundance in particulate and dissolved organic matter extracts collected from a 14,000 km transect running from 38˚S to 55˚N in the Western Atlantic Ocean. This extensive dataset is the first of its kind in the Atlantic Ocean and allows us to explore connections among metabolites as well as latitudinal trends in metabolite abundance. We found changes in the intracellular abundance of certain metabolites between low and high nutrient regions and a wide distribution of certain dissolved vitamins in the surface ocean. These measurements give us baseline data on the distribution of these metabolites and allow us to extend our understanding of microbial community activity in different regions of the ocean.

  8. Quantum-Sequencing: Fast electronic single DNA molecule sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free, high-throughput and cost-effective, single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the first demonstration of unique ``electronic fingerprint'' of all nucleotides (A, G, T, C), with single-molecule DNA sequencing, using Quantum-tunneling Sequencing (Q-Seq) at room temperature. We show that the electronic state of the nucleobases shift depending on the pH, with most distinct states identified at acidic pH. We also demonstrate identification of single nucleotide modifications (methylation here). Using these unique electronic fingerprints (or tunneling data), we report a partial sequence of beta lactamase (bla) gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, with over 95% success rate. These results highlight the potential of Q-Seq as a robust technique for next-generation sequencing.

  9. Leaf ultraviolet optical properties along a latitudinal gradient in the Arctic-Alpine life zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M.M.; Billings, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Leaf epidermal transmittance of terrestrial solar ultraviolet-B radiation (295 to 320 nm) was examined along a latitudinal gradient of solar uv-B radiation. In high uv-B radiation zones, e.g., equatorial and tropical regions, mean epidermal transmittance for the species examined was less than 2%. At higher latitudes, mean epidermal transmittance exceeded 5%. Although this latitudinal solar uv-B gradient represents more than a seven-fold difference in daily integrated uv-B irradiance, the calculated mean effective uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll of low-latitude species is not substantially different from that of species at higher latitudes. Species in high uv-B radiation environments appear to attenuate this radiation more effectively than those in lower irradiance environments. In most cases, absorption of uv-B in the epidermis is the major parameter effecting low transmittance. Reflectance from glabrous leaves is generally less than 10%. In some species, pubescent or glaucous leaf surfaces can reflect more than 40% of the uv-B radiation incident on a horizontal leaf, although such surface characteristics do not necessarily indicate high uv-B reflectance. Under controlled conditions, epidermal transmittance in Pisum sativum L. decreased in response to uv-B irradiation. The modification of epidermal transmittance, resulting in lower uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll, may represent a mechanism of plant acclimation to uv-B radiation. Such acclimation may have occurred in several wildland species of temperate-latitude origin that have invaded high uv-B irradiance equatorial and tropical regions

  10. Investigation of Seasonal and Latitudinal Effects on the Expression of Clock Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyede Sanaz; Nazarimehr, Fahimeh; Jafari, Sajad

    The primary goal in this work is to develop a dynamical model capturing the influence of seasonal and latitudinal variations on the expression of Drosophila clock genes. To this end, we study a specific dynamical system with strange attractors that exhibit changes of Drosophila activity in a range of latitudes and across different seasons. Bifurcations of this system are analyzed to peruse the effect of season and latitude on the behavior of clock genes. Existing experimental data collected from the activity of Drosophila melanogaster corroborate the dynamical model.

  11. International Interlaboratory Digital PCR Study Demonstrating High Reproducibility for the Measurement of a Rare Sequence Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Alexandra S; Devonshire, Alison S; Karlin-Neumann, George; Regan, Jack; Javier, Leanne; Cowen, Simon; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Jones, Gerwyn M; Redshaw, Nicholas; Beck, Julia; Berger, Andreas W; Combaret, Valérie; Dahl Kjersgaard, Nina; Davis, Lisa; Fina, Frederic; Forshew, Tim; Fredslund Andersen, Rikke; Galbiati, Silvia; González Hernández, Álvaro; Haynes, Charles A; Janku, Filip; Lacave, Roger; Lee, Justin; Mistry, Vilas; Pender, Alexandra; Pradines, Anne; Proudhon, Charlotte; Saal, Lao H; Stieglitz, Elliot; Ulrich, Bryan; Foy, Carole A; Parkes, Helen; Tzonev, Svilen; Huggett, Jim F

    2017-02-07

    This study tested the claim that digital PCR (dPCR) can offer highly reproducible quantitative measurements in disparate laboratories. Twenty-one laboratories measured four blinded samples containing different quantities of a KRAS fragment encoding G12D, an important genetic marker for guiding therapy of certain cancers. This marker is challenging to quantify reproducibly using quantitative PCR (qPCR) or next generation sequencing (NGS) due to the presence of competing wild type sequences and the need for calibration. Using dPCR, 18 laboratories were able to quantify the G12D marker within 12% of each other in all samples. Three laboratories appeared to measure consistently outlying results; however, proper application of a follow-up analysis recommendation rectified their data. Our findings show that dPCR has demonstrable reproducibility across a large number of laboratories without calibration. This could enable the reproducible application of molecular stratification to guide therapy and, potentially, for molecular diagnostics.

  12. Latitudinal beaming of Jupiter's low frequency radio emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.K.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L.; Thieman, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    By comparing Rae 1 and Imp 6 satelite measurements of Jupiter's radio emissions near 1 MHz with recent Voyager 1 and 2 observations in the same frequency range it is now possible to study the properties of the low frequency radiation pattern over a 10 0 range of latitudes with respect to the Jovian rotation equator. These observations, which cover a wider latitudinal range than is possible from the earth, are consistent with many aspect of earlier ground-based measurements that have been used to infer a sharp beaming pattern for the decameter wavelength emissions. We find marked, systematic changes in the statistical occurrence probability distributions with system III central meridian longitude as the Jovigraphic latitude of the observer changes over this range. Moreover, simultaneous observations by the two Voyager spacecraft, which are separated by up to 3 0 in Jovigraphic latitude, suggest that the instantaneous beam width may be no more than a few degrees at times. The new hectometer wave results can be interpreted in terms of a narrow, curved sheet at a fixed magnetic latitude into which the emission is beamed to escape the planet

  13. Temporal sequence learning in winner-take-all networks of spiking neurons demonstrated in a brain-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Jeffrey L; Edelman, Gerald M

    2013-01-01

    Animal behavior often involves a temporally ordered sequence of actions learned from experience. Here we describe simulations of interconnected networks of spiking neurons that learn to generate patterns of activity in correct temporal order. The simulation consists of large-scale networks of thousands of excitatory and inhibitory neurons that exhibit short-term synaptic plasticity and spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity. The neural architecture within each area is arranged to evoke winner-take-all (WTA) patterns of neural activity that persist for tens of milliseconds. In order to generate and switch between consecutive firing patterns in correct temporal order, a reentrant exchange of signals between these areas was necessary. To demonstrate the capacity of this arrangement, we used the simulation to train a brain-based device responding to visual input by autonomously generating temporal sequences of motor actions.

  14. Sample sequencing of vascular plants demonstrates widespread conservation and divergence of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; de Fátima Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor; De Paoli, Emanuele; Accerbi, Monica; Rymarquis, Linda A; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Meyers, Blake C; Green, Pamela J; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-04-23

    Small RNAs are pivotal regulators of gene expression that guide transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing mechanisms in eukaryotes, including plants. Here we report a comprehensive atlas of sRNA and miRNA from 3 species of algae and 31 representative species across vascular plants, including non-model plants. We sequence and quantify sRNAs from 99 different tissues or treatments across species, resulting in a data set of over 132 million distinct sequences. Using miRBase mature sequences as a reference, we identify the miRNA sequences present in these libraries. We apply diverse profiling methods to examine critical sRNA and miRNA features, such as size distribution, tissue-specific regulation and sequence conservation between species, as well as to predict putative new miRNA sequences. We also develop database resources, computational analysis tools and a dedicated website, http://smallrna.udel.edu/. This study provides new insights on plant sRNAs and miRNAs, and a foundation for future studies.

  15. Impact of snow deposition on major and trace element concentrations and elementary fluxes in surface waters of the Western Siberian Lowland across a 1700 km latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Krickov, Ivan V.; Manasypov, Rinat M.; Politova, Nadezhda V.; Kopysov, Sergey G.; Dara, Olga M.; Auda, Yves; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.; Zemtsov, Valery A.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.

    2017-11-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of snow and its impact on surface water hydrochemistry in the poorly studied Western Siberia Lowland (WSL), the surface layer of snow was sampled in February 2014 across a 1700 km latitudinal gradient (ca. 56.5 to 68° N). We aimed at assessing the latitudinal effect on both dissolved and particulate forms of elements in snow and quantifying the impact of atmospheric input to element storage and export fluxes in inland waters of the WSL. The concentration of dissolved+colloidal (metalloids (As, Sb), Mo and U in the discontinuous to continuous permafrost zone (64-68° N) can be explained solely by melting of accumulated snow. The impact of snow deposition on riverine fluxes of elements strongly increased northward, in discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones of frozen peat bogs. This was consistent with the decrease in the impact of rock lithology on river chemical composition in the permafrost zone of the WSL, relative to the permafrost-free regions. Therefore, the present study demonstrates significant and previously underestimated atmospheric input of many major and trace elements to their riverine fluxes during spring floods. A broader impact of this result is that current estimations of river water fluxes response to climate warming in high latitudes may be unwarranted without detailed analysis of winter precipitation.

  16. Disentangling the drivers of ß diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Comita, Liza S.; Chase, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    that sampling alone predicts changes in ß diversity caused simply by changes in the sizes of species pools. For example, forest inventories sampled along latitudinal and elevational gradients show the well-documented pattern that ß diversity is higher in the tropics and at low elevations. However, after......Understanding spatial variation in biodiversity along environmental gradients is a central theme in ecology. Differences in species compositional turnover among sites (ß diversity) occurring along gradients are often used to infer variation in the processes structuring communities. Here, we show...... correcting for variation in pooled species richness (¿ diversity), these differences in ß diversity disappear. Therefore, there is no need to invoke differences in the mechanisms of community assembly in temperate versus tropical systems to explain these global-scale patterns of ß diversity....

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Tan, Xiaoqing; Wu, Ying; Bai, Qunhua; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica , which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function.

  18. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENG, PENG; TAN, XIAOQING; WU, YING; BAI, QUNHUA; JIA, YAN; XIAO, HONG

    2015-01-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica, which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function. PMID:25667630

  19. Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, M. Á.; Castagna, A.; Csepregi, K.; Hideg, É.; Jakab, G.; Jansen, M. A. K.; Jug, T.; Llorens, L.; Mátai, A.; Martínez-Lüscher, J.; Monforte, L.; Neugart, S.; Olejníčková, Julie; Ranieri, A.; Schödl-Hummel, K.; Schreiner, M.; Soriano, G.; Teszlák, P.; Tittmann, S.; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, D.; Zipoli, G.; Martínez-Abaigar, J.; Núñez-Olivera, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 46 (2016), s. 8722-8734 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : berry skins * Europe * hydroxylation ratios * latitudinal gradient * phenolic composition * solar radiation * ultraviolet radiation * Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.154, year: 2016

  20. [Variability of vegetation growth season in different latitudinal zones of North China: a monitoring by NOAA NDVI and MSAVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaobing; Han, Ruibo; Ge, Yongqin

    2006-12-01

    In this study, North China was latitudinally divided into five zones, i.e., 32 degrees - 36 degrees N (Zone I), 36 degrees - 40 degrees N (Zone II), 40 degrees - 44 degrees N (Zone III), 44 degrees - 48 degrees N (Zone IV) and 48 degrees - 52 degrees N (Zone V), and the NOAA/ AVHRR NDVI and MSAVI time-series images from 1982 to 1999 were smoothed with Savitzky-Golay filter algorithm. Based on the EOF analysis, the principal components of NDVI and MSAVI for the vegetations in different latitudinal zones of North China were extracted, the annual beginning and ending dates and the length of growth season in 1982 - 1999 were estimated, and the related parameters were linearly fitted, aimed to analyze the variability of vegetation growth season. The results showed that the beginning date of the growth season in different zones tended to be advanced, while the ending date tended to be postponed with increasing latitude. The length of the growth season was also prolonged, with the prolonging time exceeded 10 days.

  1. Latitudinal distribution of zooplankton communities in the Western Pacific along 160°E during summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-05-01

    A total of 51 mesozooplankton samples collected with a WP2 net from 0 to 200 m depth along 160°E (4°S-46°N) in the Western Pacific from June to July 2014 were analyzed. The latitudinal distribution of mesozooplankton community structure was analyzed. The average biomass and abundance in different provinces generally increased with latitude: the biomass of zooplankton ranged from 1.18 mg DW m- 3 (11°N) to 97.81 mg DW m- 3 (45°N), and the abundance of zooplankton ranged from 45.11 ind. m- 3 (3°S) to 439.84 ind. m- 3 (41°N). The community structure of zooplankton also showed a significant latitudinal variation. At lower latitudes, calanoid copepods were the most abundant group, while cyclopoid copepods were the most abundant group at higher latitudes. Multidimensional scaling analysis of community structure and other physical/chemical/biological characteristics supported five ecological provinces in the northwestern Pacific: the Western Pacific Warm Pool Province (WARM), the North Pacific Tropical Gyre (NPTG), the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPST), the Kuroshio Current Province (KURO) and the Pacific Subarctic Gyres Province (PSAG). The Kuroshio Current Province can be regarded as a transitional zone between the subarctic and northern subtropical area, and this transitional zone corresponds much more closely to the ecocline concept, rather than the ecotone concept.

  2. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  3. Latitudinal and interhemispheric variation of stratospheric effects on mesospheric ice layer trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.

    2011-02-01

    Latitudinal and interhemispheric differences of model results on trends in mesospheric ice layers and background conditions are analyzed. The model nudges to European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data below ˜45 km. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the mesosphere are kept constant. Temperature trends in the mesosphere mainly come from shrinking of the stratosphere and from dynamical effects. Water vapor increases at noctilucent cloud (NLC) heights and decreases above due to increased freeze drying caused by temperature trends. There is no tendency for ice clouds in the Northern Hemisphere for extending farther southward with time. Trends of NLC albedo are similar to satellite measurements, but only if a time period longer than observations is considered. Ice cloud trends get smaller if albedo thresholds relevant to satellite instruments are applied, in particular at high polar latitudes. This implies that weak and moderate NLC is favored when background conditions improve for NLC formation, whereas strong NLC benefits less. Trends of ice cloud parameters are generally smaller in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) compared to the Northern Hemisphere (NH), consistent with observations. Trends in background conditions have counteracting effects on NLC: temperature trends would suggest stronger ice increase in the SH, and water vapor trends would suggest a weaker increase. Larger trends in NLC brightness or occurrence rates are not necessarily associated with larger (more negative) temperature trends. They can also be caused by larger trends of water vapor caused by larger freeze drying, which in turn can be caused by generally lower temperatures and/or more background water. Trends of NLC brightness and occurrence rates decrease with decreasing latitude in both hemispheres. The latitudinal variation of these trends is primarily determined by induced water vapor trends. Trends in NLC altitudes are generally small. Stratospheric temperature trends vary

  4. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - Interplanetary Imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute magnetic flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and Interplanetary Magnetic Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the interplanetary medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.

  5. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  6. Multiplex Sequence Analysis Demonstrates the Competitive Growth Advantage of the A-to-G Mutants of Clarithromycin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ge; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Humayun, M. Zafri; Taylor, Diane E.

    1999-01-01

    Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.

  7. Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Rahman, M S; Humayun, M Z; Taylor, D E

    1999-03-01

    Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.

  8. Intra-Specific Latitudinal Clines in Leaf Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus and their Underlying Abiotic Correlates in Ruellia Nudiflora

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Covelo, Felisa; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Terán, Jorge C. Berny Mier y; Mooney, Kailen A.; Moreira, Xoaquín

    2018-01-01

    While plant intra-specific variation in the stoichiometry of nutrients and carbon is well documented, clines for such traits have been less studied, despite their potential to reveal the mechanisms underlying such variation. Here we analyze latitudinal variation in the concentration of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon (C) and their ratios across 30 populations of the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora. In addition, we further determined whether climatic and soil variables underlie any ...

  9. Multilocus sequence typing and rtxA toxin gene sequencing analysis of Kingella kingae isolates demonstrates genetic diversity and international clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Basmaci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kingella kingae, a normal component of the upper respiratory flora, is being increasingly recognized as an important invasive pathogen in young children. Genetic diversity of this species has not been studied. METHODS: We analyzed 103 strains from different countries and clinical origins by a new multilocus sequence-typing (MLST schema. Putative virulence gene rtxA, encoding an RTX toxin, was also sequenced, and experimental virulence of representative strains was assessed in a juvenile-rat model. RESULTS: Thirty-six sequence-types (ST and nine ST-complexes (STc were detected. The main STc 6, 14 and 23 comprised 23, 17 and 20 strains respectively, and were internationally distributed. rtxA sequencing results were mostly congruent with MLST, and showed horizontal transfer events. Of interest, all members of the distantly related ST-6 (n = 22 and ST-5 (n = 4 harboured a 33 bp duplication or triplication in their rtxA sequence, suggesting that this genetic trait arose through selective advantage. The animal model revealed significant differences in virulence among strains of the species. CONCLUSION: MLST analysis reveals international spread of ST-complexes and will help to decipher acquisition and evolution of virulence traits and diversity of pathogenicity among K. kingae strains, for which an experimental animal model is now available.

  10. Latitudinal range influences the seasonal variation in the foraging behavior of marine top predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Non-migratory resident species should be capable of modifying their foraging behavior to accommodate changes in prey abundance and availability associated with a changing environment. Populations that are better adapted to change will have higher foraging success and greater potential for survival in the face of climate change. We studied two species of resident central place foragers from temperate and equatorial regions with differing population trends and prey availability associated to season, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus (CSL whose population is increasing and the endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki (GSL whose population is declining. To determine their response to environmental change, we studied and compared their diving behavior using time-depth recorders and satellite location tags and their diet by measuring C and N isotope ratios during a warm and a cold season. Based on latitudinal differences in oceanographic productivity, we hypothesized that the seasonal variation in foraging behavior would differ for these two species. CSL exhibited greater seasonal variability in their foraging behavior as seen in changes to their diving behavior, foraging areas and diet between seasons. Conversely, GSL did not change their diving behavior between seasons, presenting three foraging strategies (shallow, deep and bottom divers during both. GSL exhibited greater dive and foraging effort than CSL. We suggest that during the warm and less productive season a greater range of foraging behaviors in CSL was associated with greater competition for prey, which relaxed during the cold season when resource availability was greater. GSL foraging specialization suggests that resources are limited throughout the year due to lower primary production and lower seasonal variation in productivity compared to CSL. These latitudinal differences influence their foraging success, pup survival and population growth reflected in

  11. Spatial and Temporal Growth Variation of Pinus heldreichii Christ. Growing along a Latitudinal Gradient in Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Trees growing at high elevations are particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this study, tree-ring chronologies of Pinus heldreichii Christ. have been developed to examine their dynamism along a 350 km latitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in 6 high elevation sites along a latitudinal gradient from Kosovo and Albania. Two opposite cores from 148 healthy and dominant P. heldreichii trees were taken using an increment borer. The cores were mounted and sanded, and after a rigorous cross-dating, the ring widths were measured to a resolution of 0.01 mm using the LINTAB 6 measuring device. The ARSTAN program was used for tree-ring series detrending and site chronologies’ development. The relationship between radial growth and climate, as well as between temporal patterns of P. heldreichii growth were investigated using simple correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA over the common period 1951-2013. Results: Radial growth variability of Bosnian pine increased with latitude and elevation. Significant correlations among our chronologies and others from neighbouring countries indicated that our chronologies possess a good regional climatic signal. P. heldreichii growth at all sampling sites was significantly influenced by seasonal and mean annual temperatures, as well as by the July drought. Thus, temperature was the main driving force of species growth, showing a larger control at spatial scale than precipitation. The difference in species growth patterns along the latitudinal gradient is implicated by the common action of climatic and non-climatic factors (age and human activity. With continued warming and precipitation decrease during the second half of the 20th century, P. heldreichii growth from these high elevation sites resulted in being more sensitive to drought. This climatic signal is assumed to be stronger in the future due to climate change. Conclusions: P

  12. Analysis of the Latitudinal Variability of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic Using the Large Number of Aircraft and Ozonesonde Observations in Early Summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Daskalakis, Nikos; Raut, Jean Christophe; Quennehen, Boris; Ravetta, Francois; Hair, Jonathan; Tarasick, David; Schlager, Hans; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Thompson, Anne M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the paper are to: (1) present tropospheric ozone (O3) climatologies in summer 2008 based on a large amount of measurements, during the International Polar Year when the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements, and Models of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) campaigns were conducted (2) investigate the processes that determine O3 concentrations in two different regions (Canada and Greenland) that were thoroughly studied using measurements from 3 aircraft and 7 ozonesonde stations. This paper provides an integrated analysis of these observations and the discussion of the latitudinal and vertical variability of tropospheric ozone north of 55oN during this period is performed using a regional model (WFR-Chem). Ozone, CO and potential vorticity (PV) distributions are extracted from the simulation at the measurement locations. The model is able to reproduce the O3 latitudinal and vertical variability but a negative O3 bias of 6-15 ppbv is found in the free troposphere over 4 km, especially over Canada. Ozone average concentrations are of the order of 65 ppbv at altitudes above 4 km both over Canada and Greenland, while they are less than 50 ppbv in the lower troposphere. The relative influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and of ozone production related to the local biomass burning (BB) emissions is discussed using differences between average values of O3, CO and PV for Southern and Northern Canada or Greenland and two vertical ranges in the troposphere: 0-4 km and 4-8 km. For Canada, the model CO distribution and the weak correlation (less than 30%) of O3 and PV suggests that stratosphere troposphere exchange (STE) is not the major contribution to average tropospheric ozone at latitudes less than 70 deg N, due to the fact that local biomass burning (BB) emissions were significant during the 2008 summer period. Conversely over Greenland, significant STE is found according to the better O3 versus PV

  13. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors.

  14. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Physiological constraints and latitudinal breeding season in the Canidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Physiological strategies that maximize reproductive success may be phylogenetically constrained or might have a plastic response to different environmental conditions. Among mammals, Canidae lend themselves to the study of these two influences on reproductive physiology because all the species studied to date have been characterized as monestrous (i.e., a single ovulatory event per breeding season), suggesting a phylogenetic effect. Greater flexibility could be associated with environments that are less seasonal, such as the tropics; however, little is known for many of the species from this region. To compensate for this lack of data, two regressions were done on the length of the reproductive season relative to the latitudinal distribution of a species: one with raw data and another with phylogenetically independent contrasts. There was a significant negative relationship, independent of phylogeny, with canids that have longer breeding seasons occurring at lower latitudes. In contrast, the pervasiveness of monestrus within Canidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained by their pairing/packing life and is most likely associated with monogamy. The persistence of the monestrous condition is supported by a captive study where a tropical canid, the fennec fox, Vulpes zerda, never exhibited polyestrous cycles despite a constant photoperiod (12L : 12D).

  16. Diversidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae) ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal na Mata Atlântica

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Rodrigo Barbosa; Brandão,Carlos Roberto Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    A Mata Atlântica é um dos ambientes mais ricos e ameaçados do mundo, o que deveria ter estimulado em muito o estudo e a conservação do Bioma, mas a fauna de Hymenoptera permanece ainda relativamente pouco conhecida. Em especial, a fauna de abelhas da floresta ombrófila densa é pouco estudada em comparação à fauna das áreas abertas brasileiras. O projeto temático "Biodiversidade de Hymenoptera e Isoptera: riqueza e diversidade ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal na Mata Atlântica - a floresta...

  17. Some problems concerning the regularities in the development of the latitudinal distribution of solar magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.

    1988-01-01

    From the comparison of several modes of time development of the latitudinal distribution of solar magnetic fields, obtained by different authors using different basic observational material and different methods, the following results were obtained: At high solar latitudes (|φ|> or ∼ 40deg) all distributions agree irrespective of the method of construction. In zones of activity around the solar equator, there is a qualitatively good but quantitatively poor agreement of the integrated, directly observed fields (from Mt. Wilson Observatory) and of the highly integrated fields derived from Hα synoptic charts. The mode of field distribution at high latitudes, more uniform and unipolar, is probably different from the field distribution at low latitudes where the more concentrated leading polarity occupies practically the same area as the less concentrated following polarity fields, if they are highly integrated. The large difference between Makarov's distribution and other modes of distribution seems to be natural if we take the method of construction into account, and very probably represents its close relationship with the smaller magnetic field elements connected with newer activity, while the other types of distribution demonstrate larger-scale, redistributed, older fields. The areas covered by the positive and negative polarities on the whole Sun during the investigated one and a half solar cycles (No 20 and 21) are practically equal. (author). 5 figs., 10 refs

  18. Sequence-Based Discovery Demonstrates That Fixed Light Chain Human Transgenic Rats Produce a Diverse Repertoire of Antigen-Specific Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Harris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We created a novel transgenic rat that expresses human antibodies comprising a diverse repertoire of heavy chains with a single common rearranged kappa light chain (IgKV3-15-JK1. This fixed light chain animal, called OmniFlic, presents a unique system for human therapeutic antibody discovery and a model to study heavy chain repertoire diversity in the context of a constant light chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze heavy chain variable gene usage, clonotype diversity, and to describe the sequence characteristics of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs isolated from immunized OmniFlic animals. Using next-generation sequencing antibody repertoire analysis, we measured heavy chain variable gene usage and the diversity of clonotypes present in the lymph node germinal centers of 75 OmniFlic rats immunized with 9 different protein antigens. Furthermore, we expressed 2,560 unique heavy chain sequences sampled from a diverse set of clonotypes as fixed light chain antibody proteins and measured their binding to antigen by ELISA. Finally, we measured patterns and overall levels of somatic hypermutation in the full B-cell repertoire and in the 2,560 mAbs tested for binding. The results demonstrate that OmniFlic animals produce an abundance of antigen-specific antibodies with heavy chain clonotype diversity that is similar to what has been described with unrestricted light chain use in mammals. In addition, we show that sequence-based discovery is a highly effective and efficient way to identify a large number of diverse monoclonal antibodies to a protein target of interest.

  19. Adaptations to "Thermal Time" Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-21

    Adaptations to "thermal time" (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the "converse of Bergmann's size Rule", with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3-4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general "voltinism/size/D-day" model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local "climatic cold pockets" in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these "cold pockets" are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal transect for P. glaucus

  20. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. Acuña-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species’ physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at

  1. Asymmetric responses to simulated global warming by populations of Colobanthus quitensis along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Hereme, Rasme; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species' physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at high latitudes could

  2. Latitudinal amplitude-phase structure of MHD waves: STARE radar observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a numerical model that yields a steady-state distribution of field components of MHD wave in an inhomogeneous plasma box simulating the realistic magnetosphere. The problem of adequate boundary condition at the ionosphere–magnetosphere interface for coupled MHD mode is considered. To justify the model’s assumptions, we have derived the explicit inequality showing when the ionospheric inductive Hall effect can be neglected upon the consideration of Alfven wave reflection from the ionospheric boundaries. The model predicts a feature of the ULF spatial amplitude/phase distribution that has not been noticed by the field line resonance theory: the existence of a region with opposite phase delays on the source side of the resonance. This theoretical prediction is supported by the amplitude-phase latitudinal structures of Pc5 waves observed by STARE radar and IMAGE magnetometers. A gradual decrease in azimuthal wave number m at smaller L-shells was observed at longitudinally separated radar beams.

  3. The geography of fear: a latitudinal gradient in anti-predator escape distances of birds across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Díaz

    Full Text Available All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009-2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators.

  4. Latitudinal and radial variation of >2 GeV/n protons and alpha-particles at solar maximum: ULYSSES COSPIN/KET and neutron monitor network observations

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    A. V. Belov

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulysses, launched in October 1990, began its second out-of-ecliptic orbit in September 1997. In 2000/2001 the spacecraft passed from the south to the north polar regions of the Sun in the inner heliosphere. In contrast to the first rapid pole to pole passage in 1994/1995 close to solar minimum, Ulysses experiences now solar maximum conditions. The Kiel Electron Telescope (KET measures also protons and alpha-particles in the energy range from 5 MeV/n to >2 GeV/n. To derive radial and latitudinal gradients for >2 GeV/n protons and alpha-particles, data from the Chicago instrument on board IMP-8 and the neutron monitor network have been used to determine the corresponding time profiles at Earth. We obtain a spatial distribution at solar maximum which differs greatly from the solar minimum distribution. A steady-state approximation, which was characterized by a small radial and significant latitudinal gradient at solar minimum, was interchanged with a highly variable one with a large radial and a small – consistent with zero – latitudinal gradient. A significant deviation from a spherically symmetric cosmic ray distribution following the reversal of the solar magnetic field in 2000/2001 has not been observed yet. A small deviation has only been observed at northern polar regions, showing an excess of particles instead of the expected depression. This indicates that the reconfiguration of the heliospheric magnetic field, caused by the reappearance of the northern polar coronal hole, starts dominating the modulation of galactic cosmic rays already at solar maximum.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; energetic particles – Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration

  5. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscales, Jose L., E-mail: jlroscales@iqog.csic.es [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC (IQOG-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura [Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio) and Department of Animal Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ryan, Peter G. [Percy FitzPatrick Institute, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Jiménez, Begoña [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC (IQOG-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ{sup 13}C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to

  6. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G.; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ 13 C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  7. Latitudinal variation of diversity in European freshwater animals is not concordant across habitat types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Brändle, Martin; Brandl, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Aim We analysed the variation of species richness in the European freshwater fauna across latitude. In particular, we compared latitudinal patterns in species richness and ß -diversity among species adapted to different habitat types. Location Europe. Methods We compiled data on occurrence for 14......,020 animal species across 25 pre-defined biogeographical regions of European freshwaters from the Limnofauna Europaea . Furthermore, we extracted information on the habitat preferences of species. We assigned species to three habitat types: species adapted to groundwater, lotic (running water) and lentic...... richness among species adapted to different habitat types are in part due to differences in the propensity for dispersal. Since lentic habitats are less persistent than lotic or groundwater habitats, lentic species evolved more efficient strategies for dispersal. The dispersal propensity of lentic species...

  8. Adaptations to “Thermal Time” Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J. Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations to “thermal time” (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the “converse of Bergmann’s size Rule”, with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3–4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general “voltinism/size/D-day” model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local “climatic cold pockets” in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these “cold pockets” are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal

  9. Rapid Multiplex Small DNA Sequencing on the MinION Nanopore Sequencing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Real-time sequencing of short DNA reads has a wide variety of clinical and research applications including screening for mutations, target sequences and aneuploidy. We recently demonstrated that MinION, a nanopore-based DNA sequencing device the size of a USB drive, could be used for short-read DNA sequencing. In this study, an ultra-rapid multiplex library preparation and sequencing method for the MinION is presented and applied to accurately test normal diploid and aneuploidy samples’ genomic DNA in under three hours, including library preparation and sequencing. This novel method shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic test for applications requiring rapid short-read DNA sequencing.

  10. Global latitudinal species diversity gradient in deep-sea benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Stephen J.; Buzas, Martin A.

    2000-02-01

    Global scale patterns of species diversity for modern deep-sea benthic foraminifera, an important component of the bathyal and abyssal meiofauna, are examined using comparable data from five studies in the Atlantic, ranging over 138° of latitude from the Norwegian Sea to the Weddell Sea. We show that a pattern of decreasing diversity with increasing latitude characterises both the North and South Atlantic. This pattern is confirmed for the northern hemisphere by independent data from the west-central North Atlantic and the Arctic basin. Species diversity in the North Atlantic northwards from the equator is variable until a sharp fall in the Norwegian Sea (ca. 65°N). In the South Atlantic species diversity drops from a maximum in latitudes less than 30°S and then decreases slightly from 40 to 70°S. For any given latitude, North Atlantic diversity is generally lower than in the South Atlantic. Both ecological and historical factors related to food supply are invoked to explain the formation and maintenance of the latitudinal gradient of deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species diversity. The gradient formed some 36 million years ago when global climatic cooling led to seasonally fluctuating food supply in higher latitudes.

  11. Broad-scale latitudinal variation in female reproductive success contributes to the maintenance of a geographic range boundary in bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae.

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    Marc Rhainds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geographic range limits and the factors structuring them are of great interest to biologists, in part because of concerns about how global change may shift range boundaries. However, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in empirical systems, especially in animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Across dozens of populations spread over six degrees of latitude in the American Midwest, female mating success of the evergreen bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae declines from ∼100% to ∼0% near the edge of the species range. When coupled with additional latitudinal declines in fecundity and in egg and pupal survivorship, a spatial gradient of bagworm reproductive success emerges. This gradient is associated with a progressive decline in local abundance and an increased risk of local population extinction, up to a latitudinal threshold where extremely low female fitness meshes spatially with the species' geographic range boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reduction in fitness of female bagworms near the geographic range limit, which concords with the abundant centre hypothesis from biogeography, provides a concrete, empirical example of how an Allee effect (increased pre-reproductive mortality of females in sparsely populated areas may interact with other demographic factors to induce a geographic range limit.

  12. Latitudinal profile of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo magnetic signature: comparison with the DP2 magnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Zaka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During magnetic storms, the auroral electrojets intensification affects the thermospheric circulation on a global scale. This process which leads to electric field and current disturbance at middle and low latitudes, on the quiet day after the end of a storm, has been attributed to the ionospheric disturbance dynamo (Ddyn. The magnetic field disturbance observed as a result of this process is the reduction of the H component amplitude in the equatorial region which constitutes the main characteristic of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo process, associated with a westward electric current flow. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance dynamo magnetic signature exhibits an eastward current at mid latitudes and a westward one at low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Such current flow reveals an "anti-Sq" system established between the mid latitudes and the equatorial region and opposes the normal Sq current vortex. However, the localization of the eastward current and consequently the position and the extent of the "anti-Sq" current vortex changes from one storm to another. Indeed, for a strong magnetic storm, the eastward current is well established at mid latitudes about 45° N and for a weak magnetic storm, the eastward current is established toward the high latitudes (about 60° N, near the Joule heating region, resulting in a large "anti-Sq" current cell. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance as well as the magnetic disturbance DP2 generated by the mechanism of prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field in general, show a weak disturbance at the low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Due to the intensity of the storm, the magnitude of the DP2 appears higher than the Ddyn over the American and Asian sector contrary to the African sector.

  13. Latitudinal extent of the January 2005 solar proton event in the Northern Hemisphere from satellite observations of hydroxyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Verronen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We utilise hydroxyl observations from the MLS/Aura satellite instrument to study the latitudinal extent of particle forcing in the northern polar region during the January 2005 solar proton event. MLS is the first satellite instrument to observe HOx changes during such an event. We also predict the hydroxyl changes with respect to the magnetic latitude by the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry model, estimating the variable magnetic cutoff energies for protons using a parameterisation based on magnetosphere modelling and the planetary magnetic index Kp. In the middle and lower mesosphere, HOx species are good indicators of the changes in the atmosphere during solar proton events, because they respond rapidly to both increases and decreases in proton forcing. Also, atmospheric transport has a negligible effect on HOx because of its short chemical lifetime. The observations indicate the boundary of the proton forcing and a transition region, from none to the "full" effect, which ranges from about 57 to 64 degrees of magnetic latitude. When saturating the rigidity cutoff Kp at 6 in the model, as suggested by earlier studies using observations of cosmic radio noise absorption, the equatorward boundary of the transition region is offset by ≈2 degrees polewards compared with the data, thus the latitudinal extent of the proton forcing in the atmosphere is underestimated. However, the model predictions are in reasonable agreement with the MLS measurements when the Kp index is allowed to vary within its nominal range, i.e., from 1 to 9 in the cutoff calculation.

  14. Development of microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing for the columnar cactus Echinopsis chiloensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carmen G; Larridon, Isabel; Peralta, Gioconda; Asselman, Pieter; Pérez, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers as a tool to study population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size of Echinopsis chiloensis, an endemic cactus from arid and semiarid regions of Central Chile. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for E. chiloensis using next-generation sequencing and tested them in 60 individuals from six sites, covering all the latitudinal range of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8, while the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.80 and from 0.10 to 0.76, respectively. We also detected significant differences between sites, with F ST values ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. Microsatellite markers will enable us to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E. chiloensis in future ecological and phylogeographic studies.

  15. Tree diversity patterns along the latitudinal gradient in the northwestern Russia

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    Elena Tikhonova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the key forest characteristics is the biodiversity, particularly the diversity of trees which are forest ecosystem engineers. Nowadays the most worldwide common approach for assessment of forest conditions and dynamics is based on the systematic monitoring, performed at a set of regularly structured plots. To fulfill the existing gap in this sort of knowledge on the Russian forests, an extensive study of tree species diversity on a regular network was conducted in north-west of Russia. Methods The study used the ICP Forests monitoring network that spans over 1700 km along the western Russian border from forest-tundra in the north to broadleaved-coniferous forests in the south. Tree data were collected at 710 sites that were assigned along a regular grid. We performed series of statistical analyses of the tree species distribution and diversity in relation to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Results According to the Maxent species distribution modelling results only Pinus sylvestris, Betula sp. and Picea abies have the potential to grow throughout the study area. The locally maximum tree species diversity varies along the latitudinal gradient from 1 to 3 species in the north to 5–7 species in the south. Monocultural stands are relatively abundant across the study area, being especially common in the south taiga. The prevailing part of the monocultural stands is represented by Scots pine (72%. The age distribution of dominant trees has a clear connection with the intensity of forest use. We found that recent wildfire events had only little effect on tree diversity in the study area. Conclusions We demonstrated that ICP Forests monitoring network enables to successfully establish the main qualitative and quantitative relations of the spatial variation of tree species diversity to climatic, landscape, soil and anthropogenic factors. Analysis of the influence of these factors on tree species distribution allowed us to

  16. TRX-LOGOS - a graphical tool to demonstrate DNA information content dependent upon backbone dynamics in addition to base sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Connor H; Schulze, Katharina V; Babbitt, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    It is now widely-accepted that DNA sequences defining DNA-protein interactions functionally depend upon local biophysical features of DNA backbone that are important in defining sites of binding interaction in the genome (e.g. DNA shape, charge and intrinsic dynamics). However, these physical features of DNA polymer are not directly apparent when analyzing and viewing Shannon information content calculated at single nucleobases in a traditional sequence logo plot. Thus, sequence logos plots are severely limited in that they convey no explicit information regarding the structural dynamics of DNA backbone, a feature often critical to binding specificity. We present TRX-LOGOS, an R software package and Perl wrapper code that interfaces the JASPAR database for computational regulatory genomics. TRX-LOGOS extends the traditional sequence logo plot to include Shannon information content calculated with regard to the dinucleotide-based BI-BII conformation shifts in phosphate linkages on the DNA backbone, thereby adding a visual measure of intrinsic DNA flexibility that can be critical for many DNA-protein interactions. TRX-LOGOS is available as an R graphics module offered at both SourceForge and as a download supplement at this journal. To demonstrate the general utility of TRX logo plots, we first calculated the information content for 416 Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor binding sites functionally confirmed in the Yeastract database and matched to previously published yeast genomic alignments. We discovered that flanking regions contain significantly elevated information content at phosphate linkages than can be observed at nucleobases. We also examined broader transcription factor classifications defined by the JASPAR database, and discovered that many general signatures of transcription factor binding are locally more information rich at the level of DNA backbone dynamics than nucleobase sequence. We used TRX-logos in combination with MEGA 6.0 software

  17. Latitudinal variation of a defensive symbiosis in the Bugula neritina (Bryozoa sibling species complex.

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    Jonathan Linneman

    Full Text Available Mutualistic relationships are beneficial for both partners and are often studied within a single environment. However, when the range of the partners is large, geographical differences in selective pressure may shift the relationship outcome from positive to negative. The marine bryozoan Bugula neritina is a colonial invertebrate common in temperate waters worldwide. It is the source of bioactive polyketide metabolites, the bryostatins. Evidence suggests that an uncultured vertically transmitted symbiont, "Candidatus Endobugula sertula", hosted by B. neritina produces the bryostatins, which protect the vulnerable larvae from predation. Studies of B. neritina along the North American Atlantic coast revealed a complex of two morphologically similar sibling species separated by an apparent biogeographic barrier: the Type S sibling species was found below Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, while Type N was found above. Interestingly, the Type N colonies lack "Ca. Endobugula sertula" and, subsequently, defensive bryostatins; their documented northern distribution was consistent with traditional biogeographical paradigms of latitudinal variation in predation pressure. Upon further sampling of B. neritina populations, we found that both host types occur in wider distribution, with Type N colonies living south of Cape Hatteras, and Type S to the north. Distribution of the symbiont, however, was not restricted to Type S hosts. Genetic and microscopic evidence demonstrates the presence of the symbiont in some Type N colonies, and larvae from these colonies are endowed with defensive bryostatins and contain "Ca. Endobugula sertula". Molecular analysis of the symbiont from Type N colonies suggests an evolutionarily recent acquisition, which is remarkable for a symbiont thought to be transmitted only vertically. Furthermore, most Type S colonies found at higher latitudes lack the symbiont, suggesting that this host-symbiont relationship is more flexible than

  18. Seasonal acclimation and latitudinal adaptation are of the same magnitude in Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Bundgård, Amanda Marie; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models often assume homogeneous physiological performance within a species distribution range. This assumption potentially underestimates the distribution as it neglects physiological plasticity and adaptation among species and populations. Better knowledge on the physiological......% after cold acclimation. Combined, our results show that seasonal variation in mitochondrial respiration is of the same magnitude as large-scale (>1000 km) latitudinal variation. The high respiratory plasticity in Mytilus spp. improves fitness in changing temperature environments and supports their large...

  19. ROBOT LEARNING OF OBJECT MANIPULATION TASK ACTIONS FROM HUMAN DEMONSTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyrarini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robot learning from demonstration is a method which enables robots to learn in a similar way as humans. In this paper, a framework that enables robots to learn from multiple human demonstrations via kinesthetic teaching is presented. The subject of learning is a high-level sequence of actions, as well as the low-level trajectories necessary to be followed by the robot to perform the object manipulation task. The multiple human demonstrations are recorded and only the most similar demonstrations are selected for robot learning. The high-level learning module identifies the sequence of actions of the demonstrated task. Using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, the model of demonstrated trajectories is learned. The learned trajectory is generated by Gaussian mixture regression (GMR from the learned Gaussian mixture model.  In online working phase, the sequence of actions is identified and experimental results show that the robot performs the learned task successfully.

  20. Latitudinal Trends in Abundant and Rare Bacterioplankton Community Structure and Diversity in Surface Waters of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, W. H.; Moss, J. A.; Snyder, R.; Pakulski, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    To fully comprehend planktonic diversity and the roles of microorganisms in global biogeochemical cycling, we must recognize the distribution patterns of planktonic taxa and phylotypes and their controlling environmental factors. To advance this understanding, Illumina sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to evaluate latitudinal patterns of bacterial taxa as well as diversity in surface waters in the Pacific Ocean. Surface water was collected at 37 stations at 370 km intervals in a 16,200 km transect from 71 N to 68 S in the Pacific Ocean from August to November 2003. These samples were collected on Sterivex filters and kept continuously at -80 C until recent processing which produced over 200k reads per site, half of which were discernible down to the genus level. Bray-Curtis analysis of known genera produced 4 major clusters—sub-Arctic/Arctic, tropical, temperate, and sub-Antarctic/Antarctic. Analysis of only the rare (< 1%) genera produced the same 4 major clusters, although the clusters were most congruent in their geographic distribution when only the abundant taxa were included. Key phyla responsible for these groupings include genera of the Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, and as expected, include the pronounced presence of Prochlorococcus in the temperate and equatorial regions. However, many robust trends such as unipolar and bipolar distribution in both the abundant (≥1%) and rare (< 1%) genera within phyla Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Barteriodetes, were also apparent. The data sheds light on distribution patterns of the Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Olleya, Salegentibacter, Ulvibacter, Bizionia, Pirellula, and many other additional, understudied genera. Of the 655 identified genera, no significant gradients in gamma diversity were apparent when 12 commonly used species and phylogenetic indices were applied.

  1. Sequencing of chloroplast genome using whole cellular DNA and Solexa sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing of the chloroplast genome using traditional sequencing methods has been difficult because of its size (>120 kb and the complicated procedures required to prepare templates. To explore the feasibility of sequencing the chloroplast genome using DNA extracted from whole cells and Solexa sequencing technology, we sequenced whole cellular DNA isolated from leaves of three Brassica rapa accessions with one lane per accession. In total, 246 Mb, 362Mb, 361 Mb sequence data were generated for the three accessions Chiifu-401-42, Z16 and FT, respectively. Microreads were assembled by reference-guided assembly using the cpDNA sequences of B. rapa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Nicotiana tabacum. We achieved coverage of more than 99.96% of the cp genome in the three tested accessions using the B. rapa sequence as the reference. When A. thaliana or N. tabacum sequences were used as references, 99.7–99.8% or 95.5–99.7% of the B. rapa chloroplast genome was covered, respectively. These results demonstrated that sequencing of whole cellular DNA isolated from young leaves using the Illumina Genome Analyzer is an efficient method for high-throughput sequencing of chloroplast genome.

  2. Insect temperature-body size trends common to laboratory, latitudinal and seasonal gradients are not found across altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2018-01-01

    Body size affects rates of most biological and ecological processes, from individual performance to ecosystem function, and is fundamentally linked to organism fitness. Within species, size at maturity can vary systematically with environmental temperature in the laboratory and across seasons...... altitude. Although the general direction of body size clines along altitudinal gradients has been examined previously, to our knowledge altitude-body size (A-S) clines have never been synthesised quantitatively, nor compared with temperature-size (T-S) responses measured under controlled laboratory......, as well as over latitudinal gradients. Recent meta-analyses have revealed a close match in the magnitude and direction of these size gradients in various arthropod orders, suggesting that these size responses share common drivers. As with increasing latitude, temperature also decreases with increasing...

  3. Diversidade dos Belytinae (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae) ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal de Mata Atlântica Ombrófila Densa

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Leite Quadros

    2015-01-01

    Os principais objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a distribuição da riqueza dos Hymenoptera parasitoides Diapriidae Belytinae ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal da Mata Atlântica e explicar as causas do padrão de riqueza encontrado por comparação com os padrões descritos para outros grupos. Os Belytinae exercem papel chave na regulação natural de populações de muitas espécies de Mycetophilidae e Sciaridae (Diptera) e o conhecimento sobre a diversidade desta subfamília no bioma Mata Atlâ...

  4. Diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of electron temperature measured by the SROSS C2 satellite at 500 km altitude and comparison with the IRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhuyan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of electron temperature Te, measured by the SROSS C2 satellite at equatorial and the low-latitudes during the low solar activity period of 1995–1997 are investigated. The average height of the satellite was ~ 500 km and it covered the latitude belt of –31° to 34° and the longitude range of 40°–100°. Te varies between 700–800 K during night-time (20:00–04:00 LT, rises sharply during sunrise (04:00–06:00 LT to reach a level of ~ 3500 K within a couple of hours and then falls between 07:00–10:00 LT to a daytime average value of ~ 1600 K. A secondary maximum is observed around 16:00–18:00 LT in summer. Latitudinal gradients in Te have been observed during the morning enhancement and daytime hours. Comparison of measured and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI predicted electron temperature reveals that the IRI predicts nighttime Te well within ~ 100 K of observation, but at other local times, the predicted Te is less than that measured in all seasons.Key words. Ionosphere, equatorial ionosphere, plasma temperature, and density

  5. Sequence embedding for fast construction of guide trees for multiple sequence alignment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Blackshields, Gordon

    2010-05-14

    Abstract Background The most widely used multiple sequence alignment methods require sequences to be clustered as an initial step. Most sequence clustering methods require a full distance matrix to be computed between all pairs of sequences. This requires memory and time proportional to N 2 for N sequences. When N grows larger than 10,000 or so, this becomes increasingly prohibitive and can form a significant barrier to carrying out very large multiple alignments. Results In this paper, we have tested variations on a class of embedding methods that have been designed for clustering large numbers of complex objects where the individual distance calculations are expensive. These methods involve embedding the sequences in a space where the similarities within a set of sequences can be closely approximated without having to compute all pair-wise distances. Conclusions We show how this approach greatly reduces computation time and memory requirements for clustering large numbers of sequences and demonstrate the quality of the clusterings by benchmarking them as guide trees for multiple alignment. Source code is available for download from http:\\/\\/www.clustal.org\\/mbed.tgz.

  6. Transformed composite sequences for improved qubit addressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J. True; Doret, S. Charles; Vittorini, Grahame; Addison, J. P.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2014-10-01

    Selective laser addressing of a single atom or atomic ion qubit can be improved using narrow-band composite pulse sequences. We describe a Lie-algebraic technique to generalize known narrow-band sequences and introduce sequences related by dilation and rotation of sequence generators. Our method improves known narrow-band sequences by decreasing both the pulse time and the residual error. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate these composite sequences using 40Ca+ ions trapped in a surface-electrode ion trap.

  7. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  8. Latitudinal variation in the symbiotic dinoflagellateSymbiodiniumof the common reef zoantharianPalythoa tuberculosaon the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Reimer, James D.

    2016-08-08

    Aim The Red Sea presents an ideal setting to explore the variability of Symbiodinium over environmental, latitudinal and geographical gradients. We used sequences from two molecular markers to examine genetic diversity of Symbiodinium associated with the widely distributed zoantharian Palythoa tuberculosa in the northern and central Red Sea. Location Northern and central Red Sea. Methods Specimens (n = 329) were collected from 15 locations. Sequence data from nuclear ribosomal ITS2 (n = 269) and chloroplast minicircle psbAncr (n = 173) were phylogenetically analysed (maximum likelihood, neighbour joining), and Symbiodinium types identified for each P. tuberculosa colony. To establish whether environment was a strong predictor of Symbiodinium psbAncr lineage, SST, chlorophyll-a, salinity, and depth data were fit into a multinomial logistic regression using the package VGAM in the R statistical environment. Results Based on ITS2 and psbAncr results, P. tuberculosa colonies were shown to be in symbioses with Symbiodinium clade C (n = 172) and clade D (n = 1). Within clade C, four psbAncr lineages were observed; closely related lineages designated Pt-1-a and Pt-1-b, and closely related lineages Pt-3-a and Pt-3-b. By location, Pt-1-a dominated the sites within the Gulf of Aqaba (c. 86%, 37/43 colonies). At the entrance to the Gulf of Aqaba, Pt-3-a dominated (c. 88%, 15/17), while the more southern remaining sites in the Red Sea were dominated by Pt-3-b (c. 78%, 89/113). Main conclusions Multinomial logistic regression analyses established that predictions based on the combination of temperature, chlorophyll-a and salinity accurately reflected symbiont distributions in the central and northern Red Sea. Palythoa tuberculosa host Pt-1-a in the coldest region, the Gulf of Aqaba (annual average SST = 24.5–25.0 °C), while immediately to the south Pt-3-a dominates (SST = 26.0–26.5 °C), with warmest southern sites dominated by Pt-3-b (SST > 26.5 °C). The Gulf of Aqaba is

  9. Propagation properties of Rossby waves for latitudinal β-plane variations of f and zonal variations of the shallow water speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Duba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the shallow water equations for a rotating layer of fluid, the wave and dispersion equations for Rossby waves are developed for the cases of both the standard β-plane approximation for the latitudinal variation of the Coriolis parameter f and a zonal variation of the shallow water speed. It is well known that the wave normal diagram for the standard (mid-latitude Rossby wave on a β-plane is a circle in wave number (ky,kx space, whose centre is displaced −β/2 ω units along the negative kx axis, and whose radius is less than this displacement, which means that phase propagation is entirely westward. This form of anisotropy (arising from the latitudinal y variation of f, combined with the highly dispersive nature of the wave, gives rise to a group velocity diagram which permits eastward as well as westward propagation. It is shown that the group velocity diagram is an ellipse, whose centre is displaced westward, and whose major and minor axes give the maximum westward, eastward and northward (southward group speeds as functions of the frequency and a parameter m which measures the ratio of the low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave speed to the shallow water speed. We believe these properties of group velocity diagram have not been elucidated in this way before. We present a similar derivation of the wave normal diagram and its associated group velocity curve for the case of a zonal (x variation of the shallow water speed, which may arise when the depth of an ocean varies zonally from a continental shelf.

  10. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arielle S.; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193

  11. Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arielle S; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed.

  12. Latitudinal variation of life-history traits of an exotic and a native impatiens species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Kamal Prasad; De Frenne, Pieter; Brunet, Jörg; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A. O.; Diekmann, Martin; Hermy, Martin; Kolb, Annette; Lemke, Isgard; Plue, Jan; Verheyen, Kris; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the responses of invasive and native populations to environmental change is crucial for reliable predictions of invasions in the face of global change. While comparisons of responses across invasive species with different life histories have been performed before, comparing functional traits of congeneric native and invasive species may help to reveal driving factors associated with invasion. Here we compared morphological functional trait patterns of an invasive species (Impatiens parviflora) with its congeneric native species (I. noli-tangere) along an approximately 1600 km European latitudinal gradient from France (49°34‧N) to Norway (63°40‧N). Soil nitrogen was recorded during six weeks of the growing season, and light, soil moisture, and nutrient availability were estimated for each sampled population using community weighted means of indicator values for co-occurring species. Temperature data were gathered from nearby weather stations. Both the native and invasive species are taller at higher latitudes and this response is strongest in the invasive species. Seed mass and number of seeds per capsule increase in I. noli-tangere but decrease in I. parviflora towards higher latitudes. Surprisingly, plant height in the invasive I. parviflora decreases with increasing soil nitrogen availability. The latitudinal pattern in seed mass is positively related to temperature in I. noli-tangere and negatively in I. parviflora. Leaf area of both species decreases with increasing Ellenberg indicator values for nitrogen and light but increases with increasing soil moisture. Soil nitrogen concentrations and Ellenberg indicator values for nitrogen have significant positive (I. noli-tangere) and negative (I. parviflora) effects on the number of seeds per capsule. Our results show that the native I. noli-tangere has efficient reproduction at its range edge while the invasive I. parviflora shows a marked decrease in seed size and seed number per capsule. These

  13. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  14. Demonstrating Interactions of Transcription Factors with DNA by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Nasim; Gould, David

    2017-01-01

    Confirming the binding of a transcription factor with a particular DNA sequence may be important in characterizing interactions with a synthetic promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay is a powerful approach to demonstrate the specific DNA sequence that is bound by a transcription factor and also to confirm the specific transcription factor involved in the interaction. In this chapter we describe a method we have successfully used to demonstrate interactions of endogenous transcription factors with sequences derived from endogenous and synthetic promoters.

  15. DEMONSTRATION BY MASS-SPECTROMETRY THAT PSEUDO-HEVEIN AND HEVEIN HAVE RAGGED C-TERMINAL SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOEDJANAATMADJA, UMS; HOFSTEENGE, J; JERONIMUSSTRATINGH, CM; BRUINS, AP; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1994-01-01

    The primary structure of pseudo-hevein, a minor hevein component from the latex of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, was determined. Six differences with the sequence of the major hevein component were found, one of which is a replacement of tryptophan by tyrosine in the carbohydrate binding

  16. Latitudinal variation in nematode diversity and ecological roles along the Chinese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jihua; Chen, Huili; Zhang, Youzheng

    2016-11-01

    To test changes in the phylogenetic relatedness, niche breadth, and life-history strategies of nematodes along a latitudinal gradient. Sixteen wetland locations along the Pacific coast of China, from 20°N to 40°N. Linear regression was used to relate nematode phylogenetic relatedness (average taxonomic distinctness (AvTD) and average phylogenetic diversity [AvPD]), life-history group (based on " c - p " colonizer-persister group classification), and dietary specificity (based on guild classification of feeding selectivity) to latitude. Wetland nematode taxonomic diversity (richness and Shannon diversity indices) decreased with increasing latitude along the Chinese coast. Phylogenetic diversity indices (AvTD and AvPD) significantly increased with increasing latitude. This indicates that at lower latitudes, species within the nematode community were more closely related. With increasing latitude, the nematode relative richness and abundance decreased for selective deposit feeders but increased for nonselective deposit feeders. The proportion of general opportunists decreased with increasing latitude, but persisters showed the opposite trend. The annual temperature range and the pH of sediments were more important than vegetation type in structuring nematode communities. Nematode niche breadth was narrower at lower latitudes with respect to dietary specificity. Higher latitudes with a more variable climate favor r over K life-history strategists. Nematode communities at lower latitudes contained more closely related species.

  17. Latitudinal distribution of soft X-ray flares and dispairty in butterfly diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, K. K.; Yellaiah, G.; Hiremath, K. M.

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of about 63000 soft X-ray flare (class≥C) observed by geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) during the period 1976-2008. Class wise occurrence of soft X-ray (SXR) flare is in declining trend since cycle 21. The distribution pattern of cycle 21 shows the transit of hemispheric dominance of flare activity from northern to southern hemisphere and remains there during cycle 22 and 23. During the three cycles, 0-100, 21-300 latitude belts in southern hemisphere (SH) and 31-400 latitude belt in northern hemisphere (NH) are mightier. The 11-200 latitude belt of both hemisphere is mightiest. Correlation coefficient between consecutive latitude appears to be increasing from equator to poleward in northern hemisphere whereas pole to equatorward in southern hemisphere. Slope of the regression line fitted with asymmetry time series of daily flare counts is negative in all three cycles for different classes of flares. The yearly asymmetry curve fitted by a sinusoidal function varies from 5.6 to 11 years period and depends upon the intensity of flare. Variation, of curve fitted with wings of butterfly diagram, from first to second order polynomial suggests that latitudinal migration of flare activity varies from cycle to cycle, northern to southern hemisphere. The variation in slope of the butterfly wing of different flare class indicates the non uniform migration of flare activity.

  18. Next-generation sequencing of multiple individuals per barcoded library by deconvolution of sequenced amplicons using endonuclease fragment analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Pereira, Vania; Pietroni, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous sequencing of samples from multiple individuals increases the efficiency of next-generation sequencing (NGS) while also reducing costs. Here we describe a novel and simple approach for sequencing DNA from multiple individuals per barcode. Our strategy relies on the endonuclease...... digestion of PCR amplicons prior to library preparation, creating a specific fragment pattern for each individual that can be resolved after sequencing. By using both barcodes and restriction fragment patterns, we demonstrate the ability to sequence the human melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) genes from 72...... individuals using only 24 barcoded libraries....

  19. Abundance of two Pelagibacter ubique bacteriophage genotypes along a latitudinal transect in the North and South Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Eggleston

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes viral and bacterial dynamics along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean from approximately 10N to 40S. Overall viral abundance decreased with depth, on average there were 1.64 ± 0.71 x107 virus like particles (VLPs in surface waters, decreasing to an average of 6.50 ± 2.26 x105 VLPs in Antarctic Bottom Water. This decrease was highly correlated to bacterial abundance. There are six major water masses in the Southern Tropical Atlantic Ocean, and inclusion of water mass, temperature and salinity variables explained a majority of the variation in total viral abundance. Recent discovery of phages infecting bacteria of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria (i.e. pelagiphages leads to intriguing questions about the roles they play in shaping epipelagic communities. Viral-size fraction DNA from epipelagic water was used to quantify the abundance of two pelagiphages, using pelagiphage-specific quantitative PCR primers and probes along the transect. We found that HTVC010P, a member of a podoviridae sub-family, was most abundant in surface waters. Copy numbers ranged from an average of 1.03 ± 2.38 x 105 copies ml-1 in surface waters, to 5.79 ± 2.86 x103 in the deep chlorophyll maximum. HTVC008M, a T4-like myovirus, was present in the deep chlorophyll maximum (5.42±2.8x103 copies ml-1 on average, although it was not as highly abundant as HTVC010P in surface waters (6.05±3.01x103 copies ml-1 on average. Interestingly, HTVC008M was only present at a few of the most southern stations, suggesting latitudinal biogeography of SAR11 phages.

  20. Next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Bak, Mads; Jønson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , Illumina); several millions of PCR sequences were analyzed. RESULTS: The results demonstrated the feasibility of diagnosing the fetal KEL1 or KEL2 blood group from cell-free DNA purified from maternal plasma. CONCLUSION: This method requires only one primer pair, and the large amount of sequence...... information obtained allows well for statistical analysis of the data. This general approach can be integrated into current laboratory practice and has numerous applications. Besides DNA-based predictions of blood group phenotypes, platelet phenotypes, or sickle cell anemia, and the determination of zygosity...

  1. Caught in the act: Incipient speciation across a latitudinal gradient in a semifossorial mammal from Madagascar, the mole tenrec Oryzorictes hova (Tenrecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Kathryn M; Hildebrandt, Kyndall B P; Goodman, Steven M; Olson, Link E

    2018-02-28

    Madagascar is one of the world's foremost biodiversity hotspots, yet a large portion of its flora and fauna remains undescribed and the driving forces of in situ diversification are not well understood. Recent studies have identified a widespread, latitudinally structured phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid-forest mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Several factors may be driving this pattern, namely biogeographic barriers (i.e., rivers or valleys) or past episodes of forest contraction and expansion. In this study, we describe the phylogeographic structure of the small, semifossorial mammal Oryzorictes hova, one of Madagascar's two species of mole tenrec, found throughout Madagascar's eastern humid forest belt, from high-elevation montane forest to low-elevation forests, as well as disturbed habitat such as rice fields. Using one mitochondrial locus, four nuclear loci, and 31 craniomandibular measurements, we identified three distinct populations of O. hova associated with the northern, central, and southern regions of the island. We found little evidence of gene flow among these populations, so we treated each population as a potential species. We validated species limits using two Bayesian methods: BP&P, employing only DNA sequence data, and iBPP using both DNA and morphological data, and we assessed whether these methods are susceptible to producing false positive errors. Molecular and morphological data support the recognition of each of the three populations of O. hova as distinct species, but formal species descriptions will require additional data from type specimens. This study illustrates the importance of using integrative datasets, multiple methodological approaches, and extensive geographic sampling for species delimitation and adds evidence for a widespread phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid forest taxa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hardware Accelerated Sequence Alignment with Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    in a timely manner. Known methods to accelerate alignment on reconfigurable hardware only address sequence comparison, limit the sequence length, or exhibit memory and I/O bottlenecks. A space-efficient, global sequence alignment algorithm and architecture is presented that accelerates the forward scan and traceback in hardware without memory and I/O limitations. With 256 processing elements in FPGA technology, a performance gain over 300 times that of a desktop computer is demonstrated on sequence lengths of 16000. For greater performance, the architecture is scalable to more processing elements.

  3. Latitudinal distribution of cesium-137 fallout in 1990 on Saxifraga oppositofolia from Ellesmere Island, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, R.L.; Svoboda, J.; Taylor, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    During the first ski traverse of Ellesmere Island in spring 1990, purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) was collected at 10 sites from 76 to 82 degrees N. Measured 137 Cs levels in this cushion plant displayed a progressive decrease in activity north of 78 degrees, reflecting past global patterns of radionuclide fallout. Lower 137 Cs activity at the southern end of Ellesmere Island may reflect a northward shift of the distribution maximum since a previous latitudinal survey conducted in 1979-1980. Levels of 137 in three species of lichen were consistently higher than those for nearby saxifrage, possibly owing to the larger exposure to fallout for much of the year and the slower rate of lichen growth. In support of previous research, no 134 Cs was detected, which indicated that Chernobyl fallout had not been deposited in significant quantities at these extreme northern latitudes. Specific activities in 1990 of saxifrage samples were compared with similar samples collected during 1979-1980 to derive an effective half-life of 6.2 ± 1.0 years for northern Ellesmere Island

  4. Peatland Organic Matter Chemistry Trends Over a Global Latitudinal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, B. A.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Carson, M. A.; Lamit, L. J.; Lilleskov, E.; Chanton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands contain a significant amount of the global soil carbon, and the climate feedback of carbon cycling within these peatland systems is still relatively unknown. Organic matter composition of peatlands plays a major role in determining carbon storage, and while high latitude peatlands seem to be the most sensitive to climate change, a global picture of peat organic matter chemistry is required to improve predictions and models of greenhouse gas emissions fueled by peatland decomposition. The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate content of peatlands near the equator will be lower than high latitude peatlands, while aromatic content will be higher. As a part of the Global Peatland Microbiome Project (GPMP), around 2000 samples of peat from 10 to 70 cm across a latitudinal gradient of 79 N to 53 S were measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to examine the organic matter functional groups of peat. Carbohydrate and aromatic content, as determined by FTIR, are useful proxies of decomposition potential and recalcitrance, respectively. We found a highly significant relationship between carbohydrate and aromatic content, latitude, and depth. Carbohydrate content of high latitude sites were significantly greater than at sites near the equator, in contrast to aromatic content which showed the opposite trend. It is also clear that carbohydrate content decreases with depth while aromatic content increases with depth. Higher carbohydrate content at higher latitudes indicates a greater potential for lability and resultant mineralization to form the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, whereas the composition of low latitude peatlands is consistent with their apparent stability. We speculate that the combination of low carbohydrates and high aromatics at warmer locations near the equator could foreshadow the organic matter composition of high latitude peat transitioning to a more recalcitrant form with a

  5. Equatorial F-region plasma depletion drifts: latitudinal and seasonal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pimenta

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The equatorial ionospheric irregularities have been observed in the past few years by different techniques (e.g. ground-based radar, digisonde, GPS, optical instruments, in situ satellite and rocket instrumentation, and its time evolution and propagation characteristics can be used to study important aspects of ionospheric dynamics and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling. At present, one of the most powerful optical techniques to study the large-scale ionospheric irregularities is the all-sky imaging photometer system, which normally measures the strong F-region nightglow 630 nm emission from atomic oxygen. The monochromatic OI 630 nm emission images usually show quasi-north-south magnetic field-aligned intensity depletion bands, which are the bottomside optical signatures of large-scale F-region plasma irregularities (also called plasma bubbles. The zonal drift velocities of the plasma bubbles can be inferred from the space-time displacement of the dark structures (low intensity regions seen on the images. In this study, images obtained with an all-sky imaging photometer, using the OI 630 nm nightglow emission, from Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45° W, 15.8° S dip latitude, Brazil, have been used to determine the nocturnal monthly and latitudinal variation characteristics of the zonal plasma bubble drift velocities in the low latitude (16.7° S to 28.7° S region. The east and west walls of the plasma bubble show a different evolution with time. The method used here is based on the western wall of the bubble, which presents a more stable behavior. Also, the observed zonal plasma bubble drift velocities are compared with the thermospheric zonal neutral wind velocities obtained from the HWM-90 model (Hedin et al., 1991 to investigate the thermosphere-ionosphere coupling. Salient features from this study are presented and discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities; instruments and techniques

  6. Distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de las especies más abundantes y frecuentes en la fauna acompañante del camarón del Golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarlosHiram Rábago-Quiroz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal and bathymetric distribution of the most abundant and frequent species in the shrimp bycatch from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The Gulf of California is one of the most mega-diverse regions in the world, for which few fishery information is available. We present here latitudinal and bathymetric distribution of the most abundant and frequent bycatch species from the Gulf of California. The samples were obtained from a total of 111 hauls taken during seven research cruises of the closed shrimp season (2002-2005-2007, and also, from research cruises made at depths up to 90m. Due to the high variety species in this experimental shrimp bycatch, only those with highest biological value index (BVI were selected. A total of fifteen species had the highest BVI and represented about 60% of the total abundance. A total of 16 508 organisms were analyzed, representing 243 fish, crustacean, mollusk and echinoderm species. Fish were the most abundant, being the most frequent species: Urobatis halleri, Synodus scituliceps, Diplectrum pacificum, Haemulopsis nitidus and Eucinostomus argenteus. A wide latitudinal distribution of these species along the study area, as well as a bathymetric distribution from 9 to 67m depth, was observed. Two of these species were found at 325m depth. Due to the wide bathymetric distribution obtained, total abundances and sizes for each species by depth strata should be determined, and one can assume that deeper than 25m, the capture of these species decreases, and these areas can be used as natural repopulation areas, for depths where they are mainly captured by the commercial shrimp fishery. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 255- 267. Epub 2011 March 01.

  7. Adding Feminist Therapy to Videotape Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Jennifer L.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2000-01-01

    Provides directions for presenting a 32-minute series of four videotape segments that highlights the fundamental features of four approaches to psychotherapy, extending its reach to include a feminist perspective. Describes the approaches and included segments. Reports that students' comments demonstrate that the video sequence provided a helpful…

  8. Winnowing DNA for rare sequences: highly specific sequence and methylation based enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Thompson

    Full Text Available Rare mutations in cell populations are known to be hallmarks of many diseases and cancers. Similarly, differential DNA methylation patterns arise in rare cell populations with diagnostic potential such as fetal cells circulating in maternal blood. Unfortunately, the frequency of alleles with diagnostic potential, relative to wild-type background sequence, is often well below the frequency of errors in currently available methods for sequence analysis, including very high throughput DNA sequencing. We demonstrate a DNA preparation and purification method that through non-linear electrophoretic separation in media containing oligonucleotide probes, achieves 10,000 fold enrichment of target DNA with single nucleotide specificity, and 100 fold enrichment of unmodified methylated DNA differing from the background by the methylation of a single cytosine residue.

  9. Winnowing DNA for rare sequences: highly specific sequence and methylation based enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason D; Shibahara, Gosuke; Rajan, Sweta; Pel, Joel; Marziali, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Rare mutations in cell populations are known to be hallmarks of many diseases and cancers. Similarly, differential DNA methylation patterns arise in rare cell populations with diagnostic potential such as fetal cells circulating in maternal blood. Unfortunately, the frequency of alleles with diagnostic potential, relative to wild-type background sequence, is often well below the frequency of errors in currently available methods for sequence analysis, including very high throughput DNA sequencing. We demonstrate a DNA preparation and purification method that through non-linear electrophoretic separation in media containing oligonucleotide probes, achieves 10,000 fold enrichment of target DNA with single nucleotide specificity, and 100 fold enrichment of unmodified methylated DNA differing from the background by the methylation of a single cytosine residue.

  10. The use of coded PCR primers enables high-throughput sequencing of multiple homolog amplification products by 454 parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Binladen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The invention of the Genome Sequence 20 DNA Sequencing System (454 parallel sequencing platform has enabled the rapid and high-volume production of sequence data. Until now, however, individual emulsion PCR (emPCR reactions and subsequent sequencing runs have been unable to combine template DNA from multiple individuals, as homologous sequences cannot be subsequently assigned to their original sources.We use conventional PCR with 5'-nucleotide tagged primers to generate homologous DNA amplification products from multiple specimens, followed by sequencing through the high-throughput Genome Sequence 20 DNA Sequencing System (GS20, Roche/454 Life Sciences. Each DNA sequence is subsequently traced back to its individual source through 5'tag-analysis.We demonstrate that this new approach enables the assignment of virtually all the generated DNA sequences to the correct source once sequencing anomalies are accounted for (miss-assignment rate<0.4%. Therefore, the method enables accurate sequencing and assignment of homologous DNA sequences from multiple sources in single high-throughput GS20 run. We observe a bias in the distribution of the differently tagged primers that is dependent on the 5' nucleotide of the tag. In particular, primers 5' labelled with a cytosine are heavily overrepresented among the final sequences, while those 5' labelled with a thymine are strongly underrepresented. A weaker bias also exists with regards to the distribution of the sequences as sorted by the second nucleotide of the dinucleotide tags. As the results are based on a single GS20 run, the general applicability of the approach requires confirmation. However, our experiments demonstrate that 5'primer tagging is a useful method in which the sequencing power of the GS20 can be applied to PCR-based assays of multiple homologous PCR products. The new approach will be of value to a broad range of research areas, such as those of comparative genomics, complete mitochondrial

  11. Latitudinal Patterns in European Seagrass Carbon Reserves: Influence of Seasonal Fluctuations versus Short-Term Stress and Disturbance Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Soissons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows form highly productive and valuable ecosystems in the marine environment. Throughout the year, seagrass meadows are exposed to abiotic and biotic variations linked to (i seasonal fluctuations, (ii short-term stress events such as, e.g., local nutrient enrichment, and (iii small-scale disturbances such as, e.g., biomass removal by grazing. We hypothesized that short-term stress events and small-scale disturbances may affect seagrass chance for survival in temperate latitudes. To test this hypothesis we focused on seagrass carbon reserves in the form of starch stored seasonally in rhizomes, as these have been defined as a good indicator for winter survival. Twelve Zostera noltei meadows were monitored along a latitudinal gradient in Western Europe to firstly assess the seasonal change of their rhizomal starch content. Secondly, we tested the effects of nutrient enrichment and/or biomass removal on the corresponding starch content by using a short-term manipulative field experiment at a single latitude in the Netherlands. At the end of the growing season, we observed a weak but significant linear increase of starch content along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. This agrees with the contention that such reserves are essential for regrowth after winter, which is more severe in the north. In addition, we also observed a weak but significant positive relationship between starch content at the beginning of the growing season and past winter temperatures. This implies a lower regrowth potential after severe winters, due to diminished starch content at the beginning of the growing season. Short-term stress and disturbances may intensify these patterns, because our manipulative experiments show that when nutrient enrichment and biomass loss co-occurred at the end of the growing season, Z. noltei starch content declined. In temperate zones, the capacity of seagrasses to accumulate carbon reserves is expected to determine carbon

  12. Latitudinal Patterns in European Seagrass Carbon Reserves: Influence of Seasonal Fluctuations versus Short-Term Stress and Disturbance Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soissons, Laura M.; Haanstra, Eeke P.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; Asmus, Ragnhild; Auby, Isabelle; Barillé, Laurent; Brun, Fernando G.; Cardoso, Patricia G.; Desroy, Nicolas; Fournier, Jerome; Ganthy, Florian; Garmendia, Joxe-Mikel; Godet, Laurent; Grilo, Tiago F.; Kadel, Petra; Ondiviela, Barbara; Peralta, Gloria; Puente, Araceli; Recio, Maria; Rigouin, Loic; Valle, Mireia; Herman, Peter M. J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass meadows form highly productive and valuable ecosystems in the marine environment. Throughout the year, seagrass meadows are exposed to abiotic and biotic variations linked to (i) seasonal fluctuations, (ii) short-term stress events such as, e.g., local nutrient enrichment, and (iii) small-scale disturbances such as, e.g., biomass removal by grazing. We hypothesized that short-term stress events and small-scale disturbances may affect seagrass chance for survival in temperate latitudes. To test this hypothesis we focused on seagrass carbon reserves in the form of starch stored seasonally in rhizomes, as these have been defined as a good indicator for winter survival. Twelve Zostera noltei meadows were monitored along a latitudinal gradient in Western Europe to firstly assess the seasonal change of their rhizomal starch content. Secondly, we tested the effects of nutrient enrichment and/or biomass removal on the corresponding starch content by using a short-term manipulative field experiment at a single latitude in the Netherlands. At the end of the growing season, we observed a weak but significant linear increase of starch content along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. This agrees with the contention that such reserves are essential for regrowth after winter, which is more severe in the north. In addition, we also observed a weak but significant positive relationship between starch content at the beginning of the growing season and past winter temperatures. This implies a lower regrowth potential after severe winters, due to diminished starch content at the beginning of the growing season. Short-term stress and disturbances may intensify these patterns, because our manipulative experiments show that when nutrient enrichment and biomass loss co-occurred at the end of the growing season, Z. noltei starch content declined. In temperate zones, the capacity of seagrasses to accumulate carbon reserves is expected to determine carbon-based regrowth

  13. Latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy during 2001-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezari, Anastasia; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Katsinis, Dimitrios; Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios; Kolovi, Sofia; Plainaki, Christina; National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens; Andriopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity for the time period 2001 to 2014 is studied, covering the maximum and the descending phase of solar cycle 23, the minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24, and the ascending phase and maximum of solar cycle 24. Cosmic ray intensity data from 11 neutron monitor stations located at different places around the Northern Hemisphere obtained from the high-resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) were used. Special software was developed for the calculations of the amplitude and the phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors on annual and monthly basis using Fourier analysis and for the creation of the harmonic dial diagrams. The geomagnetic bending for each station was taken into account in our calculations determined from the asymptotic cones of each station via the Tsyganenko96 (Tsyganenko and Stern, 1996) magnetospheric model. From our analysis, it was resulted that there is a different behavior of the diurnal anisotropy vectors during the different phases of the solar cycles depending on the solar magnetic field polarity. The latitudinal and longitudinal distribution of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy was also examined by grouping the stations according to their geographic coordinates, and it was shown that diurnal variation is modulated not only by the latitude but also by the longitude of the stations. The diurnal anisotropy during strong events of solar and/or cosmic ray activity is discussed.

  14. Latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy during 2001-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezari, Anastasia; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Katsinis, Dimitrios; Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios; Kolovi, Sofia [National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens (Greece). Nuclear and Particle Physics Dept.; Plainaki, Christina [INAF-IAPS, Rome (Italy); National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens (Greece). Nuclear and Particle Physics Dept.; Andriopoulou, Maria [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria). Space Research Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity for the time period 2001 to 2014 is studied, covering the maximum and the descending phase of solar cycle 23, the minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24, and the ascending phase and maximum of solar cycle 24. Cosmic ray intensity data from 11 neutron monitor stations located at different places around the Northern Hemisphere obtained from the high-resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) were used. Special software was developed for the calculations of the amplitude and the phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors on annual and monthly basis using Fourier analysis and for the creation of the harmonic dial diagrams. The geomagnetic bending for each station was taken into account in our calculations determined from the asymptotic cones of each station via the Tsyganenko96 (Tsyganenko and Stern, 1996) magnetospheric model. From our analysis, it was resulted that there is a different behavior of the diurnal anisotropy vectors during the different phases of the solar cycles depending on the solar magnetic field polarity. The latitudinal and longitudinal distribution of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy was also examined by grouping the stations according to their geographic coordinates, and it was shown that diurnal variation is modulated not only by the latitude but also by the longitude of the stations. The diurnal anisotropy during strong events of solar and/or cosmic ray activity is discussed.

  15. Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Gustaf; Strengbom, Joachim; Breeuwer, Angela; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Rydin, Håkan

    2009-04-01

    Increased N deposition in Europe has affected mire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the physiological responses is poor. We measured photosynthetic responses to increasing N deposition in two peatmoss species (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) from a 3-year, north-south transplant experiment in northern Europe, covering a latitudinal N deposition gradient ranging from 0.28 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the north, to 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the south. The maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)) increased southwards, and was mainly explained by tissue N concentration, secondly by allocation of N to the photosynthesis, and to a lesser degree by modified photosystem II activity (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence yield). Although climatic factors may have contributed, these results were most likely attributable to an increase in N deposition southwards. For S. fuscum, photosynthetic rate continued to increase up to a deposition level of 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1), but for S. balticum it seemed to level out at 1.14 g N m(-2) year(-1). The results for S. balticum suggested that transplants from different origin (with low or intermediate N deposition) respond differently to high N deposition. This indicates that Sphagnum species may be able to adapt or physiologically adjust to high N deposition. Our results also suggest that S. balticum might be more sensitive to N deposition than S. fuscum. Surprisingly, NP(max) was not (S. balticum), or only weakly (S. fuscum) correlated with biomass production, indicating that production is to a great extent is governed by factors other than the photosynthetic capacity.

  16. Patrones de diversidad de aves a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal de bosques ribereños del río Paraná medio, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Berduc, Alfredo; Lorenzón, Rodrigo Ezequiel; Beltzer, Adolfo Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió la variación de la riqueza de especies (diversidad alfa), la diversidad beta, la abundancia y la equidad de ensambles de aves a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal de 500 km de bosques ribereños. Se muestrearon 5 localidades ubicadas en dirección norte-sur mediante una técnica mixta: transectos y puntos de conteo. La riqueza de especies decreció con el incremento de la latitud, reproduciendo el patrón de la riqueza regional informado en estudios previos. Los resultados apoyaron la...

  17. Vertebrate Herbivore Browsing on Neighboring Forage Species Increases the Growth and Dominance of Siberian Alder Across a Latitudinal Transect in Northern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, E. M.; Ruess, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Vertebrate herbivores strongly influence plant growth and architecture, biogeochemical cycling, and successional dynamics in boreal and arctic ecosystems. One of the most notable impacts of vertebrate herbivory is on the growth and spread of alder, a chemically-defended, N-fixing shrub whose distribution in the Alaskan arctic has expanded dramatically over the past 60 years. Although herbivore effects on thin-leaf alder are well described for interior Alaskan floodplains, no work has been conducted on the effects of herbivores on Siberian alder (Alnus viridis spp fruticosa), despite the increasing importance of this species to high latitude ecosystems. We characterized browsing by snowshoe hares, moose, and willow ptarmigan on dominant shrub species across topo-edaphic sequences within 5 ecoregions along a 600 km latitudinal transect extending from interior Alaska to the North Slope. Ptarmigan browsed wind-blown lowland and alpine sites devoid of trees in all regions; moose browsed predominantly willow species in hardwood and mixed forests and were absent north of the Brooks Range; snowshoe hares selected habitats and forage based on their local density and vulnerability to predators. Browsing intensity on Siberian alder was either undetectable or low, limited primarily to hare browsing on young ramets in the northern boreal forest where hare density relative to forage availability is highest. Overall, alder height growth was positively correlated with levels of herbivory on competing shrub species. Our data support the hypothesis that vertebrate herbivore browsing is indirectly augmenting the growth, dominance, and possible spread of Siberian alder throughout its northern Alaskan range. Given the potential high rates of N-fixation inputs by Siberian alder, we believe herbivores are also having strong indirect effects on biogeochemical cycling and possibly C storage in these landscapes.

  18. Universal sequence replication, reversible polymerization and early functional biopolymers: a model for the initiation of prebiotic sequence evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Imari Walker

    Full Text Available Many models for the origin of life have focused on understanding how evolution can drive the refinement of a preexisting enzyme, such as the evolution of efficient replicase activity. Here we present a model for what was, arguably, an even earlier stage of chemical evolution, when polymer sequence diversity was generated and sustained before, and during, the onset of functional selection. The model includes regular environmental cycles (e.g. hydration-dehydration cycles that drive polymers between times of replication and functional activity, which coincide with times of different monomer and polymer diffusivity. Template-directed replication of informational polymers, which takes place during the dehydration stage of each cycle, is considered to be sequence-independent. New sequences are generated by spontaneous polymer formation, and all sequences compete for a finite monomer resource that is recycled via reversible polymerization. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that this proposed prebiotic scenario provides a robust mechanism for the exploration of sequence space. Introduction of a polymer sequence with monomer synthetase activity illustrates that functional sequences can become established in a preexisting pool of otherwise non-functional sequences. Functional selection does not dominate system dynamics and sequence diversity remains high, permitting the emergence and spread of more than one functional sequence. It is also observed that polymers spontaneously form clusters in simulations where polymers diffuse more slowly than monomers, a feature that is reminiscent of a previous proposal that the earliest stages of life could have been defined by the collective evolution of a system-wide cooperation of polymer aggregates. Overall, the results presented demonstrate the merits of considering plausible prebiotic polymer chemistries and environments that would have allowed for the rapid turnover of monomer resources and for

  19. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway.

  20. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A.; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway. PMID:26101885

  1. Application of discrete Fourier inter-coefficient difference for assessing genetic sequence similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian R; Aburdene, Maurice; Thompson, Alex; Warres, Zach

    2014-01-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) techniques for biological sequence analysis continue to grow in popularity due to the inherent digital nature of these sequences. DSP methods have demonstrated early success for detection of coding regions in a gene. Recently, these methods are being used to establish DNA gene similarity. We present the inter-coefficient difference (ICD) transformation, a novel extension of the discrete Fourier transformation, which can be applied to any DNA sequence. The ICD method is a mathematical, alignment-free DNA comparison method that generates a genetic signature for any DNA sequence that is used to generate relative measures of similarity among DNA sequences. We demonstrate our method on a set of insulin genes obtained from an evolutionarily wide range of species, and on a set of avian influenza viral sequences, which represents a set of highly similar sequences. We compare phylogenetic trees generated using our technique against trees generated using traditional alignment techniques for similarity and demonstrate that the ICD method produces a highly accurate tree without requiring an alignment prior to establishing sequence similarity.

  2. Probabilistic Motor Sequence Yields Greater Offline and Less Online Learning than Fixed Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yue; Prashad, Shikha; Schoenbrun, Ilana; Clark, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    It is well acknowledged that motor sequences can be learned quickly through online learning. Subsequently, the initial acquisition of a motor sequence is boosted or consolidated by offline learning. However, little is known whether offline learning can drive the fast learning of motor sequences (i.e., initial sequence learning in the first training session). To examine offline learning in the fast learning stage, we asked four groups of young adults to perform the serial reaction time (SRT) task with either a fixed or probabilistic sequence and with or without preliminary knowledge (PK) of the presence of a sequence. The sequence and PK were manipulated to emphasize either procedural (probabilistic sequence; no preliminary knowledge (NPK)) or declarative (fixed sequence; with PK) memory that were found to either facilitate or inhibit offline learning. In the SRT task, there were six learning blocks with a 2 min break between each consecutive block. Throughout the session, stimuli followed the same fixed or probabilistic pattern except in Block 5, in which stimuli appeared in a random order. We found that PK facilitated the learning of a fixed sequence, but not a probabilistic sequence. In addition to overall learning measured by the mean reaction time (RT), we examined the progressive changes in RT within and between blocks (i.e., online and offline learning, respectively). It was found that the two groups who performed the fixed sequence, regardless of PK, showed greater online learning than the other two groups who performed the probabilistic sequence. The groups who performed the probabilistic sequence, regardless of PK, did not display online learning, as indicated by a decline in performance within the learning blocks. However, they did demonstrate remarkably greater offline improvement in RT, which suggests that they are learning the probabilistic sequence offline. These results suggest that in the SRT task, the fast acquisition of a motor sequence is driven

  3. Equatorial F-region plasma depletion drifts: latitudinal and seasonal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pimenta

    Full Text Available The equatorial ionospheric irregularities have been observed in the past few years by different techniques (e.g. ground-based radar, digisonde, GPS, optical instruments, in situ satellite and rocket instrumentation, and its time evolution and propagation characteristics can be used to study important aspects of ionospheric dynamics and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling. At present, one of the most powerful optical techniques to study the large-scale ionospheric irregularities is the all-sky imaging photometer system, which normally measures the strong F-region nightglow 630 nm emission from atomic oxygen. The monochromatic OI 630 nm emission images usually show quasi-north-south magnetic field-aligned intensity depletion bands, which are the bottomside optical signatures of large-scale F-region plasma irregularities (also called plasma bubbles. The zonal drift velocities of the plasma bubbles can be inferred from the space-time displacement of the dark structures (low intensity regions seen on the images. In this study, images obtained with an all-sky imaging photometer, using the OI 630 nm nightglow emission, from Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45° W, 15.8° S dip latitude, Brazil, have been used to determine the nocturnal monthly and latitudinal variation characteristics of the zonal plasma bubble drift velocities in the low latitude (16.7° S to 28.7° S region. The east and west walls of the plasma bubble show a different evolution with time. The method used here is based on the western wall of the bubble, which presents a more stable behavior. Also, the observed zonal plasma bubble drift velocities are compared with the thermospheric zonal neutral wind velocities obtained from the HWM-90 model (Hedin et al., 1991 to investigate the thermosphere-ionosphere coupling. Salient features from this study are presented

  4. Quasi-periodic latitudinal shift of Saturn's main auroral emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Palmaerts, B.; Grodent, D. C.; Radioti, K.; Krupp, N.; Yao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The main component of the ultraviolet auroral emissions at Saturn consists in a ring of emission around each pole of the planet. This main ring of emission has been revealed to oscillate by a few degrees in the prenoon-premidnight direction with a period of 10.8h. This auroral oscillation is thought to be induced by a rotating external magnetospheric current system associated with the planetary period oscillations. Here we report, by means of auroral imaging sequences obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board the Cassini spacecraft, the first direct observation of an additional motion of the main emission superimposed to this oscillation. The whole main emission ring exhibits step-like displacements in latitude mainly towards dayside, decoupled from the 10.8h oscillation. These latitude shifts recur around every hour, which is a typical short periodicity at Saturn previously identified in the aurora intensity, in the charged particle fluxes and in the magnetic field. This unique observation directly demonstrates what has been inferred from past in-situ and remote measurements: the 1-hour periodicities reveal a global and fundamental magnetospheric oscillation mode that acts independently of the local magnetospheric conditions. However, the magnetospheric mechanism responsible for these 1-hour auroral shifts is still unknown. It is possible that Alfvén waves inducing hourly magnetic fluctuations might also modify the place where the field-aligned electrons precipitate in the ionosphere and produce the main emission.

  5. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  6. Latitudinal variation in avian incubation attentiveness and a test of the food limitation hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Avian incubation attentiveness has important fitness consequences through its influence on the number and quality of hatched young and energetic costs imposed on parents. Nest attentiveness is highly variable across species and geographical regions. We reviewed the literature and found a worldwide pattern that nest attentiveness of passerines is generally lower in south temperate and tropical regions than in north temperate regions. We also conducted a food manipulation experiment to assess the extent to which nest attentiveness may reflect proximate responses versus an evolved behaviour. We used the karoo prinia, Prinia maculosa, in South Africa, which has very low nest attentiveness (???49%) compared with that of many passerine birds. We provided supplemental food during early incubation to experimental females and compared nest attentiveness and on- and off-bout lengths of experimental and paired control females.??Nest attentiveness of females at food-provisioned nests was significantly higher than that of control females (57% versus 49%). Food-supplemented females also spent significantly less time off the nest than did control females, whereas mean on-bout lengths did not differ. However, mean nest attentiveness of food-provisioned females was still substantially below that of other similar bird species worldwide. Food can be an important proximate influence on parental care behaviour, but proximate influences of food do not explain broad latitudinal patterns of attentiveness. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Biomolecule Sequencer: Next-Generation DNA Sequencing Technology for In-Flight Environmental Monitoring, Research, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Burton, Aaron; Castro-Wallace, Sarah; John, Kristen; Stahl, Sarah E.; Dworkin, Jason Peter; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    On the International Space Station (ISS), technologies capable of rapid microbial identification and disease diagnostics are not currently available. NASA still relies upon sample return for comprehensive, molecular-based sample characterization. Next-generation DNA sequencing is a powerful approach for identifying microorganisms in air, water, and surfaces onboard spacecraft. The Biomolecule Sequencer payload, manifested to SpaceX-9 and scheduled on the Increment 4748 research plan (June 2016), will assess the functionality of a commercially-available next-generation DNA sequencer in the microgravity environment of ISS. The MinION device from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (Oxford, UK) measures picoamp changes in electrical current dependent on nucleotide sequences of the DNA strand migrating through nanopores in the system. The hardware is exceptionally small (9.5 x 3.2 x 1.6 cm), lightweight (120 grams), and powered only by a USB connection. For the ISS technology demonstration, the Biomolecule Sequencer will be powered by a Microsoft Surface Pro3. Ground-prepared samples containing lambda bacteriophage, Escherichia coli, and mouse genomic DNA, will be launched and stored frozen on the ISS until experiment initiation. Immediately prior to sequencing, a crew member will collect and thaw frozen DNA samples, connect the sequencer to the Surface Pro3, inject thawed samples into a MinION flow cell, and initiate sequencing. At the completion of the sequencing run, data will be downlinked for ground analysis. Identical, synchronous ground controls will be used for data comparisons to determine sequencer functionality, run-time sequence, current dynamics, and overall accuracy. We will present our latest results from the ISS flight experiment the first time DNA has ever been sequenced in space and discuss the many potential applications of the Biomolecule Sequencer for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, higher fidelity and more adaptable Space Biology Human

  8. Semi-Supervised Learning for Classification of Protein Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. King

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein sequence data continue to become available at an exponential rate. Annotation of functional and structural attributes of these data lags far behind, with only a small fraction of the data understood and labeled by experimental methods. Classification methods that are based on semi-supervised learning can increase the overall accuracy of classifying partly labeled data in many domains, but very few methods exist that have shown their effect on protein sequence classification. We show how proven methods from text classification can be applied to protein sequence data, as we consider both existing and novel extensions to the basic methods, and demonstrate restrictions and differences that must be considered. We demonstrate comparative results against the transductive support vector machine, and show superior results on the most difficult classification problems. Our results show that large repositories of unlabeled protein sequence data can indeed be used to improve predictive performance, particularly in situations where there are fewer labeled protein sequences available, and/or the data are highly unbalanced in nature.

  9. Digital PCR provides sensitive and absolute calibration for high throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan H Christina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation DNA sequencing on the 454, Solexa, and SOLiD platforms requires absolute calibration of the number of molecules to be sequenced. This requirement has two unfavorable consequences. First, large amounts of sample-typically micrograms-are needed for library preparation, thereby limiting the scope of samples which can be sequenced. For many applications, including metagenomics and the sequencing of ancient, forensic, and clinical samples, the quantity of input DNA can be critically limiting. Second, each library requires a titration sequencing run, thereby increasing the cost and lowering the throughput of sequencing. Results We demonstrate the use of digital PCR to accurately quantify 454 and Solexa sequencing libraries, enabling the preparation of sequencing libraries from nanogram quantities of input material while eliminating costly and time-consuming titration runs of the sequencer. We successfully sequenced low-nanogram scale bacterial and mammalian DNA samples on the 454 FLX and Solexa DNA sequencing platforms. This study is the first to definitively demonstrate the successful sequencing of picogram quantities of input DNA on the 454 platform, reducing the sample requirement more than 1000-fold without pre-amplification and the associated bias and reduction in library depth. Conclusion The digital PCR assay allows absolute quantification of sequencing libraries, eliminates uncertainties associated with the construction and application of standard curves to PCR-based quantification, and with a coefficient of variation close to 10%, is sufficiently precise to enable direct sequencing without titration runs.

  10. Comparative analysis of MR sequences to detect structural brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Gama, Hugo Pereira; Campos Meirelles, Rogerio Goncalves de; Mendonca do Rego, Jose Iram; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Silva, Carlos Jorge da; Braga, Flavio Tulio; Martins Maia, Antonio Carlos; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2006-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a neurocutaneous genetically inherited disease with variable penetrance characterized by dysplasias and hamartomas affecting multiple organs. MR is the imaging method of choice to demonstrate structural brain lesions in TS. To compare MR sequences and determine which is most useful for the demonstration of each type of brain lesion in TS patients. We reviewed MR scans of 18 TS patients for the presence of cortical tubers, white matter lesions (radial bands), subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) on the following sequences: (1) T1-weighted spin-echo (T1 SE) images before and after gadolinium (Gd) injection; (2) nonenhanced T1 SE sequence with an additional magnetization transfer contrast medium pulse on resonance (T1 SE/MTC); and (3) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Cortical tubers were found in significantly (P<0.05) larger numbers and more conspicuously in FLAIR and T1 SE/MTC sequences. The T1 SE/MTC sequence was far superior to other methods in detecting white matter lesions (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the T1 SE/MTC and T1 SE (before and after Gd injection) sequences in the detection of subependymal nodules; FLAIR sequence showed less sensitivity than the others in identifying the nodules. T1 SE sequences after Gd injection demonstrated better the limits of the SGCA. We demonstrated the importance of appropriate MRI sequences for diagnosis of the most frequent brain lesions in TS. Our study reinforces the fact that each sequence has a particular application according to the type of TS lesion. Gd injection might be useful in detecting SGCA; however, the parameters of size and location are also important for a presumptive diagnosis of these tumors. (orig.)

  11. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  12. How Next-Generation Sequencing Has Aided Our Understanding of the Sequence Composition and Origin of B Chromosomes

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    Alevtina Ruban

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessory, supernumerary, or—most simply—B chromosomes, are found in many eukaryotic karyotypes. These small chromosomes do not follow the usual pattern of segregation, but rather are transmitted in a higher than expected frequency. As increasingly being demonstrated by next-generation sequencing (NGS, their structure comprises fragments of standard (A chromosomes, although in some plant species, their sequence also includes contributions from organellar genomes. Transcriptomic analyses of various animal and plant species have revealed that, contrary to what used to be the common belief, some of the B chromosome DNA is protein-encoding. This review summarizes the progress in understanding B chromosome biology enabled by the application of next-generation sequencing technology and state-of-the-art bioinformatics. In particular, a contrast is drawn between a direct sequencing approach and a strategy based on a comparative genomics as alternative routes that can be taken towards the identification of B chromosome sequences.

  13. Latitudinal variations in intermediate depth ventilation and biological production over northeastern Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zones during the last 60 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Edouard

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms affecting past variability in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) are poorly known. We analyzed core MD02-2524, obtained from the Nicaragua Margin in the present ETNP OMZ for major and minor elements (titanium (Ti), brome (Br), silicon (Si), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)) using an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner, and redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni)) determined by ICP-MS. The U and Mo content was higher during the deglaciation than during the Holocene and the last glacial maximum, whereas enrichment was not observed for Ni, an element closely associated with organic matter. High-resolution XRF scanning indicated that the Ca-based carbonate content had millennial-scale variability inversely correlated with Br-based organic matter and Si/K-based opal content during the last glacial period. The available data suggest no clear regional trend in biological productivity during the last deglaciation, but significant local variability in the coastal eastern equatorial Pacific. The trace element enrichment and the lack of a concomitant increase in biogenic phases indicated that an enhanced ETNP OMZ, at least between 15°N and 12°N at a water depth of 500-900 m, was principally caused by a reduced oxygen supply driven by oceanic circulation to the Nicaragua Basin during the deglaciation. The observed patterns can be interpreted as the distinct changes in the oxygenation state of northern and southern water masses at intermediate depths. We also found evidence for a decoupling between local productivity and pore water oxygenation for several millennial-scale events during Marine Isotopic Stage 3, indicating that remote oxygen consumption and/or oceanic ventilation impacted OMZ intensity. Multi-millennial scale variations of the productivity at Papagayo upwelling cell displayed an opposite trend from productivity at the Costa Rica Dome, in relation with the latitudinal shift

  14. Latitudinal changes of euphausiid assemblages related to the morphological variability of the sound scattering layer along Baja California, October 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gómez-Gutiérrez

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal changes in the euphausiid assemblages were compared to the morphological structure (size and compactness of the sound scattering layer (SSL during ten 24-h surveys made in October 1994 along the west coast of Baja California, México. During October, upwelling was found in the northern area from Punta Eugenia (28°N to Ensenada (30°N dominated by temperate species from the California Current System. In the southern sector of the peninsula, a northward movement of tropical waters transports a tropical zooplankton assemblage near Bahia Magdalena (24°N. The aggregation and the dispersion of the whole SSL (plankton and nekton were investigated using a single beam vertical echosounder, Simrad EY-200, working at 200 kHz and the Hydro Acoustic Data Acquisition System (HADAS that estimates patch variables of density and compactness. The size and shape of the SSL were obtained from the echogram visualization. The euphausiid species composition was obtained using an Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl, bongo nets, and opening-closing nets. At Ensenada and Punta Eugenia, an area inhabited by a temperate euphausiid assemblage, large and dense SSLs were recorded over the continental shelf (mean sizes were 10-km and 7-km long with mean compactness of 15% and 19%. These regions were dominated by the neritic species Nyctiphanes simplex and the temperate species Nematoscelis difficilis, Euphausia pacifica, and Thysanoessa spinifera. In the southern area, a tropical euphausiid assemblage, dominated by Euphausia eximia, E tenera, and E. distinguenda, inhabits smaller and dispersed SSLs (mean size 5-km long and 11% compactness located in the offshore area. The euphausiid biomass of the most abundant species indicated, N. simplex and N. difficilis, had their highest standing stock in the north (393 and 643 mg C 1000 m-3, with E. eximia in the southern area (186 mg C 1000 m-3. Euphausiid assemblage development in different biological environments, is evidenced

  15. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Targeted assembly of short sequence reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René L Warren

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequence (NGS production continues to increase, analysis is becoming a significant bottleneck. However, in situations where information is required only for specific sequence variants, it is not necessary to assemble or align whole genome data sets in their entirety. Rather, NGS data sets can be mined for the presence of sequence variants of interest by localized assembly, which is a faster, easier, and more accurate approach. We present TASR, a streamlined assembler that interrogates very large NGS data sets for the presence of specific variants by only considering reads within the sequence space of input target sequences provided by the user. The NGS data set is searched for reads with an exact match to all possible short words within the target sequence, and these reads are then assembled stringently to generate a consensus of the target and flanking sequence. Typically, variants of a particular locus are provided as different target sequences, and the presence of the variant in the data set being interrogated is revealed by a successful assembly outcome. However, TASR can also be used to find unknown sequences that flank a given target. We demonstrate that TASR has utility in finding or confirming genomic mutations, polymorphisms, fusions and integration events. Targeted assembly is a powerful method for interrogating large data sets for the presence of sequence variants of interest. TASR is a fast, flexible and easy to use tool for targeted assembly.

  17. Genome-wide SNP identification by high-throughput sequencing and selective mapping allows sequence assembly positioning using a framework genetic linkage map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiangming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the position and order of contigs and scaffolds from a genome assembly within an organism's genome remains a technical challenge in a majority of sequencing projects. In order to exploit contemporary technologies for DNA sequencing, we developed a strategy for whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism sequencing allowing the positioning of sequence contigs onto a linkage map using the bin mapping method. Results The strategy was tested on a draft genome of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab, and further validated using sequence contigs derived from the diploid plant genome Fragaria vesca. Using our novel method we were able to anchor 70% and 92% of sequences assemblies for V. inaequalis and F. vesca, respectively, to genetic linkage maps. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of this approach by accurately determining the bin map positions of the majority of the large sequence contigs from each genome sequence and validated our method by mapping single sequence repeat markers derived from sequence contigs on a full mapping population.

  18. Functional analysis of bipartite begomovirus coat protein promoter sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatus, Gabriela; Sunter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the AL2 gene of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) activates the CP promoter in mesophyll and acts to derepress the promoter in vascular tissue, similar to that observed for Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV). Binding studies indicate that sequences mediating repression and activation of the TGMV and CaLCuV CP promoter specifically bind different nuclear factors common to Nicotiana benthamiana, spinach and tomato. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that TGMV AL2 can interact with both sequences independently. Binding of nuclear protein(s) from different crop species to viral sequences conserved in both bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses, including TGMV, CaLCuV, Pepper golden mosaic virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus suggests that bipartite begomoviruses bind common host factors to regulate the CP promoter. This is consistent with a model in which AL2 interacts with different components of the cellular transcription machinery that bind viral sequences important for repression and activation of begomovirus CP promoters

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human β-glucuronidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental β-glucuronidase (β-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen β-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human β-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human β-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for β-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length

  20. SeqLib: a C ++ API for rapid BAM manipulation, sequence alignment and sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-03-01

    We present SeqLib, a C ++ API and command line tool that provides a rapid and user-friendly interface to BAM/SAM/CRAM files, global sequence alignment operations and sequence assembly. Four C libraries perform core operations in SeqLib: HTSlib for BAM access, BWA-MEM and BLAT for sequence alignment and Fermi for error correction and sequence assembly. Benchmarking indicates that SeqLib has lower CPU and memory requirements than leading C ++ sequence analysis APIs. We demonstrate an example of how minimal SeqLib code can extract, error-correct and assemble reads from a CRAM file and then align with BWA-MEM. SeqLib also provides additional capabilities, including chromosome-aware interval queries and read plotting. Command line tools are available for performing integrated error correction, micro-assemblies and alignment. SeqLib is available on Linux and OSX for the C ++98 standard and later at github.com/walaj/SeqLib. SeqLib is released under the Apache2 license. Additional capabilities for BLAT alignment are available under the BLAT license. jwala@broadinstitue.org ; rameen@broadinstitute.org. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. The Use of Next Generation Sequencing and Junction Sequence Analysis Bioinformatics to Achieve Molecular Characterization of Crops Improved Through Modern Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kovalic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of genetically modified (GM crops for regulatory approval currently requires a detailed molecular characterization of the DNA sequence and integrity of the transgene locus. In addition, molecular characterization is a critical component of event selection and advancement during product development. Typically, molecular characterization has relied on Southern blot analysis to establish locus and copy number along with targeted sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products spanning any inserted DNA to complete the characterization process. Here we describe the use of next generation (NexGen sequencing and junction sequence analysis bioinformatics in a new method for achieving full molecular characterization of a GM event without the need for Southern blot analysis. In this study, we examine a typical GM soybean [ (L. Merr.] line and demonstrate that this new method provides molecular characterization equivalent to the current Southern blot-based method. We also examine an event containing in vivo DNA rearrangement of multiple transfer DNA inserts to demonstrate that the new method is effective at identifying complex cases. Next generation sequencing and bioinformatics offers certain advantages over current approaches, most notably the simplicity, efficiency, and consistency of the method, and provides a viable alternative for efficiently and robustly achieving molecular characterization of GM crops.

  2. Toward Spectroscopically Detecting the Global Latitudinal Temperature Variation on the Solar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y.; UeNo, S.

    2017-09-01

    A very slight rotation-induced latitudinal temperature variation (presumably on the order of several kelvin) on the solar surface is theoretically expected. While recent high-precision solar brightness observations reported its detection, confirmation by an alternative approach using the strengths of spectral lines is desirable, for which reducing the noise due to random fluctuation caused by atmospheric inhomogeneity is critical. Toward this difficult task, we carried out a pilot study of spectroscopically investigating the relative variation of temperature (T) at a number of points in the solar circumference region near to the limb (where latitude dependence should be detectable, if any exists) based on the equivalent widths (W) of 28 selected lines in the 5367 - 5393 Å and 6075 - 6100 Å regions. We paid special attention to i) clarifying which types of lines should be employed and ii) how much precision is attainable in practice. We found that lines with strong T-sensitivity (|log W/log T|) should be used and that very weak lines should be avoided because they inevitably suffer strong relative fluctuations (Δ W/W). Our analysis revealed that a precision of Δ T/T ≈ 0.003 (corresponding to ≈ 15 K) can be achieved at best by a spectral line with comparatively large |log W/log T|, although this can possibly be further improved When a number of lines are used all together. Accordingly, if many such favorable lines could be measured with subpercent precision of Δ W/W and by averaging the resulting Δ T/T from each line, the random noise would eventually be reduced to ≲ 1 K and detection of a very subtle amount of global T-gradient might be possible.

  3. LongISLND: in silico sequencing of lengthy and noisy datatypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bayo; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob; Mu, John C; Fang, Li Tai; Bani Asadi, Narges; Dallett, Carolina; Lam, Hugo Y K

    2016-12-15

    LongISLND is a software package designed to simulate sequencing data according to the characteristics of third generation, single-molecule sequencing technologies. The general software architecture is easily extendable, as demonstrated by the emulation of Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) multi-pass sequencing with P5 and P6 chemistries, producing data in FASTQ, H5, and the latest PacBio BAM format. We demonstrate its utility by downstream processing with consensus building and variant calling. LongISLND is implemented in Java and available at http://bioinform.github.io/longislnd CONTACT: hugo.lam@roche.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Genotyping common and rare variation using overlapping pool sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasaniuc Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies set the stage for large, population based studies, in which the ANA or RNA of thousands of individuals will be sequenced. Currently, however, such studies are still infeasible using a straightforward sequencing approach; as a result, recently a few multiplexing schemes have been suggested, in which a small number of ANA pools are sequenced, and the results are then deconvoluted using compressed sensing or similar approaches. These methods, however, are limited to the detection of rare variants. Results In this paper we provide a new algorithm for the deconvolution of DNA pools multiplexing schemes. The presented algorithm utilizes a likelihood model and linear programming. The approach allows for the addition of external data, particularly imputation data, resulting in a flexible environment that is suitable for different applications. Conclusions Particularly, we demonstrate that both low and high allele frequency SNPs can be accurately genotyped when the DNA pooling scheme is performed in conjunction with microarray genotyping and imputation. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of our framework for the detection of cancer fusion genes from RNA sequences.

  5. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nathan D.; Lund, Steven P.; Zook, Justin M.; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S.; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  6. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Olson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1 identity of biologically conserved position, (2 ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3 the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies.

  7. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  8. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine faunal diversity patterns.

  9. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, porganic matter and mercury in recent lake sediment: the physical-geochemical aspects. Appl Geochem 21: 1900-12. 2Outridge, P.M., Sanei, H., Stern, G.A., Hamilton, P.B., Goodarzi, F. 2007. Evidence for control of mercury accumulation rates in Canadian high Arctic lake sediments by variations of aquatic primary productivity. Environ Sci Technol 41: 5259-65. 3Wu, F., Zu, L., Liao, H., Guo, F., Zhao, X., Giesy, J. 2013. Relationship between mercury and organic carbon in sediment cores from Lakes Qinghai and Chenghai, China. J Soils Sediments 13: 1084-1092.4Kirk, J.L., Muir, D.C.G., Antoniades, D., Douglas, M.S.V., Evans, M.S., Jackson, T.A., Kling, H., Lamoureux, S., Lim, D.S.S., Pienitz, R

  10. Computer simulation of replacement sequences in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Schwartz, D.W.; Ariyasu, R.G.; Cascadden, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of computer simulations of , , and replacement sequences in copper are presented, including displacement thresholds, focusing energies, energy losses per replacement, and replacement sequence lengths. These parameters are tabulated for six interatomic potentials and shown to vary in a systematic way with potential stiffness and range. Comparisons of results from calculations made with ADDES, a quasi-dynamical code, and COMENT, a dynamical code, show excellent agreement, demonstrating that the former can be calibrated and used satisfactorily in the analysis of low energy displacement cascades. Upper limits on , , and replacement sequences were found to be approximately 10, approximately 30, and approximately 14 replacements, respectively. (author)

  11. Sequence memory based on coherent spin-interaction neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Min; Wong, W K; Wang, Zhijie

    2014-12-01

    Sequence information processing, for instance, the sequence memory, plays an important role on many functions of brain. In the workings of the human brain, the steady-state period is alterable. However, in the existing sequence memory models using heteroassociations, the steady-state period cannot be changed in the sequence recall. In this work, a novel neural network model for sequence memory with controllable steady-state period based on coherent spininteraction is proposed. In the proposed model, neurons fire collectively in a phase-coherent manner, which lets a neuron group respond differently to different patterns and also lets different neuron groups respond differently to one pattern. The simulation results demonstrating the performance of the sequence memory are presented. By introducing a new coherent spin-interaction sequence memory model, the steady-state period can be controlled by dimension parameters and the overlap between the input pattern and the stored patterns. The sequence storage capacity is enlarged by coherent spin interaction compared with the existing sequence memory models. Furthermore, the sequence storage capacity has an exponential relationship to the dimension of the neural network.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced, contrast-enhanced perfusion and angiographic MRI sequences for pulmonary embolism diagnosis: results of independent sequence readings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, Marie Pierre [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, APHP, Departments of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Hotel-Dieu, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Sanchez, Olivier; Meyer, Guy [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, APHP, Respiratory and intensive care and, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); INSERM Unite 765, Paris (France); Lefort, Catherine; Couchon, Sophie; Hernigou, Anne; Frija, Guy [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, APHP, Departments of Radiology, Paris (France); Niarra, Ralph [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, APHP, Clinical Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Chatellier, Gilles [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, APHP, Clinical Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); INSERM CIC-EC E4, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    To independently evaluate unenhanced, contrast-enhanced perfusion and angiographic MR sequences for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis. Prospective investigation, including 274 patients who underwent perfusion, unenhanced 2D steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) and contrast-enhanced 3D angiographic MR sequences on a 1.5-T unit, in addition to CTA (CT angiography). Two independent readers evaluated each sequence independently in random order. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and inter-reader agreement were calculated for each sequence, excluding sequences judged inconclusive. Sensitivity was also calculated according to PE location. Contrast-enhanced angiographic sequences showed the highest sensitivity (82.9 and 89.7 %, reader 1 and reader 2, respectively), specificity (98.5 and 100 %) and agreement (kappa value 0.77). Unenhanced angiographic sequences, although less sensitive overall (68.7 and 76.4 %), were sensitive for the detection of proximal PE (92.7 and 100 %) and showed high specificity (96.1 and 99.1 %) and good agreement (kappa value 0.62). Perfusion sequences showed lower sensitivity (75.0 and 79.3 %), specificity (84.8 and 89.7 %) and agreement (kappa value 0.51), and a negative predictive value of 84.8 % at best. Compared with contrast-enhanced angiographic sequences, unenhanced sequences demonstrate lower sensitivity, except for proximal PE, but high specificity and agreement. The negative predictive value of perfusion sequences was insufficient to safely rule out PE. (orig.)

  13. Short read sequence typing (SRST: multi-locus sequence types from short reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inouye Michael

    2012-07-01

    software tool for accurate assignment of sequence types using short read data. Several uses for the tool are demonstrated, including quality control for high-throughput sequencing projects, plasmid MLST and analysis of genomic data during outbreak investigation. SRST is open-source, requires Python, BWA and SamTools, and is available from http://srst.sourceforge.net.

  14. A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramelli, David; Milani, Lucio; Vai, Stefania; Modi, Alessandra; Pecchioli, Elena; Girardi, Matteo; Pilli, Elena; Lari, Martina; Lippi, Barbara; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Mallegni, Francesco; Casoli, Antonella; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Barbujani, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA sequences from ancient speciments may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal) and early modern (Cro-Magnoid) Europeans. Methodology/Principal Findings We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23) and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003. The Paglicci 23 sequence, determined through the analysis of 152 clones, is the Cambridge reference sequence, and cannot possibly reflect contamination because it differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences. Conclusions/Significance: The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neandertals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans. Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans. PMID:18628960

  15. A 28,000 years old Cro-Magnon mtDNA sequence differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Caramelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA sequences from ancient specimens may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal and early modern (Cro-Magnoid Europeans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23 and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003. The Paglicci 23 sequence, determined through the analysis of 152 clones, is the Cambridge reference sequence, and cannot possibly reflect contamination because it differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neandertals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans. Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans.

  16. Molecular substitution rate increases with latitude in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi; Vila, Roger; Petrović, Andjeljko

    2017-01-01

    of five lycaenid butterfly species with varied ecological adaptations, sampled across a latitudinal gradient in the Holarctic region. We found a positive correlation between latitude and substitution rate of mitochondrial DNA sequences in all species investigated. We propose that this result is the signal...

  17. Identification of genomic insertion and flanking sequence of G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes in soybean using whole genome sequencing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfu Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of sequences flanking exogenous fragment insertions is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMO. In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS method. About 21 Gb sequence data (~21× coverage for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundary of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector. The putative insertion loci and flanking sequences were further confirmed by PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis. All these analyses supported that exogenous T-DNA fragments were integrated in positions of Chr19: 50543767-50543792 and Chr17: 7980527-7980541 in these two transgenic lines. Identification of the genomic insertion site of the G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes will facilitate the use of their glyphosate-tolerant traits in soybean breeding program. These results also demonstrated that WGS is a cost-effective and rapid method of identifying sites of T-DNA insertions and flanking sequences in soybean.

  18. SNAD: sequence name annotation-based designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbalenya Alexander E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Results Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. Conclusion A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.

  19. Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain ICIS 96 Demonstrating Intermicrobial Antagonism Associated with Bacteriocin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, Tatiana M; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Khlopko, Yuriy A; Kochkina, Elena E; Kartashova, Olga L; Sycheva, Maria V

    2018-03-08

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain ICIS 96, which was isolated from the feces of a horse. Bacteriological characterization of strain ICIS 96 revealed the absence of pathogenicity factors, while its spectrum of antagonistic activity was found to be broad, having activities associated with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the E. faecium ICIS 96 genome revealed five genes associated with antimicrobial activity (enterocin [ent] A, ent B, lactobin A/cerein 7b, and ent L50 A/B). No genes that correlate with human pathogenicity were identified. Copyright © 2018 Pashkova et al.

  20. Paleo erosion rates and climate shifts recorded by Quaternary cut-and-fill sequences in the Pisco valley, central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaddour, Toufik; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vogel, Hendrik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin P.; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial cut-and-fill sequences have frequently been reported from various sites on Earth. Nevertheless, the information about the past erosional regime and hydrological conditions have not yet been adequately deciphered from these archives. The Quaternary terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, located at ca. 13°S, offer a manifestation of an orbitally-driven cyclicity in terrace construction where phases of sediment accumulation have been related to the Minchin (48-36 ka) and Tauca (26-15 ka) lake level highstands on the Altiplano. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget for the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in this valley to quantify the orbitally forced changes in precipitation and erosion. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast where denudation rates reached values as high as 600±80 mm/ka for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets register nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We relate these contrasts to different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that matches with the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation results in fast erosion and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires sufficient material on catchment hillslopes to be stripped off by erosion. This was most likely the case immediately before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span with poorly erosive climate conditions, allowing for sufficient regolith to build up on the hillslopes. Finally, this study suggests a strong control of orbitally and ice sheet forced latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ on the erosional gradients and sediment production on the western

  1. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  2. Differences in protein expression among five species of stream stonefly (Plecoptera) along a latitudinal gradient in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Maribet; Tsuchiya, Maria Claret; Matsumoto, Suguru; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Kozo

    2017-11-01

    Proteome variation among natural populations along an environmental gradient may provide insights into how the biological functions of species are related to their local adaptation. We investigated protein expression in five stream stonefly species from four geographic regions along a latitudinal gradient in Japan with varying climatic conditions. The extracted proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF), yielding 446 proteins. Low interspecies variation in the proteome profiles was observed among five species within geographical regions, presumably due to the co-occurring species sharing the environments. However, large spatial variations in protein expression were found among four geographic regions, suggesting strong regulation of protein expression in heterogeneous environments, where the spatial variations were positively correlated with water temperature. We identified 21 unique proteins expressed specifically in a geographical region and six common proteins expressed throughout all regions. In warmer regions, metabolic proteins were upregulated, whereas proteins related to cold stress, the photoperiod, and mating were downregulated. Oxygen-related and energy-production proteins were upregulated in colder regions with higher altitudes. Thus, our proteomic approach is useful for identifying and understanding important biological functions related to local adaptations by populations of stoneflies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prediction of Protein Structural Classes for Low-Similarity Sequences Based on Consensus Sequence and Segmented PSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences is useful for understanding fold patterns, regulation, functions, and interactions of proteins. It is well known that feature extraction is significant to prediction of protein structural class and it mainly uses protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure sequence, and position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM. Currently, prediction solely based on the PSSM has played a key role in improving the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel method called CSP-SegPseP-SegACP by fusing consensus sequence (CS, segmented PsePSSM, and segmented autocovariance transformation (ACT based on PSSM. Three widely used low-similarity datasets (1189, 25PDB, and 640 are adopted in this paper. Then a 700-dimensional (700D feature vector is constructed and the dimension is decreased to 224D by using principal component analysis (PCA. To verify the performance of our method, rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on 1189, 25PDB, and 640 datasets. Comparison of our results with the existing PSSM-based methods demonstrates that our method achieves the favorable and competitive performance. This will offer an important complementary to other PSSM-based methods for prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences.

  4. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous limestones from western Tarim basin suggests negligible latitudinal offset yet significant clockwise rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Gilder, S.; Chen, Y.; Cogné, J. P.; Courtillot, V. E.; Cai, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large northward translation of central Asian crustal blocks has been reported from paleomagnetism of Cretaceous and Tertiary terrestrial sediments. This motion was initially taken as evidence of deformation occurred in the Asian interior as a result of indentation of the Indian Plate. However, because the amount of motion is far greater than geological observations, accuracy of the paleomagnetic record has become a controversial issue. To solve the problem, it has been shown that the latitudinal offset can be entirely attributed to inclination shallowing during deposition and compaction processes (Tan et al., 2003; Tauxe and Kent, 2004). On the other hand, coeval volcanic rocks from central Asia did record steeper paleomagnetic inclinations than terrestrial rocks (Gilder et al., 2003). To extend the effort of solving the controversy, we report paleomagnetic results of Cretaceous limestones from western Tarim basin. Our results show that the majority of our collections have been overprinted. Fortunately, a special type of limestones preserved stable characteristic remanence. Fold tests suggest a primary origin of the magnetization. Comparison of the paleomagnetic direction with the coeval expected direction from reference poles indicates a negligible amount of northward movement consistent with previous result of inclination correction based on magnetic fabrics, and a pattern of clockwise rotation symmetric with the style observed in the western flank of the Pamir ranges. Rock magnetic data will also be presented to support the accurate paleomagnetic record.

  5. Latitudinal distribution of the Jovian plasma sheet ions observed by Juno JADE-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. K. H.; Valek, P. W.; McComas, D. J.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ebert, R. W.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Pollock, C. J.; Ranquist, D. A.; Szalay, J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Jovian plasma sheet is a region where the centrifugal force dominates the heavy ion plasma. Properties of the plasma sheet ions near the equatorial plane have been studied with in-situ measurements from the Pioneer, Voyager, and Galileo spacecraft. However, the ion properties for the off-equator regions are not well known due to the limited measurements. Juno is the first polar orbiting spacecraft that can investigate the high latitude region of the Jovian magnetosphere. With Juno's unique trajectory, we will investigate the latitudinal distribution of the Jovian plasma sheet ions using measurements from the Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment Ion sensor (JADE-I). JADE-I measures an ion's energy-per-charge (E/Q) from 0.01 keV/q to 46.2 keV/q with an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) and a mass-per-charge (M/Q) up to 64 amu/q with a carbon-foil-based time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. We have shown that the ambiguity between and (both have M/Q of 16) can be resolved in JADE-I using a semi-empirical simulation tool based on carbon foil effects (i.e., charge state modification, angular scattering, and energy loss) from incident ions passing through the TOF mass spectrometer. Based on the simulation results, we have developed an Ion Composition Analysis Tool (ICAT) that determines ion composition at each energy step of JADE-I (total of 64 steps). The velocity distribution for each ion species can be obtained from the ion composition as a function of each energy step. Since there is an ambipolar electric field due to mobile electrons and equatorially confined heavy ions, we expect to see acceleration along the field line. This study will show the species separated velocity distribution at various latitudes to investigate how the plasma sheet ions evolve along the field line.

  6. A continuous latitudinal energy balance model to explore non-uniform climate engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, F.; McInnes, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Current concentrations of atmospheric CO2 exceed measured historical levels in modern times, largely attributed to anthropogenic forcing since the industrial revolution. The required decline in emissions rates has never been achieved leading to recent interest in climate engineering for future risk-mitigation strategies. Climate engineering aims to offset human-driven climate change. It involves techniques developed both to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods) and to counteract the radiative forcing that it generates (Solar Radiation Management (SRM) methods). In order to investigate effects of SRM technologies for climate engineering, an analytical model describing the main dynamics of the Earth's climate has been developed. The model is a time-dependent Energy Balance Model (EBM) with latitudinal resolution and allows for the evaluation of non-uniform climate engineering strategies. A significant disadvantage of climate engineering techniques involving the management of solar radiation is regional disparities in cooling. This model offers an analytical approach to design multi-objective strategies that counteract climate change on a regional basis: for example, to cool the Artic and restrict undesired impacts at mid-latitudes, or to control the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Using the Green's function approach the resulting partial differential equation allows for the computation of the surface temperature as a function of time and latitude when a 1% per year increase in the CO2 concentration is considered. After the validation of the model through comparisons with high fidelity numerical models, it will be used to explore strategies for the injection of the aerosol precursors in the stratosphere. In particular, the model involves detailed description of the optical properties of the particles, the wash-out dynamics and the estimation of the radiative cooling they can generate.

  7. Quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2013-01-01

    method for quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data. In addition, we present a strategy to investigate population structure via Principal Components Analysis. Through extensive simulations, we compare the new method herein proposed to approaches based...... on genotype calling and demonstrate a marked improvement in estimation accuracy for a wide range of conditions. We apply the method to a large-scale genomic data set of domesticated and wild silkworms sequenced at low coverage. We find that we can infer the fine-scale genetic structure of the sampled......Over the last few years, new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically increased speed and reduced sequencing costs. However, the use of these sequencing technologies is often challenged by errors and biases associated with the bioinformatical methods used for analyzing the data...

  8. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  9. Image encryption using random sequence generated from generalized information domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia-Yan; Wu Jie-Hua; Zhang Guo-Ji; Li Xuan; Ren Ya-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    A novel image encryption method based on the random sequence generated from the generalized information domain and permutation–diffusion architecture is proposed. The random sequence is generated by reconstruction from the generalized information file and discrete trajectory extraction from the data stream. The trajectory address sequence is used to generate a P-box to shuffle the plain image while random sequences are treated as keystreams. A new factor called drift factor is employed to accelerate and enhance the performance of the random sequence generator. An initial value is introduced to make the encryption method an approximately one-time pad. Experimental results show that the random sequences pass the NIST statistical test with a high ratio and extensive analysis demonstrates that the new encryption scheme has superior security. (paper)

  10. In silico evidence for sequence-dependent nucleosome sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lequieu, Joshua; Schwartz, David C.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2017-10-18

    Nucleosomes represent the basic building block of chromatin and provide an important mechanism by which cellular processes are controlled. The locations of nucleosomes across the genome are not random but instead depend on both the underlying DNA sequence and the dynamic action of other proteins within the nucleus. These processes are central to cellular function, and the molecular details of the interplay between DNA sequence and nudeosome dynamics remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigate this interplay in detail by relying on a molecular model, which permits development of a comprehensive picture of the underlying free energy surfaces and the corresponding dynamics of nudeosome repositioning. The mechanism of nudeosome repositioning is shown to be strongly linked to DNA sequence and directly related to the binding energy of a given DNA sequence to the histone core. It is also demonstrated that chromatin remodelers can override DNA-sequence preferences by exerting torque, and the histone H4 tail is then identified as a key component by which DNA-sequence, histone modifications, and chromatin remodelers could in fact be coupled.

  11. Exome sequencing and genetic testing for MODY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Johansson

    Full Text Available Genetic testing for monogenic diabetes is important for patient care. Given the extensive genetic and clinical heterogeneity of diabetes, exome sequencing might provide additional diagnostic potential when standard Sanger sequencing-based diagnostics is inconclusive.The aim of the study was to examine the performance of exome sequencing for a molecular diagnosis of MODY in patients who have undergone conventional diagnostic sequencing of candidate genes with negative results.We performed exome enrichment followed by high-throughput sequencing in nine patients with suspected MODY. They were Sanger sequencing-negative for mutations in the HNF1A, HNF4A, GCK, HNF1B and INS genes. We excluded common, non-coding and synonymous gene variants, and performed in-depth analysis on filtered sequence variants in a pre-defined set of 111 genes implicated in glucose metabolism.On average, we obtained 45 X median coverage of the entire targeted exome and found 199 rare coding variants per individual. We identified 0-4 rare non-synonymous and nonsense variants per individual in our a priori list of 111 candidate genes. Three of the variants were considered pathogenic (in ABCC8, HNF4A and PPARG, respectively, thus exome sequencing led to a genetic diagnosis in at least three of the nine patients. Approximately 91% of known heterozygous SNPs in the target exomes were detected, but we also found low coverage in some key diabetes genes using our current exome sequencing approach. Novel variants in the genes ARAP1, GLIS3, MADD, NOTCH2 and WFS1 need further investigation to reveal their possible role in diabetes.Our results demonstrate that exome sequencing can improve molecular diagnostics of MODY when used as a complement to Sanger sequencing. However, improvements will be needed, especially concerning coverage, before the full potential of exome sequencing can be realized.

  12. New MR pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.E.; Flamig, D.P.; Griffey, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method for fat suppression for three-dimensional MR imaging. The FATS (fat-suppressed acquisition with echo time shortened) sequence employs a pair of opposing adiabatic half-passage RF pulses tuned on fat resonance. The imaging parameters are as follows: TR, 20 msec; TE, 21.7-3.2 msec; 1,024 x 128 x 128 acquired matrix; imaging time, approximately 11 minutes. A series of 54 examinations were performed. Excellent fat suppression with water excitation is achieved in all cases. The orbital images demonstrate superior resolution of small orbital lesions. The high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in cranial studies demonstrates excellent petrous bone and internal auditory canal anatomy

  13. Computational sequence analysis of predicted long dsRNA transcriptomes of major crops reveals sequence complementarity with human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter D; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Petrick, Jay S; Zhu, Jin; Kerstetter, Randall A; Heck, Gregory R; Ivashuta, Sergey I

    2013-01-01

    Long double-stranded RNAs (long dsRNAs) are precursors for the effector molecules of sequence-specific RNA-based gene silencing in eukaryotes. Plant cells can contain numerous endogenous long dsRNAs. This study demonstrates that such endogenous long dsRNAs in plants have sequence complementarity to human genes. Many of these complementary long dsRNAs have perfect sequence complementarity of at least 21 nucleotides to human genes; enough complementarity to potentially trigger gene silencing in targeted human cells if delivered in functional form. However, the number and diversity of long dsRNA molecules in plant tissue from crops such as lettuce, tomato, corn, soy and rice with complementarity to human genes that have a long history of safe consumption supports a conclusion that long dsRNAs do not present a significant dietary risk.

  14. A programmable method for massively parallel targeted sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmans, Erik S.; Natsoulis, Georges; Bell, John M.; Grimes, Susan M.; Sieh, Weiva; Ji, Hanlee P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a targeted resequencing approach referred to as Oligonucleotide-Selective Sequencing. In this study, we report a series of significant improvements and novel applications of this method whereby the surface of a sequencing flow cell is modified in situ to capture specific genomic regions of interest from a sample and then sequenced. These improvements include a fully automated targeted sequencing platform through the use of a standard Illumina cBot fluidics station. Targeting optimization increased the yield of total on-target sequencing data 2-fold compared to the previous iteration, while simultaneously increasing the percentage of reads that could be mapped to the human genome. The described assays cover up to 1421 genes with a total coverage of 5.5 Megabases (Mb). We demonstrate a 10-fold abundance uniformity of greater than 90% in 1 log distance from the median and a targeting rate of up to 95%. We also sequenced continuous genomic loci up to 1.5 Mb while simultaneously genotyping SNPs and genes. Variants with low minor allele fraction were sensitively detected at levels of 5%. Finally, we determined the exact breakpoint sequence of cancer rearrangements. Overall, this approach has high performance for selective sequencing of genome targets, configuration flexibility and variant calling accuracy. PMID:24782526

  15. High-throughput sequence alignment using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapnell Cole

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent availability of new, less expensive high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has yielded a dramatic increase in the volume of sequence data that must be analyzed. These data are being generated for several purposes, including genotyping, genome resequencing, metagenomics, and de novo genome assembly projects. Sequence alignment programs such as MUMmer have proven essential for analysis of these data, but researchers will need ever faster, high-throughput alignment tools running on inexpensive hardware to keep up with new sequence technologies. Results This paper describes MUMmerGPU, an open-source high-throughput parallel pairwise local sequence alignment program that runs on commodity Graphics Processing Units (GPUs in common workstations. MUMmerGPU uses the new Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA from nVidia to align multiple query sequences against a single reference sequence stored as a suffix tree. By processing the queries in parallel on the highly parallel graphics card, MUMmerGPU achieves more than a 10-fold speedup over a serial CPU version of the sequence alignment kernel, and outperforms the exact alignment component of MUMmer on a high end CPU by 3.5-fold in total application time when aligning reads from recent sequencing projects using Solexa/Illumina, 454, and Sanger sequencing technologies. Conclusion MUMmerGPU is a low cost, ultra-fast sequence alignment program designed to handle the increasing volume of data produced by new, high-throughput sequencing technologies. MUMmerGPU demonstrates that even memory-intensive applications can run significantly faster on the relatively low-cost GPU than on the CPU.

  16. Protecting genomic sequence anonymity with generalization lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, B A

    2005-01-01

    Current genomic privacy technologies assume the identity of genomic sequence data is protected if personal information, such as demographics, are obscured, removed, or encrypted. While demographic features can directly compromise an individual's identity, recent research demonstrates such protections are insufficient because sequence data itself is susceptible to re-identification. To counteract this problem, we introduce an algorithm for anonymizing a collection of person-specific DNA sequences. The technique is termed DNA lattice anonymization (DNALA), and is based upon the formal privacy protection schema of k -anonymity. Under this model, it is impossible to observe or learn features that distinguish one genetic sequence from k-1 other entries in a collection. To maximize information retained in protected sequences, we incorporate a concept generalization lattice to learn the distance between two residues in a single nucleotide region. The lattice provides the most similar generalized concept for two residues (e.g. adenine and guanine are both purines). The method is tested and evaluated with several publicly available human population datasets ranging in size from 30 to 400 sequences. Our findings imply the anonymization schema is feasible for the protection of sequences privacy. The DNALA method is the first computational disclosure control technique for general DNA sequences. Given the computational nature of the method, guarantees of anonymity can be formally proven. There is room for improvement and validation, though this research provides the groundwork from which future researchers can construct genomics anonymization schemas tailored to specific datasharing scenarios.

  17. Latitudinal diversity gradients in New World bats: are they a consequence of niche conservatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Pereira, Maria João; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism.

  18. High-Throughput Block Optical DNA Sequence Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Dodderi Manjunatha; Korshoj, Lee Erik; Hanson, Katrina Bethany; Chowdhury, Partha Pratim; Otoupal, Peter Britton; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2018-01-01

    Optical techniques for molecular diagnostics or DNA sequencing generally rely on small molecule fluorescent labels, which utilize light with a wavelength of several hundred nanometers for detection. Developing a label-free optical DNA sequencing technique will require nanoscale focusing of light, a high-throughput and multiplexed identification method, and a data compression technique to rapidly identify sequences and analyze genomic heterogeneity for big datasets. Such a method should identify characteristic molecular vibrations using optical spectroscopy, especially in the "fingerprinting region" from ≈400-1400 cm -1 . Here, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used to demonstrate label-free identification of DNA nucleobases with multiplexed 3D plasmonic nanofocusing. While nanometer-scale mode volumes prevent identification of single nucleobases within a DNA sequence, the block optical technique can identify A, T, G, and C content in DNA k-mers. The content of each nucleotide in a DNA block can be a unique and high-throughput method for identifying sequences, genes, and other biomarkers as an alternative to single-letter sequencing. Additionally, coupling two complementary vibrational spectroscopy techniques (infrared and Raman) can improve block characterization. These results pave the way for developing a novel, high-throughput block optical sequencing method with lossy genomic data compression using k-mer identification from multiplexed optical data acquisition. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Efficiency to Discovery Transgenic Loci in GM Rice Using Next Generation Sequencing Whole Genome Re-sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doori Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization technology in genetically modified organisms, in addition to how transgenic biotechnologies are developed now require full transparency to assess the risk to living modified and non-modified organisms. Next generation sequencing (NGS methodology is suggested as an effective means in genome characterization and detection of transgenic insertion locations. In the present study, we applied NGS to insert transgenic loci, specifically the epidermal growth factor (EGF in genetically modified rice cells. A total of 29.3 Gb (~72× coverage was sequenced with a 2 × 150 bp paired end method by Illumina HiSeq2500, which was consecutively mapped to the rice genome and T-vector sequence. The compatible pairs of reads were successfully mapped to 10 loci on the rice chromosome and vector sequences were validated to the insertion location by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The EGF transgenic site was confirmed only on chromosome 4 by PCR. Results of this study demonstrated the success of NGS data to characterize the rice genome. Bioinformatics analyses must be developed in association with NGS data to identify highly accurate transgenic sites.

  20. Analysis of sequence diversity through internal transcribed spacers and simple sequence repeats to identify Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y T; Chen, R K; Lin, S J; Chen, Y C; Chin, S W; Chen, F C; Lee, C Y

    2014-04-08

    The Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. The Dendrobium genus has high economic potential as ornamental plants and for medicinal purposes. In addition, the species of this genus are able to produce large crops. However, many Dendrobium varieties are very similar in outward appearance, making it difficult to distinguish one species from another. This study demonstrated that the 12 Dendrobium species used in this study may be divided into 2 groups by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Red and yellow flowers may also be used to separate these species into 2 main groups. In particular, the deciduous characteristic is associated with the ITS genetic diversity of the A group. Of 53 designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, 7 pairs were polymorphic for polymerase chain reaction products that were amplified from a specific band. The results of this study demonstrate that these 7 SSR primer pairs may potentially be used to identify Dendrobium species and their progeny in future studies.

  1. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Declarative and Non-Declarative Sequence Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…

  2. Third-Generation Sequencing and Analysis of Four Complete Pig Liver Esterase Gene Sequences in Clones Identified by Screening BAC Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiliang; Xiao, Yuncai; Bi, Dingren; Yin, Jingdong; Shi, Deshi

    2016-01-01

    Pig liver carboxylesterase (PLE) gene sequences in GenBank are incomplete, which has led to difficulties in studying the genetic structure and regulation mechanisms of gene expression of PLE family genes. The aim of this study was to obtain and analysis of complete gene sequences of PLE family by screening from a Rongchang pig BAC library and third-generation PacBio gene sequencing. After a number of existing incomplete PLE isoform gene sequences were analysed, primers were designed based on conserved regions in PLE exons, and the whole pig genome used as a template for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Specific primers were then selected based on the PCR amplification results. A three-step PCR screening method was used to identify PLE-positive clones by screening a Rongchang pig BAC library and PacBio third-generation sequencing was performed. BLAST comparisons and other bioinformatics methods were applied for sequence analysis. Five PLE-positive BAC clones, designated BAC-10, BAC-70, BAC-75, BAC-119 and BAC-206, were identified. Sequence analysis yielded the complete sequences of four PLE genes, PLE1, PLE-B9, PLE-C4, and PLE-G2. Complete PLE gene sequences were defined as those containing regulatory sequences, exons, and introns. It was found that, not only did the PLE exon sequences of the four genes show a high degree of homology, but also that the intron sequences were highly similar. Additionally, the regulatory region of the genes contained two 720bps reverse complement sequences that may have an important function in the regulation of PLE gene expression. This is the first report to confirm the complete sequences of four PLE genes. In addition, the study demonstrates that each PLE isoform is encoded by a single gene and that the various genes exhibit a high degree of sequence homology, suggesting that the PLE family evolved from a single ancestral gene. Obtaining the complete sequences of these PLE genes provides the necessary foundation for

  3. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70-95km): a study involving the CUJO network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.; Namboothiri, S.; Kishore, P.

    2004-02-01

    . The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40N, 105W) has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from W-E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (N, 81W), Platteville (40N, 105W), Saskatoon (52N, 107W), Wakkanai (45N, 142E) and Yamagawa (31N, 131E). It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14) at two longitudes. Annual climatologies involving both height and frequency versus time contour plots for periods from 8h to 30 days, show that the changes with longitude are very significant and distinctive, often exceeding the local latitudinal variations. Comparisons with models and the recent UARS-HRDI global analysis of tides are discussed. The fits of the horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in unique frequency versus time contour plots and shown to be consistent with the expected dominant modes. Annual climatologies of planetary waves (16 day, 2 day) and gravity waves reveal strong seasonal and longitudinal variations.

  4. Variation in size and growth of the great scallop Pecten maximus along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chauvaud

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate.

  5. On the utilization of ionosonde data to analyze the latitudinal penetration of ionospheric storm effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.M.; Codrescu, M.; Hall, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Upper atmosphere science is placing increased emphasis on global coupling between the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere systems, particularly with regard to the penetration of dynamic, chemical, and electrodynamic effects from high to low latitudes during magnetically disturbed periods. An emerging potential exists for latitudinal and longitudinal chains of ionosondes to contribute uniquely to this thrust in ways complementary to the capabilities and shortcomings of other groundbased sensors and satellites. Here we illustrate a methodology whereby the fullest potential of such ionosonde data can be realized. Data from a chain of stations close to the -165 0 magnetic meridian and separated by about 5 0 in magnetic latitude are used to study the relationships between magnetic activity, hmF2, foF2, and inferred meridional winds during 17--28 April, 1979. Hourly values are fit in latitude using Legendre polynomials, and variations from quiet-time values are displayed in latitude-U.T. coordinates using a color graphics method which provides an illuminating illustration of the penetration of ionospheric disturbances in latitude and their dependence on Kp, storm time, and local time. Observed effects are interpreted in terms of plausible electric field, neutral wind, and neutral composition changes during the storm period. For instance, net depletions in foF2 occur over the entire disturbed interval down to about 25 0 --30 0 latitude, apparently due to such increased N 2 densities that the resulting enhanced plasma loss rates overcompensate and ''positive'' storm effects whereby southward winds elevate the F-layer peak to altitudes of reduced chemical loss

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991, and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    2000-05-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring, and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1 x 1{degree} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes toward Central-Southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these CO{sub 2} emissions has been reexamined. The emissions of the past two decades were approximately 1% lighter than previously estimated. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Next-Generation Sequencing of Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Andrew S; Stall, Jennifer N; Hovelson, Daniel H; Cani, Andi K; Liu, Chia-Jen; Tomlins, Scott A; Cho, Kathleen R

    2015-11-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most prevalent and lethal form of ovarian cancer. HGSCs frequently arise in the distal fallopian tubes rather than the ovary, developing from small precursor lesions called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (TICs, or more specifically, STICs). While STICs have been reported to harbor TP53 mutations, detailed molecular characterizations of these lesions are lacking. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 4 women, 2 with HGSC and 2 with uterine endometrioid carcinoma (UEC) who were diagnosed as having synchronous STICs. We detected concordant mutations in both HGSCs with synchronous STICs, including TP53 mutations as well as assumed germline BRCA1/2 alterations, confirming a clonal association between these lesions. Next-generation sequencing confirmed the presence of a STIC clonally unrelated to 1 case of UEC, and NGS of the other tubal lesion diagnosed as a STIC unexpectedly supported the lesion as a micrometastasis from the associated UEC. We demonstrate that targeted NGS can identify genetic alterations in minute lesions, such as TICs, and confirm TP53 mutations as early driving events for HGSC. Next-generation sequencing also demonstrated unexpected associations between presumed STICs and synchronous carcinomas, providing evidence that some TICs are actually metastases rather than HGSC precursors.

  8. Defining reference sequences for Nocardia species by similarity and clustering analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Helal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intra- and inter-species genetic diversity of bacteria and the absence of 'reference', or the most representative, sequences of individual species present a significant challenge for sequence-based identification. The aims of this study were to determine the utility, and compare the performance of several clustering and classification algorithms to identify the species of 364 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with a defined species in GenBank, and 110 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with no defined species, all within the genus Nocardia. METHODS: A total of 364 16S rRNA gene sequences of Nocardia species were studied. In addition, 110 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned only to the Nocardia genus level at the time of submission to GenBank were used for machine learning classification experiments. Different clustering algorithms were compared with a novel algorithm or the linear mapping (LM of the distance matrix. Principal Components Analysis was used for the dimensionality reduction and visualization. RESULTS: The LM algorithm achieved the highest performance and classified the set of 364 16S rRNA sequences into 80 clusters, the majority of which (83.52% corresponded with the original species. The most representative 16S rRNA sequences for individual Nocardia species have been identified as 'centroids' in respective clusters from which the distances to all other sequences were minimized; 110 16S rRNA gene sequences with identifications recorded only at the genus level were classified using machine learning methods. Simple kNN machine learning demonstrated the highest performance and classified Nocardia species sequences with an accuracy of 92.7% and a mean frequency of 0.578. CONCLUSION: The identification of centroids of 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters using novel distance matrix clustering enables the identification of the most representative sequences for each individual species of Nocardia and allows the quantitation of inter- and intra

  9. Dynamical System Modeling to Simulate Donor T Cell Response to Whole Exome Sequencing-Derived Recipient Peptides Demonstrates Different Alloreactivity Potential in HLA-Matched and -Mismatched Donor-Recipient Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razzaq, Badar; Scalora, Allison; Koparde, Vishal N; Meier, Jeremy; Mahmood, Musa; Salman, Salman; Jameson-Lee, Max; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar; Voelkner, Mark; Kobulnicky, David J; Roberts, Catherine H; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Manjili, Masoud H; Buck, Gregory A; Neale, Michael C; Toor, Amir A

    2016-05-01

    Immune reconstitution kinetics and subsequent clinical outcomes in HLA-matched recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) are variable and difficult to predict. Considering SCT as a dynamical system may allow sequence differences across the exomes of the transplant donors and recipients to be used to simulate an alloreactive T cell response, which may allow better clinical outcome prediction. To accomplish this, whole exome sequencing was performed on 34 HLA-matched SCT donor-recipient pairs (DRPs) and the nucleotide sequence differences translated to peptides. The binding affinity of the peptides to the relevant HLA in each DRP was determined. The resulting array of peptide-HLA binding affinity values in each patient was considered as an operator modifying a hypothetical T cell repertoire vector, in which each T cell clone proliferates in accordance with the logistic equation of growth. Using an iterating system of matrices, each simulated T cell clone's growth was calculated with the steady-state population being proportional to the magnitude of the binding affinity of the driving HLA-peptide complex. Incorporating competition between T cell clones responding to different HLA-peptide complexes reproduces a number of features of clinically observed T cell clonal repertoire in the simulated repertoire, including sigmoidal growth kinetics of individual T cell clones and overall repertoire, Power Law clonal frequency distribution, increase in repertoire complexity over time with increasing clonal diversity, and alteration of clonal dominance when a different antigen array is encountered, such as in SCT. The simulated, alloreactive T cell repertoire was markedly different in HLA-matched DRPs. The patterns were differentiated by rate of growth and steady-state magnitude of the simulated T cell repertoire and demonstrate a possible correlation with survival. In conclusion, exome wide sequence differences in DRPs may allow simulation of donor alloreactive T

  10. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Airi

    Full Text Available Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  11. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  12. Clinical validation of targeted next-generation sequencing for inherited disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, Sophia; Hauge, Adam; Bunjer, Kari; Kemmer, Teresa; Bower, Matthew; Schomaker, Matthew; Onsongo, Getiria; Wilson, Jon; Erdmann, Jesse; Zhou, Yi; Deshpande, Archana; Spears, Michael D; Beckman, Kenneth; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Thyagarajan, Bharat

    2015-02-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) can revolutionize molecular diagnostics, several hurdles remain in the implementation of this technology in clinical laboratories. To validate and implement an NGS panel for genetic diagnosis of more than 100 inherited diseases, such as neurologic conditions, congenital hearing loss and eye disorders, developmental disorders, nonmalignant diseases treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation, familial cancers, connective tissue disorders, metabolic disorders, disorders of sexual development, and cardiac disorders. The diagnostic gene panels ranged from 1 to 54 genes with most of panels containing 10 genes or fewer. We used a liquid hybridization-based, target-enrichment strategy to enrich 10 067 exons in 568 genes, followed by NGS with a HiSeq 2000 sequencing system (Illumina, San Diego, California). We successfully sequenced 97.6% (9825 of 10 067) of the targeted exons to obtain a minimum coverage of 20× at all bases. We demonstrated 100% concordance in detecting 19 pathogenic single-nucleotide variations and 11 pathogenic insertion-deletion mutations ranging in size from 1 to 18 base pairs across 18 samples that were previously characterized by Sanger sequencing. Using 4 pairs of blinded, duplicate samples, we demonstrated a high degree of concordance (>99%) among the blinded, duplicate pairs. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using the NGS platform to multiplex genetic tests for several rare diseases and the use of cloud computing for bioinformatics analysis as a relatively low-cost solution for implementing NGS in clinical laboratories.

  13. Capillary gel electrophoresis for rapid, high resolution DNA sequencing.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, H; Gesteland, R

    1990-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis has been demonstrated for the separation and detection of DNA sequencing samples. Enzymatic dideoxy nucleotide chain termination was employed, using fluorescently tagged oligonucleotide primers and laser based on-column detection (limit of detection is 6,000 molecules per peak). Capillary gel separations were shown to be three times faster, with better resolution (2.4 x), and higher separation efficiency (5.4 x) than a conventional automated slab gel DNA sequenci...

  14. Temporal characteristics of some aftershock sequences in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Solakov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We apply statistical analysis to study the temporal distribution of aftershocks in aftershock sequences of five earthquakes which occurred in Bulgaria. We use the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of the modified Omori formula for aftershock sequences which is directly based on a time series. We find that: the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameter p show a regional variation, with lower values of the decay rate in North Bulgaria; the modified Omori formula provides an appropriate representation of temporal variation of the aftershock activity in North Bulgaria; the aftershock sequences in South Bulgaria are best modeled by the combination of an ordinary aftershock sequence with secondary aftershock activity. A plot of the cumulative number of events versus the frequency-linearized time t clearly demonstrates a transition from aftershock to foreshock activity prior to the second 1986 Strazhitsa (North Bulgaria earthquake.

  15. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P; Doust, Andrew N; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-05-13

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  16. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Schmutz, Jeremy [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Wang, Hao [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Percifield, Ryan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Hawkins, Jennifer [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Pontaroli, Ana C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Estep, Matt [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Feng, Liang [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaughn, Justin N [ORNL; Grimwood, Jane [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Jenkins, Jerry [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lindquist, Erika [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, Uffe [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wang, Xuewen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Wu, Xiaomei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Mitros, Therese [University of California, Berkeley; Triplett, Jimmy [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita [Oklahoma State University; Wang, Lin [Cornell University; Li, Pinghua [Cornell University; Sharma, Manoj [University of California, Davis; Sharma, Rita [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Panaud, Olivier [Universite de Perpignan, Perpignan, France; Kellogg, Elizabeth A. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Brutnell, Thomas P. [Cornell University; Doust, Andrew N. [Oklahoma State University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Devos, Katrien M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ~400-Mb assembly covers ~80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  17. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  18. Next-Generation Sequencing Workflow for NSCLC Critical Samples Using a Targeted Sequencing Approach by Ion Torrent PGM™ Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Irene; Coco, Simona; Truini, Anna; Rusmini, Marta; Dal Bello, Maria Giovanna; Alama, Angela; Banelli, Barbara; Mora, Marco; Rijavec, Erika; Barletta, Giulia; Genova, Carlo; Biello, Federica; Maggioni, Claudia; Grossi, Francesco

    2015-12-03

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a cost-effective technology capable of screening several genes simultaneously; however, its application in a clinical context requires an established workflow to acquire reliable sequencing results. Here, we report an optimized NGS workflow analyzing 22 lung cancer-related genes to sequence critical samples such as DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks and circulating free DNA (cfDNA). Snap frozen and matched FFPE gDNA from 12 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, whose gDNA fragmentation status was previously evaluated using a multiplex PCR-based quality control, were successfully sequenced with Ion Torrent PGM™. The robust bioinformatic pipeline allowed us to correctly call both Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) and indels with a detection limit of 5%, achieving 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity. This workflow was also validated in 13 FFPE NSCLC biopsies. Furthermore, a specific protocol for low input gDNA capable of producing good sequencing data with high coverage, high uniformity, and a low error rate was also optimized. In conclusion, we demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining gDNA from FFPE samples suitable for NGS by performing appropriate quality controls. The optimized workflow, capable of screening low input gDNA, highlights NGS as a potential tool in the detection, disease monitoring, and treatment of NSCLC.

  19. Universal sequence map (USM of arbitrary discrete sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For over a decade the idea of representing biological sequences in a continuous coordinate space has maintained its appeal but not been fully realized. The basic idea is that any sequence of symbols may define trajectories in the continuous space conserving all its statistical properties. Ideally, such a representation would allow scale independent sequence analysis – without the context of fixed memory length. A simple example would consist on being able to infer the homology between two sequences solely by comparing the coordinates of any two homologous units. Results We have successfully identified such an iterative function for bijective mappingψ of discrete sequences into objects of continuous state space that enable scale-independent sequence analysis. The technique, named Universal Sequence Mapping (USM, is applicable to sequences with an arbitrary length and arbitrary number of unique units and generates a representation where map distance estimates sequence similarity. The novel USM procedure is based on earlier work by these and other authors on the properties of Chaos Game Representation (CGR. The latter enables the representation of 4 unit type sequences (like DNA as an order free Markov Chain transition table. The properties of USM are illustrated with test data and can be verified for other data by using the accompanying web-based tool:http://bioinformatics.musc.edu/~jonas/usm/. Conclusions USM is shown to enable a statistical mechanics approach to sequence analysis. The scale independent representation frees sequence analysis from the need to assume a memory length in the investigation of syntactic rules.

  20. Resolving the Complexity of Human Skin Metagenomes Using Single-Molecule Sequencing

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    Yu-Chih Tsai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep metagenomic shotgun sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool to interrogate composition and function of complex microbial communities. Computational approaches to assemble genome fragments have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for de novo reconstruction of genomes from these communities. However, the resultant “genomes” are typically fragmented and incomplete due to the limited ability of short-read sequence data to assemble complex or low-coverage regions. Here, we use single-molecule, real-time (SMRT sequencing to reconstruct a high-quality, closed genome of a previously uncharacterized Corynebacterium simulans and its companion bacteriophage from a skin metagenomic sample. Considerable improvement in assembly quality occurs in hybrid approaches incorporating short-read data, with even relatively small amounts of long-read data being sufficient to improve metagenome reconstruction. Using short-read data to evaluate strain variation of this C. simulans in its skin community at single-nucleotide resolution, we observed a dominant C. simulans strain with moderate allelic heterozygosity throughout the population. We demonstrate the utility of SMRT sequencing and hybrid approaches in metagenome quantitation, reconstruction, and annotation.

  1. Resolving the Complexity of Human Skin Metagenomes Using Single-Molecule Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Chih; Deming, Clayton; Segre, Julia A.; Kong, Heidi H.; Korlach, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deep metagenomic shotgun sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool to interrogate composition and function of complex microbial communities. Computational approaches to assemble genome fragments have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for de novo reconstruction of genomes from these communities. However, the resultant “genomes” are typically fragmented and incomplete due to the limited ability of short-read sequence data to assemble complex or low-coverage regions. Here, we use single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing to reconstruct a high-quality, closed genome of a previously uncharacterized Corynebacterium simulans and its companion bacteriophage from a skin metagenomic sample. Considerable improvement in assembly quality occurs in hybrid approaches incorporating short-read data, with even relatively small amounts of long-read data being sufficient to improve metagenome reconstruction. Using short-read data to evaluate strain variation of this C. simulans in its skin community at single-nucleotide resolution, we observed a dominant C. simulans strain with moderate allelic heterozygosity throughout the population. We demonstrate the utility of SMRT sequencing and hybrid approaches in metagenome quantitation, reconstruction, and annotation. PMID:26861018

  2. Training Sequences and their Effects on Task Performance and User Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of information technology (IT) training sequencesand examines how sequencing of conceptual and procedural training impact IT task performance, user satisfaction and users' self-efficacy. Using assimilation theory, we develop four hypotheses related to training...... sequences. These hypotheses were then tested in a database design context using a quasi-experimental study involving student subjects. Empirical results demonstrate improved far-transfer andnear-transfer task performance and higher self-efficacy for subjects trained in the conceptual-procedural sequence vs...

  3. Implicit sequence learning in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Christopher M; Pisoni, David B; Anaya, Esperanza M; Karpicke, Jennifer; Henning, Shirley C

    2011-01-01

    Deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) represent an intriguing opportunity to study neurocognitive plasticity and reorganization when sound is introduced following a period of auditory deprivation early in development. Although it is common to consider deafness as affecting hearing alone, it may be the case that auditory deprivation leads to more global changes in neurocognitive function. In this paper, we investigate implicit sequence learning abilities in deaf children with CIs using a novel task that measured learning through improvement to immediate serial recall for statistically consistent visual sequences. The results demonstrated two key findings. First, the deaf children with CIs showed disturbances in their visual sequence learning abilities relative to the typically developing normal-hearing children. Second, sequence learning was significantly correlated with a standardized measure of language outcome in the CI children. These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation has secondary effects related to general sequencing deficits, and that disturbances in sequence learning may at least partially explain why some deaf children still struggle with language following cochlear implantation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Is sequence awareness mandatory for perceptual sequence learning: An assessment using a pure perceptual sequence learning design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroost, Natacha; Coomans, Daphné

    2018-02-01

    We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task. Sequence awareness after the sequence learning task was tested by means of a questionnaire and the process-dissociation-procedure. The results showed that the instruction manipulation had no effect on the amount of perceptual sequence learning. Based on their report to have actively applied their sequence knowledge during the experiment, participants were subsequently regrouped in a sequence strategy group (n = 14, of which 4 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 10 participants from the explicit instruction condition) and a no-sequence strategy group (n = 16, of which 11 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 5 participants from the explicit instruction condition). Only participants of the sequence strategy group showed reliable perceptual sequence learning and sequence awareness. These results indicate that perceptual sequence learning depends upon the continuous employment of strategic cognitive control processes on sequence knowledge. Sequence awareness is suggested to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for perceptual learning to take place. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequencing genes in silico using single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Zhang Xinyi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high throughput sequencing technology has enabled the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 to generate complete sequence data for more than 906 genes and 8,140 exons representing 697 subjects. The 1000 Genomes database provides a critical opportunity for further interpreting disease associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered from genetic association studies. Currently, direct sequencing of candidate genes or regions on a large number of subjects remains both cost- and time-prohibitive. Results To accelerate the translation from discovery to functional studies, we propose an in silico gene sequencing method (ISS, which predicts phased sequences of intragenic regions, using SNPs. The key underlying idea of our method is to infer diploid sequences (a pair of phased sequences/alleles at every functional locus utilizing the deep sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project and SNP data from the HapMap Project, and to build prediction models using flanking SNPs. Using this method, we have developed a database of prediction models for 611 known genes. Sequence prediction accuracy for these genes is 96.26% on average (ranges 79%-100%. This database of prediction models can be enhanced and scaled up to include new genes as the 1000 Genomes Project sequences additional genes on additional individuals. Applying our predictive model for the KCNJ11 gene to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC Type 2 diabetes cohort, we demonstrate how the prediction of phased sequences inferred from GWAS SNP genotype data can be used to facilitate interpretation and identify a probable functional mechanism such as protein changes. Conclusions Prior to the general availability of routine sequencing of all subjects, the ISS method proposed here provides a time- and cost-effective approach to broadening the characterization of disease associated SNPs and regions, and facilitating the prioritization of candidate

  6. Sequence dependence of electron-induced DNA strand breakage revealed by DNA nanoarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Adrian; Rackwitz, Jenny; Cauët, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    The electronic structure of DNA is determined by its nucleotide sequence, which is for instance exploited in molecular electronics. Here we demonstrate that also the DNA strand breakage induced by low-energy electrons (18 eV) depends on the nucleotide sequence. To determine the absolute cross sec...

  7. Statistical approaches to use a model organism for regulatory sequences annotation of newly sequenced species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    Full Text Available A major goal of bioinformatics is the characterization of transcription factors and the transcriptional programs they regulate. Given the speed of genome sequencing, we would like to quickly annotate regulatory sequences in newly-sequenced genomes. In such cases, it would be helpful to predict sequence motifs by using experimental data from closely related model organism. Here we present a general algorithm that allow to identify transcription factor binding sites in one newly sequenced species by performing Bayesian regression on the annotated species. First we set the rationale of our method by applying it within the same species, then we extend it to use data available in closely related species. Finally, we generalise the method to handle the case when a certain number of experiments, from several species close to the species on which to make inference, are available. In order to show the performance of the method, we analyse three functionally related networks in the Ascomycota. Two gene network case studies are related to the G2/M phase of the Ascomycota cell cycle; the third is related to morphogenesis. We also compared the method with MatrixReduce and discuss other types of validation and tests. The first network is well known and provides a biological validation test of the method. The two cell cycle case studies, where the gene network size is conserved, demonstrate an effective utility in annotating new species sequences using all the available replicas from model species. The third case, where the gene network size varies among species, shows that the combination of information is less powerful but is still informative. Our methodology is quite general and could be extended to integrate other high-throughput data from model organisms.

  8. K2 and K2*: efficient alignment-free sequence similarity measurement based on Kendall statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Adjeroh, Donald A; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Jiang, Yue

    2018-05-15

    Alignment-free sequence comparison methods can compute the pairwise similarity between a huge number of sequences much faster than sequence-alignment based methods. We propose a new non-parametric alignment-free sequence comparison method, called K2, based on the Kendall statistics. Comparing to the other state-of-the-art alignment-free comparison methods, K2 demonstrates competitive performance in generating the phylogenetic tree, in evaluating functionally related regulatory sequences, and in computing the edit distance (similarity/dissimilarity) between sequences. Furthermore, the K2 approach is much faster than the other methods. An improved method, K2*, is also proposed, which is able to determine the appropriate algorithmic parameter (length) automatically, without first considering different values. Comparative analysis with the state-of-the-art alignment-free sequence similarity methods demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approaches, especially with increasing sequence length, or increasing dataset sizes. The K2 and K2* approaches are implemented in the R language as a package and is freely available for open access (http://community.wvu.edu/daadjeroh/projects/K2/K2_1.0.tar.gz). yueljiang@163.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly

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    Hengyun Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio, is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT. MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.

  10. Risk assessment for long-term post-accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellia-Hervy, A.; Ducamp, F.

    1987-11-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis, currently conducted by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) for the French replicate series of 900 MWe power plants, has identified accident sequences requiring long-term operation of some systems after the initiating event. They have been named long-term sequences. Quantification of probabilities of such sequences cannot rely exclusively on equipment failure-on-demand data: it must also take into account operating failures, the probability of which increase with time. Specific studies have therefore been conducted for a number of plant systems actuated during these long-term sequences. This has required: - Definition of the most realistic equipment utilization strategies based on existing emergency procedures for 900 MWe French plants. - Evaluation of the potential to repair failed equipment, given accessibility, repair time, and specific radiation conditions for the given sequence. - Definition of the event bringing the long-term sequence to an end. - Establishment of an appropriate quantification method, capable of taking into account the evolution of assumptions concerning equipment utilization strategies or repair conditions over time. The accident sequence quantification method based on realistic scenarios has been used in the risk assessment of the initiating event loss of reactor coolant accident occurring at power and at shutdown. Compared with the results obtained from conventional methods, this method redistributes the relative weight of accident sequences and also demonstrates that the long term can be a significant contribution to the probability of core melt

  11. Optimization of micropillar sequences for fluid flow sculpting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecklein, Daniel; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Wu, Chueh-Yu; Kim, Donghyuk; Di Carlo, Dino [Department of Bioengineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Inertial fluid flow deformation around pillars in a microchannel is a new method for controlling fluid flow. Sequences of pillars have been shown to produce a rich phase space with a wide variety of flow transformations. Previous work has successfully demonstrated manual design of pillar sequences to achieve desired transformations of the flow cross section, with experimental validation. However, such a method is not ideal for seeking out complex sculpted shapes as the search space quickly becomes too large for efficient manual discovery. We explore fast, automated optimization methods to solve this problem. We formulate the inertial flow physics in microchannels with different micropillar configurations as a set of state transition matrix operations. These state transition matrices are constructed from experimentally validated streamtraces for a fixed channel length per pillar. This facilitates modeling the effect of a sequence of micropillars as nested matrix-matrix products, which have very efficient numerical implementations. With this new forward model, arbitrary micropillar sequences can be rapidly simulated with various inlet configurations, allowing optimization routines quick access to a large search space. We integrate this framework with the genetic algorithm and showcase its applicability by designing micropillar sequences for various useful transformations. We computationally discover micropillar sequences for complex transformations that are substantially shorter than manually designed sequences. We also determine sequences for novel transformations that were difficult to manually design. Finally, we experimentally validate these computational designs by fabricating devices and comparing predictions with the results from confocal microscopy.

  12. NeSSM: a Next-generation Sequencing Simulator for Metagenomics.

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    Ben Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metagenomics can reveal the vast majority of microbes that have been missed by traditional cultivation-based methods. Due to its extremely wide range of application areas, fast metagenome sequencing simulation systems with high fidelity are in great demand to facilitate the development and comparison of metagenomics analysis tools. RESULTS: We present here a customizable metagenome simulation system: NeSSM (Next-generation Sequencing Simulator for Metagenomics. Combining complete genomes currently available, a community composition table, and sequencing parameters, it can simulate metagenome sequencing better than existing systems. Sequencing error models based on the explicit distribution of errors at each base and sequencing coverage bias are incorporated in the simulation. In order to improve the fidelity of simulation, tools are provided by NeSSM to estimate the sequencing error models, sequencing coverage bias and the community composition directly from existing metagenome sequencing data. Currently, NeSSM supports single-end and pair-end sequencing for both 454 and Illumina platforms. In addition, a GPU (graphics processing units version of NeSSM is also developed to accelerate the simulation. By comparing the simulated sequencing data from NeSSM with experimental metagenome sequencing data, we have demonstrated that NeSSM performs better in many aspects than existing popular metagenome simulators, such as MetaSim, GemSIM and Grinder. The GPU version of NeSSM is more than one-order of magnitude faster than MetaSim. CONCLUSIONS: NeSSM is a fast simulation system for high-throughput metagenome sequencing. It can be helpful to develop tools and evaluate strategies for metagenomics analysis and it's freely available for academic users at http://cbb.sjtu.edu.cn/~ccwei/pub/software/NeSSM.php.

  13. A symbolic dynamics approach for the complexity analysis of chaotic pseudo-random sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Fanghong

    2004-01-01

    By considering a chaotic pseudo-random sequence as a symbolic sequence, authors present a symbolic dynamics approach for the complexity analysis of chaotic pseudo-random sequences. The method is applied to the cases of Logistic map and one-way coupled map lattice to demonstrate how it works, and a comparison is made between it and the approximate entropy method. The results show that this method is applicable to distinguish the complexities of different chaotic pseudo-random sequences, and it is superior to the approximate entropy method

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing: From Understanding Biology to Personalized Medicine

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    Benjamin Meder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within just a few years, the new methods for high-throughput next-generation sequencing have generated completely novel insights into the heritability and pathophysiology of human disease. In this review, we wish to highlight the benefits of the current state-of-the-art sequencing technologies for genetic and epigenetic research. We illustrate how these technologies help to constantly improve our understanding of genetic mechanisms in biological systems and summarize the progress made so far. This can be exemplified by the case of heritable heart muscle diseases, so-called cardiomyopathies. Here, next-generation sequencing is able to identify novel disease genes, and first clinical applications demonstrate the successful translation of this technology into personalized patient care.

  15. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing options on the Roche/454 next-generation titanium sequencing platform.

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    Hideyuki Tamaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach has revolutionized studies in microbial ecology. While primer selection and short read length can affect the resulting microbial community profile, little is known about the influence of pyrosequencing methods on the sequencing throughput and the outcome of microbial community analyses. The aim of this study is to compare differences in output, ease, and cost among three different amplicon pyrosequencing methods for the Roche/454 Titanium platform METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following three pyrosequencing methods for 16S rRNA genes were selected in this study: Method-1 (standard method is the recommended method for bi-directional sequencing using the LIB-A kit; Method-2 is a new option designed in this study for unidirectional sequencing with the LIB-A kit; and Method-3 uses the LIB-L kit for unidirectional sequencing. In our comparison among these three methods using 10 different environmental samples, Method-2 and Method-3 produced 1.5-1.6 times more useable reads than the standard method (Method-1, after quality-based trimming, and did not compromise the outcome of microbial community analyses. Specifically, Method-3 is the most cost-effective unidirectional amplicon sequencing method as it provided the most reads and required the least effort in consumables management. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrated that alternative pyrosequencing methods for 16S rRNA genes could drastically affect sequencing output (e.g. number of reads before and after trimming but have little effect on the outcomes of microbial community analysis. This finding is important for both researchers and sequencing facilities utilizing 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for microbial ecological studies.

  16. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

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    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new

  17. Efeito do gradiente altitudinal/latitudinal sobre espécies de aves florestais da família Furnariidae na Bacia do Rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil Effect of altitudinal/latitudinal gradient about forest ovenbirds species (Aves: Furnariidae in the Tibagi river basin, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de L. Fávaro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Variações na riqueza e abundância de Furnariidae florestais foram analisadas ao longo do gradiente altitudinal/latitudinal da bacia do rio Tibagi (BRT, Paraná, Brasil. A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (1060 m a.n.m. é a formação dominante no sul da BRT, enquanto que a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (298 m a.n.m., ocorre no norte. O número total de espécies obtidas na BRT foi 14. A riqueza e a abundância de Furnariidae foram maiores no sul (12 espécies, IPA = 2,01 do que no norte (cinco espécies, IPA = 0,45 da BRT. As similaridades também foram altas entre o sul e o centro da BRT. A estrutura da comunidade de Furnariidae também apresentou correlação positiva entre o sul e o centro da BRT (coeficiente de correlação por postos de Spearman; r s = 0,96, r s = 0,89, r s = 1,00. As relações evolutivas de alguns representantes de Furnariidae com o sul da América do Sul e com os Andes podem explicar a maior presença desta família no sul da BRT. Um outro aspecto que também pode ajudar a explicar os resultados apresentados por Furnariidae são as semelhanças entre a Floresta Ombrófila Mista do sul da BRT e outras florestas temperadas da América do Sul.Variations in richness and abundance of forest ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae were studied along an altitudinal/latitudinal gradient of the Tibagi river basin (TRB, southern Brazil. Mixed Temperate Rain Forest (1060 m a.s.l. is the dominant forest in the southern TRB while Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (298 m a.s.l. occurs in the northern. The total number of species obtained in the TRB was 14. Richness and Abundance of Furnariidae were greater in the southern (12 species, IPA = 2.01 than in the northern (five species, IPA = 0.45 TRB. Similarities were also greatest in the southern and in the middle TRB. The community structure of Furnariidae also presented a positive correlation between the southern and the middle TRB (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; r s = 0.96, r s = 0.89, r s

  18. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2013-09-01

    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DendroBLAST: approximate phylogenetic trees in the absence of multiple sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven; Maini, Philip K

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly growing availability of genome information has created considerable demand for both fast and accurate phylogenetic inference algorithms. We present a novel method called DendroBLAST for reconstructing phylogenetic dendrograms/trees from protein sequences using BLAST. This method differs from other methods by incorporating a simple model of sequence evolution to test the effect of introducing sequence changes on the reliability of the bipartitions in the inferred tree. Using realistic simulated sequence data we demonstrate that this method produces phylogenetic trees that are more accurate than other commonly-used distance based methods though not as accurate as maximum likelihood methods from good quality multiple sequence alignments. In addition to tests on simulated data, we use DendroBLAST to generate input trees for a supertree reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Archaea. This independent analysis produces an approximate phylogeny of the Archaea that has both high precision and recall when compared to previously published analysis of the same dataset using conventional methods. Taken together these results demonstrate that approximate phylogenetic trees can be produced in the absence of multiple sequence alignments, and we propose that these trees will provide a platform for improving and informing downstream bioinformatic analysis. A web implementation of the DendroBLAST method is freely available for use at http://www.dendroblast.com/.

  20. Comparison of MR sequences in early cerebral infarction at 0.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Baskan, O.; Cekirge, H.S.; Besim, A.

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic values of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and gradient spin-echo (GRASE) with those of conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast SE T2-weighted sequences in the evaluation of acute cerebrovascular lesions at 0.5 T. Material and Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular accident were examined by MR imaging within the first 48 h of ictus. MR examination included 5-mm axial conventional SE and turbo SE (TSE) T2-weighted, dual-echo GRASE and FLAIR sequences. The patients also had pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted axial images. Two examiners evaluated the images and scored the conspicuity of the acute lesions. Results: Regardless of location, FLAIR provided the best lesion conspicuity in the detection of acute infarcts, followed by the GRASE sequence. In the posterior fossa, TSE and SE demonstrated the lesions better than GRASE and FLAIR techniques. In the detection of hemorrhagic elements within the ischemic region, TSE demonstrated statistically significant superiority over other sequences. Conclusion: In the detection of acute ischemic lesions in locations other than the posterior fossa, FLAIR provided the best lesion conspicuity among four T2-weighted sequences, including SE, TSE, GRASE and FLAIR. However, for the posterior fossa examination, preference of SE or TSE T2-weighted sequences is suggested

  1. DendroBLAST: approximate phylogenetic trees in the absence of multiple sequence alignments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kelly

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing availability of genome information has created considerable demand for both fast and accurate phylogenetic inference algorithms. We present a novel method called DendroBLAST for reconstructing phylogenetic dendrograms/trees from protein sequences using BLAST. This method differs from other methods by incorporating a simple model of sequence evolution to test the effect of introducing sequence changes on the reliability of the bipartitions in the inferred tree. Using realistic simulated sequence data we demonstrate that this method produces phylogenetic trees that are more accurate than other commonly-used distance based methods though not as accurate as maximum likelihood methods from good quality multiple sequence alignments. In addition to tests on simulated data, we use DendroBLAST to generate input trees for a supertree reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Archaea. This independent analysis produces an approximate phylogeny of the Archaea that has both high precision and recall when compared to previously published analysis of the same dataset using conventional methods. Taken together these results demonstrate that approximate phylogenetic trees can be produced in the absence of multiple sequence alignments, and we propose that these trees will provide a platform for improving and informing downstream bioinformatic analysis. A web implementation of the DendroBLAST method is freely available for use at http://www.dendroblast.com/.

  2. Comparison of MR sequences in early cerebral infarction at 0.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I.; Baskan, O.; Cekirge, H.S.; Besim, A. [Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey). Radiology Dept.

    2000-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic values of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and gradient spin-echo (GRASE) with those of conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast SE T2-weighted sequences in the evaluation of acute cerebrovascular lesions at 0.5 T. Material and Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular accident were examined by MR imaging within the first 48 h of ictus. MR examination included 5-mm axial conventional SE and turbo SE (TSE) T2-weighted, dual-echo GRASE and FLAIR sequences. The patients also had pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted axial images. Two examiners evaluated the images and scored the conspicuity of the acute lesions. Results: Regardless of location, FLAIR provided the best lesion conspicuity in the detection of acute infarcts, followed by the GRASE sequence. In the posterior fossa, TSE and SE demonstrated the lesions better than GRASE and FLAIR techniques. In the detection of hemorrhagic elements within the ischemic region, TSE demonstrated statistically significant superiority over other sequences. Conclusion: In the detection of acute ischemic lesions in locations other than the posterior fossa, FLAIR provided the best lesion conspicuity among four T2-weighted sequences, including SE, TSE, GRASE and FLAIR. However, for the posterior fossa examination, preference of SE or TSE T2-weighted sequences is suggested.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of blueberry using 454 EST sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Next generation sequencing methodologies, such as 454, have been demonstrated to be successful and efficient in producing a snap-shot of transcriptional activities du...

  4. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls....... In a dairy data set, predictions using BayesRC and imputed sequence data from 1000 Bull Genomes were 2% more accurate than with 800k data. We could demonstrate the method identified causal mutations in some cases. Further improvements will come from more accurate imputation of sequence variant genotypes...

  5. AFLP genome scanning reveals divergent selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihong eYang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined AFLP genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect. We genotyped 276 individuals from 11 populations of L. chinense using 987 AFLP markers. Two complementary methods (Dfdist and BayeScan and association analysis between AFLP loci and climate factors were applied to detect outlier loci. Our analyses recovered both neutral and potentially adaptive genetic differentiation among populations of L. chinense. We found moderate genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations with reduced genetic diversity towards the periphery of the species ranges. Nine AFLP marker loci showed evidence of being outliers for population differentiation for both detection methods. Of these, six were strongly associated with at least one climate factor. Temperature, precipitation and radiation were found to be three important factors influencing local adaptation of L. chinense. The outlier AFLP loci are likely not the target of natural selection, but the neighboring genes of these loci might be involved in local adaptation. Hence, these candidates should be validated by further studies.

  6. Seqenv: linking sequences to environments through text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lucas; Ijaz, Umer Z; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Coolen, Marco J L; Gubry-Rangin, Cecile; Chroňáková, Alica; Oulas, Anastasis; Pavloudi, Christina; Schnetzer, Julia; Weimann, Aaron; Ijaz, Ali; Eiler, Alexander; Quince, Christopher; Pafilis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of taxa and associated traits across different environments is one of the central questions in microbial ecology. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies are presently generating huge volumes of data to address this biogeographical topic. However, these studies are often focused on specific environment types or processes leading to the production of individual, unconnected datasets. The large amounts of legacy sequence data with associated metadata that exist can be harnessed to better place the genetic information found in these surveys into a wider environmental context. Here we introduce a software program, seqenv, to carry out precisely such a task. It automatically performs similarity searches of short sequences against the "nt" nucleotide database provided by NCBI and, out of every hit, extracts-if it is available-the textual metadata field. After collecting all the isolation sources from all the search results, we run a text mining algorithm to identify and parse words that are associated with the Environmental Ontology (EnvO) controlled vocabulary. This, in turn, enables us to determine both in which environments individual sequences or taxa have previously been observed and, by weighted summation of those results, to summarize complete samples. We present two demonstrative applications of seqenv to a survey of ammonia oxidizing archaea as well as to a plankton paleome dataset from the Black Sea. These demonstrate the ability of the tool to reveal novel patterns in HTS and its utility in the fields of environmental source tracking, paleontology, and studies of microbial biogeography. To install seqenv, go to: https://github.com/xapple/seqenv.

  7. Seqenv: linking sequences to environments through text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sinclair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of taxa and associated traits across different environments is one of the central questions in microbial ecology. High-throughput sequencing (HTS studies are presently generating huge volumes of data to address this biogeographical topic. However, these studies are often focused on specific environment types or processes leading to the production of individual, unconnected datasets. The large amounts of legacy sequence data with associated metadata that exist can be harnessed to better place the genetic information found in these surveys into a wider environmental context. Here we introduce a software program, seqenv, to carry out precisely such a task. It automatically performs similarity searches of short sequences against the “nt” nucleotide database provided by NCBI and, out of every hit, extracts–if it is available–the textual metadata field. After collecting all the isolation sources from all the search results, we run a text mining algorithm to identify and parse words that are associated with the Environmental Ontology (EnvO controlled vocabulary. This, in turn, enables us to determine both in which environments individual sequences or taxa have previously been observed and, by weighted summation of those results, to summarize complete samples. We present two demonstrative applications of seqenv to a survey of ammonia oxidizing archaea as well as to a plankton paleome dataset from the Black Sea. These demonstrate the ability of the tool to reveal novel patterns in HTS and its utility in the fields of environmental source tracking, paleontology, and studies of microbial biogeography. To install seqenv, go to: https://github.com/xapple/seqenv.

  8. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library for Drosophila serrata, a model system for sexual selection and climatic adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Adamski, Marcin; McGraw, Elizabeth A; Blows, Mark W; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2009-01-21

    The native Australian fly Drosophila serrata belongs to the highly speciose montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. It has recently emerged as an excellent model system with which to address a number of important questions, including the evolution of traits under sexual selection and traits involved in climatic adaptation along latitudinal gradients. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of such traits has been limited by a lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the first expressed sequence tag (EST) collection for D. serrata that will enable the identification of genes underlying sexually-selected phenotypes and physiological responses to environmental change and may help resolve controversial phylogenetic relationships within the montium subgroup. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from whole fly bodies at several developmental stages, including larvae and adults. Assembly of 11,616 clones sequenced from the 3' end allowed us to identify 6,607 unique contigs, of which at least 90% encoded peptides. Partial transcripts were discovered from a variety of genes of evolutionary interest by BLASTing contigs against the 12 Drosophila genomes currently sequenced. By incorporating into the cDNA library multiple individuals from populations spanning a large portion of the geographical range of D. serrata, we were able to identify 11,057 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with 278 different contigs having at least one "double hit" SNP that is highly likely to be a real polymorphism. At least 394 EST-associated microsatellite markers, representing 355 different contigs, were also found, providing an additional set of genetic markers. The assembled EST library is available online at http://www.chenowethlab.org/serrata/index.cgi. We have provided the first gene collection and largest set of polymorphic genetic markers, to date, for the fly D. serrata. The EST collection will provide much needed genomic resources for

  9. Progenesis in Proctoeces lintoni (Fellodistomidae), a parasite of Fissurella crassa (Archaeogastropoda) in a latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Huaquin, L G

    2000-08-01

    The fellodistomid Proctoeces lintoni is a common parasite of the gonads of key-hole limpets Fissurella spp. (Archaeogastropoda). It has also been found in the mantle of Octopus vulgaris and as an intestinal parasite of haemulid and gobiesocid fishes. Fissurella crassa, a host for progenetic P. lintoni, can be found from Huarmey, Peni (10 degrees S) to Chiloé, Chile (42 degrees S). Proctoeces lintoni has been found parasitizing fishes and molluscs from Callao, Peni (12 degrees S) to Valdivia, Chile (39 degrees S). Progenesis is thought to be a latitude-dependent phenomenon, and high progenesis is expected at higher latitude. In the present article, the association between latitude and progenesis was examined over a latitudinal gradient of about 3,000 km. Data suggest that progenesis of P. lintoni infecting F. crassa was not associated with latitude. Low levels of progenesis found in the Peruvian population could be a consequence of parasite-induced mortality rather than of low latitude, as would be predicted by the latitude dependence hypothesis.

  10. Detection of Emerging Vaccine-Related Polioviruses by Deep Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Malaya K; Holubar, Marisa; Huang, ChunHong; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Liu, Yuanyuan; Waggoner, Jesse J; Troy, Stephanie B; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Maldonado, Yvonne; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2017-07-01

    Oral poliovirus vaccine can mutate to regain neurovirulence. To date, evaluation of these mutations has been performed primarily on culture-enriched isolates by using conventional Sanger sequencing. We therefore developed a culture-independent, deep-sequencing method targeting the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and P1 genomic region to characterize vaccine-related poliovirus variants. Error analysis of the deep-sequencing method demonstrated reliable detection of poliovirus mutations at levels of vaccinated, asymptomatic children and their close contacts collected during a prospective cohort study in Veracruz, Mexico, revealed no vaccine-derived polioviruses. This was expected given that the longest duration between sequenced sample collection and the end of the most recent national immunization week was 66 days. However, we identified many low-level variants (Sabin serotypes, as well as vaccine-related viruses with multiple canonical mutations associated with phenotypic reversion present at high levels (>90%). These results suggest that monitoring emerging vaccine-related poliovirus variants by deep sequencing may aid in the poliovirus endgame and efforts to ensure global polio eradication. Copyright © 2017 Sahoo et al.

  11. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  13. Why barcode? High-throughput multiplex sequencing of mitochondrial genomes for molecular systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Dodsworth, S; Culverwell, C L; Bocak, L; Ahrens, D; Littlewood, D T J; Pons, J; Vogler, A P

    2010-11-01

    Mitochondrial genome sequences are important markers for phylogenetics but taxon sampling remains sporadic because of the great effort and cost required to acquire full-length sequences. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cost-effective way to sequence the full complement of protein coding mitochondrial genes from pooled samples using the 454/Roche platform. Multiplexing was achieved without the need for expensive indexing tags ('barcodes'). The method was trialled with a set of long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from 30 species of Coleoptera (beetles) sequenced in a 1/16th sector of a sequencing plate. Long contigs were produced from the pooled sequences with sequencing depths ranging from ∼10 to 100× per contig. Species identity of individual contigs was established via three 'bait' sequences matching disparate parts of the mitochondrial genome obtained by conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing. This proved that assembly of contigs from the sequencing pool was correct. Our study produced sequences for 21 nearly complete and seven partial sets of protein coding mitochondrial genes. Combined with existing sequences for 25 taxa, an improved estimate of basal relationships in Coleoptera was obtained. The procedure could be employed routinely for mitochondrial genome sequencing at the species level, to provide improved species 'barcodes' that currently use the cox1 gene only.

  14. Sequencing of the Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Jacka

    Full Text Available Since the identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV, viral sequencing has been important in understanding HCV classification, epidemiology, evolution, transmission clustering, treatment response and natural history. The length and diversity of the HCV genome has resulted in analysis of certain regions of the virus, however there has been little standardisation of protocols. This systematic review was undertaken to map the location and frequency of sequencing on the HCV genome in peer reviewed publications, with the aim to produce a database of sequencing primers and amplicons to inform future research. Medline and Scopus databases were searched for English language publications based on keyword/MeSH terms related to sequence analysis (9 terms or HCV (3 terms, plus "primer" as a general search term. Exclusion criteria included non-HCV research, review articles, duplicate records, and incomplete description of HCV sequencing methods. The PCR primer locations of accepted publications were noted, and purpose of sequencing was determined. A total of 450 studies were accepted from the 2099 identified, with 629 HCV sequencing amplicons identified and mapped on the HCV genome. The most commonly sequenced region was the HVR-1 region, often utilised for studies of natural history, clustering/transmission, evolution and treatment response. Studies related to genotyping/classification or epidemiology of HCV genotype generally targeted the 5'UTR, Core and NS5B regions, while treatment response/resistance was assessed mainly in the NS3-NS5B region with emphasis on the Interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR region of NS5A. While the sequencing of HCV is generally constricted to certain regions of the HCV genome there is little consistency in the positioning of sequencing primers, with the exception of a few highly referenced manuscripts. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of HCV sequencing, providing a comprehensive database of previously

  15. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  16. How Are Fishing Patterns and Fishing Communities Responding to Climate Change? A Test Case from the Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T.; Fuller, E.; Coleman, K.; Provost, M.; Pinsky, M. L.; St Martin, K.

    2016-02-01

    We know climate is changing and fish are moving in response to those changes. But we understand less about how harvesters are responding to these changes in fish distribution and the ramifications of those changes for fishing communities. Ecological and evolutionary theory suggests that organisms must move, adapt, or die in response to environmental changes, and a related frame may be relevant for human harvesters in the face of climate change. Furthermore, research suggests that there may be a portfolio effect: a wider diversity of catch may buffer harvesters from some effects of climate change. To get at these questions, we explored changes in fishing patterns among commercial fishing communities in the northeast US from 1997-2014 using NOAA-collected logbook data. We found that communities using more mobile gear (large trawl vessels) demonstrated a greater range of latitudinal shift than communities using any other gear. Latitudinal shift was also inversely related to species diversity of catch and port latitude in those communities: southern communities that caught few species shifted dramatically northward, and northern communities that caught many species did not demonstrate marked latitudinal shifts. Those communities that demonstrated larger latitudinal shifts also demonstrated smaller changes in catch composition than their more stationary counterparts. We also found that vessels are indeed leaving many, but not all, fisheries in this region. These results suggest that harvesters are moving, adapting, and leaving fisheries, and that there does appear to be a portfolio effect, with catch diversity mediating some of these responses. While these changes in fishing patterns cannot all be directly attributed to climate change per se, marine fishes in this region are shifting north rapidly, as is expected under climate change. This study provides a valuable test case for exploring the potential ramifications of climate change on coastal socio-ecological systems.

  17. Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Angélica L; Crawford, Kerri M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect-a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3-5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density.

  18. Sequence complexity and work extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhav, Neri

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified version of a solvable model by Mandal and Jarzynski, which constructively demonstrates the interplay between work extraction and the increase of the Shannon entropy of an information reservoir which is in contact with a physical system. We extend Mandal and Jarzynski’s main findings in several directions: first, we allow sequences of correlated bits rather than just independent bits. Secondly, at least for the case of binary information, we show that, in fact, the Shannon entropy is only one measure of complexity of the information that must increase in order for work to be extracted. The extracted work can also be upper bounded in terms of the increase in other quantities that measure complexity, like the predictability of future bits from past ones. Third, we provide an extension to the case of non-binary information (i.e. a larger alphabet), and finally, we extend the scope to the case where the incoming bits (before the interaction) form an individual sequence, rather than a random one. In this case, the entropy before the interaction can be replaced by the Lempel–Ziv (LZ) complexity of the incoming sequence, a fact that gives rise to an entropic meaning of the LZ complexity, not only in information theory, but also in physics. (paper)

  19. DNA fingerprinting, DNA barcoding, and next generation sequencing technology in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Hennell, James R; Carles, Maria C

    2012-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting of plants has become an invaluable tool in forensic, scientific, and industrial laboratories all over the world. PCR has become part of virtually every variation of the plethora of approaches used for DNA fingerprinting today. DNA sequencing is increasingly used either in combination with or as a replacement for traditional DNA fingerprinting techniques. A prime example is the use of short, standardized regions of the genome as taxon barcodes for biological identification of plants. Rapid advances in "next generation sequencing" (NGS) technology are driving down the cost of sequencing and bringing large-scale sequencing projects into the reach of individual investigators. We present an overview of recent publications that demonstrate the use of "NGS" technology for DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding applications.

  20. New tool to assemble repetitive regions using next-generation sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Nowak, Robert M.; Neumann, Łukasz

    2017-08-01

    The next generation sequencing techniques produce a large amount of sequencing data. Some part of the genome are composed of repetitive DNA sequences, which are very problematic for the existing genome assemblers. We propose a modification of the algorithm for a DNA assembly, which uses the relative frequency of reads to properly reconstruct repetitive sequences. The new approach was implemented and tested, as a demonstration of the capability of our software we present some results for model organisms. The new implementation, using a three-layer software architecture was selected, where the presentation layer, data processing layer, and data storage layer were kept separate. Source code as well as demo application with web interface and the additional data are available at project web-page: http://dnaasm.sourceforge.net.

  1. GapMis: a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Tomás; Frousios, Kimon; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Park, Kunsoo; Pissis, Solon P; Tischler, German

    2013-08-01

    Pairwise sequence alignment has received a new motivation due to the advent of recent patents in next-generation sequencing technologies, particularly so for the application of re-sequencing---the assembly of a genome directed by a reference sequence. After the fast alignment between a factor of the reference sequence and a high-quality fragment of a short read by a short-read alignment programme, an important problem is to find the alignment between a relatively short succeeding factor of the reference sequence and the remaining low-quality part of the read allowing a number of mismatches and the insertion of a single gap in the alignment. We present GapMis, a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap. It is based on a simple algorithm, which computes a different version of the traditional dynamic programming matrix. The presented experimental results demonstrate that GapMis is more suitable and efficient than most popular tools for this task.

  2. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  3. Inaudible functional MRI using a truly mute gradient echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcar, V.L.; Girard, F.; Rinkel, Y.; Schneider, J.F.; Martin, E.

    2002-01-01

    We performed functional MRI experiments using a mute version of a gradient echo sequence on adult volunteers using either a simple visual stimulus (flicker goggles: 4 subjects) or an auditory stimulus (music: 4 subjects). Because the mute sequence delivers fewer images per unit time than a fast echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence, we explored our data using a parametric ANOVA test and a non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test in addition to performing a cross-correlation analysis. All three methods were in close agreement regarding the location of the BOLD contrast signal change. We demonstrated that, using appropriate statistical analysis, functional MRI using an MR sequence that is acoustically inaudible to the subject is feasible. Furthermore compared with the ''silent'' event-related procedures involving an EPI protocol, our mGE protocol compares favourably with respect to experiment time and the BOLD signal. (orig.)

  4. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  5. Location analysis for the estrogen receptor-α reveals binding to diverse ERE sequences and widespread binding within repetitive DNA elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Christopher E.; Shu, Feng-Jue; Wang, Cheng; Session, Ryan M.; Kallen, Roland G.; Sidell, Neil; Yu, Tianwei; Liu, Mei Hui; Cheung, Edwin; Kallen, Caleb B.

    2010-01-01

    Location analysis for estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-bound cis-regulatory elements was determined in MCF7 cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip. Here, we present the estrogen response element (ERE) sequences that were identified at ERα-bound loci and quantify the incidence of ERE sequences under two stringencies of detection: ERE sequence. We demonstrate that ∼50% of all ERα-bound loci do not have a discernable ERE and show that most ERα-bound EREs are not perfect consensus EREs. Approximately one-third of all ERα-bound ERE sequences reside within repetitive DNA sequences, most commonly of the AluS family. In addition, the 3-bp spacer between the inverted ERE half-sites, rather than being random nucleotides, is C(A/T)G-enriched at bona fide receptor targets. Diverse ERα-bound loci were validated using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and ChIP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional significance of receptor-bound loci was demonstrated using luciferase reporter assays which proved that repetitive element ERE sequences contribute to enhancer function. ChIP-PCR demonstrated estrogen-dependent recruitment of the coactivator SRC3 to these loci in vivo. Our data demonstrate that ERα binds to widely variant EREs with less sequence specificity than had previously been suspected and that binding at repetitive and nonrepetitive genomic targets is favored by specific trinucleotide spacers. PMID:20047966

  6. Location analysis for the estrogen receptor-alpha reveals binding to diverse ERE sequences and widespread binding within repetitive DNA elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Christopher E; Shu, Feng-Jue; Wang, Cheng; Session, Ryan M; Kallen, Roland G; Sidell, Neil; Yu, Tianwei; Liu, Mei Hui; Cheung, Edwin; Kallen, Caleb B

    2010-04-01

    Location analysis for estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha)-bound cis-regulatory elements was determined in MCF7 cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip. Here, we present the estrogen response element (ERE) sequences that were identified at ERalpha-bound loci and quantify the incidence of ERE sequences under two stringencies of detection: ERE sequence. We demonstrate that approximately 50% of all ERalpha-bound loci do not have a discernable ERE and show that most ERalpha-bound EREs are not perfect consensus EREs. Approximately one-third of all ERalpha-bound ERE sequences reside within repetitive DNA sequences, most commonly of the AluS family. In addition, the 3-bp spacer between the inverted ERE half-sites, rather than being random nucleotides, is C(A/T)G-enriched at bona fide receptor targets. Diverse ERalpha-bound loci were validated using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and ChIP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional significance of receptor-bound loci was demonstrated using luciferase reporter assays which proved that repetitive element ERE sequences contribute to enhancer function. ChIP-PCR demonstrated estrogen-dependent recruitment of the coactivator SRC3 to these loci in vivo. Our data demonstrate that ERalpha binds to widely variant EREs with less sequence specificity than had previously been suspected and that binding at repetitive and nonrepetitive genomic targets is favored by specific trinucleotide spacers.

  7. Learning predictive statistics from temporal sequences: Dynamics and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-10-01

    Human behavior is guided by our expectations about the future. Often, we make predictions by monitoring how event sequences unfold, even though such sequences may appear incomprehensible. Event structures in the natural environment typically vary in complexity, from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. How do we learn these structures? Here we investigate the dynamics of structure learning by tracking human responses to temporal sequences that change in structure unbeknownst to the participants. Participants were asked to predict the upcoming item following a probabilistic sequence of symbols. Using a Markov process, we created a family of sequences, from simple frequency statistics (e.g., some symbols are more probable than others) to context-based statistics (e.g., symbol probability is contingent on preceding symbols). We demonstrate the dynamics with which individuals adapt to changes in the environment's statistics-that is, they extract the behaviorally relevant structures to make predictions about upcoming events. Further, we show that this structure learning relates to individual decision strategy; faster learning of complex structures relates to selection of the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) rather than matching of the exact sequence statistics. Our findings provide evidence for alternate routes to learning of behaviorally relevant statistics that facilitate our ability to predict future events in variable environments.

  8. Differences in a ribosomal DNA sequence of Strongylus species allows identification of single eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A J; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    1995-03-01

    In the current study, molecular techniques were evaluated for the species identification of individual strongyle eggs. Adult worms of Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus and S. vulgaris were collected at necropsy from horses from Australia and the U.S.A. Genomic DNA was isolated and a ribosomal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The length of the ITS-2 sequence of S. edentatus, S. equinus and S. vulgaris ranged between 217 and 235 nucleotides. Extensive sequence analysis demonstrated a low degree (0-0.9%) of intraspecific variation in the ITS-2 for the Strongylus species examined, whereas the levels of interspecific differences (13-29%) were significantly greater. Interspecific differences in the ITS-2 sequences allowed unequivocal species identification of single worms and eggs using PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism. These results demonstrate the potential of the ribosomal spacers as genetic markers for species identification of single strongyle eggs from horse faeces.

  9. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by

  10. Sequence modelling and an extensible data model for genomic database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peter Wei-Der [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) plans to sequence the human genome by the beginning of the next century. It will generate DNA sequences of more than 10 billion bases and complex marker sequences (maps) of more than 100 million markers. All of these information will be stored in database management systems (DBMSs). However, existing data models do not have the abstraction mechanism for modelling sequences and existing DBMS`s do not have operations for complex sequences. This work addresses the problem of sequence modelling in the context of the HGP and the more general problem of an extensible object data model that can incorporate the sequence model as well as existing and future data constructs and operators. First, we proposed a general sequence model that is application and implementation independent. This model is used to capture the sequence information found in the HGP at the conceptual level. In addition, abstract and biological sequence operators are defined for manipulating the modelled sequences. Second, we combined many features of semantic and object oriented data models into an extensible framework, which we called the ``Extensible Object Model``, to address the need of a modelling framework for incorporating the sequence data model with other types of data constructs and operators. This framework is based on the conceptual separation between constructors and constraints. We then used this modelling framework to integrate the constructs for the conceptual sequence model. The Extensible Object Model is also defined with a graphical representation, which is useful as a tool for database designers. Finally, we defined a query language to support this model and implement the query processor to demonstrate the feasibility of the extensible framework and the usefulness of the conceptual sequence model.

  11. Sequence modelling and an extensible data model for genomic database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peter Wei-Der (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) plans to sequence the human genome by the beginning of the next century. It will generate DNA sequences of more than 10 billion bases and complex marker sequences (maps) of more than 100 million markers. All of these information will be stored in database management systems (DBMSs). However, existing data models do not have the abstraction mechanism for modelling sequences and existing DBMS's do not have operations for complex sequences. This work addresses the problem of sequence modelling in the context of the HGP and the more general problem of an extensible object data model that can incorporate the sequence model as well as existing and future data constructs and operators. First, we proposed a general sequence model that is application and implementation independent. This model is used to capture the sequence information found in the HGP at the conceptual level. In addition, abstract and biological sequence operators are defined for manipulating the modelled sequences. Second, we combined many features of semantic and object oriented data models into an extensible framework, which we called the Extensible Object Model'', to address the need of a modelling framework for incorporating the sequence data model with other types of data constructs and operators. This framework is based on the conceptual separation between constructors and constraints. We then used this modelling framework to integrate the constructs for the conceptual sequence model. The Extensible Object Model is also defined with a graphical representation, which is useful as a tool for database designers. Finally, we defined a query language to support this model and implement the query processor to demonstrate the feasibility of the extensible framework and the usefulness of the conceptual sequence model.

  12. Optimizing and benchmarking de novo transcriptome sequencing: from library preparation to assembly evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuichiro; Tatsumi, Kaori; Yoshida, Michio; Kajikawa, Eriko; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2015-11-18

    RNA-seq enables gene expression profiling in selected spatiotemporal windows and yields massive sequence information with relatively low cost and time investment, even for non-model species. However, there remains a large room for optimizing its workflow, in order to take full advantage of continuously developing sequencing capacity. Transcriptome sequencing for three embryonic stages of Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) was performed with the Illumina platform. The output reads were assembled de novo for reconstructing transcript sequences. In order to evaluate the completeness of transcriptome assemblies, we prepared a reference gene set consisting of vertebrate one-to-one orthologs. To take advantage of increased read length of >150 nt, we demonstrated shortened RNA fragmentation time, which resulted in a dramatic shift of insert size distribution. To evaluate products of multiple de novo assembly runs incorporating reads with different RNA sources, read lengths, and insert sizes, we introduce a new reference gene set, core vertebrate genes (CVG), consisting of 233 genes that are shared as one-to-one orthologs by all vertebrate genomes examined (29 species)., The completeness assessment performed by the computational pipelines CEGMA and BUSCO referring to CVG, demonstrated higher accuracy and resolution than with the gene set previously established for this purpose. As a result of the assessment with CVG, we have derived the most comprehensive transcript sequence set of the Madagascar ground gecko by means of assembling individual libraries followed by clustering the assembled sequences based on their overall similarities. Our results provide several insights into optimizing de novo RNA-seq workflow, including the coordination between library insert size and read length, which manifested in improved connectivity of assemblies. The approach and assembly assessment with CVG demonstrated here would be applicable to transcriptome analysis of other species as

  13. Rare and common regulatory variation in population-scale sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Montgomery

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Population-scale genome sequencing allows the characterization of functional effects of a broad spectrum of genetic variants underlying human phenotypic variation. Here, we investigate the influence of rare and common genetic variants on gene expression patterns, using variants identified from sequencing data from the 1000 genomes project in an African and European population sample and gene expression data from lymphoblastoid cell lines. We detect comparable numbers of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs when compared to genotypes obtained from HapMap 3, but as many as 80% of the top expression quantitative trait variants (eQTVs discovered from 1000 genomes data are novel. The properties of the newly discovered variants suggest that mapping common causal regulatory variants is challenging even with full resequencing data; however, we observe significant enrichment of regulatory effects in splice-site and nonsense variants. Using RNA sequencing data, we show that 46.2% of nonsynonymous variants are differentially expressed in at least one individual in our sample, creating widespread potential for interactions between functional protein-coding and regulatory variants. We also use allele-specific expression to identify putative rare causal regulatory variants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that outlier expression values can be due to rare variant effects, and we approximate the number of such effects harboured in an individual by effect size. Our results demonstrate that integration of genomic and RNA sequencing analyses allows for the joint assessment of genome sequence and genome function.

  14. Constraints and trade-offs in climate-dependent adaptation: energy budgets and growth in a latitudinal cline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans O. Pörtner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of temperature-dependent metabolic adaptation as well as their implications for associated changes in energy budgets are analysed based on comparisons of fish and invertebrates from various latitudinal clines in northern and southern hemispheres and on integrated ecological and physiological approaches. To identify putative “bottlenecks” of adaptation and for a general cause and effect understanding, the temperature sensitivity of growth as a key energy budget component is investigated, considering underlying processes at population, whole animal and cellular levels. Available data support the hypothesis that natural selection favours individuals for energy efficiency and maximised growth, but is subject to constraints of limited energy availability and temperature. According to emerging relationships between energy turnover, temperature variability and thermal tolerance, the notion that selection should favour a certain metabolic rate according to mean temperature is too simplistic. Within the energy budget, savings in maintenance costs set free energy for growth, visible as growth increments at a low standard metabolic rate. Such energy savings are maximised at the permanently low temperature of the Antarctic. However, some variability persists as pelagic lifestyles in the Antarctic are fuelled by higher metabolic rates at the expense of reduced growth. Temperature variability in the cold, as in the Subarctic, causes a rise in maintenance costs at the expense of growth, but in favour of exercise and thus foraging capacity. Such transitions in energy cost between sub-polar and polar areas are not visible in the southern hemisphere, where there is less temperature variability. However, these patterns—as well as many of the underlying mechanisms—still remain incompletely investigated, especially with respect to the suggested hierarchy in energy allocation to energy budget components.

  15. Analysis of temporal-longitudinal-latitudinal characteristics in the global ionosphere based on tensor rank-1 decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Li, Yihong; Niu, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Daizhi

    2018-03-01

    Combining analyses of spatial and temporal characteristics of the ionosphere is of great significance for scientific research and engineering applications. Tensor decomposition is performed to explore the temporal-longitudinal-latitudinal characteristics in the ionosphere. Three-dimensional tensors are established based on the time series of ionospheric vertical total electron content maps obtained from the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe. To obtain large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere, rank-1 decomposition is used to obtain U^{(1)}, U^{(2)}, and U^{(3)}, which are the resulting vectors for the time, longitude, and latitude modes, respectively. Our initial finding is that the correspondence between the frequency spectrum of U^{(1)} and solar variation indicates that rank-1 decomposition primarily describes large-scale temporal variations in the global ionosphere caused by the Sun. Furthermore, the time lags between the maxima of the ionospheric U^{(2)} and solar irradiation range from 1 to 3.7 h without seasonal dependence. The differences in time lags may indicate different interactions between processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Based on the dataset displayed in the geomagnetic coordinates, the position of the barycenter of U^{(3)} provides evidence for north-south asymmetry (NSA) in the large-scale ionospheric variations. The daily variation in such asymmetry indicates the influences of solar ionization. The diurnal geomagnetic coordinate variations in U^{(3)} show that the large-scale EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) variations during the day and night have similar characteristics. Considering the influences of geomagnetic disturbance on ionospheric behavior, we select the geomagnetic quiet GIMs to construct the ionospheric tensor. The results indicate that the geomagnetic disturbances have little effect on large-scale ionospheric characteristics.

  16. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  17. Sequence-specific bias correction for RNA-seq data using recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

    2017-01-25

    The recent success of deep learning techniques in machine learning and artificial intelligence has stimulated a great deal of interest among bioinformaticians, who now wish to bring the power of deep learning to bare on a host of bioinformatical problems. Deep learning is ideally suited for biological problems that require automatic or hierarchical feature representation for biological data when prior knowledge is limited. In this work, we address the sequence-specific bias correction problem for RNA-seq data redusing Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to model nucleotide sequences without pre-determining sequence structures. The sequence-specific bias of a read is then calculated based on the sequence probabilities estimated by RNNs, and used in the estimation of gene abundance. We explore the application of two popular RNN recurrent units for this task and demonstrate that RNN-based approaches provide a flexible way to model nucleotide sequences without knowledge of predetermined sequence structures. Our experiments show that training a RNN-based nucleotide sequence model is efficient and RNN-based bias correction methods compare well with the-state-of-the-art sequence-specific bias correction method on the commonly used MAQC-III data set. RNNs provides an alternative and flexible way to calculate sequence-specific bias without explicitly pre-determining sequence structures.

  18. BPP: a sequence-based algorithm for branch point prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Fan, Xiaodan; Wang, Yejun; Sun, Ming-An; Shao, Jianlin; Guo, Dianjing

    2017-10-15

    Although high-throughput sequencing methods have been proposed to identify splicing branch points in the human genome, these methods can only detect a small fraction of the branch points subject to the sequencing depth, experimental cost and the expression level of the mRNA. An accurate computational model for branch point prediction is therefore an ongoing objective in human genome research. We here propose a novel branch point prediction algorithm that utilizes information on the branch point sequence and the polypyrimidine tract. Using experimentally validated data, we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms existing methods. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/zhqingit/BPP. djguo@cuhk.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Arbitrary digital pulse sequence generator with delay-loop timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošák, Radim; Ježek, Miroslav

    2018-04-01

    We propose an idea of an electronic multi-channel arbitrary digital sequence generator with temporal granularity equal to two clock cycles. We implement the generator with 32 channels using a low-cost ARM microcontroller and demonstrate its capability to produce temporal delays ranging from tens of nanoseconds to hundreds of seconds, with 24 ns timing granularity and linear scaling of delay with respect to the number of delay loop iterations. The generator is optionally synchronized with an external clock source to provide 100 ps jitter and overall sequence repeatability within the whole temporal range. The generator is fully programmable and able to produce digital sequences of high complexity. The concept of the generator can be implemented using different microcontrollers and applied for controlling of various optical, atomic, and nuclear physics measurement setups.

  20. Blind sequence-length estimation of low-SNR cyclostationary sequences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vlok, JD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several existing direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) detection and estimation algorithms assume prior knowledge of the symbol period or sequence length, although very few sequence-length estimation techniques are available in the literature...

  1. Genome sequences of three strains of Aspergillus flavus for the biological control of Aflatoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomes of three strains of Aspergillus flavus with demonstrated utility for the biological control of aflatoxin were sequenced. These sequences were assembled with MIRA and annotated with Augustus using A. flavus strain 3357 (NCBI EQ963472) as a reference. Each strain had a genome of 36.3 to ...

  2. Mission Management Computer and Sequencing Hardware for RLV-TD HEX-01 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukrat; Raj, Remya; Mathew, Asha Mary; Koshy, Anna Priya; Paramasivam, R.; Mookiah, T.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator Hypersonic Experiment (RLV-TD HEX-01) mission posed some unique challenges in the design and development of avionics hardware. This work presents the details of mission critical avionics hardware mainly Mission Management Computer (MMC) and sequencing hardware. The Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC) chain for RLV-TD is dual redundant with cross-strapped Remote Terminals (RTs) interfaced through MIL-STD-1553B bus. MMC is Bus Controller on the 1553 bus, which does the function of GPS aided navigation, guidance, digital autopilot and sequencing for the RLV-TD launch vehicle in different periodicities (10, 20, 500 ms). Digital autopilot execution in MMC with a periodicity of 10 ms (in ascent phase) is introduced for the first time and successfully demonstrated in the flight. MMC is built around Intel i960 processor and has inbuilt fault tolerance features like ECC for memories. Fault Detection and Isolation schemes are implemented to isolate the failed MMC. The sequencing hardware comprises Stage Processing System (SPS) and Command Execution Module (CEM). SPS is `RT' on the 1553 bus which receives the sequencing and control related commands from MMCs and posts to downstream modules after proper error handling for final execution. SPS is designed as a high reliability system by incorporating various fault tolerance and fault detection features. CEM is a relay based module for sequence command execution.

  3. Phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits explains dispersal limitation and genomic differentiation of Streptomyces sister-taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-06-07

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift. We recently described a latitudinal diversity gradient of species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity in Streptomyces by using a geographically explicit culture collection. Within this geographically explicit culture collection, we have identified Streptomyces sister-taxa whose geographic distribution is delimited by latitude. These sister-taxa differ in geographic distribution, genomic diversity, and ecological traits despite having nearly identical SSU rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic analysis reveals genomic differentiation of these sister-taxa consistent with restricted gene flow across latitude. Furthermore, we show phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits between the sister-taxa suggesting that thermal trait adaptation limits dispersal and gene flow across climate regimes as defined by latitude. Such phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits is commonly associated with latitudinal diversity gradients for plants and animals. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the Streptomyces latitudinal diversity gradient was formed as a result of historical demographic processes defined by dispersal limitation and driven by paleoclimate dynamics.

  4. Using SQL Databases for Sequence Similarity Searching and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William R; Mackey, Aaron J

    2017-09-13

    Relational databases can integrate diverse types of information and manage large sets of similarity search results, greatly simplifying genome-scale analyses. By focusing on taxonomic subsets of sequences, relational databases can reduce the size and redundancy of sequence libraries and improve the statistical significance of homologs. In addition, by loading similarity search results into a relational database, it becomes possible to explore and summarize the relationships between all of the proteins in an organism and those in other biological kingdoms. This unit describes how to use relational databases to improve the efficiency of sequence similarity searching and demonstrates various large-scale genomic analyses of homology-related data. It also describes the installation and use of a simple protein sequence database, seqdb_demo, which is used as a basis for the other protocols. The unit also introduces search_demo, a database that stores sequence similarity search results. The search_demo database is then used to explore the evolutionary relationships between E. coli proteins and proteins in other organisms in a large-scale comparative genomic analysis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a {beta}-turn and an {alpha}-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the {alpha}-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences.

  6. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a β-turn and an α-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the α-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences

  7. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  8. Phylogenetic characterization of a biogas plant microbial community integrating clone library 16S-rDNA sequences and metagenome sequence data obtained by 454-pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Magdalena; Bekel, Thomas; Diaz, Naryttza N; Goesmann, Alexander; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Krause, Lutz; Miller, Dimitri; Runte, Kai J; Viehöver, Prisca; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    The phylogenetic structure of the microbial community residing in a fermentation sample from a production-scale biogas plant fed with maize silage, green rye and liquid manure was analysed by an integrated approach using clone library sequences and metagenome sequence data obtained by 454-pyrosequencing. Sequencing of 109 clones from a bacterial and an archaeal 16S-rDNA amplicon library revealed that the obtained nucleotide sequences are similar but not identical to 16S-rDNA database sequences derived from different anaerobic environments including digestors and bioreactors. Most of the bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences could be assigned to the phylum Firmicutes with the most abundant class Clostridia and to the class Bacteroidetes, whereas most archaeal 16S-rDNA sequences cluster close to the methanogen Methanoculleus bourgensis. Further sequences of the archaeal library most probably represent so far non-characterised species within the genus Methanoculleus. A similar result derived from phylogenetic analysis of mcrA clone sequences. The mcrA gene product encodes the alpha-subunit of methyl-coenzyme-M reductase involved in the final step of methanogenesis. BLASTn analysis applying stringent settings resulted in assignment of 16S-rDNA metagenome sequence reads to 62 16S-rDNA amplicon sequences thus enabling frequency of abundance estimations for 16S-rDNA clone library sequences. Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier processing of metagenome 16S-rDNA reads revealed abundance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Euryarchaeota and the orders Clostridiales, Bacteroidales and Methanomicrobiales. Moreover, a large fraction of 16S-rDNA metagenome reads could not be assigned to lower taxonomic ranks, demonstrating that numerous microorganisms in the analysed fermentation sample of the biogas plant are still unclassified or unknown.

  9. Dog Y chromosomal DNA sequence: identification, sequencing and SNP discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkness Ewen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population genetic studies of dogs have so far mainly been based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA, describing only the history of female dogs. To get a picture of the male history, as well as a second independent marker, there is a need for studies of biallelic Y-chromosome polymorphisms. However, there are no biallelic polymorphisms reported, and only 3200 bp of non-repetitive dog Y-chromosome sequence deposited in GenBank, necessitating the identification of dog Y chromosome sequence and the search for polymorphisms therein. The genome has been only partially sequenced for one male dog, disallowing mapping of the sequence into specific chromosomes. However, by comparing the male genome sequence to the complete female dog genome sequence, candidate Y-chromosome sequence may be identified by exclusion. Results The male dog genome sequence was analysed by Blast search against the human genome to identify sequences with a best match to the human Y chromosome and to the female dog genome to identify those absent in the female genome. Candidate sequences were then tested for male specificity by PCR of five male and five female dogs. 32 sequences from the male genome, with a total length of 24 kbp, were identified as male specific, based on a match to the human Y chromosome, absence in the female dog genome and male specific PCR results. 14437 bp were then sequenced for 10 male dogs originating from Europe, Southwest Asia, Siberia, East Asia, Africa and America. Nine haplotypes were found, which were defined by 14 substitutions. The genetic distance between the haplotypes indicates that they originate from at least five wolf haplotypes. There was no obvious trend in the geographic distribution of the haplotypes. Conclusion We have identified 24159 bp of dog Y-chromosome sequence to be used for population genetic studies. We sequenced 14437 bp in a worldwide collection of dogs, identifying 14 SNPs for future SNP analyses, and

  10. Next-generation phylogeography: a targeted approach for multilocus sequencing of non-model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Puritz

    Full Text Available The field of phylogeography has long since realized the need and utility of incorporating nuclear DNA (nDNA sequences into analyses. However, the use of nDNA sequence data, at the population level, has been hindered by technical laboratory difficulty, sequencing costs, and problematic analytical methods dealing with genotypic sequence data, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we present a method utilizing the 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing platform with the capacity to simultaneously sequence two species of sea star (Meridiastra calcar and Parvulastra exigua at five different nDNA loci across 16 different populations of 20 individuals each per species. We compare results from 3 populations with traditional Sanger sequencing based methods, and demonstrate that this next-generation sequencing platform is more time and cost effective and more sensitive to rare variants than Sanger based sequencing. A crucial advantage is that the high coverage of clonally amplified sequences simplifies haplotype determination, even in highly polymorphic species. This targeted next-generation approach can greatly increase the use of nDNA sequence loci in phylogeographic and population genetic studies by mitigating many of the time, cost, and analytical issues associated with highly polymorphic, diploid sequence markers.

  11. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  12. Inaudible functional MRI using a truly mute gradient echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcar, V.L. [University of Zurich, Department of Psychology, Neuropsychology, Treichlerstrasse 10, 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Girard, F. [GE Medical Systems SA, 283, rue de la Miniere B.P. 34, 78533 Buc Cedex (France); Rinkel, Y.; Schneider, J.F.; Martin, E. [University Children' s Hospital, Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-11-01

    We performed functional MRI experiments using a mute version of a gradient echo sequence on adult volunteers using either a simple visual stimulus (flicker goggles: 4 subjects) or an auditory stimulus (music: 4 subjects). Because the mute sequence delivers fewer images per unit time than a fast echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence, we explored our data using a parametric ANOVA test and a non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test in addition to performing a cross-correlation analysis. All three methods were in close agreement regarding the location of the BOLD contrast signal change. We demonstrated that, using appropriate statistical analysis, functional MRI using an MR sequence that is acoustically inaudible to the subject is feasible. Furthermore compared with the ''silent'' event-related procedures involving an EPI protocol, our mGE protocol compares favourably with respect to experiment time and the BOLD signal. (orig.)

  13. Fractal MapReduce decomposition of sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic fall in the cost of genomic sequencing, and the increasing convenience of distributed cloud computing resources, positions the MapReduce coding pattern as a cornerstone of scalable bioinformatics algorithm development. In some cases an algorithm will find a natural distribution via use of map functions to process vectorized components, followed by a reduce of aggregate intermediate results. However, for some data analysis procedures such as sequence analysis, a more fundamental reformulation may be required. Results In this report we describe a solution to sequence comparison that can be thoroughly decomposed into multiple rounds of map and reduce operations. The route taken makes use of iterated maps, a fractal analysis technique, that has been found to provide a "alignment-free" solution to sequence analysis and comparison. That is, a solution that does not require dynamic programming, relying on a numeric Chaos Game Representation (CGR data structure. This claim is demonstrated in this report by calculating the length of the longest similar segment by inspecting only the USM coordinates of two analogous units: with no resort to dynamic programming. Conclusions The procedure described is an attempt at extreme decomposition and parallelization of sequence alignment in anticipation of a volume of genomic sequence data that cannot be met by current algorithmic frameworks. The solution found is delivered with a browser-based application (webApp, highlighting the browser's emergence as an environment for high performance distributed computing. Availability Public distribution of accompanying software library with open source and version control at http://usm.github.com. Also available as a webApp through Google Chrome's WebStore http://chrome.google.com/webstore: search with "usm".

  14. Tidying up international nucleotide sequence databases: ecological, geographical and sequence quality annotation of its sequences of mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Nilsson, R Henrik; Schüssler, Arthur; Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Kohout, Petr; Oja, Jane; Bonito, Gregory M; Veldre, Vilmar; Jairus, Teele; Ryberg, Martin; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the ribosomal RNA operon, particularly the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, provides a powerful tool for identification of mycorrhizal fungi. The sequence data deposited in the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD) are, however, unfiltered for quality and are often poorly annotated with metadata. To detect chimeric and low-quality sequences and assign the ectomycorrhizal fungi to phylogenetic lineages, fungal ITS sequences were downloaded from INSD, aligned within family-level groups, and examined through phylogenetic analyses and BLAST searches. By combining the fungal sequence database UNITE and the annotation and search tool PlutoF, we also added metadata from the literature to these accessions. Altogether 35,632 sequences belonged to mycorrhizal fungi or originated from ericoid and orchid mycorrhizal roots. Of these sequences, 677 were considered chimeric and 2,174 of low read quality. Information detailing country of collection, geographical coordinates, interacting taxon and isolation source were supplemented to cover 78.0%, 33.0%, 41.7% and 96.4% of the sequences, respectively. These annotated sequences are publicly available via UNITE (http://unite.ut.ee/) for downstream biogeographic, ecological and taxonomic analyses. In European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/), the annotated sequences have a special link-out to UNITE. We intend to expand the data annotation to additional genes and all taxonomic groups and functional guilds of fungi.

  15. Neural-network-designed pulse sequences for robust control of singlet-triplet qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-Chen; Yung, Man-Hong; Wang, Xin

    2018-04-01

    Composite pulses are essential for universal manipulation of singlet-triplet spin qubits. In the absence of noise, they are required to perform arbitrary single-qubit operations due to the special control constraint of a singlet-triplet qubit, while in a noisy environment, more complicated sequences have been developed to dynamically correct the error. Tailoring these sequences typically requires numerically solving a set of nonlinear equations. Here we demonstrate that these pulse sequences can be generated by a well-trained, double-layer neural network. For sequences designed for the noise-free case, the trained neural network is capable of producing almost exactly the same pulses known in the literature. For more complicated noise-correcting sequences, the neural network produces pulses with slightly different line shapes, but the robustness against noises remains comparable. These results indicate that the neural network can be a judicious and powerful alternative to existing techniques in developing pulse sequences for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  16. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  17. Ultra-fast sequence clustering from similarity networks with SiLiX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of gene sequences that are available for comparative genomics approaches is increasing extremely quickly. A current challenge is to be able to handle this huge amount of sequences in order to build families of homologous sequences in a reasonable time. Results We present the software package SiLiX that implements a novel method which reconsiders single linkage clustering with a graph theoretical approach. A parallel version of the algorithms is also presented. As a demonstration of the ability of our software, we clustered more than 3 millions sequences from about 2 billion BLAST hits in 7 minutes, with a high clustering quality, both in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Comparing state-of-the-art software, SiLiX presents the best up-to-date capabilities to face the problem of clustering large collections of sequences. SiLiX is freely available at http://lbbe.univ-lyon1.fr/SiLiX.

  18. MR imaging of the orbit and eye using inversion recovery sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.W.; Parekh, S.; Forrester, J.; Redpath, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Most centers performing MR imaging use spin-echo sequences to produce images; however, there are many advantages to using short TI inversion-recovery sequences for examination of the orbits. By selecting a TI similar to the relaxation time of any structure, the signal from this can be suppressed, thereby enhancing the signal from other structures. Using a sequence of TR = 1,000 msec and TI of less than 200 msec, the signal from fat is suppressed, improving image quality adjacent to the surface coil and providing better contrast between orbital structures and fat. The use of this short TI sequence for the examination of the eye in patients with opaque lenses is an accurate method of diagnosis since the sequence enhances the signal from both long T1 and T2 lesions. Eighty-five patients with orbital or ocular pathology have been studied, and the results demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for diagnosis

  19. Long-Term Recall of Event Sequences in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, Jean M.; McDonough, Laraine

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrated that 11-month olds can encode novel causal events from a brief period of observational learning and recall much of the information after 24 hours and after 3 months. The infants remembered more individual actions than whole sequences, but reproduced many of the events in their entirety after the long delay. (MDM)

  20. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  1. Foundations of Sequence-to-Sequence Modeling for Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Vitaly; Mariet, Zelda

    2018-01-01

    The availability of large amounts of time series data, paired with the performance of deep-learning algorithms on a broad class of problems, has recently led to significant interest in the use of sequence-to-sequence models for time series forecasting. We provide the first theoretical analysis of this time series forecasting framework. We include a comparison of sequence-to-sequence modeling to classical time series models, and as such our theory can serve as a quantitative guide for practiti...

  2. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  3. Detection of M-Sequences from Spike Sequence in Neuronal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi Nishitani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In circuit theory, it is well known that a linear feedback shift register (LFSR circuit generates pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS, including an M-sequence with the maximum period of length. In this study, we tried to detect M-sequences known as a pseudorandom sequence generated by the LFSR circuit from time series patterns of stimulated action potentials. Stimulated action potentials were recorded from dissociated cultures of hippocampal neurons grown on a multielectrode array. We could find several M-sequences from a 3-stage LFSR circuit (M3. These results show the possibility of assembling LFSR circuits or its equivalent ones in a neuronal network. However, since the M3 pattern was composed of only four spike intervals, the possibility of an accidental detection was not zero. Then, we detected M-sequences from random spike sequences which were not generated from an LFSR circuit and compare the result with the number of M-sequences from the originally observed raster data. As a result, a significant difference was confirmed: a greater number of “0–1” reversed the 3-stage M-sequences occurred than would have accidentally be detected. This result suggests that some LFSR equivalent circuits are assembled in neuronal networks.

  4. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  5. Genetic diagnosis of Mendelian disorders via RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Laura S; Bader, Daniel M; Mertes, Christian; Kopajtich, Robert; Pichler, Garwin; Iuso, Arcangela; Haack, Tobias B; Graf, Elisabeth; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Terrile, Caterina; Koňaříková, Eliška; Repp, Birgit; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Adamski, Jerzy; Lichtner, Peter; Leonhardt, Christoph; Funalot, Benoit; Donati, Alice; Tiranti, Valeria; Lombes, Anne; Jardel, Claude; Gläser, Dieter; Taylor, Robert W; Ghezzi, Daniele; Mayr, Johannes A; Rötig, Agnes; Freisinger, Peter; Distelmaier, Felix; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Gagneur, Julien; Prokisch, Holger

    2017-06-12

    Across a variety of Mendelian disorders, ∼50-75% of patients do not receive a genetic diagnosis by exome sequencing indicating disease-causing variants in non-coding regions. Although genome sequencing in principle reveals all genetic variants, their sizeable number and poorer annotation make prioritization challenging. Here, we demonstrate the power of transcriptome sequencing to molecularly diagnose 10% (5 of 48) of mitochondriopathy patients and identify candidate genes for the remainder. We find a median of one aberrantly expressed gene, five aberrant splicing events and six mono-allelically expressed rare variants in patient-derived fibroblasts and establish disease-causing roles for each kind. Private exons often arise from cryptic splice sites providing an important clue for variant prioritization. One such event is found in the complex I assembly factor TIMMDC1 establishing a novel disease-associated gene. In conclusion, our study expands the diagnostic tools for detecting non-exonic variants and provides examples of intronic loss-of-function variants with pathological relevance.

  6. Bottom-up driven involuntary auditory evoked field change: constant sound sequencing amplifies but does not sharpen neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Stracke, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Pantev, Christo

    2010-01-01

    The capability of involuntarily tracking certain sound signals during the simultaneous presence of noise is essential in human daily life. Previous studies have demonstrated that top-down auditory focused attention can enhance excitatory and inhibitory neural activity, resulting in sharpening of frequency tuning of auditory neurons. In the present study, we investigated bottom-up driven involuntary neural processing of sound signals in noisy environments by means of magnetoencephalography. We contrasted two sound signal sequencing conditions: "constant sequencing" versus "random sequencing." Based on a pool of 16 different frequencies, either identical (constant sequencing) or pseudorandomly chosen (random sequencing) test frequencies were presented blockwise together with band-eliminated noises to nonattending subjects. The results demonstrated that the auditory evoked fields elicited in the constant sequencing condition were significantly enhanced compared with the random sequencing condition. However, the enhancement was not significantly different between different band-eliminated noise conditions. Thus the present study confirms that by constant sound signal sequencing under nonattentive listening the neural activity in human auditory cortex can be enhanced, but not sharpened. Our results indicate that bottom-up driven involuntary neural processing may mainly amplify excitatory neural networks, but may not effectively enhance inhibitory neural circuits.

  7. Joining Movement Sequences: Modified Dynamic Movement Primitives for Robotics Applications Exemplified on Handwriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Ning, K.; Tamosiunaite, M.

    2012-01-01

    to simulated handwriting generation, which are also shown on a robot, where an adaptive algorithm is used to learn trajectories from human demonstration. These results demonstrate that the new method is a feasible alternative for joining of movement sequences, which has a high potential for all robotics...

  8. Quantum Point Contact Single-Nucleotide Conductance for DNA and RNA Sequence Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Sepideh; Korshoj, Lee E; Abel, Gary R; Khan, Sajida; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-11-28

    Several nanoscale electronic methods have been proposed for high-throughput single-molecule nucleic acid sequence identification. While many studies display a large ensemble of measurements as "electronic fingerprints" with some promise for distinguishing the DNA and RNA nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil), important metrics such as accuracy and confidence of base calling fall well below the current genomic methods. Issues such as unreliable metal-molecule junction formation, variation of nucleotide conformations, insufficient differences between the molecular orbitals responsible for single-nucleotide conduction, and lack of rigorous base calling algorithms lead to overlapping nanoelectronic measurements and poor nucleotide discrimination, especially at low coverage on single molecules. Here, we demonstrate a technique for reproducible conductance measurements on conformation-constrained single nucleotides and an advanced algorithmic approach for distinguishing the nucleobases. Our quantum point contact single-nucleotide conductance sequencing (QPICS) method uses combed and electrostatically bound single DNA and RNA nucleotides on a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine molecules. We demonstrate that by varying the applied bias and pH conditions, molecular conductance can be switched ON and OFF, leading to reversible nucleotide perturbation for electronic recognition (NPER). We utilize NPER as a method to achieve >99.7% accuracy for DNA and RNA base calling at low molecular coverage (∼12×) using unbiased single measurements on DNA/RNA nucleotides, which represents a significant advance compared to existing sequencing methods. These results demonstrate the potential for utilizing simple surface modifications and existing biochemical moieties in individual nucleobases for a reliable, direct, single-molecule, nanoelectronic DNA and RNA nucleotide identification method for sequencing.

  9. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred...... nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  10. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2013-01-01

    of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined...... in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations....

  11. COMMUNICATION AND GRAMMATICALIZATION. THE CASE OF (CROATIAN DEMONSTRATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Brala-Vukanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the role that shared reference plays in communication and, relatedly, on the way in which communicative needs drive the formation and development of grammatical categories. The system used to illustrate and analyse the theoretical positions addressed in the paper is that of Croatian demonstratives, a three-way paradigm which – it is claimed – helps us identify the cognitive elements underlying the anchoring of shared reference. In the first part of the paper we explore the pointing gesture from the perspectives of developmental psychology, language acquisition and that of cognitive and linguistic universals. We observe that communicative pointing is a universal communicative device found in all cultures which serves to refer, locate in space or indicate direction of motion. In fact, pointing has been recognized as one of the earliest and most common mechanisms for establishing joint reference. Next, we explore the possible ways in which communicative pointing might have influenced the formation of ‘pointing words’ i.e. demonstratives. A continuum of referential devices is identified: from direct pointing with gesture, direct (pronominal pointing, via referentiality through (adjectival and adverbial modification, all the way to discoursal pointing. We investigate the communicative sequence that takes us from the pointing gesture to various types of ‘pointing words’ (see Diessel, 2006, by exploring the underlying linguistic and, possibly, cognitive universal elements and domains. In final analysis the identified sequence is put into relation with the referential (identificational, via the modificational (qualificational, to the predicative (informative segments of language.

  12. Identification of rat genes by TWINSCAN gene prediction, RT-PCR, and direct sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jia Qian; Shteynberg, David; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan

    2004-01-01

    an alternative approach: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing based on dual-genome de novo predictions from TWINSCAN. We tested 444 TWINSCAN-predicted rat genes that showed significant homology to known human genes implicated in disease but that were partially...... in the single-intron experiment. Spliced sequences were amplified in 46 cases (34%). We conclude that this procedure for elucidating gene structures with native cDNA sequences is cost-effective and will become even more so as it is further optimized.......The publication of a draft sequence of a third mammalian genome--that of the rat--suggests a need to rethink genome annotation. New mammalian sequences will not receive the kind of labor-intensive annotation efforts that are currently being devoted to human. In this paper, we demonstrate...

  13. Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, V; Hibrand, L; Candresse, T; Le Gall, O; Dunez, J

    1989-10-11

    The complete nucleotide sequence of hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus (GCMV) RNA2 has been determined. The RNA sequence is 4441 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. A polyprotein of 1324 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 146 kDa is encoded in a single long open reading frame extending from nucleotides 218 to 4190. This polyprotein is homologous with the protein encoded by the S strain of tomato black ring virus (TBRV) RNA2, the only other nepovirus sequenced so far. Direct sequencing of the viral coat protein and in vitro translation of transcripts derived from cDNA sequences demonstrate that, as for comoviruses, the coat protein is located at the carboxy terminus of the polyprotein. A model for the expression of GCMV RNA2 is presented.

  14. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard M; Koepke, Tyson; Harper, Artemus; Grimes, John; Galli, Marco; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Evans, Katherine; Kramer, David; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3'UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies.

  15. Scalable synthesis of sequence-defined, unimolecular macromolecules by Flow-IEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfarth, Frank A.; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a semiautomated synthesis of sequence and architecturally defined, unimolecular macromolecules through a marriage of multistep flow synthesis and iterative exponential growth (Flow-IEG). The Flow-IEG system performs three reactions and an in-line purification in a total residence time of under 10 min, effectively doubling the molecular weight of an oligomeric species in an uninterrupted reaction sequence. Further iterations using the Flow-IEG system enable an exponential increase in molecular weight. Incorporating a variety of monomer structures and branching units provides control over polymer sequence and architecture. The synthesis of a uniform macromolecule with a molecular weight of 4,023 g/mol is demonstrated. The user-friendly nature, scalability, and modularity of Flow-IEG provide a general strategy for the automated synthesis of sequence-defined, unimolecular macromolecules. Flow-IEG is thus an enabling tool for theory validation, structure–property studies, and advanced applications in biotechnology and materials science. PMID:26269573

  16. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Zhu, Y.F.; Chung, C.N.; Allman, S.L.

    1997-03-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, the authors recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Snager`s enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. The preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possibly be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, the authors applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  17. Toward a Better Compression for DNA Sequences Using Huffman Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okaily, Anas; Almarri, Badar; Al Yami, Sultan; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2017-04-01

    Due to the significant amount of DNA data that are being generated by next-generation sequencing machines for genomes of lengths ranging from megabases to gigabases, there is an increasing need to compress such data to a less space and a faster transmission. Different implementations of Huffman encoding incorporating the characteristics of DNA sequences prove to better compress DNA data. These implementations center on the concepts of selecting frequent repeats so as to force a skewed Huffman tree, as well as the construction of multiple Huffman trees when encoding. The implementations demonstrate improvements on the compression ratios for five genomes with lengths ranging from 5 to 50 Mbp, compared with the standard Huffman tree algorithm. The research hence suggests an improvement on all such DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. The research suggests an improvement on all DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. Accompanying software is publicly available (AL-Okaily, 2016 ).

  18. [Complete genome sequencing and sequence analysis of BCG Tice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Pan, Yuanlong; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Baoli

    2012-10-04

    The objective of this study is to obtain the complete genome sequence of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Tice (BCG Tice), in order to provide more information about the molecular biology of BCG Tice and design more reasonable vaccines to prevent tuberculosis. We assembled the data from high-throughput sequencing with SOAPdenovo software, with many contigs and scaffolds obtained. There are many sequence gaps and physical gaps remained as a result of regional low coverage and low quality. We designed primers at the end of contigs and performed PCR amplification in order to link these contigs and scaffolds. With various enzymes to perform PCR amplification, adjustment of PCR reaction conditions, and combined with clone construction to sequence, all the gaps were finished. We obtained the complete genome sequence of BCG Tice and submitted it to GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The genome of BCG Tice is 4334064 base pairs in length, with GC content 65.65%. The problems and strategies during the finishing step of BCG Tice sequencing are illuminated here, with the hope of affording some experience to those who are involved in the finishing step of genome sequencing. The microarray data were verified by our results.

  19. Massively parallel whole genome amplification for single-cell sequencing using droplet microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masahito; Nishikawa, Yohei; Kogawa, Masato; Takeyama, Haruko

    2017-07-12

    Massively parallel single-cell genome sequencing is required to further understand genetic diversities in complex biological systems. Whole genome amplification (WGA) is the first step for single-cell sequencing, but its throughput and accuracy are insufficient in conventional reaction platforms. Here, we introduce single droplet multiple displacement amplification (sd-MDA), a method that enables massively parallel amplification of single cell genomes while maintaining sequence accuracy and specificity. Tens of thousands of single cells are compartmentalized in millions of picoliter droplets and then subjected to lysis and WGA by passive droplet fusion in microfluidic channels. Because single cells are isolated in compartments, their genomes are amplified to saturation without contamination. This enables the high-throughput acquisition of contamination-free and cell specific sequence reads from single cells (21,000 single-cells/h), resulting in enhancement of the sequence data quality compared to conventional methods. This method allowed WGA of both single bacterial cells and human cancer cells. The obtained sequencing coverage rivals those of conventional techniques with superior sequence quality. In addition, we also demonstrate de novo assembly of uncultured soil bacteria and obtain draft genomes from single cell sequencing. This sd-MDA is promising for flexible and scalable use in single-cell sequencing.

  20. Inferring the Clonal Structure of Viral Populations from Time Series Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien F Chedom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA virus populations will undergo processes of mutation and selection resulting in a mixed population of viral particles. High throughput sequencing of a viral population subsequently contains a mixed signal of the underlying clones. We would like to identify the underlying evolutionary structures. We utilize two sources of information to attempt this; within segment linkage information, and mutation prevalence. We demonstrate that clone haplotypes, their prevalence, and maximum parsimony reticulate evolutionary structures can be identified, although the solutions may not be unique, even for complete sets of information. This is applied to a chain of influenza infection, where we infer evolutionary structures, including reassortment, and demonstrate some of the difficulties of interpretation that arise from deep sequencing due to artifacts such as template switching during PCR amplification.

  1. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

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    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  2. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

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    Kevin R Ramkissoon

    Full Text Available The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.

  3. Rapid Identification of Sequences for Orphan Enzymes to Power Accurate Protein Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S.; Bomar, Martha G.; Galande, Amit K.; Shearer, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the “back catalog” of enzymology – “orphan enzymes,” those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme “back catalog” is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology’s “back catalog” another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation. PMID:24386392

  4. Generalized min-max bound-based MRI pulse sequence design framework for wide-range T1 relaxometry: A case study on the tissue specific imaging sequence.

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    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new design strategy for optimizing MRI pulse sequences for T1 relaxometry. The design strategy optimizes the pulse sequence parameters to minimize the maximum variance of unbiased T1 estimates over a range of T1 values using the Cramér-Rao bound. In contrast to prior sequences optimized for a single nominal T1 value, the optimized sequence using our bound-based strategy achieves improved precision and accuracy for a broad range of T1 estimates within a clinically feasible scan time. The optimization combines the downhill simplex method with a simulated annealing process. To show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, we optimize the tissue specific imaging (TSI sequence. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the optimized TSI sequence yields improved precision and accuracy over the popular driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 (DESPOT1 approach for normal brain tissues (estimated T1 700-2000 ms at 3.0T. The relative mean estimation error (MSE for T1 estimation is less than 1.7% using the optimized TSI sequence, as opposed to less than 7.0% using DESPOT1 for normal brain tissues. The optimized TSI sequence achieves good stability by keeping the MSE under 7.0% over larger T1 values corresponding to different lesion tissues and the cerebrospinal fluid (up to 5000 ms. The T1 estimation accuracy using the new pulse sequence also shows improvement, which is more pronounced in low SNR scenarios.

  5. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  6. Massively parallel interrogation of aptamer sequence, structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas O Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and inter-chip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  7. T1 Gd-enhanced compared with CISS sequences in retinoblastoma: superiority of T1 sequences in evaluation of tumour extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, Elke R.; Wanke, Isabel; Guengoer, Ali-Riza; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Jurklies, Christine [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Background As adequate therapy for retinoblastoma in young children depends on infiltration of extra-retinal structures, diagnostic modalities play an essential role. Methods: In this widely extended study, 80 children with retinoblastoma were studied with MRI (standard fat-suppressed Gd-enhanced T1, T2 thin-slice sequences (additionally with small loop surface coil), constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence covering the orbita). The images were analysed by two blinded neuroradiologists. Histology was used as the gold standard. MRI assumed infiltration of extra-retinal structures in 13 of 80 patients of which ten were confirmed by histology. Affected extra-retinal structures were: optic nerve (five, of which two were on CISS and three on T1 with higher image resolution using the surface coil), scleral infiltration (five, of which four on CISS and T1) and ciliary body infiltration (one on CISS and T1). Another 61 enucleated patients did not have any extra-retinal infiltration in histology. The CISS sequence with multiplanar reconstruction was mainly helpful in revealing exact three-dimensional tumour extension with excellent clinical acceptance and pre-surgical planning but T1 fat-suppressed Gd-enhanced images were superior in revealing exact tumour extension. CISS sequences allow to produce excellent anatomical images and to perform multiplanar reconstruction to better demonstrate tumour extension. However, T1-weighted sequences after contrast application are more sensitive (60 versus 40%) in detecting infiltration of the optic nerve but equal in detecting scleral infiltration. (orig.)

  8. Identifying recombinants in human and primate immunodeficiency virus sequence alignments using quartet scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Darren P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombination has a profound impact on the evolution of viruses, but characterizing recombination patterns in molecular sequences remains a challenging endeavor. Despite its importance in molecular evolutionary studies, identifying the sequences that exhibit such patterns has received comparatively less attention in the recombination detection framework. Here, we extend a quartet-mapping based recombination detection method to enable identification of recombinant sequences without prior specifications of either query and reference sequences. Through simulations we evaluate different recombinant identification statistics and significance tests. We compare the quartet approach with triplet-based methods that employ additional heuristic tests to identify parental and recombinant sequences. Results Analysis of phylogenetic simulations reveal that identifying the descendents of relatively old recombination events is a challenging task for all methods available, and that quartet scanning performs relatively well compared to the triplet based methods. The use of quartet scanning is further demonstrated by analyzing both well-established and putative HIV-1 recombinant strains. In agreement with recent findings, we provide evidence that the presumed circulating recombinant CRF02_AG is a 'pure' lineage, whereas the presumed parental lineage subtype G has a recombinant origin. We also demonstrate HIV-1 intrasubtype recombination, confirm the hybrid origin of SIV in chimpanzees and further disentangle the recombinant history of SIV lineages in a primate immunodeficiency virus data set. Conclusion Quartet scanning makes a valuable addition to triplet-based methods for identifying recombinant sequences without prior specifications of either query and reference sequences. The new method is available in the VisRD v.3.0 package http://www.cmp.uea.ac.uk/~vlm/visrd.

  9. Sequence Synopsis: Optimize Visual Summary of Temporal Event Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzhe; Xu, Panpan; Ren, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Event sequences analysis plays an important role in many application domains such as customer behavior analysis, electronic health record analysis and vehicle fault diagnosis. Real-world event sequence data is often noisy and complex with high event cardinality, making it a challenging task to construct concise yet comprehensive overviews for such data. In this paper, we propose a novel visualization technique based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle to construct a coarse-level overview of event sequence data while balancing the information loss in it. The method addresses a fundamental trade-off in visualization design: reducing visual clutter vs. increasing the information content in a visualization. The method enables simultaneous sequence clustering and pattern extraction and is highly tolerant to noises such as missing or additional events in the data. Based on this approach we propose a visual analytics framework with multiple levels-of-detail to facilitate interactive data exploration. We demonstrate the usability and effectiveness of our approach through case studies with two real-world datasets. One dataset showcases a new application domain for event sequence visualization, i.e., fault development path analysis in vehicles for predictive maintenance. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the proposed method based on user feedback.

  10. Species composition, diversity and stratification in subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Feroz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-developed evergreen broadleaf forest exists in the northern part of Okinawa and in the central part of the Ishigaki Islands in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. All woody plants were identified to species level and their heights and diameters were measured in a 750m2 plot in Okinawa and a 400m2 plot in the Ishigaki Islands. Species overlap, dominance, diversity, multi-strata structure, and spatial distribution were calculated. The floristic composition in Okinawa was found to be different from that in Ishigaki. The species overlap between strata was higher in Okinawa than in Ishigaki. Species diversity and evenness tended to increase from the top down in Okinawa and the reverse in Ishigaki. Mean tree weight of each stratum decreased and tree density increased from top down in both forests. This trend resembled the mean weight–density trajectory of self-thinning plant populations. The degree of stand stratification, species richness and species diversity for trees with DBH ⩾4.5  cm increased along the latitudinal thermal gradient in the Ryukyu Archipelago. Thus, trees in the lower strata of Okinawa and upper strata of Ishigaki are important for sustainable maintenance of higher woody species diversity in the Ryukyu Archipelago.

  11. Paleoclimatic and paleolatitude settings of accumulation of radiolarian siliceous-volcanogenic sequences in the middle Mesozoic Pacific: Evidence from allochthons of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Filatova, N. I.

    2017-09-01

    Jurassic-Cretaceous siliceous-volcanogenic rocks from nappes of tectonostratigraphic sequences of the East Asia Middle Cretaceous Okhotsk-Koryak orogenic belt are represented by a wide range of geodynamic sedimentation settings: oceanic (near-spreading zones, seamounts, and deep-water basins), marginal seas, and island arcs. The taxonomic compositions of radiolarian communities are used as paleolatitude indicators in the Northern Pacific. In addition, a tendency toward climate change in the Mesozoic is revealed based on these communities: from the warm Triassic to the cold Jurassic with intense warming from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. Cretaceous warming led to heating of ocean waters even at moderately high latitudes and to the development of Tethyan radiolarians there. These data are confirmed by a global Cretaceous temperature peak coinciding with a high-activity pulse of the planetary mantle superplume system, which created thermal anomalies and the greenhouse effect. In addition, the Pacific superplume attributed to this system caused accelerated movement of oceanic plates, which resulted in a compression setting on the periphery of the Pacific and the formation of the Okhotsk-Koryak orogenic belt on its northwestern framing in the Middle Cretaceous, where Mesozoic rocks of different geodynamic and latitudinal-climate settings were juxtaposed into allochthonous units.

  12. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sandro J.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Costa, Fernando F.; Nagai, Maria Aparecida; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur; Hackel, Christine; Kimura, Edna T.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Martins, Elizabeth A. L.; Nóbrega, Marina P.; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Pardini, Maria Inês M. C.; Pereira, Gonçalo G.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Sogayar, Mari C.; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Acencio, Marcio; Alberto, Fernando L.; Amaral, Maria Elisabete J.; Aneas, Ivy; Bengtson, Mário Henrique; Carraro, Dirce M.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Carvalho, Lúcia Helena; Cerutti, Janete M.; Corrêa, Maria Lucia C.; Costa, Maria Cristina R.; Curcio, Cyntia; Gushiken, Tsieko; Ho, Paulo L.; Kimura, Elza; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Maia, Gustavo; Majumder, Paromita; Marins, Mozart; Matsukuma, Adriana; Melo, Analy S. A.; Mestriner, Carlos Alberto; Miracca, Elisabete C.; Miranda, Daniela C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Nóbrega, Francisco G.; Ojopi, Élida P. B.; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo C.; Pessoa, Luciana Gilbert; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Claudia A.; da Ro's, Nancy; de Sá, Renata G.; Sales, Magaly M.; da Silva, Neusa P.; Silva, Tereza C.; da Silva, Wilson; Simão, Daniel F.; Sousa, Josane F.; Stecconi, Daniella; Tsukumo, Fernando; Valente, Valéria; Zalcberg, Heloisa; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Reis, Luis F. L.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central coding regions of the resulting transcripts. They are termed ORF expressed sequence tags (ORESTES). The 250,000 ORESTES were assembled into 81,429 contigs. Of these, 1,181 (1.45%) were found to match sequences in chromosome 22 with at least one ORESTES contig for 162 (65.6%) of the 247 known genes, for 67 (44.6%) of the 150 related genes, and for 45 of the 148 (30.4%) EST-predicted genes on this chromosome. Using a set of stringent criteria to validate our sequences, we identified a further 219 previously unannotated transcribed sequences on chromosome 22. Of these, 171 were in fact also defined by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48 transcribed sequences on chromosome 22 not defined by other sequences. All of the transcribed sequences defined by ORESTES coincided with DNA regions predicted as encoding exons by genscan. (http://genes.mit.edu/GENSCAN.html). PMID:11070084

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of sequence-specific DNA alkylating agents: effect of alkylation subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tatsuhiko; Sasaki, Shunta; Minoshima, Masafumi; Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We have demonstrated that hairpin pyrrole (Py)- imidazole (Im) polyamide-CBI conjugates selectively alkylate predetermined sequences. In this study, we investigated the effect of alkylation subunits, for example conjugates 1-4 with three types of DNA alkylating units, and Py-Im polyamides with indole linker. Conjugate 3 and 4 selectively alkylated the predetermined sequences as described previously, while conjugates 1 and 2 alkylate at mismatched sites.

  14. Homogeneity of the 16S rDNA sequence among geographically disparate isolates of Taylorella equigenitalis

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    Moore JE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, six accessible sequences of 16S rDNA from Taylorella equigenitalis (T. equigenitalis are available, whose sequence differences occur at a few nucleotide positions. Thus it is important to determine these sequences from additional strains in other countries, if possible, in order to clarify any anomalies regarding 16S rDNA sequence heterogeneity. Here, we clone and sequence the approximate full-length 16S rDNA from additional strains of T. equigenitalis isolated in Japan, Australia and France and compare these sequences to the existing published sequences. Results Clarification of any anomalies regarding 16S rDNA sequence heterogeneity of T. equigenitalis was carried out. When cloning, sequencing and comparison of the approximate full-length 16S rDNA from 17 strains of T. equigenitalis isolated in Japan, Australia and France, nucleotide sequence differences were demonstrated at the six loci in the 1,469 nucleotide sequence. Moreover, 12 polymorphic sites occurred among 23 sequences of the 16S rDNA, including the six reference sequences. Conclusion High sequence similarity (99.5% or more was observed throughout, except from nucleotide positions 138 to 501 where substitutions and deletions were noted.

  15. Homogeneity of the 16S rDNA sequence among geographically disparate isolates of Taylorella equigenitalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Tazumi, A; Kagawa, S; Sekizuka, T; Murayama, O; Moore, JE; Millar, BC

    2006-01-01

    Background At present, six accessible sequences of 16S rDNA from Taylorella equigenitalis (T. equigenitalis) are available, whose sequence differences occur at a few nucleotide positions. Thus it is important to determine these sequences from additional strains in other countries, if possible, in order to clarify any anomalies regarding 16S rDNA sequence heterogeneity. Here, we clone and sequence the approximate full-length 16S rDNA from additional strains of T. equigenitalis isolated in Japan, Australia and France and compare these sequences to the existing published sequences. Results Clarification of any anomalies regarding 16S rDNA sequence heterogeneity of T. equigenitalis was carried out. When cloning, sequencing and comparison of the approximate full-length 16S rDNA from 17 strains of T. equigenitalis isolated in Japan, Australia and France, nucleotide sequence differences were demonstrated at the six loci in the 1,469 nucleotide sequence. Moreover, 12 polymorphic sites occurred among 23 sequences of the 16S rDNA, including the six reference sequences. Conclusion High sequence similarity (99.5% or more) was observed throughout, except from nucleotide positions 138 to 501 where substitutions and deletions were noted. PMID:16398935

  16. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...

  17. Detection and estimation of sensor drifts using Kalman filters with a demonstration on a pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungwhan; Jiang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► How the expectation of the innovations changes in the drift case is formulated. ► Using the divergence in the expectation for detection of the drift is demonstrated. ► An augmented system model is proposed for estimation of the drift. ► Demonstration of the proposed algorithm is presented using a pressurizer model. - Abstract: An algorithm for detection and estimation of sensor drifts is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is based on estimation of the process states from which the measurements are made and the rate of drifts using a state augmented Kalman filter. The detection and the estimation of a drift are carried out by evaluating the mean of the innovation sequence of the Kalman filter. The relationship between the mean and the drift is analyzed in detail to provide insights on the connection between the innovation sequence and the drift. The developed algorithm has been successfully applied to a pressurizer for detection and estimation of pressure sensor drifts. The results convincingly demonstrate the capability of the algorithm.

  18. Generation of novel motor sequences: the neural correlates of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    While some motor behavior is instinctive and stereotyped or learned and re-executed, much action is a spontaneous response to a novel set of environmental conditions. The neural correlates of both pre-learned and cued motor sequences have been previously studied, but novel motor behavior has thus far not been examined through brain imaging. In this paper, we report a study of musical improvisation in trained pianists with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using improvisation as a case study of novel action generation. We demonstrate that both rhythmic (temporal) and melodic (ordinal) motor sequence creation modulate activity in a network of brain regions comprised of the dorsal premotor cortex, the rostral cingulate zone of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are consistent with a role for the dorsal premotor cortex in movement coordination, the rostral cingulate zone in voluntary selection, and the inferior frontal gyrus in sequence generation. Thus, the invention of novel motor sequences in musical improvisation recruits a network of brain regions coordinated to generate possible sequences, select among them, and execute the decided-upon sequence.

  19. Sequence selection by dynamical symmetry breaking in an autocatalytic binary polymer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Tanaka, Shinpei; Rasmussen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Template-directed replication of nucleic acids is at the essence of all living beings and a major milestone for any origin of life scenario. We present an idealized model of prebiotic sequence replication, where binary polymers act as templates for their autocatalytic replication, thereby serving...... as each others reactants and products in an intertwined molecular ecology. Our model demonstrates how autocatalysis alters the qualitative and quantitative system dynamics in counterintuitive ways. Most notably, numerical simulations reveal a very strong intrinsic selection mechanism that favors...... the appearance of a few population structures with highly ordered and repetitive sequence patterns when starting from a pool of monomers. We demonstrate both analytically and through simulation how this "selection of the dullest" is caused by continued symmetry breaking through random fluctuations...

  20. Drift, selection, or migration? Processes affecting genetic differentiation and variation along a latitudinal gradient in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortázar-Chinarro, Maria; Lattenkamp, Ella Z; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Luquet, Emilien; Laurila, Anssi; Höglund, Jacob

    2017-08-14

    Past events like fluctuations in population size and post-glacial colonization processes may influence the relative importance of genetic drift, migration and selection when determining the present day patterns of genetic variation. We disentangle how drift, selection and migration shape neutral and adaptive genetic variation in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient. We studied genetic differentiation and variation at a MHC exon II locus and a set of 18 microsatellites. Using outlier analyses, we identified the MHC II exon 2 (corresponding to the β-2 domain) locus and one microsatellite locus (RCO8640) to be subject to diversifying selection, while five microsatellite loci showed signals of stabilizing selection among populations. STRUCTURE and DAPC analyses on the neutral microsatellites assigned populations to a northern and a southern cluster, reflecting two different post-glacial colonization routes found in previous studies. Genetic variation overall was lower in the northern cluster. The signature of selection on MHC exon II was weaker in the northern cluster, possibly as a consequence of smaller and more fragmented populations. Our results show that historical demographic processes combined with selection and drift have led to a complex pattern of differentiation along the gradient where some loci are more divergent among populations than predicted from drift expectations due to diversifying selection, while other loci are more uniform among populations due to stabilizing selection. Importantly, both overall and MHC genetic variation are lower at northern latitudes. Due to lower evolutionary potential, the low genetic variation in northern populations may increase the risk of extinction when confronted with emerging pathogens and climate change.

  1. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  2. The consolidation of implicit sequence memory in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Csabi

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation by enhancing neural plasticity. Implicit sequence learning is a prominent component of skill learning. However, the formation and consolidation of this fundamental learning mechanism remains poorly understood in OSA. In the present study we examined the consolidation of different aspects of implicit sequence learning in patients with OSA. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task to measure general skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 10-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed differences in offline changes of general skill learning between the OSA and control group. The control group demonstrated offline improvement from evening to morning, while the OSA group did not. In contrast, we did not observe differences between the groups in offline changes in sequence-specific learning. Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep in OSA differently affects neural circuits involved in the consolidation of sequence learning.

  3. Latitudinal patterns in phenotypic plasticity and fitness-related traits: assessing the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH with an invasive plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Molina-Montenegro

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested as the main mechanism for species persistence under a global change scenario, and also as one of the main mechanisms that alien species use to tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. However, contrasting with this central role of phenotypic plasticity, standard models aimed to predict the effect of climatic change on species distributions do not allow for the inclusion of differences in plastic responses among populations. In this context, the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH, which states that higher thermal variability at higher latitudes should determine an increase in phenotypic plasticity with latitude, could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis. Accordingly, in this study we evaluated, for the first time in a plant species (Taraxacum officinale, the prediction of the CVH. Specifically, we measured plastic responses at different environmental temperatures (5 and 20°C, in several ecophysiological and fitness-related traits for five populations distributed along a broad latitudinal gradient. Overall, phenotypic plasticity increased with latitude for all six traits analyzed, and mean trait values increased with latitude at both experimental temperatures, the change was noticeably greater at 20° than at 5°C. Our results suggest that the positive relationship found between phenotypic plasticity and geographic latitude could have very deep implications on future species persistence and invasion processes under a scenario of climate change.

  4. Latitudinal patterns in phenotypic plasticity and fitness-related traits: assessing the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) with an invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Naya, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested as the main mechanism for species persistence under a global change scenario, and also as one of the main mechanisms that alien species use to tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. However, contrasting with this central role of phenotypic plasticity, standard models aimed to predict the effect of climatic change on species distributions do not allow for the inclusion of differences in plastic responses among populations. In this context, the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH), which states that higher thermal variability at higher latitudes should determine an increase in phenotypic plasticity with latitude, could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis. Accordingly, in this study we evaluated, for the first time in a plant species (Taraxacum officinale), the prediction of the CVH. Specifically, we measured plastic responses at different environmental temperatures (5 and 20°C), in several ecophysiological and fitness-related traits for five populations distributed along a broad latitudinal gradient. Overall, phenotypic plasticity increased with latitude for all six traits analyzed, and mean trait values increased with latitude at both experimental temperatures, the change was noticeably greater at 20° than at 5°C. Our results suggest that the positive relationship found between phenotypic plasticity and geographic latitude could have very deep implications on future species persistence and invasion processes under a scenario of climate change.

  5. Longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dynamic characteristics of the MLT (70−95km: a study involving the CUJO network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly-installed MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40°N, 105°W has provided the opportunity and impetus to create an operational network of middle- latitude MFRs stretching from 81°W–142°E. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43°N, 81°W, Platteville (40°N, 105°W, Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W, Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E. It offers a significant 7000km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12–14° at two longitudes. Annual climatologies involving both height and frequency versus time contour plots for periods from 8h to 30 days, show that the changes with longitude are very significant and distinctive, often exceeding the local latitudinal variations. Comparisons with models and the recent UARS-HRDI global analysis of tides are discussed. The fits of the horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in unique frequency versus time contour plots and shown to be consistent with the expected dominant modes. Annual climatologies of planetary waves (16 day, 2 day and gravity waves reveal strong seasonal and longitudinal variations. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; climatology

  6. Using relational databases for improved sequence similarity searching and large-scale genomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Aaron J; Pearson, William R

    2004-10-01

    Relational databases are designed to integrate diverse types of information and manage large sets of search results, greatly simplifying genome-scale analyses. Relational databases are essential for management and analysis of large-scale sequence analyses, and can also be used to improve the statistical significance of similarity searches by focusing on subsets of sequence libraries most likely to contain homologs. This unit describes using relational databases to improve the efficiency of sequence similarity searching and to demonstrate various large-scale genomic analyses of homology-related data. This unit describes the installation and use of a simple protein sequence database, seqdb_demo, which is used as a basis for the other protocols. These include basic use of the database to generate a novel sequence library subset, how to extend and use seqdb_demo for the storage of sequence similarity search results and making use of various kinds of stored search results to address aspects of comparative genomic analysis.

  7. Golden Ratio Versus Pi as Random Sequence Sources for Monte Carlo Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S. K.; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences is not judged directly based on the outcome of all known tests for the randomness of a sequence. Instead, it is determined implicitly by the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration in a statistical sense. Since our main motive of using a random sequence is to solve real world problems, it is more desirable if we compare the quality of the sequences based on their performances for these problems in terms of quality/accuracy of the output. We also compare these sources against those generated by a popular pseudo-random generator, viz., the Matlab rand and the quasi-random generator ha/ton both in terms of error and time complexity. Our study demonstrates that consecutive blocks of digits of each of these numbers produce a good random sequence source. It is observed that randomly chosen blocks of digits do not have any remarkable advantage over consecutive blocks for the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration. Also, it reveals that pi is a better source of a random sequence than theta when the accuracy of the integration is concerned.

  8. Multiplexed detection of DNA sequences using a competitive displacement assay in a microfluidic SERRS-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Soroush H; Giles, Kristen L; White, Ian M

    2013-11-05

    We demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of DNA sequences through a surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS)-based competitive displacement assay in an integrated microsystem. The use of the competitive displacement scheme, in which the target DNA sequence displaces a Raman-labeled reporter sequence that has lower affinity for the immobilized probe, enables detection of unlabeled target DNA sequences with a simple single-step procedure. In our implementation, the displacement reaction occurs in a microporous packed column of silica beads prefunctionalized with probe-reporter pairs. The use of a functionalized packed-bead column in a microfluidic channel provides two major advantages: (i) immobilization surface chemistry can be performed as a batch process instead of on a chip-by-chip basis, and (ii) the microporous network eliminates the diffusion limitations of a typical biological assay, which increases the sensitivity. Packed silica beads are also leveraged to improve the SERRS detection of the Raman-labeled reporter. Following displacement, the reporter adsorbs onto aggregated silver nanoparticles in a microfluidic mixer; the nanoparticle-reporter conjugates are then trapped and concentrated in the silica bead matrix, which leads to a significant increase in plasmonic nanoparticles and adsorbed Raman reporters within the detection volume as compared to an open microfluidic channel. The experimental results reported here demonstrate detection down to 100 pM of the target DNA sequence, and the experiments are shown to be specific, repeatable, and quantitative. Furthermore, we illustrate the advantage of using SERRS by demonstrating multiplexed detection. The sensitivity of the assay, combined with the advantages of multiplexed detection and single-step operation with unlabeled target sequences makes this method attractive for practical applications. Importantly, while we illustrate DNA sequence detection, the SERRS-based competitive

  9. Germination responses to current and future temperatures of four seeder shrubs across a latitudinal gradient in western Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Daniel; Luna, Belén; Moreno, José M

    2017-01-01

    Species differ in their temperature germination niche. Populations of a species may similarly differ across the distribution range of the species. Anticipating the impacts of climate variability and change requires understanding the differential sensitivity to germination temperature among and within species. Here we studied the germination responses of four hard-seeded Cistaceae seeders to a range of current and future temperatures. Seeds were collected at sites across the Iberian Peninsula and exposed or not exposed to a heat shock to break dormancy, then set to germinate under four temperature regimes. Temperatures were varied daily and seasonally, simulating the temperature range across the gradient, plus an increased temperature simulating future climate. Time to germination onset and cumulative germination at the end of each season were analyzed for the effects of temperature treatments, seasons, and local climate (temperature of the germination period, T gp ) at each site. T gp was a significant covariate of germination in all species but Cistus populifolius. Temperature treatments significantly affected Cistus ladanifer, C. salviifolius, and Halimium ocymoides. Germination occurred in simulated autumn conditions, with little germination occurring at later seasons, except in unheated seeds of H. ocymoides. Exposure to a heat shock changed the sensitivity to temperature treatments and the relationships with T gp . Germination responses to temperature differ not only among species but also within species across their latitudinal range. The responses were idiosyncratic and related to the local climate of the population. This germination variability complicates generalizing the impacts of climate variability and climate change. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Sequence Algebra, Sequence Decision Diagrams and Dynamic Fault Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauzy, Antoine B.

    2011-01-01

    A large attention has been focused on the Dynamic Fault Trees in the past few years. By adding new gates to static (regular) Fault Trees, Dynamic Fault Trees aim to take into account dependencies among events. Merle et al. proposed recently an algebraic framework to give a formal interpretation to these gates. In this article, we extend Merle et al.'s work by adopting a slightly different perspective. We introduce Sequence Algebras that can be seen as Algebras of Basic Events, representing failures of non-repairable components. We show how to interpret Dynamic Fault Trees within this framework. Finally, we propose a new data structure to encode sets of sequences of Basic Events: Sequence Decision Diagrams. Sequence Decision Diagrams are very much inspired from Minato's Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams. We show that all operations of Sequence Algebras can be performed on this data structure.

  11. Spike-Based Bayesian-Hebbian Learning of Temporal Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Tully

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cognitive and motor functions are enabled by the temporal representation and processing of stimuli, but it remains an open issue how neocortical microcircuits can reliably encode and replay such sequences of information. To better understand this, a modular attractor memory network is proposed in which meta-stable sequential attractor transitions are learned through changes to synaptic weights and intrinsic excitabilities via the spike-based Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN learning rule. We find that the formation of distributed memories, embodied by increased periods of firing in pools of excitatory neurons, together with asymmetrical associations between these distinct network states, can be acquired through plasticity. The model's feasibility is demonstrated using simulations of adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model neurons (AdEx. We show that the learning and speed of sequence replay depends on a confluence of biophysically relevant parameters including stimulus duration, level of background noise, ratio of synaptic currents, and strengths of short-term depression and adaptation. Moreover, sequence elements are shown to flexibly participate multiple times in the sequence, suggesting that spiking attractor networks of this type can support an efficient combinatorial code. The model provides a principled approach towards understanding how multiple interacting plasticity mechanisms can coordinate hetero-associative learning in unison.

  12. ESPRIT-Forest: Parallel clustering of massive amplicon sequence data in subquadratic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunpeng; Zheng, Wei; Yao, Jin; Yang, Yujie; Mai, Volker; Mao, Qi; Sun, Yijun

    2017-04-01

    The rapid development of sequencing technology has led to an explosive accumulation of genomic sequence data. Clustering is often the first step to perform in sequence analysis, and hierarchical clustering is one of the most commonly used approaches for this purpose. However, it is currently computationally expensive to perform hierarchical clustering of extremely large sequence datasets due to its quadratic time and space complexities. In this paper we developed a new algorithm called ESPRIT-Forest for parallel hierarchical clustering of sequences. The algorithm achieves subquadratic time and space complexity and maintains a high clustering accuracy comparable to the standard method. The basic idea is to organize sequences into a pseudo-metric based partitioning tree for sub-linear time searching of nearest neighbors, and then use a new multiple-pair merging criterion to construct clusters in parallel using multiple threads. The new algorithm was tested on the human microbiome project (HMP) dataset, currently one of the largest published microbial 16S rRNA sequence dataset. Our experiment demonstrated that with the power of parallel computing it is now compu- tationally feasible to perform hierarchical clustering analysis of tens of millions of sequences. The software is available at http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/∼yijunsun/lab/ESPRIT-Forest.html.

  13. CisSERS: Customizable In Silico Sequence Evaluation for Restriction Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Sharpe

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing continues to produce an immense volume of information that is processed and assembled into mature sequence data. Data analysis tools are urgently needed that leverage the embedded DNA sequence polymorphisms and consequent changes to restriction sites or sequence motifs in a high-throughput manner to enable biological experimentation. CisSERS was developed as a standalone open source tool to analyze sequence datasets and provide biologists with individual or comparative genome organization information in terms of presence and frequency of patterns or motifs such as restriction enzymes. Predicted agarose gel visualization of the custom analyses results was also integrated to enhance the usefulness of the software. CisSERS offers several novel functionalities, such as handling of large and multiple datasets in parallel, multiple restriction enzyme site detection and custom motif detection features, which are seamlessly integrated with real time agarose gel visualization. Using a simple fasta-formatted file as input, CisSERS utilizes the REBASE enzyme database. Results from CisSERS enable the user to make decisions for designing genotyping by sequencing experiments, reduced representation sequencing, 3'UTR sequencing, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS molecular markers for large sample sets. CisSERS is a java based graphical user interface built around a perl backbone. Several of the applications of CisSERS including CAPS molecular marker development were successfully validated using wet-lab experimentation. Here, we present the tool CisSERS and results from in-silico and corresponding wet-lab analyses demonstrating that CisSERS is a technology platform solution that facilitates efficient data utilization in genomics and genetics studies.

  14. Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernadi, Istvan; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-10-12

    The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation. Their build-up rate reflected prospectively the forthcoming choice sequence, suggesting adaptation to an internal plan. Population decoding demonstrated a high-accuracy progress code. These findings indicate that amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of planned, self-defined behavioral sequences. Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis and Algorithms for PDX and CDX Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Garima; Girotti, María Romina; Smowton, Christopher; Taylor, Sam; Wirth, Christopher; Dynowski, Marek; Frese, Kristopher K; Brady, Ged; Dive, Caroline; Marais, Richard; Miller, Crispin

    2017-08-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and circulating tumor cell-derived explant (CDX) models are powerful methods for the study of human disease. In cancer research, these methods have been applied to multiple questions, including the study of metastatic progression, genetic evolution, and therapeutic drug responses. As PDX and CDX models can recapitulate the highly heterogeneous characteristics of a patient tumor, as well as their response to chemotherapy, there is considerable interest in combining them with next-generation sequencing to monitor the genomic, transcriptional, and epigenetic changes that accompany oncogenesis. When used for this purpose, their reliability is highly dependent on being able to accurately distinguish between sequencing reads that originate from the host, and those that arise from the xenograft itself. Here, we demonstrate that failure to correctly identify contaminating host reads when analyzing DNA- and RNA-sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq) data from PDX and CDX models is a major confounding factor that can lead to incorrect mutation calls and a failure to identify canonical mutation signatures associated with tumorigenicity. In addition, a highly sensitive algorithm and open source software tool for identifying and removing contaminating host sequences is described. Importantly, when applied to PDX and CDX models of melanoma, these data demonstrate its utility as a sensitive and selective tool for the correction of PDX- and CDX-derived whole-exome and RNA-Seq data. Implications: This study describes a sensitive method to identify contaminating host reads in xenograft and explant DNA- and RNA-Seq data and is applicable to other forms of deep sequencing. Mol Cancer Res; 15(8); 1012-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Tracing early stellar evolution with asteroseismology: pre-main sequence stars in NGC 2264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwintz Konstanze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asteroseismology has been proven to be a successful tool to unravel details of the internal structure for different types of stars in various stages of their main sequence and post-main sequence evolution. Recently, we found a relation between the detected pulsation properties in a sample of 34 pre-main sequence (pre-MS δ Scuti stars and the relative phase in their pre-MS evolution. With this we are able to demonstrate that asteroseismology is similarly powerful if applied to stars in the earliest stages of evolution before the onset of hydrogen core burning.

  17. Quantum Logic with Composite Pulse Sequences on Sr^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmon, Ruth; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Ge, Yufei; Wang, Shannon; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2008-03-01

    The optical 5S1/2->4D1/2 transition in Sr^+ is an attractive qubit because it can be addressed by diode lasers, which are relatively inexpensive and easy to operate. We characterize single-qubit rotations as well as a CNOT gate on a Sr^+ ion in a surface electrode Paul trap. To improve these operations, the frequency of the clock laser is stabilized to a high-finesse optical cavity. The resulting linewidth of the laser is approximately 300Hz. Composite pulse sequences, a technique adapted from NMR, have been shown to reduce the effects of systematic errors in a variety of quantum systems. We demonstrate several composite sequences that improve the fidelity of quantum logic operations on Sr^+.

  18. GenEST, a powerful bidirectional link between cDNA sequence data and gene expression profiles generated by cDNA-AFLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin Ling,; Prins, P.; Jones, J.T.; Popeijus, H.; Smant, G.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    2001-01-01

    The release of vast quantities of DNA sequence data by large-scale genome and expressed sequence tag (EST) projects underlines the necessity for the development of efficient and inexpensive ways to link sequence databases with temporal and spatial expression profiles. Here we demonstrate the power

  19. Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Amber M; Van Lare, Jennifer; Zielinski, Brandon; Halpern, Andrea R; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-02-25

    Music consists of sound sequences that require integration over time. As we become familiar with music, associations between notes, melodies, and entire symphonic movements become stronger and more complex. These associations can become so tight that, for example, hearing the end of one album track can elicit a robust image of the upcoming track while anticipating it in total silence. Here, we study this predictive "anticipatory imagery" at various stages throughout learning and investigate activity changes in corresponding neural structures using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anticipatory imagery (in silence) for highly familiar naturalistic music was accompanied by pronounced activity in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor areas. Examining changes in the neural bases of anticipatory imagery during two stages of learning conditional associations between simple melodies, however, demonstrates the importance of fronto-striatal connections, consistent with a role of the basal ganglia in "training" frontal cortex (Pasupathy and Miller, 2005). Another striking change in neural resources during learning was a shift between caudal PFC earlier to rostral PFC later in learning. Our findings regarding musical anticipation and sound sequence learning are highly compatible with studies of motor sequence learning, suggesting common predictive mechanisms in both domains.

  20. IdentiCS – Identification of coding sequence and in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network directly from unannotated low-coverage bacterial genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng An-Ping

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A necessary step for a genome level analysis of the cellular metabolism is the in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network from genome sequences. The available methods are mainly based on the annotation of genome sequences including two successive steps, the prediction of coding sequences (CDS and their function assignment. The annotation process takes time. The available methods often encounter difficulties when dealing with unfinished error-containing genomic sequence. Results In this work a fast method is proposed to use unannotated genome sequence for predicting CDSs and for an in silico reconstruction of metabolic networks. Instead of using predicted genes or CDSs to query public databases, entries from public DNA or protein databases are used as queries to search a local database of the unannotated genome sequence to predict CDSs. Functions are assigned to the predicted CDSs simultaneously. The well-annotated genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 is used as an example to demonstrate the applicability of the method. 97.7% of the CDSs in the original annotation are correctly identified. The use of SWISS-PROT-TrEMBL databases resulted in an identification of 98.9% of CDSs that have EC-numbers in the published annotation. Furthermore, two versions of sequences of the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with different genome coverage (3.9 and 7.9 fold, respectively are examined. The results suggest that a 3.9-fold coverage of the bacterial genome could be sufficiently used for the in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network. Compared to other gene finding methods such as CRITICA our method is more suitable for exploiting sequences of low genome coverage. Based on the new method, a program called IdentiCS (Identification of Coding Sequences from Unfinished Genome Sequences is delivered that combines the identification of CDSs with the reconstruction, comparison and visualization of metabolic networks (free to download

  1. DeepSimulator: a deep simulator for Nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2017-12-23

    Motivation: Oxford Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developed sequencing technology in recent years. To keep pace with the explosion of the downstream data analytical tools, a versatile Nanopore sequencing simulator is needed to complement the experimental data as well as to benchmark those newly developed tools. However, all the currently available simulators are based on simple statistics of the produced reads, which have difficulty in capturing the complex nature of the Nanopore sequencing procedure, the main task of which is the generation of raw electrical current signals. Results: Here we propose a deep learning based simulator, DeepSimulator, to mimic the entire pipeline of Nanopore sequencing. Starting from a given reference genome or assembled contigs, we simulate the electrical current signals by a context-dependent deep learning model, followed by a base-calling procedure to yield simulated reads. This workflow mimics the sequencing procedure more naturally. The thorough experiments performed across four species show that the signals generated by our context-dependent model are more similar to the experimentally obtained signals than the ones generated by the official context-independent pore model. In terms of the simulated reads, we provide a parameter interface to users so that they can obtain the reads with different accuracies ranging from 83% to 97%. The reads generated by the default parameter have almost the same properties as the real data. Two case studies demonstrate the application of DeepSimulator to benefit the development of tools in de novo assembly and in low coverage SNP detection. Availability: The software can be accessed freely at: https://github.com/lykaust15/DeepSimulator.

  2. Annual and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes and meteorological variables at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes and discusses seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil ground heat) and other ancillary surface/snow/permafrost data based on in-situ measurements made at two long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in Canada and Russia. The hourly averaged data collected at Eureka (Canadian territory of Nunavut) and Tiksi (East Siberia) located at two quite different latitudes (80.0 N and 71.6 N respectively) are analyzed in details to describe the seasons in the Arctic. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located at the different continents and at the different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and the surface fluxes are qualitatively very similar. The air and soil temperatures display the familiar strong seasonal trend with maximum of measured temperatures in mid-summer and minimum during winter. According to our data, variation in incoming short-wave solar radiation led the seasonal pattern of the air and soil temperatures, and the turbulent fluxes. During the dark Polar nights, air and ground temperatures are strongly controlled by long-wave radiation associated generally with cloud cover. Due to the fact that in average the higher latitudes receive less solar radiation than lower latitudes, a length of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (warm season) is shorter and middle-summer amplitude of the turbulent fluxes is generally less in Eureka than in Tiksi. However, since solar elevation angle at local midnight in the middle of Arctic summer is higher for Eureka as compared to Tiksi, stable stratification and upward turbulent flux for carbon dioxide is generally did not observed at Eureka site during summer seasons. It was found a high correlation between the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, carbon dioxide and the net solar radiation. A comprehensive evaluation of energy balance closure problem is performed based on the multi-year data sets

  3. CRANE: a new scale super-sequence for neutron transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.S., E-mail: wang1730@purdue.edu, E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Mertyurek, U., E-mail: umertyurek@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    A new 'super-sequence' called CRANE has been developed to automate the application of reduced order modeling (ROM) to reactor analysis calculations under the SCALE code environment. This new super-sequence is designed to support computationally intensive analyses that require repeated execution of flux solvers with variations in design parameters and nuclear data. This manuscript provides a brief overview of CRANE and demonstrates its applications to representative reactor physics calculations. Specifically, two ROM applications are demonstrated, the intersection subspace-based approach for uncertainty quantification which is intended to reduce the number of uncertainty sources in a conventional uncertainty analysis, and the exact-to-precision generalized perturbation theory methodology intended as a physics-based surrogate model to replace the flux solver, i.e., NEWT. Our overarching goal is to provide a prototypic ROM capability that allows users to further explore and investigate the benefits of using ROM methods in their respective domain and help guide further developments of the methodology and evolution of the tools. (author)

  4. Small molecule alteration of RNA sequence in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lirui; Luo, Yiling; Ja, William W; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-10-18

    RNA regulation and maintenance are critical for proper cell function. Small molecules that specifically alter RNA sequence would be exceptionally useful as probes of RNA structure and function or as potential therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate a photochemical approach for altering the trinucleotide expanded repeat causative of myotonic muscular dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG) exp . The small molecule, 2H-4-Ru, binds to r(CUG) exp and converts guanosine residues to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine upon photochemical irradiation. We demonstrate targeted modification upon irradiation in cell culture and in Drosophila larvae provided a diet containing 2H-4-Ru. Our results highlight a general chemical biology approach for altering RNA sequence in vivo by using small molecules and photochemistry. Furthermore, these studies show that addition of 8-oxo-G lesions into RNA 3' untranslated regions does not affect its steady state levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ngs.plot: Quick mining and visualization of next-generation sequencing data by integrating genomic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Shao, Ningyi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Nestler, Eric

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the relationship between the millions of functional DNA elements and their protein regulators, and how they work in conjunction to manifest diverse phenotypes, is key to advancing our understanding of the mammalian genome. Next-generation sequencing technology is now used widely to probe these protein-DNA interactions and to profile gene expression at a genome-wide scale. As the cost of DNA sequencing continues to fall, the interpretation of the ever increasing amount of data generated represents a considerable challenge. We have developed ngs.plot - a standalone program to visualize enrichment patterns of DNA-interacting proteins at functionally important regions based on next-generation sequencing data. We demonstrate that ngs.plot is not only efficient but also scalable. We use a few examples to demonstrate that ngs.plot is easy to use and yet very powerful to generate figures that are publication ready. We conclude that ngs.plot is a useful tool to help fill the gap between massive datasets and genomic information in this era of big sequencing data.

  6. Deep-sequencing protocols influence the results obtained in small-RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Toedling

    Full Text Available Second-generation sequencing is a powerful method for identifying and quantifying small-RNA components of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of the choice of sequencing platform and library preparation protocol on the results obtained. We present a thorough comparison of small-RNA sequencing libraries generated from the same embryonic stem cell lines, using different sequencing platforms, which represent the three major second-generation sequencing technologies, and protocols. We have analysed and compared the expression of microRNAs, as well as populations of small RNAs derived from repetitive elements. Despite the fact that different libraries display a good correlation between sequencing platforms, qualitative and quantitative variations in the results were found, depending on the protocol used. Thus, when comparing libraries from different biological samples, it is strongly recommended to use the same sequencing platform and protocol in order to ensure the biological relevance of the comparisons.

  7. Fast and Sequence-Adaptive Whole-Brain Segmentation Using Parametric Bayesian Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    the performance of a segmentation algorithm designed to meet these requirements, building upon generative parametric models previously used in tissue classification. The method is tested on four different datasets acquired with different scanners, field strengths and pulse sequences, demonstrating comparable...

  8. An improved high throughput sequencing method for studying oomycete communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    the usefulness of the method not only in soil DNA but also in a plant DNA background. In conclusion, we demonstrate a successful approach for pyrosequencing of oomycete communities using ITS1 as the barcode sequence with well-known primers for oomycete DNA amplification....... communities. Thewell-known primer sets ITS4, ITS6 and ITS7were used in the study in a semi-nested PCR approach to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 of ribosomal DNA in a next generation sequencing protocol. These primers have been used in similar studies before, butwith limited success.......Wewere able to increase the proportion of retrieved oomycete sequences dramaticallymainly by increasing the annealing temperature during PCR. The optimized protocol was validated using three mock communities and the method was further evaluated using total DNA from 26 soil samples collected from different...

  9. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a coat protein of an Ukrainian isolate of Potato virus Y: comparison with homologous sequences of other isolates and phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzanivska I. G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Identification of the widespread Ukrainian isolate(s of PVY (Potato virus Y in different potato cultivars and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of detected PVY isolates based on NA and AA sequences of coat protein. Methods. ELISA, RT-PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results. PVY has been identified serologically in potato cultivars of Ukrainian selection. In this work we have optimized a method for total RNA extraction from potato samples and offered a sensitive and specific PCR-based test system of own design for diagnostics of the Ukrainian PVY isolates. Part of the CP gene of the Ukrainian PVY isolate has been sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. It is demonstrated that the Ukrainian isolate of Potato virus Y (CP gene has a higher percentage of homology with the recombinant isolates (strains of this pathogen (approx. 98.8– 99.8 % of homology for both nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of the CP gene. The Ukrainian isolate of PVY is positioned in the separate cluster together with the isolates found in Syria, Japan and Iran; these isolates possibly have common origin. The Ukrainian PVY isolate is confirmed to be recombinant. Conclusions. This work underlines the need and provides the means for accurate monitoring of Potato virus Y in the agroecosystems of Ukraine. Most importantly, the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the recombinant nature of this PVY isolate which has been attributed to the strain group O, subclade N:O.

  10. Global patterns in seasonal activity of influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B from 1997 to 2005: viral coexistence and latitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Finkelman

    Full Text Available Despite a mass of research on the epidemiology of seasonal influenza, overall patterns of infection have not been fully described on broad geographic scales and for specific types and subtypes of the influenza virus. Here we provide a descriptive analysis of laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data by type and subtype (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B for 19 temperate countries in the Northern and Southern hemispheres from 1997 to 2005, compiled from a public database maintained by WHO (FluNet. Key findings include patterns of large scale co-occurrence of influenza type A and B, interhemispheric synchrony for subtype A/H3N2, and latitudinal gradients in epidemic timing for type A. These findings highlight the need for more countries to conduct year-round viral surveillance and report reliable incidence data at the type and subtype level, especially in the Tropics.

  11. Nature and distribution of feline sarcoma virus nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A E; Gilbert, J H; Porzig, K J; Scolnick, E M; Aaronson, S A

    1979-01-01

    The genomes of three independent isolates of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) were compared by molecular hybridization techniques. Using complementary DNAs prepared from two strains, SM- and ST-FeSV, common complementary DNA'S were selected by sequential hybridization to FeSV and feline leukemia virus RNAs. These DNAs were shown to be highly related among the three independent sarcoma virus isolates. FeSV-specific complementary DNAs were prepared by selection for hybridization by the homologous FeSV RNA and against hybridization by fline leukemia virus RNA. Sarcoma virus-specific sequences of SM-FeSV were shown to differ from those of either ST- or GA-FeSV strains, whereas ST-FeSV-specific DNA shared extensive sequence homology with GA-FeSV. By molecular hybridization, each set of FeSV-specific sequences was demonstrated to be present in normal cat cellular DNA in approximately one copy per haploid genome and was conserved throughout Felidae. In contrast, FeSV-common sequences were present in multiple DNA copies and were found only in Mediterranean cats. The present results are consistent with the concept that each FeSV strain has arisen by a mechanism involving recombination between feline leukemia virus and cat cellular DNA sequences, the latter represented within the cat genome in a manner analogous to that of a cellular gene. PMID:225544

  12. Whole transcriptome sequencing enables discovery and analysis of viruses in archived primary central nervous system lymphomas.

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    Christopher DeBoever

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL have a dramatically increased prevalence among persons living with AIDS and are known to be associated with human Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. Previous work suggests that in some cases, co-infection with other viruses may be important for PCNSL pathogenesis. Viral transcription in tumor samples can be measured using next generation transcriptome sequencing. We demonstrate the ability of transcriptome sequencing to identify viruses, characterize viral expression, and identify viral variants by sequencing four archived AIDS-related PCNSL tissue samples and analyzing raw sequencing reads. EBV was detected in all four PCNSL samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV, JC polyomavirus (JCV, and HIV were also discovered, consistent with clinical diagnoses. CMV was found to express three long non-coding RNAs recently reported as expressed during active infection. Single nucleotide variants were observed in each of the viruses observed and three indels were found in CMV. No viruses were found in several control tumor types including 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples. This study demonstrates the ability of next generation transcriptome sequencing to accurately identify viruses, including DNA viruses, in solid human cancer tissue samples.

  13. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Total-Genome-Sequenced Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore; Rasmussen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Accurate strain identification is essential for anyone working with bacteria. For many species, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is considered the "gold standard" of typing, but it is traditionally performed in an expensive and time-consuming manner. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS...

  14. High-precision, whole-genome sequencing of laboratory strains facilitates genetic studies.

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    Anjana Srivatsan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful technique for obtaining the reference sequence information of multiple organisms. Its use can be dramatically expanded to rapidly identify genomic variations, which can be linked with phenotypes to obtain biological insights. We explored these potential applications using the emerging next-generation sequencing platform Solexa Genome Analyzer, and the well-characterized model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Combining sequencing with experimental verification, we first improved the accuracy of the published sequence of the B. subtilis reference strain 168, then obtained sequences of multiple related laboratory strains and different isolates of each strain. This provides a framework for comparing the divergence between different laboratory strains and between their individual isolates. We also demonstrated the power of Solexa sequencing by using its results to predict a defect in the citrate signal transduction pathway of a common laboratory strain, which we verified experimentally. Finally, we examined the molecular nature of spontaneously generated mutations that suppress the growth defect caused by deletion of the stringent response mediator relA. Using whole-genome sequencing, we rapidly mapped these suppressor mutations to two small homologs of relA. Interestingly, stable suppressor strains had mutations in both genes, with each mutation alone partially relieving the relA growth defect. This supports an intriguing three-locus interaction module that is not easily identifiable through traditional suppressor mapping. We conclude that whole-genome sequencing can drastically accelerate the identification of suppressor mutations and complex genetic interactions, and it can be applied as a standard tool to investigate the genetic traits of model organisms.

  15. Sequencing of Dust Filter Production Process Using Design Structure Matrix (DSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Matondang, A. R.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar; Siregar, I.; Rizkya, I.; Ursula, C.

    2018-01-01

    Metal casting company produces machinery spare part for manufactures. One of the product produced is dust filter. Most of palm oil mill used this product. Since it is used in most of palm oil mill, company often have problems to address this product. One of problem is the disordered of production process. It carried out by the job sequencing. The important job that should be solved first, least implement, while less important job and could be completed later, implemented first. Design Structure Matrix (DSM) used to analyse and determine priorities in the production process. DSM analysis is sort of production process through dependency sequencing. The result of dependency sequences shows the sequence process according to the inter-process linkage considering before and after activities. Finally, it demonstrates their activities to the coupled activities for metal smelting, refining, grinding, cutting container castings, metal expenditure of molds, metal casting, coating processes, and manufacture of molds of sand.

  16. Nonhybrid, finished microbial genome assemblies from long-read SMRT sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chen-Shan; Alexander, David H; Marks, Patrick; Klammer, Aaron A; Drake, James; Heiner, Cheryl; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Huddleston, John; Eichler, Evan E; Turner, Stephen W; Korlach, Jonas

    2013-06-01

    We present a hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP) for high-quality de novo microbial genome assemblies using only a single, long-insert shotgun DNA library in conjunction with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. Our method uses the longest reads as seeds to recruit all other reads for construction of highly accurate preassembled reads through a directed acyclic graph-based consensus procedure, which we follow with assembly using off-the-shelf long-read assemblers. In contrast to hybrid approaches, HGAP does not require highly accurate raw reads for error correction. We demonstrate efficient genome assembly for several microorganisms using as few as three SMRT Cell zero-mode waveguide arrays of sequencing and for BACs using just one SMRT Cell. Long repeat regions can be successfully resolved with this workflow. We also describe a consensus algorithm that incorporates SMRT sequencing primary quality values to produce de novo genome sequence exceeding 99.999% accuracy.

  17. Characterizing immunoglobulin repertoire from whole blood by a personal genome sequencer.

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    Fan Gao

    Full Text Available In human immune system, V(DJ recombination produces an enormously large repertoire of immunoglobulins (Ig so that they can tackle different antigens from bacteria, viruses and tumor cells. Several studies have demonstrated the utility of next-generation sequencers such as Roche 454 and Illumina Genome Analyzer to characterize the repertoire of immunoglobulins. However, these techniques typically require separation of B cell population from whole blood and require a few weeks for running the sequencers, so it may not be practical to implement them in clinical settings. Recently, the Ion Torrent personal genome sequencer has emerged as a tabletop personal genome sequencer that can be operated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. In this study, we explored the technical feasibility to use multiplex PCR for amplifying V(DJ recombination for IgH, directly from whole blood, then sequence the amplicons by the Ion Torrent sequencer. The whole process including data generation and analysis can be completed in one day. We tested the method in a pilot study on patients with benign, atypical and malignant meningiomas. Despite the noisy data, we were able to compare the samples by their usage frequencies of the V segment, as well as their somatic hypermutation rates. In summary, our study suggested that it is technically feasible to perform clinical monitoring of V(DJ recombination within a day by personal genome sequencers.

  18. Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in sequences and 3D structures by random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mile Sikić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying interaction sites in proteins provides important clues to the function of a protein and is becoming increasingly relevant in topics such as systems biology and drug discovery. Although there are numerous papers on the prediction of interaction sites using information derived from structure, there are only a few case reports on the prediction of interaction residues based solely on protein sequence. Here, a sliding window approach is combined with the Random Forests method to predict protein interaction sites using (i a combination of sequence- and structure-derived parameters and (ii sequence information alone. For sequence-based prediction we achieved a precision of 84% with a 26% recall and an F-measure of 40%. When combined with structural information, the prediction performance increases to a precision of 76% and a recall of 38% with an F-measure of 51%. We also present an attempt to rationalize the sliding window size and demonstrate that a nine-residue window is the most suitable for predictor construction. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our prediction methods by modeling the Ras-Raf complex using predicted interaction sites as target binding interfaces. Our results suggest that it is possible to predict protein interaction sites with quite a high accuracy using only sequence information.

  19. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  20. Nonparametric combinatorial sequence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, Fabian L; Jordan, Michael I; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2011-11-01

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This article presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three biological sequence families which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution over sequence representations induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior, our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  1. Rapid and Accurate Sequencing of Enterovirus Genomes Using MinION Nanopore Sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Ke, Yue Hua; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ke Qiang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Xin Xin; Dong, Xiao Ping; Xu, Wen Bo; Ma, Xue Jun

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes. In this proof-of-concept study using Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) strains as examples, we established an amplicon-based whole genome sequencing method using MinION. We explored the accuracy, minimum sequencing time, discrimination and high-throughput sequencing ability of MinION, and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing. Within the first minute (min) of sequencing, the accuracy of MinION was 98.5% for the single EV71 strain and 94.12%-97.33% for 10 genetically-related CA16 strains. In as little as 14 min, 99% identity was reached for the single EV71 strain, and in 17 min (on average), 99% identity was achieved for 10 CA16 strains in a single run. MinION is suitable for whole genome sequencing of enteroviruses with sufficient accuracy and fine discrimination and has the potential as a fast, reliable and convenient method for routine use. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. High-fidelity target sequencing of individual molecules identified using barcode sequences: de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Yoji; Matoba, Ryo; Uchida, Junji; Hamakawa, Takuya; Doki, Yuichiro; Imamura, Fumio; Kato, Kikuya

    2015-08-01

    Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging field of cancer research. However, current ctDNA analysis is usually restricted to one or a few mutation sites due to technical limitations. In the case of massively parallel DNA sequencers, the number of false positives caused by a high read error rate is a major problem. In addition, the final sequence reads do not represent the original DNA population due to the global amplification step during the template preparation. We established a high-fidelity target sequencing system of individual molecules identified in plasma cell-free DNA using barcode sequences; this system consists of the following two steps. (i) A novel target sequencing method that adds barcode sequences by adaptor ligation. This method uses linear amplification to eliminate the errors introduced during the early cycles of polymerase chain reaction. (ii) The monitoring and removal of erroneous barcode tags. This process involves the identification of individual molecules that have been sequenced and for which the number of mutations have been absolute quantitated. Using plasma cell-free DNA from patients with gastric or lung cancer, we demonstrated that the system achieved near complete elimination of false positives and enabled de novo detection and absolute quantitation of mutations in plasma cell-free DNA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  3. Noninvasive estimation of global activation sequence using the extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenguang; He, Bin

    2011-03-01

    A new algorithm for 3-D imaging of the activation sequence from noninvasive body surface potentials is proposed. After formulating the nonlinear relationship between the 3-D activation sequence and the body surface recordings during activation, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is utilized to estimate the activation sequence in a recursive way. The state vector containing the activation sequence is optimized during iteration by updating the error variance/covariance matrix. A new regularization scheme is incorporated into the "predict" procedure of EKF to tackle the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. The EKF-based algorithm shows good performance in simulation under single-site pacing. Between the estimated activation sequences and true values, the average correlation coefficient (CC) is 0.95, and the relative error (RE) is 0.13. The average localization error (LE) when localizing the pacing site is 3.0 mm. Good results are also obtained under dual-site pacing (CC = 0.93, RE = 0.16, and LE = 4.3 mm). Furthermore, the algorithm shows robustness to noise. The present promising results demonstrate that the proposed EKF-based inverse approach can noninvasively estimate the 3-D activation sequence with good accuracy and the new algorithm shows good features due to the application of EKF.

  4. Highly accurate sequence imputation enables precise QTL mapping in Brown Swiss cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Pausch, Hubert; Bapst, Beat; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Flury, Christine; Garrick, Dorian; Stricker, Christian; Fries, Ruedi; Gredler-Grandl, Birgit

    2017-12-29

    Within the last few years a large amount of genomic information has become available in cattle. Densities of genomic information vary from a few thousand variants up to whole genome sequence information. In order to combine genomic information from different sources and infer genotypes for a common set of variants, genotype imputation is required. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of imputation from high density chips to whole genome sequence data in Brown Swiss cattle. Using four popular imputation programs (Beagle, FImpute, Impute2, Minimac) and various compositions of reference panels, the accuracy of the imputed sequence variant genotypes was high and differences between the programs and scenarios were small. We imputed sequence variant genotypes for more than 1600 Brown Swiss bulls and performed genome-wide association studies for milk fat percentage at two stages of lactation. We found one and three quantitative trait loci for early and late lactation fat content, respectively. Known causal variants that were imputed from the sequenced reference panel were among the most significantly associated variants of the genome-wide association study. Our study demonstrates that whole-genome sequence information can be imputed at high accuracy in cattle populations. Using imputed sequence variant genotypes in genome-wide association studies may facilitate causal variant detection.

  5. Utility of RNA Sequencing for Analysis of Maize Reproductive Transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Davidson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing is a powerful method for studying global expression patterns in large, complex genomes. Evaluation of sequence-based expression profiles during reproductive development would provide functional annotation to genes underlying agronomic traits. We generated transcriptome profiles for 12 diverse maize ( L. reproductive tissues representing male, female, developing seed, and leaf tissues using high throughput transcriptome sequencing. Overall, ∼80% of annotated genes were expressed. Comparative analysis between sequence and hybridization-based methods demonstrated the utility of ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq for expression determination and differentiation of paralagous genes (∼85% of maize genes. Analysis of 4975 gene families across reproductive tissues revealed expression divergence is proportional to family size. In all pairwise comparisons between tissues, 7 (pre- vs. postemergence cobs to 48% (pollen vs. ovule of genes were differentially expressed. Genes with expression restricted to a single tissue within this study were identified with the highest numbers observed in leaves, endosperm, and pollen. Coexpression network analysis identified 17 gene modules with complex and shared expression patterns containing many previously described maize genes. The data and analyses in this study provide valuable tools through improved gene annotation, gene family characterization, and a core set of candidate genes to further characterize maize reproductive development and improve grain yield potential.

  6. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P.; Grainger, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  7. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J., E-mail: andrew.grainger@leedsth.nhs.u [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  8. Adaptive GDDA-BLAST: fast and efficient algorithm for protein sequence embedding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoojin Hong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A major computational challenge in the genomic era is annotating structure/function to the vast quantities of sequence information that is now available. This problem is illustrated by the fact that most proteins lack comprehensive annotations, even when experimental evidence exists. We previously theorized that embedded-alignment profiles (simply "alignment profiles" hereafter provide a quantitative method that is capable of relating the structural and functional properties of proteins, as well as their evolutionary relationships. A key feature of alignment profiles lies in the interoperability of data format (e.g., alignment information, physio-chemical information, genomic information, etc.. Indeed, we have demonstrated that the Position Specific Scoring Matrices (PSSMs are an informative M-dimension that is scored by quantitatively measuring the embedded or unmodified sequence alignments. Moreover, the information obtained from these alignments is informative, and remains so even in the "twilight zone" of sequence similarity (<25% identity. Although our previous embedding strategy was powerful, it suffered from contaminating alignments (embedded AND unmodified and high computational costs. Herein, we describe the logic and algorithmic process for a heuristic embedding strategy named "Adaptive GDDA-BLAST." Adaptive GDDA-BLAST is, on average, up to 19 times faster than, but has similar sensitivity to our previous method. Further, data are provided to demonstrate the benefits of embedded-alignment measurements in terms of detecting structural homology in highly divergent protein sequences and isolating secondary structural elements of transmembrane and ankyrin-repeat domains. Together, these advances allow further exploration of the embedded alignment data space within sufficiently large data sets to eventually induce relevant statistical inferences. We show that sequence embedding could serve as one of the vehicles for measurement of low

  9. Development and evaluation of a panel of filovirus sequence capture probes for pathogen detection by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available A detailed understanding of the circulating pathogens in a particular geographic location aids in effectively utilizing targeted, rapid diagnostic assays, thus allowing for appropriate therapeutic and containment procedures. This is especially important in regions prevalent for highly pathogenic viruses co-circulating with other endemic pathogens such as the malaria parasite. The importance of biosurveillance is highlighted by the ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. For example, a more comprehensive assessment of the regional pathogens could have identified the risk of a filovirus disease outbreak earlier and led to an improved diagnostic and response capacity in the region. In this context, being able to rapidly screen a single sample for multiple pathogens in a single tube reaction could improve both diagnostics as well as pathogen surveillance. Here, probes were designed to capture identifying filovirus sequence for the ebolaviruses Sudan, Ebola, Reston, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo and the Marburg virus variants Musoke, Ci67, and Angola. These probes were combined into a single probe panel, and the captured filovirus sequence was successfully identified using the MiSeq next-generation sequencing platform. This panel was then used to identify the specific filovirus from nonhuman primates experimentally infected with Ebola virus as well as Bundibugyo virus in human sera samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, thus demonstrating the utility for pathogen detection using clinical samples. While not as sensitive and rapid as real-time PCR, this panel, along with incorporating additional sequence capture probe panels, could be used for broad pathogen screening and biosurveillance.

  10. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  11. Motor Speech Sequence Learning in Adults Who Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Aghazamani

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that PWS show improvement in accuracy, reaction time and sequence duration variables from day 1 to day 3. Also, PWS show more substantial number of errors compared to PNS, but this difference was not significant between the two groups. Similar results were obtained for the reaction time. Results of this study demonstrated that PWS show slower sequence duration compared to PNS. Some studies suggested that this could be because people who stutter use a control strategy to reduce the number of errors, although many studies suggested that this may indicate motor learning. According to speech motor skills hypothesis, it can be concluded that people who stutter have limitations in motor speech learning abilities. The findings of the present study could have clinical implication for the treatment of stuttering.

  12. Single-molecule protein sequencing through fingerprinting: computational assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Docter, Margreet; van Ginkel, Jetty; de Ridder, Dick; Joo, Chirlmin

    2015-10-01

    Proteins are vital in all biological systems as they constitute the main structural and functional components of cells. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have brought the promise of complete proteomics by helping draft the human proteome. Yet, this commonly used protein sequencing technique has fundamental limitations in sensitivity. Here we propose a method for single-molecule (SM) protein sequencing. A major challenge lies in the fact that proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids, which demands 20 molecular reporters. We computationally demonstrate that it suffices to measure only two types of amino acids to identify proteins and suggest an experimental scheme using SM fluorescence. When achieved, this highly sensitive approach will result in a paradigm shift in proteomics, with major impact in the biological and medical sciences.

  13. Single-molecule protein sequencing through fingerprinting: computational assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yao; Docter, Margreet; Van Ginkel, Jetty; Joo, Chirlmin; De Ridder, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are vital in all biological systems as they constitute the main structural and functional components of cells. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have brought the promise of complete proteomics by helping draft the human proteome. Yet, this commonly used protein sequencing technique has fundamental limitations in sensitivity. Here we propose a method for single-molecule (SM) protein sequencing. A major challenge lies in the fact that proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids, which demands 20 molecular reporters. We computationally demonstrate that it suffices to measure only two types of amino acids to identify proteins and suggest an experimental scheme using SM fluorescence. When achieved, this highly sensitive approach will result in a paradigm shift in proteomics, with major impact in the biological and medical sciences. (paper)

  14. Methodology of satellite microwave diagnostics of latitudinal-zonal and seasonal variations of frozen soil and sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Melentiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the work we have had investigated the utility of 6.9GHz dual polarization passive microwave data from the sensor AMSR-E for quantitative assessment of spatial and temporal variations of permafrost, seasonally frozen grounds and sea ice properties along the transect 70° E in 2005–2008 years. Analysis of the factors which could be detected with using study of the spatial-temporal variations of the microwave emissivity (brightness temperatures of the system «Earth-atmosphere» was carried out with using in situ data obtained from meteorological stations situated along the investigated transect of the Western Siberia and geocryologic station Marre-Sale (Yamal Peninsula. A new method of visualization of the brightness temperatures in spatial-temporal dimensions was suggested and practical applied. Eight latitudinal zones with intrinsic peculiarities of the spatial and seasonal variability of the brightness temperatures were revealed and investigated in many details. Comparison of the location of these zones with geographic distribution of biomes in Western Siberia was provided and it shows that satellite passive microwave information can be used for classification of the territories inside biomes. In frame of this study the annual brightness temperatures course for tundra zone area has been strictly divided into four periods (seasons characterized by different types of microwave emissivity variations. For boreal needle-leaved forest zone these seasons are manifested weaker. Comprehensive analysis of the satellite microwave survey data and corresponding the in situ data has shown satisfactory correlation between the brightness temperatures of the tundra areas on the Yamal Peninsula and their thermodynamic ground-trough temperatures at the square of geocryologic station Marre-Sale during winter period of stable frozen conditions and vegetation period. In these periods one-channel satellite microwave survey could be applied for the

  15. Dependence of Arctic climate on the latitudinal position of stationary waves and to high-latitudes surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yechul; Kang, Sarah M.; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies suggest large uncertainties in the stationary wave response under global warming. Here, we investigate how the Arctic climate responds to changes in the latitudinal position of stationary waves, and to high-latitudes surface warming that mimics the effect of Arctic sea ice loss under global warming. To generate stationary waves in an atmospheric model coupled to slab ocean, a series of experiments is performed where the thermal forcing with a zonal wavenumber-2 (with zero zonal-mean) is prescribed at the surface at different latitude bands in the Northern Hemisphere. When the stationary waves are generated in the subtropics, the cooling response dominates over the warming response in the lower troposphere due to cloud radiative effects. Then, the low-level baroclinicity is reduced in the subtropics, which gives rise to a poleward shift of the eddy driven jet, thereby inducing substantial cooling in the northern high latitudes. As the stationary waves are progressively generated at higher latitudes, the zonal-mean climate state gradually becomes more similar to the integration with no stationary waves. These differences in the mean climate affect the Arctic climate response to high-latitudes surface warming. Additional surface heating over the Arctic is imposed to the reference climates in which the stationary waves are located at different latitude bands. When the stationary waves are positioned at lower latitudes, the eddy driven jet is located at higher latitude, closer to the prescribed Arctic heating. As baroclinicity is more effectively perturbed, the jet shifts more equatorward that accompanies a larger reduction in the poleward eddy transport of heat and momentum. A stronger eddy-induced descending motion creates greater warming over the Arctic. Our study calls for a more accurate simulation of the present-day stationary wave pattern to enhance the predictability of the Arctic warming response in a changing climate.

  16. High-resolution 3-μm spectra of Jupiter: Latitudinal spectral variations influenced by molecules, clouds, and haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang J.; Geballe, T. R.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, A.; Seo, H. J.; Minh, Y. C.

    2010-08-01

    We present latitudinally-resolved high-resolution ( R = 37,000) pole-to-pole spectra of Jupiter in various narrow longitudinal ranges, in spectral intervals covering roughly half of the spectral range 2.86-3.53 μm. We have analyzed the data with the aid of synthetic spectra generated from a model jovian atmosphere that included lines of CH 4, CH 3D, NH 3, C 2H 2, C 2H 6, PH 3, and HCN, as well as clouds and haze. Numerous spectral features of many of these molecular species are present and are individually identified for the first time, as are many lines of H3+ and a few unidentified spectral features. In both polar regions the 2.86-3.10-μm continuum is more than 10 times weaker than in spectra at lower latitudes, implying that in this wavelength range the single-scattering albedos of polar haze particles are very low. In contrast, the 3.24-3.53 μm the weak polar and equatorial continua are of comparable intensity. We derive vertical distributions of NH 3, C 2H 2 and C 2H 6, and find that the mixing ratios of NH 3 and C 2H 6 show little variation between equatorial and polar regions. However, the mixing ratios of C 2H 2 in the northern and southern polar regions are ˜6 and ˜3 times, respectively, less than those in the equatorial regions. The derived mixing ratio curves of C 2H 2 and C 2H 6 extend up to the 10 -6 bar level, a significantly higher altitude than most previous results in the literature. Further ground-based observations covering other longitudes are needed to test if these mixing ratios are representative values for the equatorial and polar regions.

  17. Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled by LTR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed-Inderbitzin, Edward; Maury, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Two well-established determinants of retroviral tropism are envelope sequences that regulate entry and LTR sequences that can regulate viral expression in a cell-specific manner. Studies with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have demonstrated that tropism of this virus maps primarily to variable envelope sequences. Studies have demonstrated that T cell and macrophage-specific transcription factor binding motifs exist in the upstream region of the LTR U3; however, the ability of the core enhancer/promoter proximal elements (two NF-κB and three Sp1 sites) to function well in macrophages and T cells have led many to conclude that HIV LTR sequences are not primary determinants of HIV tropism. To determine if cellular specificity could be imparted to HIV by the core enhancer elements, the enhancer/promoter proximal region of the HIV LTR was substituted with motifs that control gene expression in a myeloid-specific manner. The enhancer region from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) when substituted for the HIV enhancer/promoter proximal region was found to drive expression in a macrophage-specific manner and was responsive to HIV Tat. The addition of a 5' methylation-dependent binding site (MDBP) and a promoter proximal Sp1 motif increased expression without altering cellular specificity. Spacing between the promoter proximal region and the TATA box was also found to influence LTR activity. Infectivity studies using chimeric LTRs within the context of a dual-tropic infectious molecular clone established that these LTRs directed HIV replication and production of infectious virions in macrophages but not primary T cells or T cell lines. This investigation demonstrates that cellular specificity can be imparted onto HIV-1 replication at the level of viral transcription and not entry

  18. Demonstrating Heisenberg-limited unambiguous phase estimation without adaptive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, B L; Wiseman, H M; Pryde, G J; Berry, D W; Bartlett, S D; Mitchell, M W

    2009-01-01

    We derive, and experimentally demonstrate, an interferometric scheme for unambiguous phase estimation with precision scaling at the Heisenberg limit that does not require adaptive measurements. That is, with no prior knowledge of the phase, we can obtain an estimate of the phase with a standard deviation that is only a small constant factor larger than the minimum physically allowed value. Our scheme resolves the phase ambiguity that exists when multiple passes through a phase shift, or NOON states, are used to obtain improved phase resolution. Like a recently introduced adaptive technique (Higgins et al 2007 Nature 450 393), our experiment uses multiple applications of the phase shift on single photons. By not requiring adaptive measurements, but rather using a predetermined measurement sequence, the present scheme is both conceptually simpler and significantly easier to implement. Additionally, we demonstrate a simplified adaptive scheme that also surpasses the standard quantum limit for single passes.

  19. [Identification of common medicinal snakes in medicated liquor of Guangdong by COI barcode sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Chao, Zhi; Zhang, Liang

    2013-11-01

    To identify the common snakes in medicated liquor of Guangdong using COI barcode sequence,and to test the feasibility. The COI barcode sequences of collected medicinal snakes were amplified and sequenced. The sequences combined with the data from GenBank were analyzed for divergence and building a neighbor-joining(NJ) tree with MEGA 5.0. The genetic distance and NJ tree demonstrated that there were 241 variable sites in these species, and the average (A + T) content of 56.2% was higher than the average (G + C) content of 43.7%. The maximum interspecific genetic distance was 0.2568, and the minimum was 0. 1519. In the NJ tree,each species formed a monophyletic clade with bootstrap supports of 100%. DNA barcoding identification method based on the COI sequence is accurate and can be applied to identify the common medicinal snakes.

  20. Atmospheric Science using CRISM EPF Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M. J.; Clancy, R. T.; Arvidson, R.; Smith, M. D.; Murchie, S. L.; McGuire, P. C.

    2006-12-01

    Near the end of September 2006, the MRO/CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars; Murchie et al., 2006, JGR, in press.) will acquire its first observations of Mars. MRO's Primary Science Phase beginning in early November. One of CRISM's investigations is characterization of seasonal variations in dust and ice aerosols and trace gases using a systematic, global grid of hyperspectral measurements of emission phase functions (EPFs) acquired repetitively throughout the Martian year. EPFs will also be obtained as part of each of approximately 5000 "targeted" observations of surface geologic features. EPF measurements allow accurate determination of column abundances of water vapor, CO, dust and ice aerosols, and their seasonal variations (e.g., Clancy et al., 2003, 108(E9), 5098). EPFs are measured using eleven superimposed images within which the slit field-of-view is swept across a target point on the Martian surface. When EPFs are taken as part of a global grid, 10x spatial pixel binning will be used in all of the images, providing data at 150-200 m/pixel. In the targeted observations, the central image will be obtained at either full resolution or with 2x binning (15-38 m/pixel). In all cases, hyperspectral data (545 wavelengths) will be taken during each of the 11 superimposed scans. There are two types of global EPF grids, one with better temporal sampling and one with better spatial sampling of the atmosphere. The "atmospheric monitoring campaign" consists one Martian day of pole-to-pole EPF's every ~9°\\ of solar longitude (Ls). There is sufficient time for 8 EPFs in an orbit, one approximately every 22°\\ of latitude. Alternate orbits (projected onto the planet) are offset in latitude by about 11°\\ north or south to increase latitudinal resolution. Longitude spacing between the orbits is about 27°. The "seasonal change campaign" occurs approximately every ~36°\\ of Ls. A grid similar to that executed during the atmospheric monitoring

  1. PIMS sequencing extension: a laboratory information management system for DNA sequencing facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilities that provide a service for DNA sequencing typically support large numbers of users and experiment types. The cost of services is often reduced by the use of liquid handling robots but the efficiency of such facilities is hampered because the software for such robots does not usually integrate well with the systems that run the sequencing machines. Accordingly, there is a need for software systems capable of integrating different robotic systems and managing sample information for DNA sequencing services. In this paper, we describe an extension to the Protein Information Management System (PIMS that is designed for DNA sequencing facilities. The new version of PIMS has a user-friendly web interface and integrates all aspects of the sequencing process, including sample submission, handling and tracking, together with capture and management of the data. Results The PIMS sequencing extension has been in production since July 2009 at the University of Leeds DNA Sequencing Facility. It has completely replaced manual data handling and simplified the tasks of data management and user communication. Samples from 45 groups have been processed with an average throughput of 10000 samples per month. The current version of the PIMS sequencing extension works with Applied Biosystems 3130XL 96-well plate sequencer and MWG 4204 or Aviso Theonyx liquid handling robots, but is readily adaptable for use with other combinations of robots. Conclusions PIMS has been extended to provide a user-friendly and integrated data management solution for DNA sequencing facilities that is accessed through a normal web browser and allows simultaneous access by multiple users as well as facility managers. The system integrates sequencing and liquid handling robots, manages the data flow, and provides remote access to the sequencing results. The software is freely available, for academic users, from http://www.pims-lims.org/.

  2. PIMS sequencing extension: a laboratory information management system for DNA sequencing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, Peter V; Postis, Vincent Lg; Ashworth, Denise; Baldwin, Stephen A; McPherson, Michael J; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2011-03-07

    Facilities that provide a service for DNA sequencing typically support large numbers of users and experiment types. The cost of services is often reduced by the use of liquid handling robots but the efficiency of such facilities is hampered because the software for such robots does not usually integrate well with the systems that run the sequencing machines. Accordingly, there is a need for software systems capable of integrating different robotic systems and managing sample information for DNA sequencing services. In this paper, we describe an extension to the Protein Information Management System (PIMS) that is designed for DNA sequencing facilities. The new version of PIMS has a user-friendly web interface and integrates all aspects of the sequencing process, including sample submission, handling and tracking, together with capture and management of the data. The PIMS sequencing extension has been in production since July 2009 at the University of Leeds DNA Sequencing Facility. It has completely replaced manual data handling and simplified the tasks of data management and user communication. Samples from 45 groups have been processed with an average throughput of 10000 samples per month. The current version of the PIMS sequencing extension works with Applied Biosystems 3130XL 96-well plate sequencer and MWG 4204 or Aviso Theonyx liquid handling robots, but is readily adaptable for use with other combinations of robots. PIMS has been extended to provide a user-friendly and integrated data management solution for DNA sequencing facilities that is accessed through a normal web browser and allows simultaneous access by multiple users as well as facility managers. The system integrates sequencing and liquid handling robots, manages the data flow, and provides remote access to the sequencing results. The software is freely available, for academic users, from http://www.pims-lims.org/.

  3. Latitudinal Distributions of Auroral Zone Electric Fields and Ground Magnetic Perturbations and Their Response to Variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, J.L.; Doupnik, J.R.; Banks, P.M.; Kamide, Y.; Akasofu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Chatanika observations of latitudinal distributions of convection electric fields (E 1 ) are compared with isointensity ΔH contours in latitude and time from the Alaskan magnetometer chain and with the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B/sub z/m) from Imp-J. As expected, northward electric fields were generally observed within latitude and time regions where ΔH was positive, while southward electric fields were observed within negative ΔH regions. However, correlation between the magnitudes of the electric fields and of the ΔH perturbations was not strong, owing to variability in ionospheric conductivities produced by precipitation and solar illumination. In the midnight sector the northward-to-southward transition in the electric field and positive-to-negative ΔH transition were roughly collocated (to within 1 hour in local time) as signatures of the Harang discontinuity. The most important findings are that (1) southward (northward) IMF B/sub z/m transitions caused rapid equatorward (poleward) shifts of the electric field and ΔH patterns and (2) southward IMF B/sub z/ transitions, magnetospheric substorms, and local time transitions of the Harang discontinuity can all lead to northward-to-southward transitions of the electric field in the midnight sector. Due to the interlaced phasing of each of these three causal mechanisms a highly complex temporal pattern of electric fields results

  4. Matrix based method for synthesis of main intensified and integrated distillation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Garakani, Amirhossein; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of many studies in this area has involved access to a column-sequencing algorithm enabling designers and researchers alike to generate a wide range of sequences in a broad search space, and be as mathematically and as automated as possible for programing purposes and with good generality. In the present work an algorithm previously developed by the authors, called the matrix method, has been developed much further. The new version of the algorithm includes thermally coupled, thermodynamically equivalent, intensified, simultaneous heat and mass integrated and divided-wall column sequences which are of gross application and provide vast saving potential both on capital investment, operating costs and energy usage in industrial applications. To demonstrate the much wider searchable space now accessible, a three component separation has been thoroughly examined as a case study, always resulting in an integrated sequence being proposed as the optimum.

  5. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Edgren, Henrik; Nicorici, Daniel; Murumägi, Astrid; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2012-01-01

    RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60%) of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  6. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kangaspeska

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60% of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  7. Sequencing of BAC pools by different next generation sequencing platforms and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Uwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing of BACs is a viable option for deciphering the sequence of even large and highly repetitive genomes. In order to optimize this strategy, we examined the influence of read length on the quality of Roche/454 sequence assemblies, to what extent Illumina/Solexa mate pairs (MPs improve the assemblies by scaffolding and whether barcoding of BACs is dispensable. Results Sequencing four BACs with both FLX and Titanium technologies revealed similar sequencing accuracy, but showed that the longer Titanium reads produce considerably less misassemblies and gaps. The 454 assemblies of 96 barcoded BACs were improved by scaffolding 79% of the total contig length with MPs from a non-barcoded library. Assembly of the unmasked 454 sequences without separation by barcodes revealed chimeric contig formation to be a major problem, encompassing 47% of the total contig length. Masking the sequences reduced this fraction to 24%. Conclusion Optimal BAC pool sequencing should be based on the longest available reads, with barcoding essential for a comprehensive assessment of both repetitive and non-repetitive sequence information. When interest is restricted to non-repetitive regions and repeats are masked prior to assembly, barcoding is non-essential. In any case, the assemblies can be improved considerably by scaffolding with non-barcoded BAC pool MPs.

  8. The sequence coding and search system: an approach for constructing and analyzing event sequences at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the importance of the collection, assessment, and feedback of operating experience data from commercial nuclear power plants and has centralized these activities in the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). Such data is essential for performing safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns to identify undesirable changes in plant performance at the earliest opportunity to implement corrective measures to preclude the occurrence of a more serious event. One of NRC's principal tools for collecting and evaluating operating experience data is the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS). The SCSS consists of a methodology for structuring event sequences and the requisite computer system to store and search the data. The source information for SCSS is the Licensee Event Report (LER), which is a legally required document. This paper describes the objectives of SCSS, the information it contains, and the format and approach for constructing SCSS event sequences. Examples are presented demonstrating the use of SCSS to support the analysis of LER data. The SCSS contains over 30,000 LERs describing events from 1980 through the present. Insights gained from working with a complex data system from the initial developmental stage to the point of a mature operating system are highlighted. Considerable experience has been gained in the areas of evolving and changing data requirements, staffing requirements, and quality control and quality assurance procedures for addressing consistency, software/hardware considerations for developing and maintaining a complex system, documentation requirements, and end-user needs. Two other approaches for constructing and evaluating event sequences are examined including the Accident Precursor Program (ASP) where sequences having the potential for core damage are identified and analyzed, and the Significant Event Compilation Tree

  9. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library for Drosophila serrata, a model system for sexual selection and climatic adaptation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Adamski, Marcin; McGraw, Elizabeth A; Blows, Mark W; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The native Australian fly Drosophila serrata belongs to the highly speciose montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. It has recently emerged as an excellent model system with which to address a number of important questions, including the evolution of traits under sexual selection and traits involved in climatic adaptation along latitudinal gradients. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of such traits has been limited by a lack of genomic resources for thi...

  10. Whole genome sequencing reveals genomic heterogeneity and antibiotic purification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Black, PA

    2015-10-24

    Background Whole genome sequencing has revolutionised the interrogation of mycobacterial genomes. Recent studies have reported conflicting findings on the genomic stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the evolution of drug resistance. In an age where whole genome sequencing is increasingly relied upon for defining the structure of bacterial genomes, it is important to investigate the reliability of next generation sequencing to identify clonal variants present in a minor percentage of the population. This study aimed to define a reliable cut-off for identification of low frequency sequence variants and to subsequently investigate genetic heterogeneity and the evolution of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from single colonies from 14 rifampicin mono-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, as well as the primary cultures and follow up MDR cultures from two of these patients. The whole genomes of the M. tuberculosis isolates were sequenced using either the Illumina MiSeq or Illumina HiSeq platforms. Sequences were analysed with an in-house pipeline. Results Using next-generation sequencing in combination with Sanger sequencing and statistical analysis we defined a read frequency cut-off of 30 % to identify low frequency M. tuberculosis variants with high confidence. Using this cut-off we demonstrated a high rate of genetic diversity between single colonies isolated from one population, showing that by using the current sequencing technology, single colonies are not a true reflection of the genetic diversity within a whole population and vice versa. We further showed that numerous heterogeneous variants emerge and then disappear during the evolution of isoniazid resistance within individual patients. Our findings allowed us to formulate a model for the selective bottleneck which occurs during the course of infection, acting as a genomic purification event. Conclusions Our study demonstrated true levels of genetic diversity

  11. Flexible, fast and accurate sequence alignment profiling on GPGPU with PaSWAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Warris

    Full Text Available To obtain large-scale sequence alignments in a fast and flexible way is an important step in the analyses of next generation sequencing data. Applications based on the Smith-Waterman (SW algorithm are often either not fast enough, limited to dedicated tasks or not sufficiently accurate due to statistical issues. Current SW implementations that run on graphics hardware do not report the alignment details necessary for further analysis.With the Parallel SW Alignment Software (PaSWAS it is possible (a to have easy access to the computational power of NVIDIA-based general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs to perform high-speed sequence alignments, and (b retrieve relevant information such as score, number of gaps and mismatches. The software reports multiple hits per alignment. The added value of the new SW implementation is demonstrated with two test cases: (1 tag recovery in next generation sequence data and (2 isotype assignment within an immunoglobulin 454 sequence data set. Both cases show the usability and versatility of the new parallel Smith-Waterman implementation.

  12. Flexible, fast and accurate sequence alignment profiling on GPGPU with PaSWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Sven; Yalcin, Feyruz; Jackson, Katherine J L; Nap, Jan Peter

    2015-01-01

    To obtain large-scale sequence alignments in a fast and flexible way is an important step in the analyses of next generation sequencing data. Applications based on the Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm are often either not fast enough, limited to dedicated tasks or not sufficiently accurate due to statistical issues. Current SW implementations that run on graphics hardware do not report the alignment details necessary for further analysis. With the Parallel SW Alignment Software (PaSWAS) it is possible (a) to have easy access to the computational power of NVIDIA-based general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) to perform high-speed sequence alignments, and (b) retrieve relevant information such as score, number of gaps and mismatches. The software reports multiple hits per alignment. The added value of the new SW implementation is demonstrated with two test cases: (1) tag recovery in next generation sequence data and (2) isotype assignment within an immunoglobulin 454 sequence data set. Both cases show the usability and versatility of the new parallel Smith-Waterman implementation.

  13. Temperature regulation of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes increases latitudinally as a breach between bottom-up and top-down controls

    KAUST Repository

    Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2017-04-19

    Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth). Temperature control was approached by the apparent activation energy in eV (ranging from 0.46 to 3.41), bottom-up control by the slope of the log-log relationship between biomass and production rate (ranging from -0.12 to 1.09) and top-down control by an index that considers the relative abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses (ranging from 0.82 to 4.83). We conclude that temperature becomes dominant (i.e. activation energy >1.5 eV) within a narrow window of intermediate values of bottom-up (0.3-0.6) and top-down 0.8-1.2) controls. A pervasive latitudinal pattern of decreasing temperature regulation towards the Equator, regardless of the oceanic basin, suggests that the impact of global warming on marine microbes and their biogeochemical function will be more intense at higher latitudes. Our analysis predicts that 1°C ocean warming will result in increased biomass of heterotrophic prokaryoplankton only in waters with <26°C of mean annual surface temperature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Long sequence correlation coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1994-09-01

    A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-06-01

    Automated DNA sequencing instruments embody an elegant interplay among chemistry, engineering, software, and molecular biology and have built upon Sanger's founding discovery of dideoxynucleotide sequencing to perform once-unfathomable tasks. Combined with innovative physical mapping approaches that helped to establish long-range relationships between cloned stretches of genomic DNA, fluorescent DNA sequencers produced reference genome sequences for model organisms and for the reference human genome. New types of sequencing instruments that permit amazing acceleration of data-collection rates for DNA sequencing have been developed. The ability to generate genome-scale data sets is now transforming the nature of biological inquiry. Here, I provide an historical perspective of the field, focusing on the fundamental developments that predated the advent of next-generation sequencing instruments and providing information about how these instruments work, their application to biological research, and the newest types of sequencers that can extract data from single DNA molecules.

  16. Optimization of sequence alignment for simple sequence repeat regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Francis C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are tandemly repeated DNA sequences, including tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases, that are distributed in the genome. SSR has been used as a molecular marker because it is easy to detect and is used in a range of applications, including genetic diversity, genome mapping, and marker assisted selection. It is also very mutable because of slipping in the DNA polymerase during DNA replication. This unique mutation increases the insertion/deletion (INDELs mutation frequency to a high ratio - more than other types of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs. SNPs are more frequent than INDELs. Therefore, all designed algorithms for sequence alignment fit the vast majority of the genomic sequence without considering microsatellite regions, as unique sequences that require special consideration. The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. Findings To overcome the limitation of the aligning algorithm when dealing with SSR loci, a new algorithm was developed using PERL script with a Tk graphical interface. This program is based on aligning sequences after determining the repeated units first, and the last SSR nucleotides positions. This results in a shifting process according to the inserted repeated unit type. When studying the phylogenic relations before and after applying the new algorithm, many differences in the trees were obtained by increasing the SSR length and complexity. However, less distance between different linage had been observed after applying the new algorithm. Conclusions The new algorithm produces better estimates for aligning SSR loci because it reflects more reliable evolutionary relations between different linages. It reduces overlapping during SSR alignment, which results in a more realistic

  17. Aridity promotes bet hedging via delayed hatching: a case study with two temporary pond crustaceans along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinceel, Tom; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Hawinkel, Wouter; Tuytens, Karen; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments. Thus far, however, little empirical evidence supports this prediction in aquatic organisms. We study geographic variation in delayed hatching of dormant eggs in natural populations of two crustaceans, Branchinella longirostris and Paralimnadia badia, that occur in temporary rock pools along a 725 km latitudinal aridity gradient in Western Australia. Consistent with bet hedging theory, populations of both species were characterised by delayed hatching under common garden conditions and hatching fractions decreased towards the drier end of the gradient where the probability of reproductive success was shown to be lower. This decrease was most pronounced in the species with the longer maturation time, presumably because it is more sensitive to the higher prevalence of short inundations. Overall, these findings illustrate that regional variation in climate can be reflected in differential investment in bet hedging and hints at a higher importance of delayed hatching to persist when the climate becomes harsher. Such strategies could become exceedingly relevant as determinants of vulnerability under climate change.

  18. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  19. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  20. Demonstration of multiple neurofibromas in gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, S.; Schulz, B.

    1988-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has a high sensitivity for cerebral and spinal tumors, demonstration of small lesions can be difficult. In a patient with multiple extra- and intraspinal tumors due to neurofibromatosis generalisata, the use of the MRI contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA resulted in a better differentiation especially of small lesions. High tumor contrast facilitated a safe localisation of the widespread disease using a fast imaging sequence (FLASH). (orig.) [de