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Sample records for sequence-selective dna minor

  1. Sequence-selective interaction of the minor-groove interstrand cross-linking agent SJG-136 with naked and cellular DNA: footprinting and enzyme inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris; Ellis, Tom; McGurk, Claire J; Jenkins, Terence C; Hartley, John A; Waring, Michael J; Thurston, David E

    2005-03-22

    SJG-136 (3) is a novel pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer that is predicted from molecular models to bind in the minor groove of DNA and to form sequence-selective interstrand cross-links at 5'-Pu-GATC-Py-3' (Pu = purine; Py = pyrimidine) sites through covalent bonding between each PBD unit and guanines on opposing strands. Footprinting studies have confirmed that high-affinity adducts do form at 5'-G-GATC-C-3' sequences and that these can inhibit RNA polymerase in a sequence-selective manner. At higher concentrations of SJG-136, bands that migrate more slowly than one of the 5'-G-GATC-C-3' footprint sites show significantly reduced intensity, concomitant with the appearance of higher molecular weight material near the gel origin. This phenomenon is attributed to interstrand cross-linking at the 5'-G-GATC-C-3' site and is the first report of DNA footprinting being used to detect interstrand cross-linked adducts. The control dimer GD113 (4), of similar structure to SJG-136 but unable to cross-link DNA due to its C7/C7'-linkage rather than C8/C8'-linkage, neither produces footprints with the same DNA sequence nor blocks transcription at comparable concentrations. In addition to the two high-affinity 5'-G-GATC-C-3' footprints on the MS2 DNA sequence, other SJG-136 adducts of lower affinity are observed that can still block transcription but with lower efficiency. All these sites contain the 5'-GXXC-3' motif (where XX includes AG, TA, GC, CT, TT, GG, and TC) and represent less-favored cross-link sites. In time-course experiments, SJG-136 blocks transcription if incubated with a double-stranded DNA template before the transcription components are added; addition after transcription is initiated fails to elicit blockage. Single-strand ligation PCR studies on a sequence from the c-jun gene show that SJG-136 binds to 5'-GAAC-3'/5'-GTTC-3' (preferred) or 5'-GAGC-3'/5'-GCTC-3' sequences. Significantly, adducts are obtained at the same sequences following extraction of DNA

  2. Elucidation of the sequence selective binding mode of the DNA minor groove binder adozelesin, by high-field {sup 1}H NMR and restrained molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, L

    1999-07-01

    Adozelesin (formerly U73-975, The Upjohn Co.) is a covalent, minor-groove binding analogue of the antitumour antibiotic (+)CC-1065. Adozelesin consists of a cyclopropapyrroloindole alkylating sub-unit identical to (+)CC-1065, plus indole and benzofuran sub-units which replace the more complex pyrroloindole B and C sub-units, respectively, of (+)CC-1065. Adozelesin is a clinically important drug candidate, since it does not contain the ethylene bridge moieties on the B and C sub-units which are thought to be responsible for the unusual delayed hepatotoxicity exhibited by (+)CC-1065. Sequencing techniques identified two consensus sequences for adozelesin binding as p(dA) and 5'(T/A)(T/A)T-A*(C/G)G. This suggests that adozelesinspans a total of five base-pairs and shows a preference for A=T base-pair rich sequences, thus avoiding steric crowding around the exocyclic NH{sub 2} of guanine and a wide minor groove. In this project, the covalent modification of two DNA sequences, i.e. 5'd(CGTAAGCGCTTA*CG){sub 2} and 5'-d(CGAAAAA*CGG){center_dot} 5'-d(CCGTTTTTCG), by adozelesin was examined by high-field NMR and restrained molecular mechanics and dynamics. Previous studies of minor groove binding drugs, using techniques as diverse as NMR, X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling, indicate that the incorporation of a guanine into the consensus sequence sterically hinders binding and, more importantly, produces a wider minor groove which is a 'slack' fit for the ligand. The aim of this investigation was to provide an insight into the sequence selective binding of adozelesin to 5'-AAAAA*CG and 5'-GCTTA*CG. The {sup 1}H NMR data revealed that, in both cases, {beta}-helical structure and Watson-Crick base-pairing was maintained on adduct formation. The 5'-GCTTA*CG adduct displayed significant distortion of the guanine base on the non-covalently modified strand. This distortion resulted from an amalgamation of two factors. Firstly

  3. Footprinting: a method for determining the sequence selectivity, affinity and kinetics of DNA-binding ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Andrew J; Rusling, David A; Broughton-Head, Victoria J; Fox, Keith R

    2007-06-01

    Footprinting is a simple method for assessing the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding ligands. The method is based on the ability of the ligand to protect DNA from cleavage at its binding site. This review describes the use of DNase I and hydroxyl radicals, the most commonly used footprinting probes, in footprinting experiments. The success of a footprinting experiment depends on using an appropriate DNA substrate and we describe how these can best be chosen or designed. Although footprinting was originally developed for assessing a ligand's sequence selectivity, it can also be employed to estimate the binding strength (quantitative footprinting) and to assess the association and dissociation rate constants for slow binding reactions.

  4. Cations Form Sequence Selective Motifs within DNA Grooves via a Combination of Cation-Pi and Ion-Dipole/Hydrogen Bond Interactions: e71420

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikaela Stewart; Tori Dunlap; Elizabeth Dourlain; Bryce Grant; Lori McFail-Isom

    2013-01-01

    ... variation including helical flexibility and conformation. Cation-pi interactions between solvent cations or their first hydration shell waters and the faces of DNA bases form sequence selectively and contribute to DNA structural heterogeneity...

  5. Polyamide Curvature and DNA Sequence Selective Recognition: Use of 4-Aminobenzamide to Adjust Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajiness, Jamie; Sielaff, Alan; Mackay, Hilary; Brown, Toni; Kluza, Jerome; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W. David; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Imidazole and pyrrole-containing polyamides belong to an important class of compounds that can be designed to target specific DNA sequences, and they are potentially useful in applications of controlling gene expression. The extent of polyamide curvature is an important consideration when studying the ability of such compounds to bind in the minor groove of DNA. The current study investigates the importance of curvature using polyamides of the form f-Im-Phenyl-Im, in which the imidazole heterocycles are placed in ortho-, meta-, and para-configurations of the phenyl moiety. The synthesis and biophysical evaluation of each compound binding to its cognate DNA sequence (5′-ACGCGT-3′) and a negative control sequence (5′-AAATTT-3′) is reported, along with their comparison to the parent binder, f-Im-Py-Im (3). ACGCGT is a medicinally significant sequence present in the MluI cell-cycle box (MCB) transcriptional element found in the promoter of a gene associated with cell division. The results demonstrated that the para-derivative has the greatest affinity for its cognate sequence, as indicated via thermal denaturation, CD, ITC, SPR analyses, and DNase I footprinting. ITC studies showed that binding of the para-isomer (2c) to ACGCGT was significantly more exothermic than binding to AAATTT. In contrast, no heat change was observed for binding of the meta- (2b) and ortho- (2a) isomers to both DNAs, due to low binding affinities. This is consistent with results from SPR studies, which indicate that the para-derivative binds in a 2:1 fashion to ACGCGT and binds weakly to ACCGGT (K = 1.8 × 106 and 4.0 × 104 M−1, respectively). Interestingly, it binds in a 1:1 fashion to AAATTT (K = 5.4 × 105 M−1). The meta-compound does not bind to any sequence. The para-derivative also was the only compound to show an induced peak via CD at 330 nm, indicative of minor groove binding, and produced a ΔTm value of 5.8 ºC. Molecular modeling experiments have been performed to

  6. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Gadjev, N I; Deligeorgiev, T

    2000-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye TOTO binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by a sequence selective bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site, and the linker spans two base pairs in the minor groove. We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR...

  7. Sequence-selective recognition of DNA by strand displacement with a thymine-substituted polyamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A polyamide nucleic acid (PNA) was designed by detaching the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of DNA in a computer model and replacing it with an achiral polyamide backbone. On the basis of this model, oligomers consisting of thymine-linked aminoethylglycyl units were prepared. These oligomers reco...

  8. Sequence-selective binding of C8-conjugated pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, Mohammad A; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz; Jackson, Paul J M; Thurston, David E; Fox, Keith R

    2017-11-01

    DNA footprinting and melting experiments have been used to examine the sequence-specific binding of C8-conjugates of pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and benzofused rings including benzothiophene and benzofuran, which are attached using pyrrole- or imidazole-containing linkers. The conjugates modulate the covalent attachment points of the PBDs, so that they bind best to guanines flanked by A/T-rich sequences on either the 5'- or 3'-side. The linker affects the binding, and pyrrole produces larger changes than imidazole. Melting studies with 14-mer oligonucleotide duplexes confirm covalent attachment of the conjugates, which show a different selectivity to anthramycin and reveal that more than one ligand molecule can bind to each duplex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In silico footprinting of ligands binding to the minor groove of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Nahoum G; Huchet, Guillaume; Johnston, Blair F; Parkinson, John A; Suckling, Colin J; Waigh, Roger D; Mackay, Simon P

    2005-01-01

    The sequence selectivity of small molecules binding to the minor groove of DNA can be predicted by "in silico footprinting". Any potential ligand can be docked in the minor groove and then moved along it using simple simulation techniques. By applying a simple scoring function to the trajectory after energy minimization, the preferred binding site can be identified. We show application to all known noncovalent binding modes, namely 1:1 ligand:DNA binding (including hairpin ligands) and 2:1 side-by-side binding, with various DNA base pair sequences and show excellent agreement with experimental results from X-ray crystallography, NMR, and gel-based footprinting.

  10. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkenborg, J; Gadjev, N I; Deligeorgiev, T; Jacobsen, J P

    2000-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye TOTO binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by a sequence selective bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site, and the linker spans two base pairs in the minor groove. We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to examine the dsDNA binding of an analogue of TOTO in which the linker has been modified to contain a bipyridyl group (viologen) that has minor groove binding properties. We have investigated the binding of this analogue, called TOTOBIPY, to three different dsDNA sequences containing a 5'-CTAG-3', a 5'-CTTAG-3', and a 5'-CTATAG-3' sites, respectively, demonstrating that TOTOBIPY prefers to span three base pairs. The many intermolecular NOE connectivities between TOTOBIPY and the d(CGCTTAGCG):d(CGCTAAGCG) oligonucleotide in the complex shows that the bipyridyl-containing linker is positioned in the minor groove and spans three base pairs. Consequently, we have succeeded in designing and synthesizing a ligand that recognizes an extended recognition sequence of dsDNA as the result of a concerted intercalation and minor groove binding mode.

  11. DNA minor groove binding of small molecules: Experimental and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eight indole derivatives were studied for their DNA binding ability using fluorescence quenching and molecular docking methods. These indole compounds have structural moieties similar as in few indole alkaloids. Experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that indole derivatives bind in the minor groove of DNA.

  12. Camptothecin conjugated with DNA minor-groove binder netropsin: enhanced lactone stability, inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase I and antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Grokhovsky, Sergei; Zhuze, Alexei; Devy, Jerome; Pluot, Michel; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Nabiev, Igor

    2003-01-01

    The conjugates of camptothecin (CPT) with ligands possessing different DNA selectivity could be promising agents in cancer therapy affecting expression of specific genes by trapping DNA topoisomerase I (top I)-DNA complexes in a sequence-selective manner. Our recent data show that minor-groove binder netropsin (Nt) and its derivatives modulate the CPT-induced pattern of top I-mediated DNA cleavage. In an effort to develop a new molecule with good biological activity we have linked CPT with Nt and report here the first results of in vitro examination of the new compound. CPT-Nt conjugate linked with flexible spacer through position 7 of CPT chromophore was synthesized and analyzed for lactone stability, the ability to modulate a top I-mediated DNA cleavage and antiproliferative activity within a panel of six tumor cell lines. CPT-Nt conjugate demonstrates enhanced lactone stability and concentration-dependent top I poisoning or suppression in vitro. The rate of conjugate hydrolysis in a water solution displays a 20-fold enhancement of stability compared with CPT. The cytotoxicity of the conjugate against acute promyelocytic leukaemia (HL60), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (K562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), lung carcinoma(A549) and ovarian adenocarcinoma (CaOV3) tumor cell lines was evaluated. The lowest IC50 value (0.08 microM) indicated its selective toxicity towards the ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line. The enhanced stability of CPT-Nt conjugate and its selective toxicity against the CaOV3 cell line may indicate its utility as an antitumor agent against ovarian adenocarcinoma.

  13. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Patricia A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  14. Role of minor groove width and hydration pattern on amsacrine interaction with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Jangir

    Full Text Available Amsacrine is an anilinoacridine derivative anticancer drug, used to treat a wide variety of malignancies. In cells, amsacrine poisons topoisomerase 2 by stabilizing DNA-drug-enzyme ternary complex. Presence of amsacrine increases the steady-state concentration of these ternary complexes which in turn hampers DNA replication and results in subsequent cell death. Due to reversible binding and rapid slip-out of amsacrine from DNA duplex, structural data is not available on amsacrine-DNA complexes. In the present work, we designed five oligonucleotide duplexes, differing in their minor groove widths and hydration pattern, and examined their binding with amsacrine using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Complexes of amsacrine with calf thymus DNA were also evaluated for a comparison. Our results demonstrate for the first time that amsacrine is not a simple intercalator; rather mixed type of DNA binding (intercalation and minor groove takes place between amsacrine and DNA. Further, this binding is highly sensitive towards the geometries and hydration patterns of different minor grooves present in the DNA. This study shows that ligand binding to DNA could be very sensitive to DNA base composition and DNA groove structures. Results demonstrated here could have implication for understanding cytotoxic mechanism of aminoacridine based anticancer drugs and provide directions to modify these drugs for better efficacy and few side-effects.

  15. A DNA minor groove electronegative potential genome map based on photo-chemical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Hansen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The double-stranded DNA of the genome contains both sequence information directly relating to the protein and RNA coding as well as functional and structural information relating to protein recognition. Only recently is the importance of DNA shape in this recognition process being fully appreciated...... of any given sequence. We have validated this model on a series of protein-DNA binding sites known to involve minor groove electrostatic recognition as well as on stable nucleosome core complexes. The algorithm allows for the first time a full minor groove electrostatic description at the nucleotide...

  16. Activity of the DNA minor groove cross-linking agent SG2000 (SJG-136) against canine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Spanswick, Victoria J; Paredes-Moscosso, Solange R; Robson, Matthew; Pedley, R Barbara; Thurston, David E; Baines, Stephen J; Stell, Anneliese; Hartley, John A

    2015-08-19

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in older dogs and its prevalence is increasing. There is clearly a need to develop more effective anti-cancer drugs in dogs. SG2000 (SJG-136) is a sequence selective DNA minor groove cross-linking agent. Based on its in vitro potency, the spectrum of in vivo and clinical activity against human tumours, and its tolerability in human patients, SG2000 has potential as a novel therapeutic against spontaneously occurring canine malignancies. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB and MTT assays, and in vivo activity was assessed using canine tumour xenografts. DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) was determined using a modification of the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Effects on cell cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry and measurement of γ-H2AX by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. SG2000 had a multi-log differential cytotoxic profile against a panel of 12 canine tumour cell lines representing a range of common tumour types in dogs. In the CMeC-1 melanoma cell line, DNA ICLs increased linearly with dose following a 1 h treatment. Peak ICL was achieved within 1 h and no removal was observed over 48 h. A relationship between DNA ICL formation and cytotoxicity was observed across cell lines. The formation of γ-H2AX foci was slow, becoming evident after 4 h and reaching a peak at 24 h. SG2000 exhibited significant anti-tumour activity against two canine melanoma tumour models in vivo. Anti-tumour activity was observed at 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg given i.v. either once, or weekly x 3. Dose-dependent DNA ICL was observed in tumours (and to a lower level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells) at 2 h and persisted at 24 h. ICL increased following the second and third doses in a repeated dose schedule. At 24 h, dose dependent γ-H2AX foci were more numerous than at 2 h, and greater in tumours than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. SG2000-induced H2AX phosphorylation measured by

  17. Methylation-sensitive enrichment of minor DNA alleles using a double-strand DNA-specific nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibin; Song, Chen; Ladas, Ioannis; Fitarelli-Kiehl, Mariana; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2017-04-07

    Aberrant methylation changes, often present in a minor allelic fraction in clinical samples such as plasma-circulating DNA (cfDNA), are potentially powerful prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human disease including cancer. We report on a novel, highly-multiplexed approach to facilitate analysis of clinically useful methylation changes in minor DNA populations. Methylation Specific Nuclease-assisted Minor-allele Enrichment (MS-NaME) employs a double-strand-specific DNA nuclease (DSN) to remove excess DNA with normal methylation patterns. The technique utilizes oligonucleotide-probes that direct DSN activity to multiple targets in bisulfite-treated DNA, simultaneously. Oligonucleotide probes targeting unmethylated sequences generate local double stranded regions resulting to digestion of unmethylated targets, and leaving methylated targets intact; and vice versa. Subsequent amplification of the targeted regions results in enrichment of the targeted methylated or unmethylated minority-epigenetic-alleles. We validate MS-NaME by demonstrating enrichment of RARb2, ATM, MGMT and GSTP1 promoters in multiplexed MS-NaME reactions (177-plex) using dilutions of methylated/unmethylated DNA and in DNA from clinical lung cancer samples and matched normal tissue. MS-NaME is a highly scalable single-step approach performed at the genomic DNA level in solution that combines with most downstream detection technologies including Sanger sequencing, methylation-sensitive-high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) and methylation-specific-Taqman-based-digital-PCR (digital Methylight) to boost detection of low-level aberrant methylation-changes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Elimination of unaltered DNA in mixed clinical samples via nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chen; Liu, Yibin; Fontana, Rachel; Makrigiorgos, Alexander; Mamon, Harvey; Kulke, Matthew H.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2016-01-01

    Presence of excess unaltered, wild-type (WT) DNA providing no information of biological or clinical value often masks rare alterations containing diagnostic or therapeutic clues in cancer, prenatal diagnosis, infectious diseases or organ transplantation. With the surge of high-throughput technologies there is a growing demand for removing unaltered DNA over large pools-of-sequences. Here we present nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment with probe-overlap (NaME-PrO), a single-step approach...

  19. Chromosomal locations of four minor rDNA loci and a marker microsatellite sequence in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Linde-Laursen, I.

    1994-01-01

    the C-banding pattern, which enabled unequivocal chromosome identification. This study suggests that gene mapping accuracy may be improved by using probes with well-characterized and narrow hybridization sites as cytological markers which are situated close to the gene locus. One of the rDNA loci...... is located about 54% out on the short arm of chromosome 4 and it has not previously been reported in barley. We have designated the new locus Nor-I6. rDNA loci on homoeologous group 4 chromosomes have not yet been reported in other Triticeae species. The origin of these 4 minor rDNA loci is discussed...

  20. Methyl thiophanate as a DNA minor groove binder produces MT-Cu(II)-DNA ternary complex preferably with AT rich region for initiation of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Alarifi, Saud A; Dutta, Sansa; Dasgupta, Swagata; Musarrat, Javed

    2010-07-01

    Interaction of a genotoxic fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) has been studied in vitro with calf thymus DNA. Fluorescence quenching data revealed the binding constant (K(a)=3.23 x 10(4)M(-1)) and binding capacity (n=1.1) of MT with ctDNA. Ligand displacement studies using specific probes suggested the MT binding at DNA minor groove. The docking analysis further substantiated MT interaction with at least three AT base pairs within the DNA groove. A discernable change in E(0)' value with decreased peak currents in cyclic voltammogram, and peak shifts in CD spectra reflected the formation of MT-ctDNA and MT-ctDNA-Cu(II) complexes. The results elucidate the significance of specific MT-DNA interactions as an initiating event in MT-induced DNA damage. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. cpDNA Microsatellite Markers for Lemna minor (Araceae: Phylogeographic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowher A. Wani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A lack of genetic markers impedes our understanding of the population biology of Lemna minor. Thus, the development of appropriate genetic markers for L. minor promises to be highly useful for population genetic studies and for addressing other life history questions regarding the species. Methods and Results: For the first time, we characterized nine polymorphic and 24 monomorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers in L. minor using DNA samples of 26 individuals sampled from five populations in Kashmir and of 17 individuals from three populations in Quebec. Initially, we designed 33 primer pairs, which were tested on genomic DNA from natural populations. Nine loci provided markers with two alleles. Based on genotyping of the chloroplast DNA fragments from 43 sampled individuals, we identified one haplotype in Quebec and 11 haplotypes in Kashmir, of which one occurs in 56% of the genotypes, one in 8%, and nine in 4%, respectively. There was a maximum of two alleles per locus. Conclusions: These new chloroplast microsatellite markers for L. minor and haplotype distribution patterns indicate a complex phylogeographic history that merits further investigation.

  2. DNA barcoding discriminates Pampus minor (Liu et al., 1998) from Pampus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enmian; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Jing; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2010-11-01

    Although Pampus minor has been classified as a new species, it still remains controversial. Was used a DNA barcoding technique based on homologous sequence analysis of the 16S and COI genes to clarify the confusion over the identification of this species. Among 12 individuals whose genetic distance was 0.002, two haplotypes were found. According to the 16S sequences, the genetic distances ranged from 0.121 to 0.133 between P. minor and other Pampus species. Although the same the genetic distance between the two P. minor haplotypes was generated using COI sequences, the haplotype of Pm22-23, Pm28, and Pm32-33 was the same as that of Pci EF607462 and EF607466, while the haplotype of Pm24-27 and Pm29-31 was the same as that of Pci EF607461 and EF607463-65. In addition, the genetic distance ranged only from 0.002 to 0.005 between P. minor and Pa EF607460 and EF607458. Apart from this, the interspecies genetic distances varied from 0.135 to 0.143 between P. minor and other Pampus species according to the COI sequences. Phylogenetic trees, using combined 16S and COI data, strongly support the viewpoint that all the P. minor individuals form one clade that is in a sister position to Pampus sp. individuals (EU357803, FJ434342-FJ434343, and FJ652423-FJ652427).

  3. DNA minor groove electrostatic potential: influence of sequence-specific transitions of the torsion angle gamma and deoxyribose conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnikova, M Y; Shestopalova, A V

    2017-11-01

    The structural adjustments of the sugar-phosphate DNA backbone (switching of the γ angle (O5'-C5'-C4'-C3') from canonical to alternative conformations and/or C2'-endo → C3'-endo transition of deoxyribose) lead to the sequence-specific changes in accessible surface area of both polar and non-polar atoms of the grooves and the polar/hydrophobic profile of the latter ones. The distribution of the minor groove electrostatic potential is likely to be changing as a result of such conformational rearrangements in sugar-phosphate DNA backbone. Our analysis of the crystal structures of the short free DNA fragments and calculation of their electrostatic potentials allowed us to determine: (1) the number of classical and alternative γ angle conformations in the free B-DNA; (2) changes in the minor groove electrostatic potential, depending on the conformation of the sugar-phosphate DNA backbone; (3) the effect of the DNA sequence on the minor groove electrostatic potential. We have demonstrated that the structural adjustments of the DNA double helix (the conformations of the sugar-phosphate backbone and the minor groove dimensions) induce changes in the distribution of the minor groove electrostatic potential and are sequence-specific. Therefore, these features of the minor groove sizes and distribution of minor groove electrostatic potential can be used as a signal for recognition of the target DNA sequence by protein in the implementation of the indirect readout mechanism.

  4. Elimination of unaltered DNA in mixed clinical samples via nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Liu, Yibin; Fontana, Rachel; Makrigiorgos, Alexander; Mamon, Harvey; Kulke, Matthew H; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2016-11-02

    Presence of excess unaltered, wild-type (WT) DNA providing no information of biological or clinical value often masks rare alterations containing diagnostic or therapeutic clues in cancer, prenatal diagnosis, infectious diseases or organ transplantation. With the surge of high-throughput technologies there is a growing demand for removing unaltered DNA over large pools-of-sequences. Here we present nuclease-assisted minor-allele enrichment with probe-overlap (NaME-PrO), a single-step approach with broad genome coverage that can remove WT-DNA from numerous sequences simultaneously, prior to genomic analysis. NaME-PrO employs a double-strand-DNA-specific nuclease and overlapping oligonucleotide-probes interrogating WT-DNA targets and guiding nuclease digestion to these sites. Mutation-containing DNA creates probe-DNA mismatches that inhibit digestion, thus subsequent DNA-amplification magnifies DNA-alterations at all selected targets. We demonstrate several-hundred-fold mutation enrichment in diverse human samples on multiple clinically relevant targets including tumor samples and circulating DNA in 50-plex reactions. Enrichment enables routine mutation detection at 0.01% abundance while by adjusting conditions it is possible to sequence mutations down to 0.00003% abundance, or to scan tumor-suppressor genes for rare mutations. NaME-PrO introduces a simple and highly parallel process to remove un-informative DNA sequences and unmask clinically and biologically useful alterations. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. In and out of the minor groove: interaction of an AT-rich DNA with the drug CD27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta-Reyes, Francisco J. [Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dardonville, Christophe [Instituto de Química Médica, IQM–CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Koning, Harry P. de; Natto, Manal [University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Subirana, Juan A.; Campos, J. Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.campos@upc.edu [Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    New features of an antiprotozoal DNA minor-groove binding drug, which acts as a cross-linking agent, are presented. It also fills the minor groove of DNA completely and prevents the access of proteins. These features are also expected for other minor-groove binding drugs when associated with suitable DNA targets. The DNA of several pathogens is very rich in AT base pairs. Typical examples include the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the causative agents of trichomoniasis and trypanosomiases. This fact has prompted studies of drugs which interact with the minor groove of DNA, some of which are used in medical practice. Previous studies have been performed almost exclusively with the AATT sequence. New features should be uncovered through the study of different DNA sequences. In this paper, the crystal structure of the complex of the DNA duplex d(AAAATTTT){sub 2} with the dicationic drug 4, 4′-bis(imidazolinylamino)diphenylamine (CD27) is presented. The drug binds to the minor groove of DNA as expected, but it shows two new features that have not previously been described: (i) the drugs protrude from the DNA and interact with neighbouring molecules, so that they may act as cross-linking agents, and (ii) the drugs completely cover the whole minor groove of DNA and displace bound water. Thus, they may prevent the access to DNA of proteins such as AT-hook proteins. These features are also expected for other minor-groove binding drugs when associated with all-AT DNA. These findings allow a better understanding of this family of compounds and will help in the development of new, more effective drugs. New data on the biological interaction of CD27 with the causative agent of trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis, are also reported.

  6. Altered minor-groove hydrogen bonds in DNA block transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasova, Marina; Goeldi, Silvan; Meyer, Fabian; Hanawalt, Philip C; Spivak, Graciela; Sturla, Shana J

    2015-05-26

    DNA transcription depends upon the highly efficient and selective function of RNA polymerases (RNAPs). Modifications in the template DNA can impact the progression of RNA synthesis, and a number of DNA adducts, as well as abasic sites, arrest or stall transcription. Nonetheless, data are needed to understand why certain modifications to the structure of DNA bases stall RNA polymerases while others are efficiently bypassed. In this study, we evaluate the impact that alterations in dNTP/rNTP base-pair geometry have on transcription. T7 RNA polymerase was used to study transcription over modified purines and pyrimidines with altered H-bonding capacities. The results suggest that introducing wobble base-pairs into the DNA:RNA heteroduplex interferes with transcriptional elongation and stalls RNA polymerase. However, transcriptional stalling is not observed if mismatched base-pairs do not H-bond. Together, these studies show that RNAP is able to discriminate mismatches resulting in wobble base-pairs, and suggest that, in cases of modifications with minor steric impact, DNA:RNA heteroduplex geometry could serve as a controlling factor for initiating transcription-coupled DNA repair. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ranking ligand affinity for the DNA minor groove by experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittayanarakul, Kitiyaporn; Anthony, Nahoum G; Treesuwan, Witcha; Hannongbua, Supa; Alniss, Hasan; Khalaf, Abedawn I; Suckling, Colin J; Parkinson, John A; Mackay, Simon P

    2010-11-11

    The structural and thermodynamic basis for the strength and selectivity of the interactions of minor groove binders (MGBs) with DNA is not fully understood. In 2003, we reported the first example of a thiazole-containing MGB that bound in a phase-shifted pattern that spanned six base pairs rather than the usual four (for tricyclic distamycin-like compounds). Since then, using DNA footprinting, NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular dynamics, we have established that the flanking bases around the central four being read by the ligand have subtle effects on recognition. We have investigated the effect of these flanking sequences on binding and the reasons for the differences and established a computational method to rank ligand affinity against varying DNA sequences.

  8. Translesion synthesis DNA polymerases promote error-free replication through the minor-groove DNA adduct 3-deaza-3-methyladenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Roy Choudhury, Jayati; Park, Jeseong; Prakash, Satya; Prakash, Louise

    2017-11-10

    N3-Methyladenine (3-MeA) is formed in DNA by reaction with S-adenosylmethionine, the reactive methyl donor, and by reaction with alkylating agents. 3-MeA protrudes into the DNA minor groove and strongly blocks synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases (Pols). However, the mechanisms for replicating through this lesion in human cells remain unidentified. Here we analyzed the roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) Pols in the replication of 3-MeA-damaged DNA in human cells. Because 3-MeA has a short half-life in vitro, we used the stable 3-deaza analog, 3-deaza-3-methyladenine (3-dMeA), which blocks the DNA minor groove similarly to 3-MeA. We found that replication through the 3-dMeA adduct is mediated via three different pathways, dependent upon Polι/Polκ, Polθ, and Polζ. As inferred from biochemical studies, in the Polι/Polκ pathway, Polι inserts a nucleotide (nt) opposite 3-dMeA and Polκ extends synthesis from the inserted nt. In the Polθ pathway, Polθ carries out both the insertion and extension steps of TLS opposite 3-dMeA, and in the Polζ pathway, Polζ extends synthesis following nt insertion by an as yet unidentified Pol. Steady-state kinetic analyses indicated that Polι and Polθ insert the correct nt T opposite 3-dMeA with a much reduced catalytic efficiency and that both Pols exhibit a high propensity for inserting a wrong nt opposite this adduct. However, despite their low fidelity of synthesis opposite 3-dMeA, TLS opposite this lesion replicates DNA in a highly error-free manner in human cells. We discuss the implications of these observations for TLS mechanisms in human cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Superresolution imaging of single DNA molecules using stochastic photoblinking of minor groove and intercalating dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen; Zhou, Zhaokun; Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2015-10-15

    As proof-of-principle for generating superresolution structural information from DNA we applied a method of localization microscopy utilizing photoblinking comparing intercalating dye YOYO-1 against minor groove binding dye SYTO-13, using a bespoke multicolor single-molecule fluorescence microscope. We used a full-length ∼49 kbp λ DNA construct possessing oligo inserts at either terminus allowing conjugation of digoxigenin and biotin at opposite ends for tethering to a glass coverslip surface and paramagnetic microsphere respectively. We observed stochastic DNA-bound dye photoactivity consistent with dye photoblinking as opposed to binding/unbinding events, evidenced through both discrete simulations and continuum kinetics analysis. We analyzed dye photoblinking images of immobilized DNA molecules using superresolution reconstruction software from two existing packages, rainSTORM and QuickPALM, and compared the results against our own novel home-written software called ADEMS code. ADEMS code generated lateral localization precision values of 30-40 nm and 60-70 nm for YOYO-1 and SYTO-13 respectively at video-rate sampling, similar to rainSTORM, running more slowly than rainSTORM and QuickPALM algorithms but having a complementary capability over both in generating automated centroid distribution and cluster analyses. Our imaging system allows us to observe dynamic topological changes to single molecules of DNA in real-time, such as rapid molecular snapping events. This will facilitate visualization of fluorescently-labeled DNA molecules conjugated to a magnetic bead in future experiments involving newly developed magneto-optical tweezers combined with superresolution microscopy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. New insight into the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of DNA minor groove binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    Full Text Available Bisbenzimides, or Hoechst 33258 (H258, and its derivative Hoechst 33342 (H342 are archetypal molecules for designing minor groove binders, and widely used as tools for staining DNA and analyzing side population cells. They are supravital DNA minor groove binders with AT selectivity. H342 and H258 share similar biological effects based on the similarity of their chemical structures, but also have their unique biological effects. For example, H342, but not H258, is a potent apoptotic inducer and both H342 and H258 can induce transgene overexpression in in vitro studies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hoechst dyes induce apoptosis and enhance transgene overexpression are unclear.To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying different biological effects between H342 and H258, microarray technique coupled with bioinformatics analyses and multiple other techniques has been utilized to detect differential global gene expression profiles, Hoechst dye-specific gene expression signatures, and changes in cell morphology and levels of apoptosis-associated proteins in malignant mesothelioma cells. H342-induced apoptosis occurs in a dose-dependent fashion and is associated with morphological changes, caspase-3 activation, cytochrome c mitochondrial translocation, and cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins. The antagonistic effect of H258 on H342-induced apoptosis indicates a pharmacokinetic basis for the two dyes' different biological effects. Differential global gene expression profiles induced by H258 and H342 are accompanied by unique gene expression signatures determined by DNA microarray and bioinformatics software, indicating a genetic basis for their different biological effects.A unique gene expression signature associated with H342-induced apoptosis provides a new avenue to predict and classify the therapeutic class of minor groove binders in the drug development process. Further analysis of H258-upregulated genes of transcription

  11. Resolution of mixed site DNA complexes with dimer-forming minor-groove binders by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: compound structure and DNA sequence effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Sarah; Wang, Siming; Kumar, Arvind; Farahat, Abdelbasset A; Boykin, David W; Wilson, W David

    2015-03-27

    Small-molecule targeting of the DNA minor groove is a promising approach to modulate genomic processes necessary for normal cellular function. For instance, dicationic diamindines, a well-known class of minor groove binding compounds, have been shown to inhibit interactions of transcription factors binding to genomic DNA. The applications of these compounds could be significantly expanded if we understand sequence-specific recognition of DNA better and could use the information to design more sequence-specific compounds. Aside from polyamides, minor groove binders typically recognize DNA at A-tract or alternating AT base pair sites. Targeting sites with GC base pairs, referred to here as mixed base pair sequences, is much more difficult than those rich in AT base pairs. Compound 1 is the first dicationic diamidine reported to recognize a mixed base pair site. It binds in the minor groove of ATGA sequences as a dimer with positive cooperativity. Due to the well-characterized behavior of 1 with ATGA and AT rich sequences, it provides a paradigm for understanding the elements that are key for recognition of mixed sequence sites. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful method to screen DNA complexes formed by analogues of 1 for specific recognition. We also report a novel approach to determine patterns of recognition by 1 for cognate ATGA and ATGA-mutant sequences. We found that functional group modifications and mutating the DNA target site significantly affect binding and stacking, respectively. Both compound conformation and DNA sequence directionality are crucial for recognition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sequence Selection and Performance in DS/CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Santos Ambrosio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work key concepts on coding division multiple access (CDMA communication systems have been discussed. The sequence selection impact on the performance and capacity of direct sequence CDMA (DS/CDMA systems under AWGN and increasing system loading, as well as under multiple antennas channels was investigated.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity of the drywood termites Incisitermes minor and I. snyderi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) and the light southern drywood termite I. snyderi (Light) are common drywood termites in southwestern and southern United States, respectively. Despite the economic importance of these two species, no information exists on the mitochondrial gen...

  14. Minor groove binding of the food colorant carmoisine to DNA: spectroscopic and calorimetric characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-01-08

    The interaction of the food additive carmoisine with herring testes DNA was studied by multifaceted biophysical techniques. Carmoisine exhibited hypochromic effects in absorbance, whereas in fluorescence the intensity enhanced upon complexation with DNA. Energy transfer from the DNA base pairs to carmoisine molecules occurred upon complexation. A groove binding model of interaction was envisaged for carmoisine-DNA complexation from 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst displacement studies. The binding of carmoisine stabilized the DNA structure against thermal denaturation. The binding induced moderate conformational perturbations in the B-form structure of DNA. The binding affinity (10(4) M(-1)) values, calculated from absorbance and fluorescence data, and calorimetry titrations were in close agreement with each other. The binding was characterized to be exothermic and favored by small negative enthalpic and large positive entropic contributions. Salt-dependent calorimetric studies revealed that the binding reaction was dominated by nonpolyelectrolytic forces. The negative heat capacity value suggested the role of hydrophobic effect in the interaction.

  15. Binding of resveratrol to the minor groove of DNA sequences with AATT and TTAA segments induces differential stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Maya S; D'Mello, Samar; Pant, Rashmi; Poluri, Krishna Mohan

    2017-05-01

    Interactions of a natural stilbene compound, resveratrol with two DNA sequences containing AATT/TTAA segments have been studied. Resveratrol is found to interact with both the sequences. The mode of interaction has been studied using absorption, steady state fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence studies provided the information regarding the binding constants and the stoichiometry of binding, whereas circular dichroism studies depicted the structural changes in DNA upon resveratrol binding. Our results evidenced that, though resveratrol showed similar affinity to both the sequences, the mode of interactions was different. The binding constants of resveratrol to AATT/TTAA sequences were found to be 7.55×105M-1 and 5.42×105M-1 respectively. Spectroscopic data evidenced for a groove binding interaction. Melting studies showed that the binding of resveratrol induces differential stability to the DNA sequences d(CGTTAACG)2 and d(CGAATTCG)2. Fluorescence data showed a stoichiometry of 1:1 for d(CGAATTCG)2-resveratrol complex and 1:4 for d(CGTTAACG)2-resveratrol complex. Molecular docking studies demonstrated that resveratrol binds to the minor groove region of both the sequences to form stable complexes with varied atomic contacts to the DNA bases or backbone. Both the complexes are stabilized by hydrogen bond formation. Our results evidenced that modulation of DNA sequence within the same bases can greatly alter the binding geometry and stability of the complex upon binding to small molecule inhibitor compounds like resveratrol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-09-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae.

  17. New orally active DNA minor groove binding small molecule CT-1 acts against breast cancer by targeting tumor DNA damage leading to p53-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Karan Singh; Hamidullah; Ashraf, Raghib; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Das, Sharmistha; Siddiqui, Mohd Quadir; Dwivedi, Sonam; Sarkar, Jayanta; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Konwar, Rituraj

    2017-04-01

    Targeting tumor DNA damage and p53 pathway is a clinically established strategy in the development of cancer chemotherapeutics. Majority of anti-cancer drugs are delivered through parenteral route for reasons like severe toxicity, lack of stability, and poor enteral absorption. Current DNA targeting drugs in clinical like anthracycline suffers from major drawbacks like cardiotoxicity. Here, we report identification of a new orally active small molecule curcumin-triazole conjugate (CT-1) with significant anti-breast cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. CT-1 selectively and significantly inhibits viability of breast cancer cell lines; retards cells cycle progression at S phase and induce mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis. CT-1 selectively binds to minor groove of DNA and induces DNA damage leading to increase in p53 along with decrease in its ubiquitination. Inhibition of p53 with pharmacological inhibitor as well as siRNA revealed the necessity of p53 in CT-1-mediated anti-cancer effects in breast cancer cells. Studies using several other intact p53 and deficient p53 cancer cell lines further confirmed necessity of p53 in CT-1-mediated anti-cancer response. Pharmacological inhibition of pan-caspase showed CT-1 induces caspase-dependent cell death in breast cancer cells. Most interestingly, oral administration of CT-1 induces significant inhibition of tumor growth in LA-7 syngeneic orthotropic rat mammary tumor model. CT-1 treated mammary tumor shows enhancement in DNA damage, p53 upregulation, and apoptosis. Collectively, CT-1 exhibits potent anti-cancer effect both in vitro and in vivo and could serve as a safe orally active lead for anti-cancer drug development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Direction of Intercalation of a bis-Ru(II) Complex to DNA Probed by a Minor Groove Binding Molecule 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Raeyeong; Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Kim, Seog K.; Bae, Inho [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Direction of intercalation to DNA of the planar dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine ligands (dppz) of a bis-Ru(II) complex namely, [Ru(1,10-phenanthroline){sub 2}dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine]{sup 2+} linkered by a 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, was investigated by probing the behavior of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) that bound deep in the minor groove. Bis-intercalation of DPPZ resulted in a little blue shift and hyperchromism in DAPI absorption band, and a large decrease in DAPI fluorescence intensity which accompanied by an increase in the dppz emission intensity. Diminishing the intensity of the positive induced circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) were also observed. These spectral changes indicated that insertion of dppz ligand caused the change of the binding mode of DAPI, which probably moved to the exterior of DNA from the minor groove and interacted with the phospghate groups of DNA by electrostatic interaction. At the surface of DNA, DAPI binds at the phosphate groups of DNA by electrostatic attraction. Consequently, this observation indicated that the dppz ligand intercalated from the minor groove.

  19. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The biological effects and interactions of different radiation types in plants are still far from understood. Additional knowledge on the impact of various kinds of ionizing radiation in plants on individual, biochemical and molecular level is needed to unravel and compare the toxic mode of action. Among different radiation types, external gamma radiation treatments have been mostly studied both in lab and field studies to derive the biological impact of radiation toxicity in organisms. However, environmental relevant studies on chronic low-dose gamma exposures are scarce. The radio-ecologically relevant radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is a pure beta emitting isotope and originates from nuclear activities and accidents. Although this radionuclide is not essential for plant metabolism, it bears a chemical analogy with the essential plant macro-nutrient Ca{sup 2+} thereby taking advantage of Ca{sup 2+} transport systems to contaminate plant organs and tissues. Ones plants are exposed to radiation stress, ionization events can cause an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce damage to biological material like DNA, lipids and structural proteins. The following work aimed at evaluating individual, biochemical and molecular endpoints to understand and to compare the mode of action of gamma- and beta radiation stress in plants. Having an equal relative biological effectiveness to non-human biota, it is still not clear in how plants differ or overlap in sensing and interpreting highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation with short-range particle radiation. The floating plant Lemna minor was chosen as model system. Following the OECD guidelines Lemna plants were being exposed separately to an external gamma radiation source or to a {sup 90}Sr-contaminated growth medium to obtain single-dose response curves for each type of radiation. In order to acquire accurate dose rate quantifications for beta radiation exposures, {sup 90}Sr uptake and accumulation of root and

  20. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. AzaHx, a novel fluorescent, DNA minor groove and G·C recognition element: Synthesis and DNA binding properties of a p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (azaHx-PI) polyamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satam, Vijay; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Brien, Kimberly A; Olson, Kevin; Savagian, Mia; Lee, Megan; Mepham, Andrew; Jobe, Laura Beth; Bingham, John P; Pett, Luke; Wang, Shuo; Ferrara, Maddi; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A; Kiakos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    The design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of azaHx-PI or p-anisyl-4-aza-benzimidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (5) are described. AzaHx, 2-(p-anisyl)-4-aza-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide, is a novel, fluorescent DNA recognition element, derived from Hoechst 33258 to recognize G·C base pairs. Supported by theoretical data, the results from DNase I footprinting, CD, ΔT(M), and SPR studies provided evidence that an azaHx/IP pairing, formed from antiparallel stacking of two azaHx-PI molecules in a side-by-side manner in the minor groove, selectively recognized a C-G doublet. AzaHx-PI was found to target 5'-ACGCGT-3', the Mlu1 Cell Cycle Box (MCB) promoter sequence with specificity and significant affinity (K(eq) 4.0±0.2×10(7) M(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conformational rearrangement of 1,2-d(GG) intrastrand cis-diammineplatinum crosslinked DNA is driven by counter-ion penetration within the minor groove of the modified site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantchev, Tsvetan G; Petkov, Peicho St; Hunting, Darel J

    2017-09-14

    The major structural aberrations of DNA induced by a cis-diammineplatinum (II) 1,2-d(GG) intrastrand cross-link (CPT) have been known for decades. To gain deeper insights into the structural dynamics of the sequence-dependent DNA distortions adjacent to the CPT adduct, we employed molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The structural dynamics of native (N-DNA) and cisPt 1,2-d(GG) crosslinked (CPT-DNA) in the form of symmetric 36 nt d(G2T15G*G*T15G2)●C2A15CCA15C2) oligonucleotide duplexes is compared. The selected sequence context enabled tracking of the origin of the DNA axis curvature at the YpR flexible points (N-DNA), the enhancement of axis bending, and further distortions due to steric/electrostatic perturbations arising from the CPT-crosslink. In addition to the known structural distortions of CPT-DNA: helix bend towards the major groove; local helix unwinding; high roll angle between cross-linked guanine bases; and adoption of A-form DNA on the 5'-side of the CPT-crosslink (TpG junction); our results show the existence of a singular irreversible and reproducible conformational rearrangement, not previously observed, resulting in two stable CPT-DNA1 and CPT-DNA2 conformers. The CPT-DNA2 conformation presents an enhanced DNA axis bend and a wider and shallower minor grove with increased solvent accessibility within the modified site. It is concluded that the polymorphous (unstable) DNA environment near the cisPt 1,2-d(GG) unit in synergy with specific dynamic events, such as prolonged minor groove retention of particular Na(+) ions and water redistribution within the d(TG*G*T) site, together with the formation of extra and more stable H-bonds between Pt(NH3)2 amines and neighboring nucleotides, are cooperatively responsible for the initiation of the conformational rearrangement leading to the CPT-DNA2 conformer, which, surprisingly, closely resembles the HMGB1-bound CPT-DNA structure. Graphical abstract Superimposed averaged structures

  3. Dynamic hydrogen bonding and DNA flexibility in minor groove binders: molecular dynamics simulation of the polyamide f-ImPyIm bound to the Mlu1 (MCB) sequence 5'-ACGCGT-3' in 2:1 motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Chrystal D; Ferrara, Maddi M; Manka, Julie L; Davis, Zachary S; Register, Janna

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA 10-mer 5'-CCACGCGTGG-3' alone and complexed with the formamido-imidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (f-ImPyIm) polyamide minor groove binder in a 2:1 fashion were conducted for 50 ns using the pbsc0 parameters within the AMBER 12 software package. The change in DNA structure upon binding of f-ImPyIm was evaluated via minor groove width and depth, base pair parameters of Slide, Twist, Roll, Stretch, Stagger, Opening, Propeller, and x-displacement, dihedral angle distributions of ζ, ε, α, and γ determined using the Curves+ software program, and hydrogen bond formation. The dynamic hydrogen bonding between the f-ImPyIm and its cognate DNA sequence was compared to the static image used to predict sequence recognition by polyamide minor groove binders. Many of the predicted hydrogen bonds were present in less than 50% of the simulation; however, persistent hydrogen bonds between G5/15 and the formamido group of f-ImPyIm were observed. It was determined that the DNA is wider in the Complex than without the polyamide binder; however, there is flexibility in this particular sequence, even in the presence of the f-ImPyIm as evidenced by the range of minor groove widths the DNA exhibits and the dynamics of the hydrogen bonding that binds the two f-ImPyIm ions to the minor groove. The Complex consisting of the DNA and the 2 f-ImPyIm binders shows slight fraying of the 5' end of the 10-mer at the end of the simulation, but the portion of the oligomer responsible for recognition and binding is stable throughout the simulation. Several structural changes in the Complex indicate that minor groove binders may have a more active role in inhibiting transcription than just preventing binding of important transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inosine Can Increase DNA's Susceptibility to Photo-oxidation by a RuII Complex due to Structural Change in the Minor Groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Páraic M; Hall, James P; Poynton, Fergus E; Poulsen, Bjørn C; Gurung, Sarah P; Clark, Ian P; Sazanovich, Igor V; Towrie, Michael; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Quinn, Susan J; Cardin, Christine J; Kelly, John M

    2017-08-01

    Key to the development of DNA-targeting phototherapeutic drugs is determining the interplay between the photoactivity of the drug and its binding preference for a target sequence. For the photo-oxidising lambda-[Ru(TAP)2 (dppz)]2+ (Λ-1) (dppz=dipyridophenazine) complex bound to either d{T1 C2 G3 G4 C5 G6 C7 C8 G9 A10 }2 (G9) or d{TCGGCGCCIA}2 (I9), the X-ray crystal structures show the dppz intercalated at the terminal T1 C2 ;G9 A10 step or T1 C2 ;I9 A10 step. Thus substitution of the G9 nucleobase by inosine does not affect intercalation in the solid state although with I9 the dppz is more deeply inserted. In solution it is found that the extent of guanine photo-oxidation, and the rate of back electron-transfer, as determined by pico- and nanosecond time-resolved infrared and transient visible absorption spectroscopy, is enhanced in I9, despite it containing the less oxidisable inosine. This is attributed to the nature of the binding in the minor groove due to the absence of an NH2 group. Similar behaviour and the same binding site in the crystal are found for d{TTGGCGCCAA}2 (A9). In solution, we propose that intercalation occurs at the C2 G3 ;C8 I9 or T2 G3 ;C8 A9 steps, respectively, with G3 the likely target for photo-oxidation. This demonstrates how changes in the minor groove (in this case removal of an NH2 group) can facilitate binding of RuII dppz complexes and hence influence any sensitised reactions occurring at these sites. No similar enhancement of photooxidation on binding to I9 is found for the delta enantiomer. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Minors or suspects? A discussion of the legal and ethical issues surrounding the indefinite storage of DNA collected from children aged 10-18 years on the National DNA Database in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansel, Charlotte; Davies, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    There are currently over 250,000 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years who have their genetic information stored on the National DNA Database. This paper explores the legal and ethical issues surrounding this controversial subject, with particular focus on juvenile capacity and the potential results of criminalizing young children and adolescents. The implications of the adverse legal judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in S and Marper v UK (2008) and the violation of Article 8 of the Convention are discussed. The authors have considered the requirement to balance the rights of the individual, particularly those of minors, against the need to protect the public and have compared the position in Scotland to that of the rest of the UK. The authors conclude that a more ethically acceptable alternative could be the creation of a separate forensic database for children aged 10-18 years, set up to safeguard the interests of those who have not been convicted of any crime.

  6. Gut Microbiota Analysis Results Are Highly Dependent on the 16S rRNA Gene Target Region, Whereas the Impact of DNA Extraction Is Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Anniina; Pietilä, Sami; Munukka, Eveliina; Eerola, Erkki; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Laiho, Asta; Pekkala, Satu; Huovinen, Pentti

    2017-04-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the method of choice for analyzing gut microbiota composition. As gut microbiota composition is a potential future target for clinical diagnostics, it is of utmost importance to enhance and optimize the NGS analysis procedures. Here, we have analyzed the impact of DNA extraction and selected 16S rDNA primers on the gut microbiota NGS results. Bacterial DNA from frozen stool specimens was extracted with 5 commercially available DNA extraction kits. Special attention was paid to the semiautomated DNA extraction methods that could expedite the analysis procedure, thus being especially suitable for clinical settings. The microbial composition was analyzed with 2 distinct protocols: 1 targeting the V3-V4 and the other targeting the V4-V5 area of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The overall effect of DNA extraction on the gut microbiota 16S rDNA profile was relatively small, whereas the 16S rRNA gene target region had an immense impact on the results. Furthermore, semiautomated DNA extraction methods clearly appeared suitable for NGS procedures, proposing that application of these methods could importantly reduce hands-on time and human errors without compromising the validity of results.

  7. Site-specific interactions of JBP with base and sugar moieties in duplex J-DNA. Evidence for both major and minor groove contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabatini, Robert; Meeuwenoord, Nico; van Boom, Jacques H.; Borst, Piet

    2002-01-01

    Beta-D-Glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, also called base J, is an unusually modified DNA base conserved among Kinetoplastida. Base J is found predominantly in repetitive DNA and correlates with epigenetic silencing of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes. We have previously identified a

  8. Strong minor groove base conservation in sequence logos implies DNA distortion or base flipping during replication and transcription initiation | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbed "Tom's T" by Dhruba Chattoraj, the unusually conserved thymine at position +7 in bacteriophage P1 plasmid RepA DNA binding sites rises above repressor and acceptor sequence logos. The T appears to represent base flipping prior to helix opening in this DNA replication initation protein.

  9. Chirality- and sequence-selective successive self-sorting via specific homo- and complementary-duplex formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiguchi, Wataru; Tanabe, Junki; Yamada, Hidekazu; Iida, Hiroki; Taura, Daisuke; Ousaka, Naoki; Yashima, Eiji

    2015-06-08

    Self-recognition and self-discrimination within complex mixtures are of fundamental importance in biological systems, which entirely rely on the preprogrammed monomer sequences and homochirality of biological macromolecules. Here we report artificial chirality- and sequence-selective successive self-sorting of chiral dimeric strands bearing carboxylic acid or amidine groups joined by chiral amide linkers with different sequences through homo- and complementary-duplex formations. A mixture of carboxylic acid dimers linked by racemic-1,2-cyclohexane bis-amides with different amide sequences (NHCO or CONH) self-associate to form homoduplexes in a completely sequence-selective way, the structures of which are different from each other depending on the linker amide sequences. The further addition of an enantiopure amide-linked amidine dimer to a mixture of the racemic carboxylic acid dimers resulted in the formation of a single optically pure complementary duplex with a 100% diastereoselectivity and complete sequence specificity stabilized by the amidinium-carboxylate salt bridges, leading to the perfect chirality- and sequence-selective duplex formation.

  10. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding What are the possible causes of minor rectal bleeding? Hemorrhoids Anal fissures Proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) Polyps Colon or anal cancer Rectal ulcers Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding Minor rectal ...

  11. Hx, a novel fluorescent, minor groove and sequence specific recognition element: design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of p-anisylbenzimidazole-imidazole/pyrrole-containing polyamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Sameer; Liu, Yang; Babu, Balaji; Davis, Ryan; Sielaff, Alan; Ruprich, Jennifer; Westrate, Laura; Tronrud, Christopher; Ferguson, Amanda; Franks, Andrew; Tzou, Samuel; Adkins, Chandler; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Kluza, Jerome; Tahir, Sharjeel A; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Bruce, Chrystal D; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2011-04-19

    With the aim of incorporating a recognition element that acts as a fluorescent probe upon binding to DNA, three novel pyrrole (P) and imidazole (I)-containing polyamides were synthesized. The compounds contain a p-anisylbenzimidazolecarboxamido (Hx) moiety attached to a PP, IP, or PI unit, giving compounds HxPP (2), HxIP (3), and HxPI (4), respectively. These fluorescent hybrids were tested against their complementary nonfluorescent, non-formamido tetraamide counterparts, namely, PPPP (5), PPIP (6), and PPPI (7) (cognate sequences 5'-AAATTT-3', 5'-ATCGAT-3', and 5'-ACATGT-3', respectively). The binding affinities for both series of polyamides for their cognate and noncognate sequences were ascertained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies, which revealed that the Hx-containing polyamides gave binding constants in the 10(6) M(-1) range while little binding was observed for the noncognates. The binding data were further compared to the corresponding and previously reported formamido-triamides f-PPP (8), f-PIP (9), and f-PPI (10). DNase I footprinting studies provided additional evidence that the Hx moiety behaved similarly to two consecutive pyrroles (PP found in 5-7), which also behaved like a formamido-pyrrole (f-P) unit found in distamycin and many formamido-triamides, including 8-10. The biophysical characterization of polyamides 2-7 on their binding to the abovementioned DNA sequences was determined using thermal melts (ΔT(M)), circular dichroism (CD), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. Density functional calculations (B3LYP) provided a theoretical framework that explains the similarity between PP and Hx on the basis of molecular electrostatic surfaces and dipole moments. Furthermore, emission studies on polyamides 2 and 3 showed that upon excitation at 322 nm binding to their respective cognate sequences resulted in an increase in fluorescence at 370 nm. These low molecular weight polyamides show promise for use as probes for monitoring

  12. Identification of tuna species in commercial cans by minor groove binder probe real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, Valentina; Di Pinto, Pietro; Decaro, Nicola; Parisi, Antonio; Desario, Costantina; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tantillo, Marilia Giuseppina

    2010-12-01

    Three different minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays have been developed for rapid and accurate identification of the species commonly used for production of canned tuna, i.e. yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bluefin (Thunnus thynnus) and albacore (Thunnus alalunga) tunas. The assays targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were able to discriminate efficiently between the three species contained in fresh or canned tunas and did not react with other Scombroidei that were tested. A correct species prediction was obtained even from artificial mixtures prepared with different amounts of the reference tuna species and subjected to the sterilisation treatment. Testing of 27 commercial canned tunas by PCR-RFLP, MGB probe assays and sequence analysis showed a concordance of 100% between the last two techniques, whereas by using PCR-RFLP several samples were uncharacterised or mischaracterised. These results make the established MGB probe assays an attractive tool for direct and rapid species identification in canned tuna. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNase I footprinting of small molecule binding sites on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Christian; Kluza, Jérôme; Martin, Christopher; Ellis, Thomas; Waring, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Nuclease footprinting techniques were initially developed to investigate protein-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) interactions but these tools of molecular biology have also become instrumental for probing sequence-selective binding of small molecules to DNA. Here, the method is described and technical details are given for performing deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I footprinting with DNA-binding drugs. An example is presented where DNase I is used (as well as DNase II and micrococcal nuclease) to probe the patterns of sequence-selective recognition of DNA by the anticancer antibiotic actinomycin D. DNase I is a convenient endonuclease for detecting and locating the position of actinomycin-binding sites within GC-rich sequences.

  14. Major and minor crRNA annealing sites facilitate low stringency DNA protospacer binding prior to Type I-A CRISPR-Cas interference in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousaei, Marzieh; Deng, Ling; She, Qunxin

    2016-01-01

    The stringency of crRNA-protospacer DNA base pair matching required for effective CRISPR-Cas interference is relatively low in crenarchaeal Sulfolobus species in contrast to that required in some bacteria. To understand its biological significance we studied crRNA-protospacer interactions...... in Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A which carries multiple, and functionally diverse, interference complexes. A range of mismatches were introduced into a vector-borne protospacer that was identical to spacer 1 of CRISPR locus 2, with a cognate CCN PAM sequence. Two important crRNA annealing regions were identified...... lacking type III-Bα and III-Bβ interference gene cassettes, which showed similar interference levels to those of the wild-type strain. Parallels are drawn to the involvement of two annealing sites for microRNAs on some eukaryal mRNAs which provide enhanced binding capacity and specificity. A biological...

  15. On the consequences of placing amino groups at the TBP-DNA interface. Does TATA really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Pacheco, César; Capistrán, Víctor M; Pastor, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) belongs to a family of structural proteins involved in transcription in eukaryotic cells. TBP binds in the minor groove of DNA and recognizes specifically the consensus sequence: 5' TATAWAWR 3' (W = A or T). Recent reports show that the TATA-box is only present in 10% of all human polymerase II promoters. Therefore, TBP must bind frequently to low affinity DNA sequences, possibly with help of other transcription factors. In order to understand the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions that lead to the consensus sequence preferred by TBP, we use high resolution crystallographic structures of cognate TBP-DNA complexes as templates onto which 16 dinucleotide repeating sequence DNA oligomers were built. The binding free energy of each complex was calculated using the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Solvent Accessible (MM-PBSA) approximation. Parsing of the free energy components allowed us to identify the most important contributions to sequence selectivity: DNA deformation and the interaction energy between TBP residues and DNA bases, as expected. Surprisingly, poor interaction energies lead to larger deformation costs, suggesting strategies to improve affinity and selectivity. Local analysis of the TBP-DNA interface allowed us to build interaction and deformation energy tables that were used, without the need to fit their relative weights, to predict successfully both the consensus sequence for TBP, and relative binding affinities for a collection of TATA box variants.

  16. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  17. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  18. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Hanna; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Darlin, Lotten; Dilllner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic) in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211) or LSIL, (n = 131) were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Results Twenty-nine percent (61/211) of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131) in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0) among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0) among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02). The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively) and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively). The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3) and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6), for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27) as compared to 13.6% (43/315) of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03). Conclusion The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had

  19. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities...... will use the German and Danish minorities in the Danish-German border region as a model. The minorities came into being in 1920, when a referendum in the region drew a border that left Danish-minded people in the South and German-minded people in the North of the region. Because of the long tradition...

  20. Selective DNA binding of (N-alkylamine)-substituted naphthalene imides and diimides to G+C-rich DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z R; Hecker, K H; Rill, R L

    1996-12-01

    Alkylamine-substituted naphthalene imides and diimides bind DNA by intercalation and have applications as anticancer agents. The unique structures of these imides in which two adjacent carbonyl groups lie coplanar to an extended aromatic ring system allow the possibility of sequence-selective interactions between the intercalated chromophore and guanine amino groups situated in the DNA minor groove. The binding affinities of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl amine]-1,8-naphthalenedicarboxylic imide (N-DMPrNI) and N,N'-bis [3,3'-(dimethylamino)propylamine]-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic diimide (N-BDMPrNDI) for natural DNAs of differing base composition were determined spectroscopically and by equilibrium dialysis. In agreement with the above proposition, binding studies indicated that both the naphthalene imide and diimide strongly prefer to intercalate into steps containing at least one G:C base pair. The dependencies of association constants on DNA base composition are consistent with a requirement for one G:C pair in the binding site of the monomide, and two G:C pairs in binding sites of the diimide. These selectivities are comparable to or exceed that of actinomycin D, a classic G:C-selective drug. Protection footprinting with DNase I confirmed that the naphthalene monoiimide (N-DMPrNI) prefers to bind adjacent to G:C base pairs, with a most consistent preference for "mixed" steps containing both a G:C and an A:T pair, excepting GA:TC. Several 5'-CG-3' steps were also good binding sites as indicated by nuclease protection, but few GC:GC or GG:CC steps were protected. The naphthalene diimide inhibited DNase I digestion, but did not yield a footprint. The base recognition ability and versatile chemistry make naphthalene imides and diimides attractive building blocks for design of highly sequence-specific, DNA-directed drug candidates including conjugated oligonucleotides or oligopeptides.

  1. EVIDENCE FOR THE UNIVERSALITY OF PROPERTIES OF RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES IN X-RAY- AND RED-SEQUENCE-SELECTED CLUSTERS AT z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, R.; Wilson, G.; DeGroot, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Rettura, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, KS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van der Burg, R. F. J. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique—CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Muzzin, A. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Barrio Universitario. Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Nantais, Julie [Grupo Astronomi´a, Departamento de Ciencias Fi´sicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Yee, H., E-mail: ryan.foltz@email.ucr.edu, E-mail: gillian.wilson@ucr.edu, E-mail: adegr001@ucr.edu, E-mail: arettura@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: remco.van-der-burg@cea.fr, E-mail: avmuzzin@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: clidman@aao.gov.au, E-mail: rdemarco@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: julie.nantais@unab.cl, E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca [Dept of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2015-10-20

    We study the slope, intercept, and scatter of the color–magnitude and color–mass relations for a sample of 10 infrared red-sequence-selected clusters at z ∼ 1. The quiescent galaxies in these clusters formed the bulk of their stars above z ≳ 3 with an age spread Δt ≳ 1 Gyr. We compare UVJ color–color and spectroscopic-based galaxy selection techniques, and find a 15% difference in the galaxy populations classified as quiescent by these methods. We compare the color–magnitude relations from our red-sequence selected sample with X-ray- and photometric-redshift-selected cluster samples of similar mass and redshift. Within uncertainties, we are unable to detect any difference in the ages and star formation histories of quiescent cluster members in clusters selected by different methods, suggesting that the dominant quenching mechanism is insensitive to cluster baryon partitioning at z ∼ 1.

  2. Bis-intercalation of homodimeric thiazole orange dye derivatives in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M; Hamed, A A; Pedersen, E B; Jacobsen, J P

    1999-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye 1,1'-(4,4,8,8-tetramethyl-4, 8-diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-2(3H)-benzo-1 ,3-thiazolylidene)methyl]quinolinium tetraiodide (TOTO) binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in a sequence selective bis-intercalation. We have examined the binding of derivatives of TOTO with different substituents on the benzothiazole ring. The analogues are the following: 1,1'-(4,4,8,8-tetramethyl-4, 8-diazaundecamethylene)-[4-[3-(benzyl-2, 3-dihydro-2-(3H)-benzothiazolylidene)methyl]quinolinium]-[4-[3-(++ +methy l-2, 3-dihydro-2-(3H)-benzothiazolylidene)methyl]quinolinium]tetraio dide (TOTOBzl) and 1,1'-(4,4,8,8-tetramethyl-4, 8-diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[(3-ethyl-2,3-dihydro-2(3H)-benzo-1, 3-thiazole)methyl]quinolinium tetraiodide (TOTOEt). In this paper, we report the synthesis of TOTOBzl and TOTOEt together with the one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR investigations of complexes between these TOTO analogues and the dsDNA oligonucleotide d(CGCTAGCG)2. Both analogues yield extremely stable complexes in which each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site. The linker spans over two base pairs in the minor groove. The benzyl group in TOTOBzl and the ethyl groups in TOTOEt is pointing outward in the major groove.

  3. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  4. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  5. Minority Leadership Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Harry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Potential sources of resistance to minority managers include issues of perceived competence, leader-follower fit, and supervision of same-race subordinates. Awareness of these issues can guide the preprofessional preparation of minority managers and training and support once they enter the workplace. (SK)

  6. Rev1 and Polzeta influence toxicity and mutagenicity of Me-lex, a sequence selective N3-adenine methylating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Paola; Ciribilli, Yari; Russo, Debora; Bisio, Alessandra; Perfumo, Chiara; Andreotti, Virginia; Menichini, Paola; Inga, Alberto; Huang, Xiaofen; Gold, Barry; Fronza, Gilberto

    2008-03-01

    The relative toxicity and mutagenicity of Me-lex, which selectively generates 3-methyladenine (3-MeA), is dependent on the nature of the DNA repair background. Base excision repair (BER)-defective S. cerevisiae strains mag1 and apn1apn2 were both significantly more sensitive to Me-lex toxicity, but only the latter is significantly more prone to Me-lex-induced mutagenesis. To examine the contribution of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in the bypass of Me-lex-induced lesions, the REV3 and REV1 genes were independently deleted in the parental yeast strain and in different DNA repair-deficient derivatives: the nucleotide excision repair (NER)-deficient rad14, and the BER-deficient mag1 or apn1apn2 strains. The strains contained an integrated ADE2 reporter gene under control of the transcription factor p53. A centromeric yeast expression vector containing the wild-type p53 cDNA was treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of Me-lex and transformed into the different yeast strains. The toxicity of Me-lex-induced lesions was evaluated based on the plasmid transformation efficiency compared to the untreated vector, while Me-lex mutagenicity was assessed using the p53 reporter assay. In the present study, we demonstrate that disruption of Polzeta (through deletion of its catalytic subunit coded by REV3) or Rev1 (by REV1 deletion) increased Me-lex lethality and decreased Me-lex mutagenicity in both the NER-defective (rad14) and BER-defective (mag1; apn1apn2) strains. Therefore, Polzeta and Rev1 contribute to resistance of the lethal effects of Me-lex-induced lesions (3-MeA and derived AP sites) by bypassing lesions and fixing some mutations.

  7. BINARY MINOR PLANETS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  8. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  9. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  10. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  11. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi; Sri Maliawan; Ketut Siki Kawiyana

    2013-01-01

    Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although ...

  12. Resilience in Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnestad, Arve; Larsen, Anne-Mari; Nguluka, Stella

    2010-01-01

    In this study we compare the situation of two minorities, the San people of Botswana and the Travellers in Norway. We want to explore how their way of life, their culture, travelling then want to show how knowledge of resilience and protective factors can be important for the survival and development of minority cultures in general and for the life and education of children in particular. 7044 Trondheim

  13. Unsupervised ensemble minority clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzàlez Pellicer, Edgar; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis lies at the core of most unsupervised learning tasks. However, the majority of clustering algorithms depend on the all-in assumption, in which all objects belong to some cluster, and perform poorly on minority clustering tasks, in which a small fraction of signal data stands against a majority of noise. The approaches proposed so far for minority clustering are supervised: they require the number and distribution of the foreground and background clusters. In supervised learni...

  14. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  15. Minority Representation, Empowerment, and Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banducci, S.A.; Donovan, Todd; Karp, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    According to the minority empowerment thesis, minority representation strengthens representational links, fosters more positive attitudes toward government, and encourages political participation. We examine this theory from a cross-national perspective, making use of surveys that sampled minorities

  16. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  17. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  18. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational Equality among China's Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Julia; Hong, Xiao

    1989-01-01

    Examines China's efforts toward educating its 55 minority groups. Discusses minority educational policies, facilities expansion, and continued low enrollment and low educational attainment in minority areas. Contains 18 references and statistics on schools, minority population percentages by province, enrollment by year, literacy rates, and…

  20. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    . The article addresses how school as social site constituted by discursive, material and social arrangements shapes a normative linear process of becoming at school, that is, becoming a responsible, healthy, Danish citizen. Consequently, dissonance between embodied being and expected normality affects...... the emotional well-being of ethnic minority students, whose transnational practices are constrained within a national practice architecture....

  1. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  2. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If this is not possible, put a cool, clean wet cloth on the burn, or soak the burn in a cool water bath for 5 minutes. ... After the burn is cooled, make sure it is a minor burn. If it is deeper, ... You may put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum ...

  3. Minority Game With Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, H. F.; Chow, F. K.; Ho, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    To study the interplay between global market choice and local peer pressure, we construct a minority-game-like econophysical model. In this so-called networked minority game model, every selfish player uses both the historical minority choice of the population and the historical choice of one's neighbors in an unbiased manner to make decision. Results of numerical simulation show that the level of cooperation in the networked minority game differs remarkably from the original minority game as...

  4. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  5. Effect of base sequence on the DNA cross-linking properties of pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khondaker M; James, Colin H; Thurston, David E

    2011-07-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) dimers are synthetic sequence-selective DNA minor-groove cross-linking agents that possess two electrophilic imine moieties (or their equivalent) capable of forming covalent aminal linkages with guanine C2-NH(2) functionalities. The PBD dimer SJG-136, which has a C8-O-(CH(2))(3)-O-C8'' central linker joining the two PBD moieties, is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials and current research is focused on developing analogues of SJG-136 with different linker lengths and substitution patterns. Using a reversed-phase ion pair HPLC/MS method to evaluate interaction with oligonucleotides of varying length and sequence, we recently reported (JACS, 2009, 131, 13 756) that SJG-136 can form three different types of adducts: inter- and intrastrand cross-linked adducts, and mono-alkylated adducts. These studies have now been extended to include PBD dimers with a longer central linker (C8-O-(CH(2))(5)-O-C8'), demonstrating that the type and distribution of adducts appear to depend on (i) the length of the C8/C8'-linker connecting the two PBD units, (ii) the positioning of the two reactive guanine bases on the same or opposite strands, and (iii) their separation (i.e. the number of base pairs, usually ATs, between them). Based on these data, a set of rules are emerging that can be used to predict the DNA-interaction behaviour of a PBD dimer of particular C8-C8' linker length towards a given DNA sequence. These observations suggest that it may be possible to design PBD dimers to target specific DNA sequences.

  6. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the role that mass media can play in the preservation or weakening of minority languages. By comparing different measures of protection adopted by national and regional authorities in Italy, the article ...

  7. The Effectiveness of Minority Teachers on Minority Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose P.

    This paper examines the shortage of minority teachers and explores the high priority that exists among parents, teachers, and the business community to work toward a diversified teaching force, focusing on the U.S. Hispanic population and investigating whether minority teachers in the classroom can result in minority student success in school. The…

  8. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the

  9. A deoxyribozyme that harnesses light to repair thymine dimers in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnapen, Daniel J.-F.; Sen, Dipankar

    2003-01-01

    In vitro selection was used to investigate whether nucleic acid enzymes are capable of catalyzing photochemical reactions. The reaction chosen was photoreactivation of thymine cyclobutane dimers in DNA by using serotonin as cofactor and light of wavelengths longer than the absorption spectrum of DNA. Curiously, the dominant single-stranded DNA sequence selected, UV1A, was found to repair its internal thymine dimer substrate efficiently even in the absence of serotonin or any other cofactor. U...

  10. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  11. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  12. The left minor fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J H

    1986-11-01

    A left minor fissure (LMF) has been described anatomically as being present in 8%-18% of left lungs. Analogous to the right minor fissure (RMF), the LMF separates the anterior segment of the left upper lobe from the lingula. Two thousand consecutive normal radiographic examinations of the adult chest (posteroanterior, left lateral views with the subjects in the erect position) were reviewed prospectively. A definite LMF was identified in 32 of the subjects (1.6%). The fissure was dome-shaped (convex superior) on at least one projection in 26 (81%) of 32 subjects. The position of the LMF was usually more cephalad than that of the RMF (25 of 31 subjects, or 81%). The lateral end of the LMF was usually superior to the medial end (25 of 32; 78%) and rarely inferior to the medial end (three of 32; 9%). The LMF infrequently was horizontal (four of 32; 12%). In a number of additional patients whose control chest radiographs showed no evidence of an LMF, subsequent radiographs revealed an LMF outlined by active pulmonary or pleural disease.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  14. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  15. DNA damage and mutation. Types of DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Chakarov, Stoyan; Petkova, Rumena; Russev,George Ch; Zhelev, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    This review outlines the basic types of DNA damage caused by exogenous and endogenous factors, analyses the possible consequences of each type of damage and discusses the need for different types of DNA repair. The mechanisms by which a minor damaging event to DNA may eventually result in the introduction of heritable mutation/s are reviewed. The major features of the role of DNA damage in ageing and carcinogenesis are outlined and the role of iatrogenic DNA damage in human health and dis...

  16. DNA damage and mutation. Types of DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Stoyan; Petkova, Rumena; Russev, George Ch; Zhelev, Nikolai

    2014-02-01

    This review outlines the basic types of DNA damage caused by exogenous and endogenous factors, analyses the possible consequences of each type of damage and discusses the need for different types of DNA repair. The mechanisms by which a minor damaging event to DNA may eventually result in the introduction of heritable mutation/s are reviewed. The major features of the role of DNA damage in ageing and carcinogenesis are outlined and the role of iatrogenic DNA damage in human health and disease (with curative intent as well as a long-term adverse effect of genotoxic therapies) are discussed in detail.

  17. MINORITY UNDERGRADUATE NURSING STUDENT SUCCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Denise K; DeCrane, Susan K; Edwards, Nancy; Foli, Karen J; Tennant, Kathleen F

    2016-01-01

    Minority providers are more likely to practice in underserved areas with minority populations. Currently the representation of minorities in healthcare professions is less than that of the United States population. More research is needed to examine specific variables associated with educational success of minority students. The purpose of this study is to examine, and increase the understanding of, current factors that influence success among ethnic and minority nursing students. The revised Minority Student Nurse Questionnaire (MSNQ) was utilized for this study with a sample of 31 students from 2 entry-level nursing programs in the Midwest. Minority students were slightly older than traditional college students and consisted of African-American Black, Native (American) Indian, Asian, Hispanic/Latino, and Hawaiian. Students reported multiple factors that influenced their higher education experience. Academic services and cultural organizations were available, free, but were used by less than half of the students. Several sources of financial assistance are important, including scholarships, federal subsidized and unsubsidized loans, and grants. Students most strongly disagreed with the statement that 'the number of minorities in this program is representative of the number of minorities overall.' Students felt that several services were supportive and helpful strategies for success. Although progress has been made to improve success of minority students, numbers continue to lag between demographic population overall.

  18. Rhipicephalus microplus dataset of nonredundant raw sequence reads from 454 GS FLX sequencing of Cot-selected (Cot = 660) genomic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reassociation kinetics-based approach was used to reduce the complexity of genomic DNA from the Deutsch laboratory strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, to facilitate genome sequencing. Selected genomic DNA (Cot value = 660) was sequenced using 454 GS FLX technology, resulting in 356...

  19. A Qualitative and Quantitative Assay to Study DNA/Drug Interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the use of restriction inhibition assay (RIA) to study the binding specificity of some anticancer drugs. Methods: A 448 bp DNA fragment derived from pBCKS+ plasmid (harboring the polylinker region with multiple restriction endonuclease sites) was used as a template for sequence selective inhibition of ...

  20. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...

  1. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  2. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including......In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  3. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  4. Minority game with peer pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Chow, F. K.; Ho, K. H.

    2004-02-01

    To study the interplay between global market choice and local peer pressure, we construct a minority-game-like econophysical model. In this so-called networked minority game model, every selfish player uses both the historical minority choice of the population and the historical choice of one's neighbors in an unbiased manner to make decision. Results of numerical simulation show that the level of cooperation in the networked minority game differs remarkably from the original minority game as well as the prediction of the crowd-anticrowd theory. We argue that the deviation from the crowd-anticrowd theory is due to the negligence of the effect of a four point correlation function in the effective Hamiltonian of the system.

  5. Single molecule high-throughput footprinting of small and large DNA ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosas, Maria; Camunas-Soler, Joan; Croquette, Vincent; Ritort, Felix

    2017-08-21

    Most DNA processes are governed by molecular interactions that take place in a sequence-specific manner. Determining the sequence selectivity of DNA ligands is still a challenge, particularly for small drugs where labeling or sequencing methods do not perform well. Here, we present a fast and accurate method based on parallelized single molecule magnetic tweezers to detect the sequence selectivity and characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of binding in a single assay. Mechanical manipulation of DNA hairpins with an engineered sequence is used to detect ligand binding as blocking events during DNA unzipping, allowing determination of ligand selectivity both for small drugs and large proteins with nearly base-pair resolution in an unbiased fashion. The assay allows investigation of subtle details such as the effect of flanking sequences or binding cooperativity. Unzipping assays on hairpin substrates with an optimized flat free energy landscape containing all binding motifs allows determination of the ligand mechanical footprint, recognition site, and binding orientation.Mapping the sequence specificity of DNA ligands remains a challenge, particularly for small drugs. Here the authors develop a parallelized single molecule magnetic tweezers approach using engineered DNA hairpins that can detect sequence selectivity, thermodynamics and kinetics of binding for small drugs and large proteins.

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    modifications are tolerated in DNA:RNA hybrids but leave their melting temperatures virtually unaffected. Fluorescence data indicate that the pyrene moiety is residing outside the helix. The available data suggest that the DNA discrimination is due to (i) the positive charge of the piperazino ring having...... a greater impact in the narrow and deep minor groove of a B-type dsDNA duplex than in the wide and shallow minor groove of an A-type DNA:RNA hybrid and (ii) the B-type dsDNA duplex allowing the pyrene to intercalate and bury its apolar surface.......We report the synthesis of two C4'-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4'-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilization...

  7. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  8. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among other minorities. 3 Self-reported rates of DUI are highest among mixed race and Native Americans ... 4 Hispanics are overrepresented among drunk drivers and DUI-related fatalities. 5 Between 2001 and 2005, alcohol ...

  9. NAFTA Minor Use Joint Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) worked together to develop a registration process that will permit a regulatory decision of pesticide uses for the minor use grower communities in both countries simultaneously.

  10. Recruiting Minority Women, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The number of special resources for recruiting minority women is, although still limited, slowly increasing. The document lists studies and handbooks, directories, registries and placement agencies, national organizations and women's groups, publications and directories of other media. (MJM)

  11. Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual minorities encounter unique challenges due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression that often prevents them from achieving their full academic potential or participating fully in the campus community. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)

  12. Artificial DNA made exclusively of nonnatural C-nucleosides with four types of nonnatural bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuhiro; Chiba, Junya; Morikawa, Tomoyuki; Inouye, Masahiko

    2008-07-09

    We describe a new class of DNA-like oligomers made exclusively of nonnatural, stable C-nucleosides. The nucleosides comprise four types of nonnatural bases attached to a deoxyribose through an acetylene bond with the beta-configuration. The artificial DNA forms right-handed duplexes and triplexes with the complementary artificial DNA. The hybridization occurs spontaneously and sequence-selectively, and the resulting duplexes have thermal stabilities very close to those of natural duplexes. The artificial DNA might be applied to a future extracellular genetic system with information storage and amplifiable abilities.

  13. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  14. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of numbered minor planets has now well exceeded a quarter million. The new sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, which is the IAU’s official reference work for the field, now covers more than 17,000 named minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names provides authoritative information on the basis of the rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to artists, from scientists to Nobel laureates, from historical or political figures to ordinary women and men, from mountains to buildings, as well as a variety of compound terms and curiosities. This sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names has grown by more than 7,000 entries compared to the fifth edition and by more than 2,000 compared to the fifth edition, including its two addenda published in 2006 and 2009. In addition, there are many  corrections, revisions and updates to the entries published in earlier editions....

  15. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  16. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  17. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  18. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  19. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  20. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its place, it recommended that a “Bill of Rights” patterned along the European Convention on Human Rights be incorporated into the independence constitution as a way of guaranteeing minority rights through national integration. Consequently, copious provisions to protect some basic human rights and fundamental ...

  1. Novel C8-linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD)-heterocycle conjugates that recognize DNA sequences containing an inverted CCAAT box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucoli, Federico; Hawkins, Rachel M; James, Colin H; Wells, Geoff; Jenkins, Terence C; Ellis, Tom; Hartley, John A; Howard, Philip W; Thurston, David E

    2011-06-15

    A series of novel DNA-interactive C8-linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD)-heterocycle polyamide conjugates has been synthesised to explore structure/sequence-selectivity relationships. One conjugate (2d) has a greater selectivity and DNA binding affinity for inverted CCAAT sequences within the Topoisomerase IIα promoter than the known C8-bis-pyrrole PBD conjugate GWL-78 (1b). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 38 CFR 1.464 - Minor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor patients. 1.464....464 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part the term... law not requiring parental consent to treatment. If a minor patient acting alone has the legal...

  3. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  4. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  5. Language Minority Students and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonis, Eleanor Wall

    1989-01-01

    In developing appropriate reading instruction for language minority children, the following factors should be considered: the developmental nature of literacy, the connection between speech and print, the conventions of the writing system, the importance of comprehension, the role of native language and literacy, and the transferability of skills.…

  6. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  7. Comparison of DNA extraction kits and modification of DNA elution procedure for the quantitation of subdominant bacteria from piggery effluents with real‐time PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Desneux, Jérémy; Pourcher, Anne‐Marie

    2014-01-01

    Four commercial DNA extraction kits and a minor modification in the DNA elution procedure were evaluated for the quantitation of bacteria in pig manure samples. The PowerSoil ® , PowerFecal ® , NucleoSpin...

  8. Spies in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You-Yang; Xu, Chen; Gu, Guo-Qing; Hui, Pak Ming

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of the existence of another type of agents, called spies, in the minority game (MG). Unlike the normal agents in the MG, the spies do not carry any strategy. Instead, they decide their action by scouting some normal agents and take the minority action of the spied group. For a few spies and when there is useful information in the normal agents’ actions, the spies can avoid the crowd effect of the normal agents and win more readily. When information becomes less useful and when more spies are present, the spies’ crowd effect hurts the success rate of the spies themselves, and the normal agents could have a higher success rate than the spies. More spies actually assist more normal agents to win, as the spies also provide more winning quotas. This leads to a nonmonotonic behavior in the total success rate of the population as a function of the fraction of spies.

  9. Minority language dubbing for children

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Eithne

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is an exercise in descriptive translation studies (DTS) which sets out to investigate the much neglected area of screen translation for children. The corpus selected for investigation is a collection of six original television programmes from the German Janoschs Traumstunde animation series and the corresponding Irish dubbed versions. The aim of this research is to investigate the relative influence of the various constraints imposed on the target texts by a) the major/minority la...

  10. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... theoretical shortcomings with regard to understanding processes of learning, the expansion of learning possibilities, and ways to transcend marginalisation in concrete practice. As Phoenix puts it, to transcend inequality is "not a matter of ‘changing attitudes' but of understanding how, so early, children...

  11. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health Share Tweet Linkedin ... health disparities The importance of including minorities in clinical trials Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Español The Food ...

  12. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  13. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as one...

  14. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  15. Majoritarian tyranny in a world of minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.R.M. Salih (Mohamed)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the political upheavals, conflicts, war and genocide generated by unequal and unjust minority-majority relations, the term minority people entered social science terminology for the first time in 19321 • According to Davis (1979: 2), minority studies were initially largely

  16. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... promote non- discrimination, diversity and the inclusion of women, minorities, and the disabled in all...-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section...

  17. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor... patient acting alone has the legal capacity under the applicable State law to apply for and obtain alcohol...

  18. Radical Recruitment Strategies for Minority Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Charles A.; Watkins, Regina M.

    This article proposes that minority students who might be successful in the education profession be evaluated for college entrance using an individually administered test of intelligence. More minorities with the appropriate educational background are needed in the education profession. Typical recruitment of minority students involves seeking…

  19. 11 CFR 9002.7 - Minor party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor party. 9002.7 Section 9002.7 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.7 Minor party. Minor party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential election received, as a candidate of such party, 5 percent or more...

  20. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  1. Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  2. Modeling DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  3. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities...... in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  4. Viral hepatitis in minority America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Renard A; Vega, Kenneth J

    2005-02-01

    Viral hepatitis continues as an important public health concern in the United States. Available data indicate that acute and chronic viral hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this country despite the availability of immunization for hepatitis A and B and pharmacologic therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C. Minority populations within the United States are disproportionately affected by acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Many diseases, for example, Barrett's esophagus, affect ethnic groups differently. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C may demonstrate ethnic variation with regard to their epidemiology, natural history, clinicopatholgic findings, complications, and treatment outcomes. This report will review the literature regarding these areas in hepatitis A, B, and C among the African American, Hispanic American, and Native American populations of the United States.

  5. Development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) via 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sina; Wöhrmann, Tina; Huettel, Bruno; Weising, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) to evaluate the level of clonality, population structure, and genetic diversity of the species within its native and introduced range. A total of 1371 microsatellites were found in 43,565 reads from 454 pyrosequencing of genomic V. minor DNA. Additional microsatellite loci were mined from publicly available cDNA sequences. After several rounds of screening, 18 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in two native Italian populations, with two to 11 alleles per locus. Clonal growth predominated in two populations from the introduced range in Germany. Five loci successfully cross-amplified in three additional Vinca species. The novel polymorphic microsatellite markers are promising tools for studying clonality and population genetics of V. minor and for assessing the historical origin of Central European populations.

  6. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-05-01

    Hydra is a simple freshwater solitary polyp used as a model system to study evolutionary aspects. The immune response of this organism has not been studied extensively and the immune response genes have not been identified and characterized. On the other hand, immune response has been investigated and genetic analysis has been initiated in other lower invertebrates. In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  7. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  8. Graduate education in oncology nursing for minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houldin, Arlene D; Reville, Barbara; Boland, Barbara A; Jacobs, Linda A; Hayes, Sandra L

    2002-01-01

    Cancer statistics reveal disturbing morbidity and mortality rates among minorities, especially African Americans. A program to recruit and train minority nurses as Oncology Advanced Practice Nurses was developed at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. Since 1992, 30 African American, five Asian/Pacific Islander, and five Hispanic nurses have been supported during advanced oncology nursing study. Graduates have assumed positions of clinical and academic leadership in oncology nursing. This project strengthened the ability of a graduate program in oncology nursing to respond to needs related to the education of minority students and to the care of minority populations with cancer.

  9. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  10. Conormal Geometry of Maximal Minors

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiman, S L

    1997-01-01

    Let A be a Noetherian local domain, N be a finitely generated torsion- free module, and M a proper submodule that is generically equal to N. Let A[N] be an arbitrary graded overdomain of A generated as an A-algebra by N placed in degree 1. Let A[M] be the subalgebra generated by M. Set C:=Proj(A[M]) and r:=dim C. Form the (closed) subset W of Spec(A) of primes p where A[N]_p is not a finitely generated module over A[M]_p, and denote the preimage of W in C by E. We prove this: (1) dim E=r-1 if either (a) N is free and A[N] is the symmetric algebra, or (b) W is nonempty and A is universally catenary, and (2) E is equidimensional if (a) holds and A is universally catenary. Our proof was inspired by some recent work of Gaffney and Massey, which we sketch; they proved (2) when A is the ring of germs of a complex- analytic variety, and applied it to perfect a characterization of Thom's A_f-condition in equisingularity theory. From (1), we recover, with new proofs, the usual height inequality for maximal minors and ...

  11. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  12. DNA Attraction in Monovalent and Divalent Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Binquan; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the effective force on the distance between two DNA molecules was directly computed from a set of extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations revealed that in a monovalent electrolyte the effective force is repulsive at short and long distances, but can be attractive in the intermediate range. This attractive force is, however, too weak (~5pN per turn of a DNA helix) to induce DNA condensation in the presence of thermal fluctuations. In divalent electrolytes, DNA molecules were observed to form a bound state, where Mg2+ ions bridged minor groves of DNA. The effective force in divalent electrolytes was predominantly attractive, reaching a maximum of 42pN per one turn of a DNA helix. PMID:18975864

  13. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah M.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hodge, Kimberley A.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal relationships between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N = 1,057) were self-...

  14. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  15. ETHNIC MINORITIES AND THE NIGERIAN STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... constitution, precisely, to protect minorities against unfriendly nature of the majorities at any moment”. ... minorities in Nigeria does not lie in the lack of constitutional provision and protection of their basic rights. ... and who have, if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity directed towards preserving their culture ...

  16. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  17. Preventing Suicide Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Marks, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are among those most likely to report suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts (suicidality). This article reviews suicidality risk factors among sexual minority youth, considering both that are common to all youth as well as factors unique to these young people. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  18. Minority Scholars--Diversity and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Minority students made up approximately 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. The composition of Central's honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity, however, few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking AP courses as seniors. In fall…

  19. Minority Teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Judith; Santos, Janet; Peck, Nancy L.; Cortes, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    When school systems began to desegregate after Brown v. Board of Education, 80 Per cent of the school population was white and 20 per cent was minority. By 1996, the number of minority students had risen to approximately 35 per cent of the student population, and today it stands at nearly 40 per cent and growing. These students continue to achieve…

  20. Teaching Minority Content: A Community Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth W.

    In an effort to develop a more effective means of teaching minority content, a course focusing on Native American issues was implemented at Northern Michigan University. The students involved in the project had very limited experience with minority group members, and those exposed to Native Americans often had negative stereotyped notions. The…

  1. SEXUAL MINORITIES: ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On a number of the objective and subjective reasons statistical information onprevalence of sexual minorities in societycauses very inconsistent estimates. Thus activity of sexual minorities predeterminesin recent years need of deep judgmentand the analysis of behavior and activityof the persons having nonconventionalsexual orientation.

  2. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  3. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, pSexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors.

  4. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  5. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include: eukaryotic gene expres- sion and infectious diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ... T -cells: Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and ... enhance DNA delivery into skeletal muscle.

  6. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  7. DNA nanostructures: Through, rather than across

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2018-02-01

    Dye molecules are shown to assemble into J-aggregate arrays by sequence-specific organization in the minor groove of DNA duplex sequences. Energy transfer through these structures displays the hallmarks of coherent coupling over distances that exceed those of conventional dipole-coupling processes.

  8. DNA Sequence Determinants Controlling Affinity, Stability and Shape of DNA Complexes Bound by the Nucleoid Protein Fis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Stephen P; Stella, Stefano; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid C

    2016-01-01

    The abundant Fis nucleoid protein selectively binds poorly related DNA sequences with high affinities to regulate diverse DNA reactions. Fis binds DNA primarily through DNA backbone contacts and selects target sites by reading conformational properties of DNA sequences, most prominently intrinsic minor groove widths. High-affinity binding requires Fis-stabilized DNA conformational changes that vary depending on DNA sequence. In order to better understand the molecular basis for high affinity site recognition, we analyzed the effects of DNA sequence within and flanking the core Fis binding site on binding affinity and DNA structure. X-ray crystal structures of Fis-DNA complexes containing variable sequences in the noncontacted center of the binding site or variations within the major groove interfaces show that the DNA can adapt to the Fis dimer surface asymmetrically. We show that the presence and position of pyrimidine-purine base steps within the major groove interfaces affect both local DNA bending and minor groove compression to modulate affinities and lifetimes of Fis-DNA complexes. Sequences flanking the core binding site also modulate complex affinities, lifetimes, and the degree of local and global Fis-induced DNA bending. In particular, a G immediately upstream of the 15 bp core sequence inhibits binding and bending, and A-tracts within the flanking base pairs increase both complex lifetimes and global DNA curvatures. Taken together, our observations support a revised DNA motif specifying high-affinity Fis binding and highlight the range of conformations that Fis-bound DNA can adopt. The affinities and DNA conformations of individual Fis-DNA complexes are likely to be tailored to their context-specific biological functions.

  9. DNA conformational analysis in solution by uranyl mediated photocleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.; Møllegaard, N E; Jeppesen, C

    1990-01-01

    Uranyl mediated photocleavage of double stranded DNA is proposed as a general probing for DNA helix conformation in terms of minor groove width/electronegative potential. Specifically, it is found that A/T-tracts known to constitute strong distamycin binding sites are preferentially photocleaved ......, uranyl photocleavage of the internal control region (ICR) of the 5S-RNA gene yields a cleavage modulation pattern fully compatible with that obtained by DNase I which also--in a more complex way--senses DNA minor groove width....

  10. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. Methods An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16–24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Results Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, phomophobia partially mediated experience’s effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, phomophobia (β=.418, phomophobia (β=−.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. Conclusions With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth. PMID:26478901

  11. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16-24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, pinternalized homophobia partially mediated experience's effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, pinternalized homophobia (β=.418, pinternalized homophobia (β=-.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth.

  12. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  13. Protein-DNA complexation: contact profiles in DNA grooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Zhitnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigation of the specific protein-DNA complexation mechanisms allows to establish general principles of molecular recognition, which must be taken into account while developing artificial nanostructures based on DNA, and to improve the prediction efficiency of the protein binding sites on DNA. One of the main characteristics of the protein-DNA complexes are the number and type of contacts in the binding sites of DNA and proteins. Conformational changes in the DNA double helix can cause changes in these characteristics. Objectives: The purpose of our study is to establish the features of the interactions between nucleotides and amino acid residues in the binding sites of protein-DNA complexes and their dependence on the conformation of deoxyribose and the angle γ of the polynucleotide chain. Materials and methods: At research of protein-DNA recognition process we have analyzed the contacts between amino acids and nucleotides of the 128 protein-DNA complexes from the structural databases. Conformational parameters of DNA backbone were calculated using the 3DNA/CompDNA program. The number of contacts was determined using a geometric criterion. Two protein and DNA atoms were considered to be in contact if the distance between their centers is less than 4.5 Å. Amino acid residues were arranged according to hydrophobicity scale as hydrophobic or nonpolar and polar. Results: The analysis of contacts between polar and hydrophobic residues and nucleotides with different conformations of the sugar-phosphate backbone showed that nucleotides form more contacts with polar amino acids in both grooves than with hydrophobic ones regardless of nucleotide conformation. But the profile of such contacts differs in minor and major grooves and depends on the conformation of both deoxyribose and γ angle. The contact profiles are characterized by the sequence-specificity or the different propensity of nucleotides to form contacts with the residues in

  14. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attributions to sexual minority women's academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleaf, Kathy J

    2014-01-01

    Narratives from 33 sexual minority women were examined to discover what factors contributed to their ability to acquire academic success, and what, if any, attributions are evident in some sexual minority women's experiences that provide the ability to persist and graduate. Coping strategies the participants used to gain the resiliency and persistence necessary to acquire academic success are discussed. Intrinsic themes were work ethic values, altruism, and self-efficacy. Extrinsic themes were mentors, family, and friends. Sexual minority women identified the complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic attributions that were used to successfully complete a four-year undergraduate degree in the United States.

  16. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  17. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  18. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  19. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  20. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the human ge- nome, the ratio between coding and non-coding DNA is very low (less than 3% of the human .... construction of a Tm-specific chip, i.e. all the oligos/cDNA on the chip will hybridize at the same temperature. The techniques available are still not able to create a chip ...

  1. Effect of salts, solvents and buffer on miRNA detection using DNA silver nanocluster (DNA/AgNCs) probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun; Waaben Thulstrup, Peter; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Ahn, Jong Cheol; Choi, Suk Won; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Yang, Seong Wook

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs (size ˜21 nt to ˜25 nt) which regulate a variety of important cellular events in plants, animals and single cell eukaryotes. Especially because of their use in diagnostics of human diseases, efforts have been directed towards the invention of a rapid, simple and sequence selective detection method for miRNAs. Recently, we reported an innovative method for the determination of miRNA levels using the red fluorescent properties of DNA/silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs). Our method is based on monitoring the emission drop of a DNA/AgNCs probe in the presence of its specific target miRNA. Accordingly, the accuracy and efficiency of the method relies on the sensitivity of hybridization between the probe and target. To gain specific and robust hybridization between probe and target, we investigated a range of diverse salts, organic solvents, and buffer to optimize target sensing conditions. Under the newly adjusted conditions, the target sensitivity and the formation of emissive DNA/AgNCs probes were significantly improved. Also, fortification of the Tris-acetate buffer with inorganic salts or organic solvents improved the sensitivity of the DNA/AgNC probes. On the basis of these optimizations, the versatility of the DNA/AgNCs-based miRNA detection method can be expanded.

  2. Development of Ionic Liquid Modified Disposable Graphite Electrodes for Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization Related to Microcystis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Sengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL modified pencil graphite electrode (IL-PGEs was developed for electrochemical monitoring of DNA hybridization related to Microcystis spp. (MYC. The characterization of IL-PGEs was performed using microscopic and electrochemical techniques. DNA hybridization related to MYC was then explored at the surface of IL-PGEs using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV technique. After the experimental parameters were optimized, the sequence-selective DNA hybridization related to MYC was performed in the case of hybridization between MYC probe and its complementary DNA target, noncomplementary (NC or mismatched DNA sequence (MM, or and in the presence of mixture of DNA target: NC (1:1 and DNA target: MM (1:1.

  3. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  4. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V6.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  5. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V5.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  6. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  7. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a data table giving basic physical and orbital parameters for known binary minor planets in the Solar System (and Pluto/Charon) based on published...

  8. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  9. International Legislation Specific to the Minor Immigrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pusca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inside the vast array characterizing the phenomenon of migration, in this paper we chose to focus our analysis on a unique and extremely delicate category: the minor immigrants. The main objective is to highlight the heterogeneity of juvenile migratory phenomenon, achieving a prospective of analyses which focuses not only on international law aimed at protecting minors but also on the flaws of European systems which ignore too often the importance of the superior interests of the child. Mainly the Convention on the Rights of the Child, signed in New York in 1959, provides a generalized protection of minor figure and it represents the legal basis for all rules directed towards children and thus to minor immigrants.

  10. Same-sex relationships and minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen Db

    2017-02-01

    Same-sex relationships are stigmatized in a culture that privileges heterosexual relationships. This stigma creates minority stress in the lives of same-sex couples. We review current research on minority stress and same-sex relationships using an ecological framework to conceptualize the sources of minority stress that impact couples. Findings from this review suggest a need for research that moves conceptually and methodologically beyond a focus on the individual to a focus on the dyad and the interpersonal, institutional, and cultural sources of minority stress that affect couple relationships. Focusing on the strengths and resiliencies of same-sex couples will also extend the research. Creating effective dyadic interventions will promote the health and well-being of same-sex couples and their families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  12. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  13. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  14. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  15. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  16. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  17. Offender minor that commit their first crime

    OpenAIRE

    Luzón García, Antonia; Domínguez Alonso, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    [EN] There a social consensus and society is positioned next to the abused child, but things change when is offender minor, then convicted and deserving of punishment. The minor offender is still being a human being with full rights under the Bill of Rights of the Child and international instruments on Human Rights. By socializing the links between the individual and the social system in which they live. Therefore, socialization and its implications are of interest for this stu...

  18. Struktury ovlivňující teplotu tání duplexů DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Vondrková, Nela

    2014-01-01

    This work is research dealing with binding agents in the minor groove of DNA. Minor groove binders (MGBs) are agents with the ability to specifically bind to specific DNA sequences. Together with DNA they form a stable complex. The degree of stability of this complex can be assessed from the change in the melting temperature of ligand/DNA complexes compared with free DNA. The structure of DNA is described in relation to its function and its importance. The basic properties of MGBs are mention...

  19. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  20. Zhang Tianlu -- expert on China's minority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G

    1991-10-01

    Zhang Tianlu, a professor at the Population Institute of Beijing College of Economics began research on the minority populations of China in the 1950s when he was a geography professor at the Central Institute of Minority Nationalities. During the cultural revolution, the government forced him and his family to work on a farm for 3 years in Hubei Province. He took some of the materials and data he collected during his tenure at the Central Institute instead of bringing his family's property and books. At night, he studied the minority populations because he believed his research would someday be valuable. In the early 1980s, the government transferred him to Beijing College of Economics to allow him to focus on the minority populations of China. He has since spent much time conducting anthropological field work to interview people from the 22 minority populations. He studied their population, economic, and educational status, marriage and family customs, and the effect these customs have had on fertility. The people received him well. He also took the opportunity while conducting his surveys to inform the people about population and family planning by pointing out the link between population and economic development. He informed them that their rapid population growth does not contribute to their prosperity. Between 1981-91, Dr. Zhang has authored 6 monographs such as Changes in Tibetan population and China's Muslim Population. The monograph Ethnic Demography was the 2nd monograph in the world on ethnic population research. He has also helped publish the only journal in the world on minority populations--Ethnic Population. In 1991, he was the chief investigator for a UNFPA funded and State Education Commission sponsored study on minority populations.

  1. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  2. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Health concerns of sexual minority adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna D; Melchiono, Maurice W

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this article is to provide an overview of up-to-date health information about sexual minority female youth so that healthcare practitioners can better serve their healthcare needs. Sexual minority adolescent girls may follow diverse sexual developmental trajectories. Many in this population are quite healthy, but some may be disproportionately vulnerable to health risks, perhaps because of the stigma associated with minority sexuality in society. If sexually active, girls in this population often have sex with boys as well as girls and confront risks attendant with sex with both genders. They may demonstrate fluidity in their sexual identity as they move through adolescence. Data suggest that sexual minority adolescent girls are more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use illicit drugs compared with girls who are heterosexual. They may be more likely to be victims of violence or victimization or to be depressed or suicidal. Sexual minority adolescent girls may be quite resilient, but they face a range of possible adverse health risks. Healthcare practitioners should keep their health issues in mind so they can offer healthcare and counseling that is sensitive, comprehensive, and appropriate.

  4. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  5. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  6. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-30

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain.

  8. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  9. Initial Development of a New Measure of Minor Stress for Adolescents: The Adolescent Minor Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steven C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nirelli, Liza M.; Patten, Christi A.; Friedrich, William N.; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop, standardize, and establish initial reliability and validity for the Adolescent Minor Stress Inventory (AMSI), a new measure of minor stress for adolescents. The AMSI improves upon existing adolescent stress measures in a number of important ways in that it does not emphasize school or classroom-based…

  10. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR... of the sponsor's primary contact person and/or permanent-resident U.S. agent including title, address...

  11. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  12. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  13. Words and Deeds: Presidential Discussion of Minority Health, Public Policies, and Minority Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillion, Daniel Q

    2017-10-01

    What are the different rhetorical approaches presidents used to address minority health inequality? More importantly, how have the efforts of presidents impacted minorities' perceptions of health? I offer a historical perspective that describes the three major periods of presidential engagement in discussions of minority health since the 1960s. I couple this historical overview with an empirical assessment that introduces a novel and extensive dataset of every presidential discussion of minority health spanning five decades (1960-2016). This study finds that, since the early 1990s, presidents have transported their discussion of minority health beyond the confines of Washington, DC, traveling to speak to local communities throughout the nation that have a disproportionate number of blacks and Latinos. Moreover, a presidential discussion of minority health leads to greater salience on this issue and thus increases public health awareness. This work suggests that presidential messaging on minority health provides a framework for minority groups to understand and discuss the health disparities that may plague their communities. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  14. Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

  15. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  16. Women and minorities science bill becomes law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton has signed into law a measure to establish a commission to identify and address problems associated with the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering fields."Today, we have taken a positive step forward to strengthen and expand our high-tech workforce by ensuring that women, minorities, and persons with disabilities have the skills necessary to compete in the Information Age," said U.S. Rep. Connie Morella (R.-Md.), who introduced the measure.

  17. 1H NMR studies of the bis-intercalation of a homodimeric oxazole yellow dye in DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, F; Jacobsen, J P

    1998-10-01

    We have used one and two dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy to characterize the binding of a homodimeric oxazole yellow dye, 1,1'-(4,4,8,8-tetramethyl-4,8-diaza-undecamethylene)-bis-4-( 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-oxazole)-2-methylidene)-quinoliniu m tetraiodide (YOYO), to oligonucleotides containing the (5'-CTAG-3')2 and the (5'-CCGG-3')2 binding sites in either different oligonucleotides or in the same oligonucleotide. YOYO bis-intercalates strongly in all the oligonucleotides used and binds preferentially to a (5'-CTAG-3')2 binding site in the oligonucleotide d(CGCTAGCG)2 (1). YOYO also binds preferentially to a (5'-CCGG-3')2 sequence in the oligonucleotide d(CGCCGGCG)2 (2) but slightly less favorably than to the (5'- CTAG-3')2 sequence in 1. The binding of YOYO to the d(CGCTAGCCGGCG):d(CGCCGGCTAGCG) (3) oligonucleotide, containing two preferential binding sites, was also examined. YOYO forms mixtures of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with oligonucleotide 3 in ratios dependent on the relative amount of YOYO and the oligonucleotides in the sample. The binding of YOYO to the oligonucleotide 3 occur sequence selective in the (5'-CTAG-3')2 site and the (5'- CCGG-3')2 site. We have also used two dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy to determine the solution structure of the DNA oligonucleotide d(5'-CGCTAGCG-3')2 complexed with YOYO. The determination of the structure was based on a total relaxation matrix analysis of the NOESY cross peaks intensities. DQF-COSY spectra were used to obtain coupling constants for the deoxyribose ring protons. The coupling constants were transformed into angle estimates. The NOE derived distance and dihedral restraints were applied in restrained molecular dynamics calculations. Twenty final structures each were generated for the YOYO-complex from both A-form and B-form dsDNA starting structures giving a total of 40 final structures. Since many NOE contacts were observed between YOYO and dsDNA the resulting structure has a fairly high resolution and

  18. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... Minor Action under the NIH Guidelines. SUMMARY: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) is updating... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  19. Genetic mutations in nonsyndromic deafness patients of Chinese minority and Han ethnicities in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Feng; Yuan, Yongyi; Deng, Xiaoming; Han, Mingyu; Wang, Guojian; Zhao, Jiandong; Gao, Xue; Liu, Jun; Yu, Fei; Han, Dongyi; Dai, Pu

    2013-12-17

    Each year in China, 30,000 babies are born with congenital hearing impairment. However, the molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Yunnan Province population where more than 52 minorities live has not been thoroughly investigated. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to these families, we investigated the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in this population. Unrelated students with hearing loss (n = 235) who attended Kunming Huaxia secondary specialized school in Yunnan enrolled in this study. Three prominent deafness-related genes, GJB2, SLC26A4 and mtDNA 12S rRNA, were analyzed. High-resolution temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scan examinations were performed in 100 cases, including 16 cases with SLC26A4 gene variants, and 37 minorities and 47 Han cases without any SLC26A4 gene mutation. The GJB2 mutation was detected in 16.67% (7/42) of minority patients and 17.62% (34/193) of Chinese Han patients (P > 0.05). 235delC was the hotspot mutation in nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) patients, whereas 35delG was not found. The 431_450del19 mutation was detected for the first time in Han NSHL patients, which resulted in a premature stop codon and changed the protein. The SLC26A4 mutation was found in 9.52% (4/42) of minority patients and 9.84% (19/193) of Han Chinese patients (P > 0.05). The frequencies of mtDNA 12S rRNA mutation in minority and Han Chinese patients were 11.90% (5/42) and 7.77% (15/193; P > 0.05), respectively. Sixteen (16/23, 69.57%) patients with SLC26A4 mutations received temporal bone CT scan, and 14 patients were diagnosed with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVAs); the other 2 patients had normal inner ear development. The ratio of EVA in the minorities was 14.63% (6/41). In this study, a total of 35.74% deaf patients showed evidence of genetic involvement, based on either genetic screening or family history; 17.45%, 9.79%, and 8.51% of the patients were determined to have inherited hearing

  20. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  1. Liberal Critique of the Minority Rights’ Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Majetić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies regarding the minority rights’ concept within liberal theory are opening up a debate in the political and academic communities of the Western democracies. Minority rights are discussed from the point of view of liberalism since it is more hospitable as a theory than conservatism and socialism, and due to the fact that it defines political morals in those countries. The aim of this article is to offer answers to some of the debate’s key questions. Should the liberals accept the model of universal individual rights combined with special minority rights within the liberal concept of social justice, founded on the principle of individual equality? Is a generalized, “non-discriminative” concept, such as the Western democracies’ key for fair treatment of ethno-cultural issues, really fair? Where are the limits of liberal tolerance set, and can liberalism be the cultures’ intersection point? By analyzing the opposed positions of various significant liberal theoreticians about the afore-mentioned and other issues, this article points to the questionable consistency of liberal critique of national and ethnic minority rights on the level of political legitimacy whilst this question remains open on the theoretical stage.

  2. Language choice in a minority school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, M. S.

    1985-12-01

    This article arises from fieldwork in a school of the German minority in South Jutland, Denmark. The minority exists as a result of frontier changes between Germany and Denmark, most recently in 1920. A referendum held in that year as a result of the Treaty of Versailles left a cultural and linguistic minority which, by today, has its own school system, politial party and cultural rights. The research was carried out using qualitative, ethnographic methods and the article focuses on one aspect, namely the issue of language use by bilingual pupils in one of the minority's schools. Pupils' choice of Danish or German in different situations within and outside schools was analyzed through the use of language diaries, informal interviews, and participant observation. The diary entries are analyzed and commented on in the light of interviews and observations. Pupils' awareness of their language use is not static but becomes dynamic as a consequence of being involved in research. The implications of this for educational policy are considered in the context of current developments in language education in British schools.

  3. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  4. Toric ideals and diagonal 2-minors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Katsampekis (Anargyros)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLet $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set ${1,\\ldots,n}$. An algebraic object attached to $G$ is the ideal $P_G$ generated by diagonal 2-minors of an $n \\times n$ matrix of variables. In this paper we first provide some general results concerning the ideal $P_G$. It is also proved that

  5. Sexual Minority Students. Technical Assistance Sampler On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet discusses issues facing sexual minority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a…

  6. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preserving their culture (resources), tradition, religion or languages. (Thornberry 1980:257). Thus in ... Koreans in Japan, the Chinese in Malaysia and the residual European and. Asian minorities in Eastern and .... the traditional predominance of the three major ethnic groups); the somewhat centrist revenue sharing policy ...

  7. WHEN WHITE CHILDREN ARE IN THE MINORITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSNER, JOSEPH

    A STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE ATTITUDES TOWARD SELF, COLOR, AND RACIAL ROLE OF SELECTED WHITE BOYS IN TWO DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS IS PRESENTED. ONE GROUP OF CHILDREN CONSISTED OF A MINORITY OF WHITES IN AN INSTITUTIONAL SETTING, AND THE OTHER WAS A MAJORITY GROUP OF WHITE CHILDREN. THE RESEARCH EXPLORED WHETHER GROUP BEHAVIOR WAS BASED ON GROUP STATUS…

  8. The Social Impact of Majorities and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latane, Bibb; Wolf, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    A new theory of social impact is proposed and related to prior work. Social influences result from forces operating in a social force field. Influence by either a majority or a minority is a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of its members. Conformity and innovation are compared. (Author/RD)

  9. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- hives. Each had food in its bill, apparently insects or ... I recorded that two beehives had holes in the bottom of them. That with the nest was approximately 5 m ... London: A & C Black. Marian R. Scena. P.O. Box 510, Singida, ...

  10. Stillbirth in an Anglophone minority of Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in stillbirth over time for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, a large Canadian province with publically funded health care and an English-speaking minority. METHODS: We calculated stillbirth rates for Francophones and Anglophones, and estimated hazard ratios (HR...

  11. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n =

  12. Approaches to Lao Minors Working in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have observed in Thailand a growing number of working Lao minors. By law, these may be regarded as victims of human trafficking. This paper observes, however, that some older teenagers who are still under 18 may be seeking and finding legitimate working positions. The

  13. Jewish Multicultural Education: A Minority View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    1996-01-01

    Rejecting assimilationist notions, proposes Jewish education emphasize the Jewish minority status and sense of separateness. Recommends that Jewish education stress commands and customs that reassert ethnic identity as well as foods, fashion, festivals, and family. Defends this approach on sociological and theological grounds. (MJP)

  14. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  15. Minority Groups: A Bibliography and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    The books, films, recordings, song books, and additional sources recommended in this annotated bibliography and supplement on minority groups are listed in sections intended for general reference, elementary students, secondary students, and teacher reference. Although the preponderance of sources deal with the history and culture of the American…

  16. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  17. ERIC References on Urban and Minority Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Pauline M., Comp.

    1980-01-01

    This issue of the "Equal Opportunity Review" is devoted to an annotated bibliography to be used as a guide to recent literature on urban and minority education accessible through the ERIC system. The following topics are addressed in the bibliography: (1) integration and urban life (46 citations); (2) bilingual, bicultural, and multicultural…

  18. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the extrinsic…

  19. Racial Discrimination in Minors' Access to Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.; Alcaraz, Roxanna

    1997-01-01

    When eight black and eight white children tried to purchase cigarettes in California, where purchase by minors is illegal, black children were sold cigarettes significantly more often, especially in black neighborhoods and by nonblack clerks, and adult customers made no effort to stop them. Implications for smoking prevention are discussed. (SLD)

  20. The daily life of urban ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This

  1. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency of hea...

  2. Minority Students' Self-Control of Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Leon

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects of self-monitoring alone and self-monitoring plus self-reward on three academic and three related procrastinative behaviors of six academically disadvantaged minority college students. Self-monitoring plus self-reward was effective in producing substantial increases in academic behaviors and grades and in producing decreases in…

  3. Minorities and the Quest for Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ortego y Gasca, Felipe

    Distorted images of American minorities are reflected in all spheres of American life, including academic and public policies. Some specific examples include: (1) Harvard's 1922 quota system for Jews, the university's pattern of white supremacy, and bias in its scholarly research; (2) the relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II; (3)…

  4. Downsizing without Discriminating against Minorities and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara S.; Wolfe, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Two waves of personnel layoffs at Stanford University (California) provide two case studies in how to address and protect the interests, concerns, and perceptions of minority and women staff members in a climate that mandates streamlined work modes. Guidelines for other institutions are suggested. (MSE)

  5. Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.

  6. European minority languages: endangered or revived?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.; de Graaf, T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    A diagnosis is offered of language learning factors that contribute to the revival of European minority languages. In this paper four frameworks will be discussed. [1] The theory of Reversing Language Shift (Fishman 1991, 2001). The "family-home-neighborhoodcommunity-nexus" is the central stage for

  7. Maximise Global Gain in the Minority Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy-Sang Liaw

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a simple, partially altruistic mechanism that can increase global gain for a community of selfish agents. The mechanism is implied in the phenomena found in the minority game. We apply the mechanism to a two-road traffic system to maximise traffic flow.

  8. European minority languages: endangered or revived?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.

    2007-01-01

    A diagnosis is offered of language learning factors that contribute to the revival of European minority languages. In this paper four frameworks will be discussed. The theory of Reversing Language Shift (Fishman 1991, 2001). The "family-home-neighborhoodcommunity-nexus” is the central stage for

  9. Minority and Disadvantaged Students in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Stephen H., Ed.

    The policy statement of the 1982 Wingspread Conference on Postsecondary Programs for the Disadvantaged is presented. The conference examined the past decade of postsecondary education opportunity programs for disadvantaged and minority students and how the objectives of the programs should be pursued in the 1980s and beyond. Recommendations are…

  10. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  11. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  12. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  13. [Diagnostics and initial estimation of refugee minors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukale, T; Hertel, C; Möhler, E; Joas, J; Müller, M; Banaschewski, T; Schepker, R; Kölch, M G; Fegert, J M; Plener, P L

    2017-01-01

    The number of underage refugees arriving in Germany has rapidly increased since 2015. Many of these children and adolescents have been and still are, exposed to a large number of stressful circumstances. The group of those helping refugee minors is heterogeneous with both volunteers and professional workers from the fields of child welfare and healthcare services. Easily applicable instruments to assess both burdens and resources are needed in order to plan appropriate interventions. This paper focuses on instruments for assessing the circumstances of refugee minors and includes pilot data of an online-based screening instrument to assess burdens and resources (providing online resource and trauma assessment for refugees, PORTA). Field application was tested by the staff of a clearing and preclearing institution with 33 cases and good practical feasibility was reported. Applying a simple to use screening instrument for refugee minors and their helpers, which is available in several languages creates the possibility of a shared definition of problems and solutions and is beneficial to helpers (e.g. volunteers, youth welfare services and medical doctors) as well as refugee minors.

  14. THE NATIONAL MINORITY CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS - THE COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  15. Sextortion of Minors: Characteristics and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Walsh, Wendy; Treitman, Leah

    2018-01-01

    Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitive DIP-STR markers for the analysis of unbalanced mixtures from "touch" DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldoni, Fabio; Castella, Vincent; Grosjean, Frederic; Hall, Diana

    2017-05-01

    Casework samples collected for forensic DNA analysis can produce genomic mixtures in which the DNA of the alleged offender is masked by high quantities of DNA coming from the victim. DIP-STRs are novel genetic markers specifically developed to enable the target analysis of a DNA of interest in the presence of exceeding quantities of a second DNA (up to 1000-fold). The genotyping system, which is based on allele-specific amplifications of haplotypes formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP) and a short tandem repeat (STR), combines the capacity of targeting the DNA of an individual with a strong identification power. Finally, DIP-STRs are autosomal markers therefore they can be applied to any combination of major and minor DNA. In this study we aimed to assess the ability of DIP-STRs to detect the minor contributor on challenging "touch" DNA samples simulated with representative crime-associated substrates and to compare their performance to commonly used male-specific markers (Y-STRs). As part of a comprehensive study on the relative DNA contribution of two persons handling the same object, we selected 71 unbalanced contact traces of which 14 comprised a male minor DNA contributor mixed to a female major DNA contributor. Using a set of six DIP-STRs, one to four markers were found to be informative for the minor DNA detection across traces. When compared to Y-STRs (14 traces), the DIP-STRs showed similar sensitivity in detecting the minor DNA across substrate materials with a similar occurrence of allele drop-out. Conversely, because of the sex combination of the two users of the object, 57 remaining traces could only be investigated by DIP-STRs. Of these, 30 minor DNA contributors could be detected by all informative markers while 12 traces showed events of allele drop-out. Finally, 15 traces showed no amplification of the minor DNA. These last 15 samples were mostly characterized by a combination of short handling time of the object, low DNA recovery and

  17. Sequence-specific high mobility group box factors recognize 10-12-base pair minor groove motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, M; Dooijes, D; van De Wetering, M

    2000-01-01

    , 12, and 10 base pairs, respectively. Footprinting with a deletion mutant of Ste11 reveals a novel interaction between the 3' base pairs of the extended DNA motif and amino acids C-terminal to the HMG domain. The sequence-specific interaction of Ste11 with these 3' base pairs contributes significantly......Sequence-specific high mobility group (HMG) box factors bind and bend DNA via interactions in the minor groove. Three-dimensional NMR analyses have provided the structural basis for this interaction. The cognate HMG domain DNA motif is generally believed to span 6-8 bases. However, alignment...... of promoter elements controlled by the yeast genes ste11 and Rox1 has indicated strict conservation of a larger DNA motif. By site selection, we identify a highly specific 12-base pair motif for Ste11, AGAACAAAGAAA. Similarly, we show that Tcf1, MatMc, and Sox4 bind unique, highly specific DNA motifs of 12...

  18. Nanomechanics of Fluorescent DNA Dyes on DNA Investigated by Magnetic Tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Sischka, Andy; Walhorn, Volker; Tönsing, Katja; Anselmetti, Dario

    2016-10-18

    Fluorescent DNA dyes are broadly used in many biotechnological applications for detecting and imaging DNA in cells and gels. Their binding alters the structural and nanomechanical properties of DNA and affects the biological processes that are associated with it. Although interaction modes like intercalation and minor groove binding already have been identified, associated mechanic effects like local elongation, unwinding, and softening of the DNA often remain in question. We used magnetic tweezers to quantitatively investigate the impact of three DNA-binding dyes (YOYO-1, DAPI, and DRAQ5) in a concentration-dependent manner. By extending and overwinding individual, torsionally constrained, nick-free dsDNA molecules, we measured the contour lengths and molecular forces that allow estimation of thermodynamic and nanomechanical binding parameters. Whereas for YOYO-1 and DAPI the binding mechanisms could be assigned to bis-intercalation and minor groove binding, respectively, DRAQ5 exhibited both binding modes in a concentration-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Scowen, Paul; Groppi, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales, and include several star forming regions with higher than normal SFE. From the tidal debris environments in our study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. New results from the first survey of molecular hydrogen in minor merger tidal debris will be presented. Current surveys of the 2.12 micron line of molecular hydrogen, CO(1-0), and HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  20. We the Minorities of CASE: A Special Survey of Minorities Working in Institutional Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Claranne

    1984-01-01

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education minority member representatives listed in a CASE Membership Directory were surveyed. Information on job titles, job responsibilities, career preparation, professional development, salaries, factors affecting salary, and salary differences by sex was collected. (MLW)

  1. DNA Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  2. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Scherer, Emily A; Calzo, Jerel P; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-12-01

    Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youths. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youths in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71 % for females and 12 % for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health.

  3. A developmentally informed adaptation of minority stress for sexual minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Gibbs, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (lesbian, gay, bisexual) experience disparities in behavioral health outcomes compared to their heterosexual peers, generally attributed to minority stress. Although evidence of the applicability of the minority stress model among adolescents exists, it is based on a primarily adult literature. Developmental and generational differences demand further examination of minority stress to confirm its applicability. Forty-eight life history interviews with sexual minority adolescents in California (age 14-19; M = 19.27 SD = 1.38; 39.6% cismale, 35.4% cisfemale, 25% other gender) were completed, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis in QSR NVivo. Following a consensus model, all transcripts were double coded. Results suggest that minority stress is appropriate for use with adolescents; however, further emphasis should be placed on social context, coping resources, and developmental processes regarding identity development. A conceptual model is provided, as are implications for research and practice. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Minority stress and the moderating role of religious coping among religious and spiritual sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon L; Foster, Aasha; Esposito, Jessica; Robinson, Matthew A

    2016-01-01

    In prior research with primarily heterosexual religious and spiritual individuals, positive and negative forms of religious coping have been posited to moderate the links between minority stressors and psychological outcomes (Kim, Kendall, & Webb, 2015; Szymanski & Obiri, 2011). With a sample of 143 sexual minority people, the present study extended these hypotheses by examining the moderating roles of positive and negative religious coping in the link of 2 sexual minority-specific minority stress variables (heterosexist discrimination, internalized heterosexism) with psychological distress and well-being. In partial support of our hypotheses, we found that positive religious coping moderated the relation of internalized heterosexism and psychological well-being such that greater positive religious coping weakened the deleterious impact of internalized heterosexism on psychological well-being. Negative religious coping did not moderate any links. As the first test of the moderating roles of religious coping styles in the sexual minority stress-psychological distress link, the present study yields important findings for research and practice with religious and spiritual sexual minority individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Vaccines for minor use and minor species: technical difficulties to solve and consequences in legal definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, P

    2004-01-01

    To identify the difficulties of the problem and to try to find some solutions with their consequences in legal provisions, different aspects have to be considered: the possible definitions of minor species and minor indications and the limits of such definitions, the present applicable directives and possible modifications induced by extrapolation of technical results, by reduction of requirements. According to the complexity of the problem, a pragmatic approach with a certain flexibility, founded on a case-by-case assessment, seems to be necessary. The basis of the CVMP position paper regarding the availability of products for minor uses and minor species mainly focused on medicinal products and MRLs is interesting to consider in the case of vaccines, in the light of technical requirements of Title II of EU Directive 2001/82/EC. Even if definitions of minor species and minor uses are needed to give a legal basis for the problem, they have limits and some examples will be given. Reduction of requirements and extrapolation seem possible in a relatively easy way when data are available for major use and major species. A reduction of requirements is much more difficult to set up when such data are not available. Requirements for quality, safety and efficiency will be assessed including the indications of notifiable diseases. When all these aspects have been considered, it is essential to avoid a disharmonised approach from the National Regulatory Authorities. So, the possibilities of a specific legal framework on and a centralised procedure for marketing authorisations have to be discussed.

  6. Issues in contracting with small minority businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, M.L.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of this investigation was to identify issues central to increasing the involvement of small minority businesses (MBs) in federal or prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE), as a foundation for designing a program to assist buyers of contracted goods and services. The approach to determining issues involved interviewing the owners of 15 MBs, representing a range of businesses, and buyers and purchasing officers from three large DOE prime contractors. The interviewees identified issues related to positive working relationships and rated a predetermined set of 27 potential MB-DOE problems regarding their existence and criticalness. The issues identified by MBs were of two broad types. The predominant issues and barriers were associated with their being small businesses. Secondary issues reflected the disadvantaged status of the business (woman and/or minority-owned).

  7. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns......, by being both women and members of a minority group. Through an investigation of how contemporary human rights law and politics serve to address the concerns of Romani women, it sheds light on the challenges that the Romani women’s issue presents to the international human rights framework...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality...

  8. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  9. Counseling utilization by ethnic minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lisa K; Draper, Matthew; Barón, Augustine

    2005-08-01

    Although multicultural awareness in counseling has risen substantially in the last decade, little research has examined counseling utilization and outcomes for ethnic minorities on university campuses. A sample of 1,166 African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Latino help-seeking university students from over 40 universities nationwide filled out the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ45) at the first and last therapy sessions. Caucasian students attended significantly more sessions than all other groups. Greatest distress was found at intake in Asian American students, followed by Latino, African American, and Caucasian students. All groups appeared to benefit from therapy, as noted by a decrease in symptomatology, but none of the groups met the criteria for clinically significant change for the OQ45. Implications for therapists working with minority clients are discussed. (c) 2005 APA

  10. Autonomy of the Regional Minority (Alandic Dimension)

    OpenAIRE

    Ilia N. Zhdanov

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the status of autonomy of the regional minority of Åland. The author examines its position in terms of international law and the Finnish national law, the historical and legal questions of the formation and development of autonomy are also highlighted. The modern Finnish legislation on the exclusive legislative powers of the Aland autonomy, its administrative system, the right of domicile, the features of the administrative proceedings are studied in detail. Particular ...

  11. On entropy, financial markets and minority games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapart, Christopher A.

    2009-04-01

    The paper builds upon an earlier statistical analysis of financial time series with Shannon information entropy, published in [L. Molgedey, W. Ebeling, Local order, entropy and predictability of financial time series, European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems 15/4 (2000) 733-737]. A novel generic procedure is proposed for making multistep-ahead predictions of time series by building a statistical model of entropy. The approach is first demonstrated on the chaotic Mackey-Glass time series and later applied to Japanese Yen/US dollar intraday currency data. The paper also reinterprets Minority Games [E. Moro, The minority game: An introductory guide, Advances in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics (2004)] within the context of physical entropy, and uses models derived from minority game theory as a tool for measuring the entropy of a model in response to time series. This entropy conditional upon a model is subsequently used in place of information-theoretic entropy in the proposed multistep prediction algorithm.

  12. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  13. Minority dental faculty development: responsibility and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; West, Joseph F

    2010-12-01

    Over at least the last twenty years, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has given attention and priority to increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) dental school applicants, enrollees, and faculty members and to meeting the challenges of achieving diversity in the oral health workforce of the future as racial and ethnic minorities continue to grow and are expected to comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the twenty-first century. Dental schools have the responsibility of preparing dentists to provide oral health care for the nation's population. This includes creating a workforce of adequate size and racial/ethnic composition. As part of ADEA's priorities to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, ADEA launched the Minority Dental Faculty Development Program in 2004. The intent of the program is to foster academic partnerships, mentoring, and institutional commitment and leadership designed to increase the number of URM individuals interested in and prepared for careers in academic dentistry.

  14. Research into minorities: between science and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ingilæ Landsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interplay between science and politics in minority research in the period 1979 to mid-1980s at the University of Tromsø. Research was influenced by different conditions at the time, such as political events and policy priorities and ideological of streams in academia. Three factors influenced the choice of theme, priorities and approaches to minority research in North Norway. The first factor was the damming of the Alta-Kautokeino river, followed by Sami rights struggle and political changes towards the Sami population in Norway. What consequences did the political case for the research for the academic environment in the Northern Norway? The second factor was the research program run by the Norwegian general scientific Research (NAVF. An analysis on the relevant themes and focus areas within minority research is undertaken on basis of the research program. Finally I will use the methodological and research political discussions on emic and etic research positions that took place in the 1980s. Was it the Sami themselves, or also the researchers belonging to the majority that had the right to pursue research on the Sami? Sources consist of internal documents, reports, research papers and oral sources from the UiT.

  15. Minor-Groove Binding Drugs: Where Is the Second Hoechst 33258 Molecule?

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H.

    2013-05-16

    Hoechst 33258 binds with high affinity into the minor groove of AT-rich sequences of double-helical DNA. Despite extensive studies of this and analogous DNA binding molecules, there still remains uncertainty concerning the interactions when multiple ligand molecules are accommodated within close distance. Albeit not of direct concern for most biomedical applications, which are at low drug concentrations, interaction studies for higher drug binding are important as they can give fundamental insight into binding mechanisms and specificity, including drug self-stacking interactions that can provide base-sequence specificity. Using circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), we examine the binding of Hoechst 33258 to three oligonucleotide duplexes containing AT regions of different lengths: [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]2 (A2T2), [d(CGCAAATTTGCG)]2 (A3T 3), and [d(CGAAAATTTTCG)]2 (A4T4). We find similar binding geometries in the minor groove for all oligonucleotides when the ligand-to-duplex ratio is less than 1:1. At higher ratios, a second ligand can be accommodated in the minor groove of A4T4 but not A2T2 or A3T3. We conclude that the binding of the second Hoechst to A4T4 is not cooperative and that the molecules are sitting with a small separation apart, one after the other, and not in a sandwich structure as previously proposed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-03-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011-2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4-8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the ecosystem

  17. Defining minor symptoms in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambo, Davide; Zambon, Alberto A; Roveri, Luisa; Giacalone, Giacomo; Di Maggio, Giovanni; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; La Gioia, Sara; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Comi, Giancarlo; Sessa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Thrombolysis is often withheld from acute ischemic stroke patients presenting with mild symptoms; however, up to 40% of these patients end up with a poor outcome when left untreated. Since there is lack of consensus on the definition of minor symptoms, we aimed at addressing this issue by looking for features that would better predict functional outcomes at 3 months. Among all acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to our Stroke Unit (n = 1,229), we selected a cohort of patients who arrived within 24 hours from symptoms onset, with baseline NIHSS ≤6, not treated with thrombolysis (n = 304). Epidemiological data, comorbidities, radiological features and clinical presentation (NIHSS items) were collected to identify predictors of outcome. Our cohort was tested against minor stroke definitions selected from the literature and a newly proposed one. Three months after stroke onset, 97 patients (31.9%) had mRS ≥ 2. Independent predictors of poor outcome were age (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.95-9.99]) and baseline NIHSS score (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.67-0.94]), while cardioembolic aetiology was negatively associated (OR 3.29 [95% CI 1.51-7.14]). Items of NIHSS associated with poor outcome were impairment of right motor arm (OR 0.49 [95% CI 0.27-0.91]) or the involvement of any of the motor items (OR 0.69 [95% CI 0.48-0.99]). The definition of minor stroke as NIHSS ≤3 and the new proposed definition had the highest sensitivity and accuracy and were independent predictors of outcome. Our study confirmed that in spite of a low NIHSS score, one third of patients had poor outcome. As already described, age and NIHSS score remained independent predictors of poor outcome even in mild stroke. Also, motor impairment appeared a major determinant of poor outcome. The new proposed definition of minor stroke featured the NIHSS score and the NIHSS items that better predicted functional outcome. Awareness that even minor stroke can yield to poor outcome should sensitize patients to arrive early

  18. A resonance light scattering quenching system for studying DNA sequence recognition of actinomycin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanguang; Zhang, Guomin; Chen, Xi; Chen, Junhui; Qian, Sihua; Li, Qiang

    2012-02-07

    The DNA sequence recognition study of DNA-targeted anticancer drugs is a theoretical basis for improving the selectivity of anticancer drugs. With the high synergy effect of cocoamidopropyl hydroxy sulfobetaine (HSB), a resonance light scattering (RLS) quenching system for DNA sequence recognition studies of actinomycin D (ACTD) was developed in this contribution. By the strategy, DNA sequence selectivity as well as the recognition mechanisms of ACTD was systematically investigated. The results suggested that ACTD had the selectivity to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with an equilibrium constant (K(RLS)) of 12.4 mmol mg(-1). Also it had a preference for Guanine and Cytosine bases with a K(RLS) of 6.69 L mmol(-1). The selectivity mechanism between ACTD and DNA was also well discussed with the help of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Compared with other methods, the RLS quenching system has the advantages of reliability and speediness, and it avoids complex modification processes and is a better bionic system for the above research. Results obtained from this work would supply a theoretical basis for improving anticancer activity and designing similar anticancer drugs.

  19. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  20. Design of sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, P B

    1986-04-25

    Base sequence information can be stored in the local structure of right-handed double-helical DNA (B-DNA). The question arises as to whether a set of rules for the three-dimensional readout of the B-DNA helix can be developed. This would allow the design of synthetic molecules that bind DNA of any specific sequence and site size. There are four stages of development for each new synthetic sequence-specific DNA-binding molecule: design, synthesis, testing for sequence specificity, and reevaluation of the design. This approach has produced bis(distamycin)fumaramide, a synthetic, crescent-shaped oligopeptide that binds nine contiguous adenine-thymine base pairs in the minor groove of double-helical DNA.

  1. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, NA; CONG, BIN; LI, SHUJIN; MA, CHUNLING; FU, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOJING

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases. PMID:24748965

  2. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  3. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  4. Considering DNA damage when interpreting mtDNA heteroplasmy in deep sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Molly M; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Parson, Walther; Holland, Mitchell M

    2017-01-01

    Resolution of mitochondrial (mt) DNA heteroplasmy is now possible when applying a massively parallel sequencing (MPS) approach, including minor components down to 1%. However, reporting thresholds and interpretation criteria will need to be established for calling heteroplasmic variants that address a number of important topics, one of which is DNA damage. We assessed the impact of increasing amounts of DNA damage on the interpretation of minor component sequence variants in the mtDNA control region, including low-level mixed sites. A passive approach was used to evaluate the impact of storage conditions, and an active approach was employed to accelerate the process of hydrolytic damage (for example, replication errors associated with depurination events). The patterns of damage were compared and assessed in relation to damage typically encountered in poor quality samples. As expected, the number of miscoding lesions increased as conditions worsened. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with miscoding lesions were indistinguishable from innate heteroplasmy and were most often observed as 1-2% of the total sequencing reads. Numerous examples of miscoding lesions above 2% were identified, including two complete changes in the nucleotide sequence, presenting a challenge when assessing the placement of reporting thresholds for heteroplasmy. To mitigate the impact, replication of miscoding lesions was not observed in stored samples, and was rarely seen in data associated with accelerated hydrolysis. In addition, a significant decrease in the expected transition:transversion ratio was observed, providing a useful tool for predicting the presence of damage-induced lesions. The results of this study directly impact MPS analysis of minor sequence variants from poorly preserved DNA extracts, and when biological samples have been exposed to agents that induce DNA damage. These findings are particularly relevant to clinical and forensic investigations. Copyright

  5. Taking the struggle elsewhere. Minority representation in the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005......This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005...

  6. Strong and weak hydrogen bonds in drug–DNA complexes: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A statistical analysis of strong and weak hydrogen bonds in the minor groove of DNA was carried out for a set of 70 drug–DNA complexes. The terms `strong' and `weak' pertain to the inherent strengths and weakness of the donor and acceptor fragments rather than to any energy considerations. The dataset was extracted ...

  7. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  8. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa where members of previously disadvantaged groups regard the demand for minority protection with suspicion. An overview of the literature on the concept minority, legal provisions in international law and the main provisions in South African law ...

  9. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta | Quaker-Dokubo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  10. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  11. Minority Students and Faculty in Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the current minority situation in university and college music programs in the United States. Research in this area has concentrated to varying degrees on specific subsets of the minority population (e.g., African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians) as well as on minorities in a more general…

  12. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  13. An Assessment of Campus Climate among Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Amber; Murray, Jennifer; Hunt, Andrea; Williams, Yaschica

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have clearly identified a link between sexual minority status and discrimination, harassment, and victimization on college campuses, less in known about sexual minority students and other indicators of campus climate. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between sexual minority status and students'…

  14. 38 CFR 10.51 - Payments to minor child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments to minor child. 10.51 Section 10.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Payments § 10.51 Payments to minor child. Payments to minor child through legal guardian, natural...

  15. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  16. White Like Me: Experiences in Writing for Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Frank

    This speech, a product of the workshop on "Media: Minorities and Sex Stereotyping", is said to be intended to provide a vivid picture of how to write about minorities for minority youth from a "white" point of view. The author attributes his success in writing to the conviction that race is no factor in the dimensions of human joys and despairs,…

  17. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  18. Underdiagnosis and referral bias of autism in ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bouk, S.; Boussaid, W.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distribution of ethnic minorities among children referred to autism institutions and (2) referral bias in pediatric assessment of autism in ethnic minorities. It showed that compared to the known community prevalence, ethnic minorities were under-represented among 712

  19. DNA: still a target worth aiming at? A review of new DNA-interactive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthoney, D A; Twelves, C J

    2001-01-01

    DNA acts as the final target for most clinically effective cytotoxic agents, but the lack of selectivity for tumor cells has raised questions about the value of developing new DNA-interactive agents. Three new classes of cytotoxic agents are reviewed; each interacts directly with DNA but cytotoxicity appears to be mediated through novel mechanisms, including the interaction with specific proteins by DNA-bound drug molecules. Irofulven is the lead compound of the illudin family of molecules. It causes a novel type of DNA damage whose repair is dependent on functioning DNA helicases. Pre-clinical and clinical synergy between irofulven and agents which inhibit topoisomerases has been observed. Clinical trials with irofulven have shown significant activity and phase II studies in pancreatic, ovarian and prostatic cancer are ongoing. Toxicity in the form of myelosuppression and fatigue have been shown to be schedule dependent, with intermittent administration appearing to significantly reduce toxicity. DNA-interacting agents which alkylate bases exposed in the minor groove have been derived from a number of natural sources. The minor groove alkylation appears to be sequence specific; although the significance of this specificity for cytotoxicity is unclear, one proposed mechanism is through inhibition of expression of particular genes. Three cyclopropylpyrroloinole analogues which cause sequence specific minor groove alkylation are currently under clinical assessment. Myelosuppression is the dose limiting toxicity and is biphasic in its time course. Moderate activity in phase I trials has been observed. Ecteinascidins represent one of the increasing number of groups of drugs isolated from marine organisms. Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743) is the most advanced in its clinical development. Binding to the minor groove of DNA occurs, although with a different base specificity from other compounds. The cytotoxic effects of ET-743 may occur by inhibition of the inducible

  20. Depression after minor stroke: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, M; Maestrini, I; Mercurio, A; Troisi, P; Sgarlata, E; Rea, V; Di Piero, V; Lenzi, G L

    2012-03-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most frequent complications of stroke, with a prevalence ranging 20-60%. As PSD seems to be related to stroke severity, we hypothesized that the prevalence of PSD would be lower in patients with minor stroke. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of PSD over a 30-month follow-up period in a cohort of patients with minor ischaemic stroke (NIHSS≤5). We enrolled 105 patients (mean age 64.38±11.2years, M/F 69/36). PSD was diagnosed in 43 (41%) patients, 40 (93%) of whom had dysthymia; 22% of patients were already depressed at 1month. The most frequent depressive symptoms (DSs) were working inhibition, indecisiveness, and fatigability. Patients who developed PSD were less educated (P=0.044) and diabetic (P=0.006). After excluding patients that were already depressed at 1month, we performed a logistic regression model to detect predictors of PSD. Crying (P=0.012, OR 1.067, CI 0.269-4.553) and guilt (P=0.007, OR 0.037, CI 0.02ì03-0.401) at baseline were two DSs found to be significantly correlated with PSD. Higher educational level (P=0.022, OR 0.084, CI 0.010-0.698) and diabetes (P=0.007, OR 14.361, CI 2.040-101.108) were the risk factors significantly correlated with PSD. Post-stroke depression is frequent even in patients with minor stroke. Early detection of DSs might help to predict long-term development of PSD. No correlation was observed between lesion site or side and the development of PSD. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  1. Russian Minorities in the Former USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez González

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Soviet Empire has brought out the importance of the nationalities problem and the contradictory results produced by the various formulas applied since 1922 for resolving it. Two characteristics conditioned the evolution of this problem in the Soviet Union: the choice of a territorial model which would give a important role to the Empire’s non-Russian peoples; and the contradiction between the theoretical base established by Lenin and Stalin for solving the problem and actual practice, which followed traditional channels. The result was a new territorial structure endowed with the external elements characteristic of a state but cancelled out by the superiority of a party and by a policy ofprotecting minorities deliberately designed to make the new national entities nonviable. The lack of an adequately institutionalized state was at the root, of the virtual disappearance, after the collapse of the Communist Party, of links between the center and the periphery, a situation that nationalism, where it existed, exploited to gain powerand that governing minorities, meaningless outside the framework created by the USSR, exploited to stay in power. The result was none other than the appearance of new ethnically heterogeneous states with imprecise borders, bereft of the systems of interethnic equilibriumthe Soviet administration had created, and willing to consolidate their independence and identity at the expense of minorities such as the Russians, which have been discriminated against at times and excluded from political and cultural life at others. This phenomenonhas reduced the chances for the new states’ integration on an international level, placed a burden on the incipient democratic systems and made for tense relations with Russia.

  2. Targeted research training: developing minority psychiatric investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold; Guerra, Ernesto; Regier, Darrel

    2014-04-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the career outcomes of a research training program specifically targeted to young psychiatric researchers from minority populations underrepresented in psychiatry. The aims of the program were (1) to support psychiatric investigators from under-represented populations in the development and maintenance of research careers and (2) to identify the factors which influence successful research career development. Demographic data from 99 program participants were collected from an online survey as part of a systematic program evaluation, and through a follow-up internet search. Outcome measures included current academic position, number and types of post-training grants received, number of peer-reviewed publications, and comparison of post-training career outcomes with those from other highly regarded research training programs. Of the 99 psychiatrists accepted into the program, 55 responded to the online survey; additional information on non-responders was obtained through a follow-up internet search. Results indicated that 64% of program trainees identified their primary employment setting as academic/research; 70% reported publication of their research findings, and 64% reported the award of post-training research grants. The percentage of program graduates appointed to academic faculty positions and their receipt of R01 and/or K awards, exceeded that of two highly regarded national training programs. The study further identified major factors influencing successful research career development. Findings from this study strongly suggest that research training programs targeted to young minority psychiatrists can be successful in supporting the development and maintenance of their research careers. The decline in the availability of such programs does not portend well for increasing the numbers of underrepresented minority psychiatric researchers.

  3. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  4. Nota adicional sobre Mauritia Minor Burret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1942-11-01

    Full Text Available Ejemplares botánicos recientemente enviados de la Intendencia del Amazonas por el Dr. Richard Evans Schultes, principal mente del rio Caraparaná entre El Encanto y el rio Putumayo, demuestran que la palma cananguche o canangucha de aquella región, cuyos frutos emplean los indios Uitotos para hacer una bebida espirituosa o chicha que consumen durante sus fiestas, es la misma Mauritia minor Burret descrita originalmente de Florencia, Caquetá, y que abunda también en los Llanos del Meta, San Martín y Casanare donde es muy bien conocida con el nombre de moriche.

  5. Domestic abuse against minors: A victomological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.

  6. Special Report - American Minorities in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    There are about 15 African-American professional astronomers in the United States. Not 15 percent, fifteen. Latinos and Native Americans are similarly underrepresented. Those who make it not only must run the usual gauntlet of school, college, graduate school, and the job market; they must jump extra hurdles that can include poverty, discrimination, isolation, expectations of failure, and the burden of "representing" their ethnic group to their profession and their profession to their ethnic group. Over the past two decades, astronomers have worked to improve women's representation in their profession. What can we do to support American minority groups? Mercury h as asked astronomers, educators, and students from various perspectives to comment.

  7. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults...... in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well...

  8. Minor whiplash head injury with major debilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, P R; Rossie, G V

    1988-01-01

    A group of patients suffering major debility after minor whiplash head trauma, seen in one office practice, has been retrospectively studied. Typically, acute neck and upper back aches and headache evolved into a multiple somatic, affective and cognitive dysfunction syndrome. Neuropsychological evaluations noted impairments on tests of cognitive flexibility, non-verbal reasoning, new learning/memory, psychomotor agility, and attention. However, in the subacute period, neurological examination, imaging and clinical electrophysiological studies were unable to localize, structurally or functionally, the source of the above dysfunctions.

  9. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  10. Evolutionary Minority Game with searching behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yuxin; Feng, Xu; Xiong, Xiong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we determine the impact of searching behavior on the evolutionary minority game (EMG). We introduce searching behavior in two ways: optimal neighbor searching and global searching. Our study investigates the distribution equilibriums of probabilities that agents follow a given strategy and on system performance of the game. The results indicate that the distribution equilibriums of the probabilities are different with searching behavior, as opposed to without searching behavior. The system performance becomes worse after adding the searching behavior. Additionally, we test other variables in a standard EMG with and without searching behavior.

  11. Editorial: From Radicalism to Minority Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah Journal of Islamic Studies

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This edition presents contemporary themes around Islam and Muslims in Indonesia from the issues of radicalism, online media, a Dutch scholar during colonial era, women’s resistance to shariatization, local practice of Islamic sufism, minority group, to broader theme of the relation of religion and science. To begin with, James Adam Fenton sheds light on the way in which Indonesian society has responded to radical ideology. He argues that dialogue in open society with democratic spirit helps the society to disengage from radicalism.

  12. ISLAM AND MINORITIES: Managing Identity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian general election in March 2008 raised an interesting and new phenomenon. For the first time since independence in 1957, the ruling alliance known as the National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN failed to secure two thirds of seats in parliament and lost control of five of Malaysia’s 13 states. This was due to the challenge presented by the new opposition alliance known as the Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif, BA or the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat, PK which won more than 36% of seats in parliament and gained control of the five states. In the 2004 election, BN secured the largest ever percentage of seats in parliament with 91%. What is interesting is that it seems that this significant increase in support for the opposition is  due to their offer to change the way minorities and ethnicity is managed. They  propose a move from “Bumiputera Supremacy”, or affirmative action for the approximately 65% of “Bumiputera” Malaysians (the rest being largely of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, to “The People’s Supremacy”, which involves eradicating affirmative action based on ethnicity, basing it instead on need, for  instance need due to poverty. This would potentially increase the likelihood  of justice and equality for all ethnic or racial groups. This paper connects the phenomenon of change, as seen in the about turn in the results between the  2004 and 2008 elections, to the more global trend in which minorities are standing up to demand their rights in this era of globalization, and to the challenge multiculturalism presents to parts of the Muslim world such as Malaysia. Malaysia, a Muslim majority nation that has formally declared Islam the official state religion with Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King as  Head of the State and symbol of Islam, is one example, though not necessarily  representative, of how Islam and Muslims manage minorities and identity or  multiculturalism within the process of globalization

  13. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity......, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has become hegemonic in policy initiatives and legal documents. This hegemony is achieved by understanding ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversions from established norms in terms of deprivation. In this way,educational institutions and ‘majority society...

  14. Multiplayer quantum Minority game with decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitney, Adrian P.

    2005-05-01

    A quantum version of the Minority game for an arbitrary number of agents is studied. When the number of agents is odd, quantizing the game produces no advantage to the players, however, for an even number of agents new Nash equilibria appear that have no classical analogue. The new Nash equilibria provide far preferable expected payoffs to the players compared to the equivalent classical game. The effect on the Nash equilibrium payoff of reducing the degree of entanglement, or of introducing decoherence into the model, is indicated.

  15. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...

  16. Advanced mass spectrometric characterization of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Gale, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Mass spectrometric characterization of DNA has progressed rapidly due to the development in electrospray ionization (ESI) and MALDI methods. ESI is especially gentle, producing multiply charged ions with high efficiency. The authors have applied ESI-MS to different aspects of DNA research. Precise molecular weight determination aids in confirming the sequence and the structure of oligonucleotides. Non-covalent associations involving DNA are essential for cellular and genomic processes. The advantages of MS in such studies include speed, sensitivity and the ability to obtain structural detail. The authors have studied interactions between duplex-DNA and minor grove binding drugs and observed distamycin-A/oligonucleotide duplex complexes with stoichiometry consistent with NMR results. A number of guanine-rich DNA sequences assemble into quadruplex structures in vitro and have been localized in several key regions in chromosomal DNA. The authors have prepared oligonucleotides designed to test the specificity of cation inclusion and observed ions with quadruplex stoichiometry. The nature and extent of cation association were determined using high resolution MS. With ESI, the high efficiency and the use of liquid samples holds significant promises for rapid DNA sequencing. In developing a method for MS sizing of sequencing mixtures, the authors have attempted to address the problem of multiple-charging by charge-state reduction of oligonucleotide ions. The authors are also investigating a more ambitious approach based on the ability to follow the reactions of individual ions. In progress to date the authors have shown that very large DNA molecules can be ionized intact and measured, potentially opening the door to rapid sequencing by gas-phase DNA degradation.

  17. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  18. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  19. Teaching Minority Students within Minority Schools: Teachers' Conceptions of Multicultural Education in Swedish-Speaking Schools in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Holm, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased cultural diversity due to immigration and is facing challenges in developing multicultural education (ME) in schools. There is a Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, and immigrant students entering Swedish-speaking schools hence become a minority within a minority. In this study, using open-ended interviews, we…

  20. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  1. Pleomorphic Adenoma Of Minor Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Raza, Syed Shahmeer; Hussain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Haq, Ihtisham Ul; Hussain, Amer Kamal; Nadeem, Muhammad Daniyal; Farid, Khayyam

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of salivary glands which is Known for its wide pleomorphic architecture. It accounts for 45-75% of all salivary gland neoplasm. It can involve major as well as minor salivary glands. Among minor salivary glands (5-10% of cases) the palate lip, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea are the most common sites. Diagnosis is made with biopsy along with histopathology. Wide excision with biopsy and removal of underlying extension of tumour is the treatment of choice. Sixty years old farmer presented with painless swelling in the upper lip for the last 8 years. History revealed recurrent mass in the midline of upper lip with no other complaints. He was operated 3 times for this complaint in the past. Belonging to poor socioeconomic status no biopsy records were found. On examination 3×4 cm hard and mobile mass was found. Lymph nodes of head and neck and parotid gland revealed no enlargement. Surgery by wide excision was planned. After baseline investigation surgery was done and the mass sent for histopathology. Biopsy reports showed pleomorphic adenoma on unusual site. Dissection of salivary gland tumour is important as they have propensity to metastasize. Wide local excision along with biopsy is the method of choice. Proper surgical techniques are required to avoid recurrence.

  2. Ethical aspects of clinical research with minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Wendy; Tromp, Krista; Tibboel, Dick; Pinxten, Wim

    2013-07-01

    Over the past decades, clinical research has increasingly been subjected to ethical requirements and legal regulation. The specific focus of ethical and legal frameworks on competent adults (which serve as the paradigmatic research subject), however, has created an ambivalent attitude towards pediatric clinical research. On one hand, minors are regarded as a vulnerable population that deserves additional protection against the risks and burdens involved in clinical research. On the other hand, the population of minors should not be denied (or not get timely) access to the benefits of clinical research. In this paper, we will explore the legal regulation and ethical guidance that currently governs pediatric clinical research in the European Union and discuss the future challenges in this field. In addition, we will discuss major ethical concerns in pediatric clinical research, with a focus on the acceptability of research risks and the informed consent process. In the discussion, we will address key concerns in both regulating pediatric clinical research and implementing ethical and legal requirement in the actual pediatric research conduct.

  3. Urey Prize Lecture: Binary Minor Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, J. L.

    2004-11-01

    The discovery of binary systems in the near-Earth, main belt, and Kuiper belt populations provides an abundance of new data that expand our knowledge of the physics and chemistry of the solar system. Binary minor planets form as a result of collisional, tidal, and capture processes that are important to study as they play major roles in the formation and evolution of planetary systems. The frequency of occurrence of such processes directly reflects the dynamical environment in the various populations. Observations of binaries provide a powerful way to measure the bulk properties of small bodies, which in turn lead to inferences about their composition and internal structure. These data may offer a rare glimpse of what physical and chemical conditions prevailed when protoplanets formed, and what subsequent evolution took place. In the case of the Kuiper Belt, the study of a handful of binaries forces us to rethink how dense and how bright these bodies are, and to significantly revise our current mass estimates for the entire population. The number of known binary minor planets has increased dramatically over the past few years, with roughly ten new discoveries each year. I will attempt to summarize recent developments, with examples drawn from my observations with the Hubble, Palomar, Keck, Arecibo and Goldstone telescopes.

  4. Major emerging problems with minor meloidogyne species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, Axel A

    2013-11-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) represent one of the most polyphagous genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. To date, close to 100 valid species are recognized. In contrast to the size of the genus, the majority of past research focused on a small number of species, i.e., the so-called 'major' species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. This review highlights recent work aimed at 'minor' root-knot nematodes: M. chitwoodi, M. fallax, M. minor, M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis), M. exigua, and M. paranaensis. Some of these species have been described only recently. After a brief profile of each species, identification methods and their application in Meloidogyne spp. are summarized. Intraspecific variation and its impact on plant resistance breeding are discussed and interactions between M. enterolobii and Fusarium solani are highlighted as an example of synergistic interactions with other plant pathogens. Future research on Meloidogyne spp. is not only shaped by recent breakthroughs such as completing the genome sequences of M. hapla and M. incognita, but is also influenced by changes in agriculture. Taken together, the aim of this review is to draw attention to previously neglected and newly described Meloidogyne spp. that are developing into major problems for agriculture in tropical and temperate climates.

  5. Minor and major health: a Nietzschean reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biato, Emília Carvalho Leitão; Costa, Luciano Bedin da; Monteiro, Silas Borges

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules. The notion of major health embraces the overcoming of imperative models rooted in biomedicine-based practices and approaches to health collective actions. Nevertheless, on the one hand, if this movement extends the co-participatory nature between staff and users of the health system, on the other hand, it lacks more radical actions to break with the moral nature of health-disease processes. Not refusing life's own vicissitudes, major health understands the need to incorporate pain and suffering involved in individuation movements.

  6. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of antiviral drug nevirapine with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2017-09-02

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA with nevirapine at physiological pH was studied by using absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, salt effect studies and computational methods. The drug binds to ct-DNA in a groove binding mode, as shown by slight variation in the viscosity of ct-DNA. Furthermore, competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 indicate that nevirapine binds to DNA via groove binding. Moreover, the structure of nevirapine was optimized by DFT calculations and was used for the molecular docking calculations. The molecular docking results suggested that nevirapine prefers to bind on the minor groove of ct-DNA.

  7. Structure determination of uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Deinococcus radiodurans in complex with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hege Lynum; Johnson, Kenneth A; McVey, Colin E; Leiros, Ingar; Moe, Elin

    2015-10-01

    Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) is a DNA-repair enzyme in the base-excision repair (BER) pathway which removes uracil from DNA. Here, the crystal structure of UNG from the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (DrUNG) in complex with DNA is reported at a resolution of 1.35 Å. Prior to the crystallization experiments, the affinity between DrUNG and different DNA oligonucleotides was tested by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). As a result of this analysis, two 16 nt double-stranded DNAs were chosen for the co-crystallization experiments, one of which (16 nt AU) resulted in well diffracting crystals. The DNA in the co-crystal structure contained an abasic site (substrate product) flipped into the active site of the enzyme, with no uracil in the active-site pocket. Despite the high resolution, it was not possible to fit all of the terminal nucleotides of the DNA complex into electron density owing to disorder caused by a lack of stabilizing interactions. However, the DNA which was in contact with the enzyme, close to the active site, was well ordered and allowed detailed analysis of the enzyme-DNA interaction. The complex revealed that the interaction between DrUNG and DNA is similar to that in the previously determined crystal structure of human UNG (hUNG) in complex with DNA [Slupphaug et al. (1996). Nature (London), 384, 87-92]. Substitutions in a (here defined) variable part of the leucine loop result in a shorter loop (eight residues instead of nine) in DrUNG compared with hUNG; regardless of this, it seems to fulfil its role and generate a stabilizing force with the minor groove upon flipping out of the damaged base into the active site. The structure also provides a rationale for the previously observed high catalytic efficiency of DrUNG caused by high substrate affinity by demonstrating an increased number of long-range electrostatic interactions between the enzyme and the DNA. Interestingly, specific interactions between residues

  8. Teres minor innervation in the context of isolated muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jikol; Francis, Sarah; McCulloch, Jane; Ecker, Jeff; Breidahl, William; McMenamin, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Teres minor atrophy occurs either in isolation, associated with other rotator cuff muscle pathologies or in quadrilateral space syndrome. In the latter condition, compression of the axillary nerve is the likely cause; however, the anatomy of the nerve to teres minor and how this may relate to isolated teres minor atrophy have not been extensively investigated. In light of the significance of teres minor atrophy in shoulder pathology, we performed a combined radiological and anatomical study of teres minor and its nerve supply. Cadaveric dissection of nine shoulder specimens from eight cadavers was performed to investigate the anatomical variability in course, length and branching pattern of both the teres minor nerve and the axillary nerve. Radiological imaging and reports were analysed on all shoulder magnetic resonance images performed over a 1-week period at four radiology clinic locations in an attempt to identify the incidence of isolated teres minor atrophy and review teres minor atrophy in association with other shoulder pathology. Finally, we studied a case of isolated teres minor atrophy identified during a routine undergraduate dissection class. Considerable anatomical variation was noticed in cadaver dissections in the nerve(s) supplying teres minor muscle revealing several various points where it may be vulnerable to impingement or injury at along its course. Analysis of 61 shoulder MR images revealed two patients with shoulder complaints that had isolated teres minor atrophy. Case-based study of these two male patients revealed other associated shoulder injury but the presentation was markedly different and clinically distinct from quadrilateral space syndrome. Isolated teres minor atrophy is a relatively common shoulder pathology which appears to be clinically distinct from other syndromes with rotator cuff muscle atrophy including quadrilateral space syndrome. The exact aetiology is unknown but cadaveric dissection in this study suggests the

  9. Sexual Minority Disparities in Substance Use Willingness Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Hayes, Kerri; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-08-04

    Disparities in substance use have been observed in sexual minority youth, but less is known about willingness to use substances, an important precursor to actual use. The goal of this study was to examine willingness to use cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among sexual minority youth compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The present study drew on two waves (Times 1 and 2; 6 months apart) of data collected during high school as part of a prospective study of substance use initiation and progression in Rhode Island. At Time 1, participants (N = 443) ranged in age from 15 to 20 years (M age = 16.7 years, 26.6% sexual minority, 59.5% female, 72.0% White). Participants self-reported their sexual identity and attraction, lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use willingness (i.e., if offered by a best friend or group of friends). In cross-sectional multivariate regression models, sexual minority youth were more likely to report willingness to use cigarettes (p sexual minority counterparts. Longitudinal multivariate regression models revealed that sexual minorities were only significantly more likely to report cigarette willingness at Time 2 compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts (p sexual minority status. Sexual minority youth reported more willingness than non-sexual minority youth to use substances offered by peers; however, longitudinal analyses revealed that peers appear to play a role only in willingness to smoke cigarettes for these youth, and thus peer influence may be a contributing factor in explaining tobacco-related disparities among sexual minority youth. Given that stigma and peer groups may a particular risk factor for tobacco among sexual minority youth, our findings highlight the importance of prevention programs such as social marketing approaches that correct social norms, reduce stigma, and provide refusal-skills training to

  10. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  11. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  12. Minority Stress, Perceived Bicultural Competence, and Depressive Symptoms among Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Botello-Zamarron, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Based on biculturalism theory (LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993), the present study examined the direct effect of perceived bicultural competence (PBC) on depressive symptoms, and PBC as a potential coping resource to moderate the association between minority stress and depressive symptoms. Participants were 167 Asian American, African…

  13. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  14. Understanding DNA Under Oxidative Stress and Sensitization: The Role of Molecular Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eMonari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA is constantly exposed to damaging threats coming from oxidative stress, i.e. from the presence of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Sensitization from exogenous and endogenous compounds that strongly enhance the frequency of light-induced lesions also plays an important role. The experimental determination of DNA lesions, though a difficult subject, is somehow well established and allows to elucidate even extremely rare DNA lesions. In parallel, molecular modeling has become fundamental to clearly understand the fine mechanisms related to DNA defects induction. Indeed, it offers an unprecedented possibility to get access to an atomistic or even electronic resolution. Ab initio molecular dynamics may also describe the time-evolution of the molecular system and its reactivity. Yet the modeling of DNA (photo-reactions does necessitate elaborate multi-scale methodologies to tackle a damage induction reactivity that takes place in a complex environment. The double-stranded DNA environment is first characterized by a very high flexibility, that dynamical effects are to be taken into account, but also a strongly inhomogeneous electrostatic embedding. Additionally, one aims at capturing more subtle effects, such as the sequence selectivity which is of critical important for DNA damage. The structure and dynamics of the DNA/sensitizers complexes, as well as the photo-induced electron- and energy-transfer phenomena taking place upon sensitization, should be carefully modeled. Finally the factors inducing different repair ratios for different lesions should also be rationalized.In this review we will critically analyze the different computational strategies used to model DNA lesions. A clear picture of the complex interplay between reactivity and structural factors will be sketched. The use of proper multi-scale modeling leads to the in-depth comprehension of DNA lesions mechanism and also to the rational design of new chemo-therapeutic agents.

  15. Understanding DNA under oxidative stress and sensitization: the role of molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Elise; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    DNA is constantly exposed to damaging threats coming from oxidative stress, i.e., from the presence of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Sensitization from exogenous and endogenous compounds that strongly enhance the frequency of light-induced lesions also plays an important role. The experimental determination of DNA lesions, though a difficult subject, is somehow well established and allows to elucidate even extremely rare DNA lesions. In parallel, molecular modeling has become fundamental to clearly understand the fine mechanisms related to DNA defects induction. Indeed, it offers an unprecedented possibility to get access to an atomistic or even electronic resolution. Ab initio molecular dynamics may also describe the time-evolution of the molecular system and its reactivity. Yet the modeling of DNA (photo-)reactions does necessitate elaborate multi-scale methodologies to tackle a damage induction reactivity that takes place in a complex environment. The double-stranded DNA environment is first characterized by a very high flexibility, but also a strongly inhomogeneous electrostatic embedding. Additionally, one aims at capturing more subtle effects, such as the sequence selectivity which is of critical important for DNA damage. The structure and dynamics of the DNA/sensitizers complexes, as well as the photo-induced electron- and energy-transfer phenomena taking place upon sensitization, should be carefully modeled. Finally the factors inducing different repair ratios for different lesions should also be rationalized. In this review we will critically analyze the different computational strategies used to model DNA lesions. A clear picture of the complex interplay between reactivity and structural factors will be sketched. The use of proper multi-scale modeling leads to the in-depth comprehension of DNA lesions mechanisms and also to the rational design of new chemo-therapeutic agents.

  16. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  17. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  18. Social Interaction and the Minority-Majority Earnings Inequality : Why Being a Minority Hurts but being a big Minority Hurts More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahanec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical findings that minorities typically attain lower economic status than majorities and that relatively larger minorities perform worse than smaller ones pose a challenge to economics.To explain this scale puzzle, I model an economy where the society is bifurcated into two social groups that

  19. Exploring minor clerics in early medieval Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Stone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines minor clerics (clerici in Carolingian texts. Comparing episcopal capitularies from Italy and Francia suggests that clerici played a more prominent role in Italian church life. An analysis of charters from the monastery of Monte Amiata reveals a high proportion of clerici. They appear as a rurally-based group, with varying levels of education, but of some local social standing, and were often mature men with children. The prevalence of such clerici may be related to the northern Italian structure of pievi, and the opportunities these provided for mixed patterns of father-son and uncle-nephew inheritance of church office. The blurring of the lay/clerical divide by such clerici may have particularly worried eleventh-century church reformers coming to Italy from other regions of Western Europe.

  20. Learning Schoolscapes in a Minority Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biró Enikő

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In my paper, I present a qualitative approach to the linguistic landscape of Hungarian schools in Sepsiszentgyörgy/Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. These landscapes are called schoolscapes as they represent the material environment where texts and images “constitute, reproduce and transform language ideologies” (Brown 2012: 282. These manifestations reveal a lot about language learning and teaching in a formal educational environment. Beyond the simple representations of languages in education, we may trace more or less hidden curriculum details of foreign- and second-language teaching (English/German, Romanian in a Hungarian-Romanian dominant bilingual setting. My aim is to describe the visual manifestations of the differences and similarities between the languages taught to minority children and the mutual efforts of teachers and students to meet the basic challenges of learning and teaching these languages.

  1. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traf- fic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of complex resource allocation can be modeled as minority games in which the number of resources is limited and agents tend to choose the less used resource based on available information. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control strategies to suppress and elim- inate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method. That the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to mi...

  2. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  3. Tacitus se uitbeelding van Agrippina Minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dircksen

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Tacitus’ portrayal of Agrippina MinorAncient historiography has more in common with the historical novel than with modem historiography. The Annals of Tacitus should be seen as an artistic, narrative text which demands active participation by the reader in the process of interpretation. A narratological analysis of Tacitus' description of the life and death of Agrippina, mother of the emperor Nero, reveals a serious ethical reflection on the atrocities committed by the imperial family. Agrippina is characterised as an exceptionally strongwilled woman who had an immense influence on the Roman Empire while she was the wife of the emperor Claudius and mother of his successor, Nero. On the other hand, her typically female character traits are accentuated from which the reader has to infer that it was precisely the fact that she was a woman which made her authoritative position intolerable.

  4. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  5. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening......Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  6. Own education institutions as an option for minority groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Steyn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the introductory part deals with Christian guidelines regarding the rights of minority groups. In the ensuing part the provision of education according to the unique educational needs of minority groups is discussed within the context of the presented guidelines. It is indicated that own education is internationally accepted as one of the major rights of minority groups. Within the international context, for example in the treaties of Unesco and in the educational provision of several countries, it is accepted that minority groups also prefer their own education institutions in order to effectively provide in their unique educational needs. In this article the more general requirements, regarding the characteristics of the education institution needed to meet the unique educational needs of a particular minority group are also identified. The impending problems in South Africa regarding own education schools for minorities are discussed briefly. In order to find possible solutions the situation in the Netherlands regarding "bijzondere scholen” to provide in the unique educational needs of particular interest groups and particularly religious groups is analysed. The conclusion arrived at is that the mentioned situation does not oppose Christian guidelines if minorities need each other to influence educational change, that the acknowledgement of the educational rights of minority groups promotes national unity, that the educational rights of minorities should imply freedom of establishment, denomination and institution and that the educational rights of minorities are fully realised if their education is financially supported by government on an equal basis to that of the majority.

  7. 75 FR 78225 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Minority Business Development Agency Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation, Opportunities and Barriers to Global Commerce AGENCY: Minority Business... global commerce. The survey will provide valuable information on the markets minority businesses are...

  8. Mental health and substance use of sexual minority college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-07-01

    Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (Fall 2008-Fall 2012 administrations). Written cross-sectional survey. Sexual minority student-athletes had a higher risk of experiencing mental health difficulties than their heterosexual athlete peers. There were no significant differences in mental health between sexual minority male athletes and nonathletes. Sexual minority female athletes appeared to fare better than nonathlete peers. Substance use was greater among sexual minority students (athlete and nonathlete) and was mediated by mental health. Participation in athletics does not appear to be associated with an elevated risk of negative mental health outcomes for sexual minority participants; however, there are disparities in mental health outcomes by sexual orientation regardless of athletics participation.

  9. NATIONAL MINORITIES IN THE LAW OF THE EC/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Šmihula

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the law of the EC/EU the protection of national minorities is still a marginal matter. The EU has relied on general international law and on a European regional system of international law and, in case of necessity, accepted their norms. But in the 1990s there began a process of “de-economisation of the European integration” and the importance of national minorities became higher. Protection of the national minorities has not become a generally accepted legally binding principle of the EU, although in several legal acts issues of national minorities are mentioned. On the other hand, the political relevance of national minorities´ protection is very high. The importance of protection of national minorities in future will probably grow. It is a result of the adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2000 and of the discussions regarding the European constitution and the Treaty of Lisbon.

  10. Interaction of sulforaphane with DNA and RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Abassi Joozdani

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, the antioxidant and anticancer mechanism of sulforaphane is not well understood. In the present research, we reported binding modes, binding constants and stability of SFN-DNA and -RNA complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and UV-Visible spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed DNA intercalation with some degree of groove binding. SFN binds minor and major grooves of DNA and backbone phosphate (PO2, while RNA binding is through G, U, A bases with some degree of SFN-phosphate (PO2 interaction. Overall binding constants were estimated to be K(SFN-DNA=3.01 (± 0.035×10(4 M(-1 and K(SFN-RNA= 6.63 (±0.042×10(3 M(-1. At high SFN concentration (SFN/RNA = 1/1, DNA conformation changed from B to A occurred, while RNA remained in A-family structure.

  11. Interaction of Sulforaphane with DNA and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abassi Joozdani, Farzaneh; Yari, Faramarz; Abassi Joozdani, Parvaneh; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, the antioxidant and anticancer mechanism of sulforaphane is not well understood. In the present research, we reported binding modes, binding constants and stability of SFN–DNA and -RNA complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–Visible spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed DNA intercalation with some degree of groove binding. SFN binds minor and major grooves of DNA and backbone phosphate (PO2), while RNA binding is through G, U, A bases with some degree of SFN–phosphate (PO2) interaction. Overall binding constants were estimated to be K(SFN–DNA)=3.01 (± 0.035)×104 M-1 and K(SFN–RNA)= 6.63 (±0.042)×103 M-1. At high SFN concentration (SFN/RNA = 1/1), DNA conformation changed from B to A occurred, while RNA remained in A-family structure. PMID:26030290

  12. Mixotrophy of Platanthera minor, an orchid associated with ectomycorrhiza-forming Ceratobasidiaceae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagame, Takahiro; Orihara, Takamichi; Selosse, Marc-André; Yamato, Masahide; Iwase, Koji

    2012-01-01

    • We investigated the fungal symbionts and carbon nutrition of a Japanese forest photosynthetic orchid, Platanthera minor, whose ecology suggests a mixotrophic syndrome, that is, a mycorrhizal association with ectomycorrhiza (ECM)-forming fungi and partial exploitation of fungal carbon. • We performed molecular identification of symbionts by PCR amplifications of the fungal ribosomal DNA on hyphal coils extracted from P. minor roots. We tested for a (13)C and (15)N enrichment characteristic of mixotrophic plants. We also tested the ectomycorrhizal abilities of orchid symbionts using a new protocol of direct inoculation of hyphal coils onto roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings. • In phylogenetic analyses, most isolated fungi were close to ECM-forming Ceratobasidiaceae clades previously detected from a few fully heterotrophic orchids or environmental ectomycorrhiza surveys. The direct inoculation of fungal coils of these fungi resulted in ectomycorrhiza formation on P. densiflora seedlings. Stable isotope analyses indicated mixotrophic nutrition of P. minor, with fungal carbon contributing from 50% to 65%. • This is the first evidence of photosynthetic orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal Ceratobasidiaceae taxa, confirming the evolution of mixotrophy in the Orchideae orchid tribe, and of ectomycorrhizal abilities in the Ceratobasidiaceae. Our new ectomycorrhiza formation technique may enhance the study of unculturable orchid mycorrhizal fungi. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Mentoring for minorities in mathematics and science. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, S.E.

    1998-05-01

    The University of West Florida received a grant from the US Department of Energy to initiate a program on mentoring for Minorities in Mathematics and Science. The purpose of the program was to develop interest of minority freshman and sophomore students in teaching mathematics and science and then have these students act as role models for grade school students, especially for minorities who are experiencing difficulties in science and mathematics education. Fifteen students, one more than what was budgeted, participated in the project.

  14. Acinic Cell Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands of Retromolar

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mehmet; Atmaca, Sinan; Bedri KANDEMİR; ÇAKIL, Bünyamin

    2009-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. ACC of the minor salivary glands is very rare. In the oral cavity, minor salivary gland tumors are rarely seen in the inferior anatomic regions like the retromolar trigone and the floor of mouth compared to the superior regions like the palate. We present a retromolar trigone ACC, a rare location in the oral cavity and discuss the relevant reports in the literature. Key words: Acinic cell carcinoma, minor salivar...

  15. The Prevalence of Minor Physical Anomalies in Mentally Retarded Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ulovec, Z.; Škrinjarić, I.; Šošić, Z.; Szirovicza, L.; Jukić, J.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of minor physical anomalies was examined in a sample of 109 children with idiopathic mental retardation (65 boys and 44 girls). Control group consisted of 246 healthy schoolchildren (123 boys and 123 girls) aged 8 to 12 years. A comparison was made between number of found minor anomalies per child (W1) and their Waldrop weight scores (W2) in healthy and mentally retarded (MR) children. The MR children were found to have a higher number of minor anomalies per chil...

  16. Minority within a minority: being Bonpo in the Tibetan community in exile

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the Bonpo in Dolanji, a Tibetan refugee settlement in North India. The Bonpo are a distinctive religious minority within the Tibetan refugee population. In the 1950s, Chinese Communist forces occupied Tibet and, in 1959, the fourteenth Dalai Lama fled Tibet into exile in India. In 1960, the Tibetan Government-in-Exile was established in Dharamsala, and emphasised a ‘shared’ Buddhist heritage as being central to the Tibetan national identity. This...

  17. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA; Investigacao eletroquimica e calorimetrica da interacao de novos agentes antitumorais biscationicos com DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lauris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias, E-mail: cdonnici@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Campus A.C. Simoes. Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Denadai, Angelo Marcio Leite [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Campus VII; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Montanari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-{alpha}-{omega}-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immobilized on an electrode surface was used to study the possible DNA-interacting abilities of these compounds towards dsDNA in situ. A remarkable interaction of these compounds with DNA was demonstrated and their potential application as anticancer agents was furthered. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the noncovalent binding interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and human p53 cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yin; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Ai-Qian; Guo, Liang-Hong; Cao, Jie

    2010-11-15

    The binding of reactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, formed enzymatically, to DNA is a crucial step in PAH carcinogenesis in vivo. We investigated the noncovalent binding interactions between 11 PAH metabolites and human p53 complementary DNA (p53 cDNA) using the fluorescence displacement method and molecular docking analysis. All of the examined metabolites predominantly interacted with p53 cDNA by intercalation instead of groove binding. The dissociation constants ranged from 0.02 to 12.34μM. Of the metabolites tested, 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene showed the strongest binding affinities to DNA, while 2-naphthol was the weakest DNA intercalator. The intercalation of the metabolites was stabilized by stacking the PAH phenyl rings with the DNA base pairs and the formation of hydrogen bonds between the oxide or hydroxyl groups on the metabolites, and DNA bases or backbones. The binding of the metabolites to DNA showed some sequence selectivity. The binding affinities and hydrogen bonds for 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-dihydroepoxide (BPE) and benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) differed. It seems that the functional groups on the periphery of the PAH aromatic ring play crucial roles in regulating its binding affinity with DNA. Although it was difficult to determine the correlation between DNA noncovalent binding affinity and carcinogenicity for some of the PAH metabolites, the present study improved our understanding of the formation of PAH metabolite-DNA adducts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Scowen, Paul A.; Groppi, Christopher E.

    2017-06-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio pivotal role in the formation of most large galaxies. Tidal debris regions have large amounts of neutral gas but a lower gas density and may have higher turbulence. We use star formation tracers such as young star cluster populations and H-alpha and CII emission to determine the different factors that may influence star formation in tidal debris. These tracers were compared to the reservoirs of molecular and neutral gas available for star formation to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The SFR in tidal debris can reach up to 50% of the total star formation in the system. The SFE of tidal tails in minor mergers can range over orders of magnitude on both local and global scales, and include several star forming regions with higher than normal SFE. From the tidal debris environments in our study, this variance appears to stem from the formation conditions of the debris. Current surveys of the 2.12 micron line of molecular hydrogen, CO(1-0), and HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  20. Music in minor activates limbic structures: a relationship with dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anders C; Baerentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2008-05-07

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted major and minor mode melodies controlled for liking to study the neural basis of musical mode perception. To examine the influence of the larger dissonance in minor melodies on neural activation differences, we further introduced a strongly dissonant stimulus, in the form of a chromatic scale. Minor mode melodies were evaluated as sadder than major melodies, and in comparison they caused increased activity in limbic structures, namely left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral ventral anterior cingulate, and in left medial prefrontal cortex. Dissonance explained some, but not all, of the heightened activity in the limbic structures when listening to minor mode music.

  1. Schematic representations of ethnic minorities in young university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador Alvídrez; Juan-José Igartua

    2015-01-01

    .... In consecutive group interviews, participants were quizzed about their knowledge, experiences and expectations associated with social interactions with people belonging to ethnic minority groups...

  2. MINOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES AND METHODS OF THEIR FINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor enterprises do not have resources sufficient for investment. Present experience of venture financing and attraction of funds from finance markets is poor in Russia. Main minor entrepreneurship financing sources are state allocations in the form of subsidies, subventionsand donations. This support promotes economics diversification and increases jobs. The state becomes client of innovations and provides for business environment favorable for minor entrepreneurship and for subsequent diffusion of innovations. One of most efficient innovationactivity stimulation methods (applied to minor enterprises as well is provision for tax privileges, favorable state bank credits and preferences to innovation activity supporting commercial banks.

  3. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  4. Minor Planet Center Data Processing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of the major planets. The MPC is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation for all of these objects.Over 2 million observations are received each month via the internet, and are validated and processed in near real time. The observations come in batches whose formats are checked and whose observations are run through a number of other routine checks such as departure from great circle motion, prior publication, single observations, near duplicates, etc. Some or all of a batch of observations may be returned to its sender if they fail one or more of the checks. After the observations have been validated, they are processed to produce orbits of newly discovered objects or used to update the orbits of known objects.Given the volume of observations, the sheer number of known objects against which to possibly match, the shortness of the time interval over which each object was likely observed, and the uncertainties in the positions, and occasionally possible errors in times, reported, a number of data processing challenges face the MPC. These include the following: Identifying observations of objects reported as new with already known objects; linking together sets of observations from different nights (possibly at different apparitions) which may belong to the same object; determining if a set of observations has been assigned to the wrong object; determining if an object with a very short arc is possibly a Near-Earth object; determining and examining the range of possible variant orbits of newly discovered Near-Earth objects with very short observation arcs for cases which indicate an object is potentially on a collision course with Earth; linking observations to known artificial satellites and/or booster stages and other space "junk"; prioritizing newly

  5. Energetics, Thermodynamics, and Molecular Recognition of Piperine with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, P; Mary, Varughese; Haridas, M; Sudarsanakumar, C

    2015-12-28

    Piperine, the bioactive phytochemical from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), is a nontoxic natural compound exhibiting many physiological and pharmacological properties. They include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antitumor, antiapoptotic, antigenotoxic, antiarthritic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-HBV, and gastro-protective activities. It also enhances the bioavailability of phytochemicals and drugs. The molecular mechanism of action of piperine with DNA has not yet been addressed, while its pharmacological activities have been reported. In this work we report for the first time the interaction of piperine molecule with DNA duplex. We have carried out UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to confirm the binding of piperine with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA). The energetics of interaction of piperine with ctDNA was monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and melting temperature (Tm) analysis were also performed, confirming a minor groove mode of binding of piperine with ctDNA. The binding free energy ΔG values obtained from molecular dynamics simulation studies agree well with ITC values and reveal a sequence dependent minor groove binding exhibiting a specificity toward AT rich sequences.

  6. A method for selectively enriching microbial DNA from contaminating vertebrate host DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Feehery

    Full Text Available DNA samples derived from vertebrate skin, bodily cavities and body fluids contain both host and microbial DNA; the latter often present as a minor component. Consequently, DNA sequencing of a microbiome sample frequently yields reads originating from the microbe(s of interest, but with a vast excess of host genome-derived reads. In this study, we used a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD to separate methylated host DNA from microbial DNA based on differences in CpG methylation density. MBD fused to the Fc region of a human antibody (MBD-Fc binds strongly to protein A paramagnetic beads, forming an effective one-step enrichment complex that was used to remove human or fish host DNA from bacterial and protistan DNA for subsequent sequencing and analysis. We report enrichment of DNA samples from human saliva, human blood, a mock malaria-infected blood sample and a black molly fish. When reads were mapped to reference genomes, sequence reads aligning to host genomes decreased 50-fold, while bacterial and Plasmodium DNA sequences reads increased 8-11.5-fold. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for 149 bacterial species in saliva before and after enrichment. Unenriched saliva had an index of 4.72, while the enriched sample had an index of 4.80. The similarity of these indices demonstrates that bacterial species diversity and relative phylotype abundance remain conserved in enriched samples. Enrichment using the MBD-Fc method holds promise for targeted microbiome sequence analysis across a broad range of sample types.

  7. Isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Li, Na; Lysén, Colleen; Frace, Michael; Tang, Kevin; Sammons, Scott; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-02-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of Cryptosporidium spp. is hampered by difficulties in obtaining sufficient, highly pure genomic DNA from clinical specimens. In this study, we developed procedures for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium genomic DNA from fecal specimens and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of genomic DNA were achieved by a combination of three oocyst purification steps and whole-genome amplification (WGA) of DNA from purified oocysts. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of WGA products was used as an initial quality assessment of amplified genomic DNA. The purity of WGA products was assessed by Sanger sequencing of cloned products. Next-generation sequencing tools were used in final evaluations of genome coverage and of the extent of contamination. Altogether, 24 fecal specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. ubiquitum, C. tyzzeri, and Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I were processed with the procedures. As expected, WGA products with low (sequences in Sanger sequencing. The cloning-sequencing analysis, however, showed significant contamination in 5 WGA products (proportion of positive colonies derived from Cryptosporidium genomic DNA, ≤25%). Following this strategy, 20 WGA products from six Cryptosporidium species or genotypes with low (mostly sequencing, generating sequence data covering 94.5% to 99.7% of Cryptosporidium genomes, with mostly minor contamination from bacterial, fungal, and host DNA. These results suggest that the described strategy can be used effectively for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA from fecal specimens for whole-genome sequencing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Comparison of three genomic DNA extraction methods to obtain high DNA quality from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Amani; Osman, Gamal

    2017-01-01

    The world's top three cereals, based on their monetary value, are rice, wheat, and corn. In cereal crops, DNA extraction is difficult owing to rigid non-cellulose components in the cell wall of leaves and high starch and protein content in grains. The advanced techniques in molecular biology require pure and quick extraction of DNA. The majority of existing DNA extraction methods rely on long incubation and multiple precipitations or commercially available kits to produce contaminant-free high molecular weight DNA. In this study, we compared three different methods used for the isolation of high-quality genomic DNA from the grains of cereal crop, Zea mays, with minor modifications. The DNA from the grains of two maize hybrids, M10 and M321, was extracted using extraction methods DNeasy Qiagen Plant Mini Kit, CTAB-method (with/without 1% PVP) and modified Mericon extraction. Genes coding for 45S ribosomal RNA are organized in tandem arrays of up to several thousand copies and contain codes for 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA units separated by internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2. While the rRNA units are evolutionary conserved, ITS regions show high level of interspecific divergence and have been used frequently in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies. In this study, the genomic DNA was then amplified with PCR using primers specific for ITS gene. PCR products were then visualized on agarose gel. The modified Mericon extraction method was found to be the most efficient DNA extraction method, capable to provide high DNA yields with better quality, affordable cost and less time.

  9. Single-molecule kinetics and footprinting of DNA bis-intercalation: the paradigmatic case of Thiocoraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camunas-Soler, Joan; Manosas, Maria; Frutos, Silvia; Tulla-Puche, Judit; Albericio, Fernando; Ritort, Felix

    2015-03-11

    DNA bis-intercalators are widely used in molecular biology with applications ranging from DNA imaging to anticancer pharmacology. Two fundamental aspects of these ligands are the lifetime of the bis-intercalated complexes and their sequence selectivity. Here, we perform single-molecule optical tweezers experiments with the peptide Thiocoraline showing, for the first time, that bis-intercalation is driven by a very slow off-rate that steeply decreases with applied force. This feature reveals the existence of a long-lived (minutes) mono-intercalated intermediate that contributes to the extremely long lifetime of the complex (hours). We further exploit this particularly slow kinetics to determine the thermodynamics of binding and persistence length of bis-intercalated DNA for a given fraction of bound ligand, a measurement inaccessible in previous studies of faster intercalating agents. We also develop a novel single-molecule footprinting technique based on DNA unzipping and determine the preferred binding sites of Thiocoraline with one base-pair resolution. This fast and radiolabelling-free footprinting technique provides direct access to the binding sites of small ligands to nucleic acids without the need of cleavage agents. Overall, our results provide new insights into the binding pathway of bis-intercalators and the reported selectivity might be of relevance for this and other anticancer drugs interfering with DNA replication and transcription in carcinogenic cell lines. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Structure/nuclease activity relationships of DNA cleavers based on cationic metalloporphyrin-oligonucleotide conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, B; Jakobs, A; Pratviel, G; Meunier, B

    1996-07-16

    The covalent attachment of a managanese-tris(methylpyridiniumyl)porphyrin entity to an antisense oligonucleotide allowed sequence-selective oxidative cleavage of DNA when the metalloporphyrin was activated by potassium monopersulfate (KHSO5). We prepared several structurally modified metallo-porphyrin-oligonucleotide conjugates in order to find out the most efficient compound for in vitro DNA cleavage. The nature and the length of the tether were modulated, the metalloporphyrin entity was modified (metal, ligand), and different ways of activation of the metalloporphyrin were assayed. We noticed that the location of the peptidic bond within the linker could greatly affect the cleavage efficiency of the different conjugates. We showed that the most efficient conjugate for oxidative DNA cleavage was a manganese tetracationic porphyrin-oligonucleotide compound. When the metalloporphyrin moiety was activated by a reducing agent in the presence of molecular oxygen, DNA cleavage was efficient at suitable concentrations of the reducing agent, in order to avoid the reduction of the activated DNA cleaver, a putative high-valent metal-oxo species, by the excess of reducing agent.

  11. New DNA-binding radioprotectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger

    facilitated by the fact that, like the parent minor groove-binding drug Hoechst 33342, DNA-bound MP (and its analogues) are fluorescent, enabling quantitative assessment of delivery of topically applied drug to basal cells in the mouse oral mucosa. Comparison with the data from prior in vitro experiments described above, indicate that topical delivery is sufficient to confer radioprotection. Although the primary motivation for this project relates to Radiation Oncology, the new ra-dioprotectors obviously have more general potential.

  12. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10−5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  13. Unaccompanied Immigrant Minors: Where to Begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccia, Kimberly A; John, Rita Marie

    2016-01-01

    The number of unaccompanied immigrant minors (UIMs) from Central America significantly increased in 2014. Nearly 50,000 children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crossed the United States-Mexico border in 2014, compared with 3,933 in 2011. Few resources exist to guide pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) in their care of UIM. The multifactorial reasons behind migration and the state of children's health in Central America provide insight into the needs of UIMs. Guidelines for similar groups such as foreign-born children and refugees offer direction for the health care considerations of UIMs. This article provides demographic information on UIMs, highlights the unique and challenging medical and mental health issues facing UIMs, and discusses the role of the PNP. A UIM's initial visit with a PNP serves as an opportunity to build trust through culturally competent, trauma-informed care, provide preventive care, assess for unmet health needs, and screen for mental health conditions. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proposing a Health Humanities Minor: Some Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Virginia Bucurel; Boria, Damon

    2017-12-01

    For those interested in developing baccalaureate programs in health humanities, this essay draws on our experience of developing a minor in health humanities to share insights on what to expect, strategies that work well, and how to deal with obstacles. These insights range from how to explain the concept of health humanities to stakeholders (faculty, administrators, and community partners) to how to decide where to house a health humanities program. We share our insights in a way that promises to translate well to different institutional contexts. That said, this paper is more relevant for institutional contexts where budgets are stressed and, consequently, proposals to invest in humanities programs are a difficult sell. This paper is divided into sections addressing how to (a) earn institutional support, (b) gain campus buy-in, (c) identify benefits of the proposed program, (d) decide where to house the program, (e) calculate program cost, and (f) secure external funding. We conclude with some final reflections on the current status of our program and why we are committed to health humanities education.

  15. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10-5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

  16. Canadian minor hockey participants' knowledge about concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    In Canada and the USA, ice hockey is a cause of traumatic brain injury. Post-concussive symptoms are the most important feature of the diagnosis of concussion in sports and it is recommended that athletes not return to play while still symptomatic. Lack of knowledge of concussions could therefore be one of the main detriments to concussion prevention in hockey. The purpose of this research is to describe what minor league hockey players, coaches, parents and trainers know about concussion and its management. A questionnaire to assess concussion knowledge and return to play guidelines was developed and administered to players at different competitive levels (n = 267), coaches, trainers and parents (total adults n = 142) from the Greater Toronto Area. Although a majority of adults and players could identify mechanisms responsible for concussion, about one-quarter of adults and about a quarter to a half of children could not recall any symptoms or recalled only one symptom of a concussion. A significant number of players and some adults did not know what a concussion was or how it occurred. Almost half of the players and a fifth of the adults incorrectly stated that concussion was treated with medication or physical therapy. Nearly one quarter of all players did not know if an athlete experiencing symptoms of concussion should continue playing. This study demonstrated that a significant number of people held misconceptions about concussion in hockey which could lead to serious health consequences and creates a need for better preventive and educational strategies.

  17. A Comparative Structure/Function Analysis of Two Type IV Pilin DNA Receptors Defines a Novel Mode of DNA Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jamie-Lee; Xu, Yingqi; Ward, Philip N; Lea, Susan M; Matthews, Stephen J; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2016-06-07

    DNA transformation is a widespread process allowing bacteria to capture free DNA by using filamentous nano-machines composed of type IV pilins. These proteins can act as DNA receptors as demonstrated by the finding that Neisseria meningitidis ComP minor pilin has intrinsic DNA-binding ability. ComP binds DNA better when it contains the DNA-uptake sequence (DUS) motif abundant in this species genome, playing a role in its trademark ability to selectively take up its own DNA. Here, we report high-resolution structures for meningococcal ComP and Neisseria subflava ComPsub, which recognize different DUS motifs. We show that they are structurally identical type IV pilins that pack readily into filament models and display a unique DD region delimited by two disulfide bonds. Functional analysis of ComPsub defines a new mode of DNA binding involving the DD region, adapted for exported DNA receptors. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  19. Developing DNA nanotechnology using single-molecule fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, Roman; Tomov, Toma E; Liber, Miran; Berger, Yaron; Nir, Eyal

    2014-06-17

    Holliday junctions and of the interactions of DNA strands with DNA origami and origami-related devices such as a DNA bipedal motor are provided. These examples demonstrate how SMF can be utilized for measurement of distances and conformational distributions and equilibrium and nonequilibrium kinetics, to monitor structural integrity and operation of DNA devices, and for isolation and investigation of minor subpopulations including malfunctioning and nonreactive devices. Utilization of a flow-cell to achieve measurements of dynamics with increased time resolution and for convenient and efficient operation of DNA devices is discussed briefly. We conclude by summarizing the various benefits provided by SMF for the development of DNA nanotechnology and suggest that the method can significantly assist in the design and manufacture and evaluation of operation of DNA devices.

  20. Types of minor oral surgical procedures performed on patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Minor oral surgical procedure is any intervention that does not penetrate a body cavity. The procedure does not involve general anaesthesia or respiratory assistance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to document types of minor oral surgical procedures performed on patients attending Muhimbili National ...

  1. Sexual Minority Women's Health Behaviors and Outcomes After Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Potter, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority women (e.g., lesbians, bisexual women, and women who prefer a female partner) are a known risk population for overweight, obesity, and mental health problems. Our objective is to compare sexual minority women with breast cancer to a control sample of sexual minority women without cancer to identify differences in healthful lifestyle practices, weight, well-being and mental health. This is a cross-sectional study of 85 sexual minority women with a breast cancer history (cases) matched by age and partner status to 85 sexual minority controls without cancer. We compared self-reported physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, weight, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Cases and controls had similar health behaviors, BMI, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Of the weight-related behaviors, meeting the recommended guidelines of physical activity was significantly associated with lower likelihood of being overweight or obese, less depression, and better mental quality of life. Sexual minority women with breast cancer are similar to sexual minority women without cancer with respect to healthful behaviors, body weight, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of poor outcomes after cancer should be implemented in this population as well as in sexual minority women without cancer.

  2. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  3. Fiscal federalism, ethnic minorities and the national question in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using content analysis, examined the impact of fiscal federalism and the struggles of ethnic minority groups in the Niger Delta on the trajectories of the national question in Nigeria. It discovered a positive relationship between the changes in the fiscal structure and the aggravation of ethnic minorities' struggles.

  4. Fiscal Federalism, Ethnic Minorities and the National Question in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. This study, using content analysis, examined the impact of fiscal federalism and the struggles of ethnic minority groups in the Niger Delta on the trajectories of the national question in Nigeria. It discovered a positive relationship between the changes in the fiscal structure and the aggravation of ethnic minorities' ...

  5. Bilingual Education for Majority and Minority Language Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    1981-01-01

    The fact that early immersion in a second language has led to bilingualism and academic success among majority language children has been used as an argument against mother tongue instruction for minority language children. However, for minority language children, immersion in a second language has often led to language loss and academic failure.…

  6. MEASUREMENT OF MINORITY-ARRIER LIFETIME IN SILICON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1982-09-01

    Sep 1, 1982 ... One of the critical parameters for the overall efficiency of solar cells is the lifetime of minority carriers. This manuscript describes the measurement of minority - carrier lifetime of silicon solar cells, at room temperature, by photoconductive decay method. The Holobeam, Model 655 Double-Pulsed Holographic.

  7. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria | Ajike | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation and management of minor salivary gland tumours at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods: Retrospective study of minor salivary gland tumours at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Results: The ...

  8. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  9. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)

  10. Task Force on Minorities in the Newspaper Business: Speakers Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Minorities in the Newspaper Business, Reston, VA.

    This speaker's directory lists speakers from both the news and business sides of print media who are available to address industry-related issues (such as how to attract and retain minority employees, how minorities can move into management, and how young people can get a start in newspapers) at conferences, training sessions, and other meetings.…

  11. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  12. Audience and the Use of Minority Languages on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Cornips, Leonie

    On Twitter, many users tweet in more than one language. In this study, we examine the use of two Dutch minority languages. Users can engage with different audiences and by analyzing different types of tweets, we find that characteristics of the audience influence whether a minority language is used.

  13. Minority Recruitment and Retention for Universities: Bilingual Special Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of minority faculty in bilingual special education is a perilous task. Research has shown that minority faculty/teachers are able to provide emotional support, mentor students, serve as role models, create a positive climate, provide diverse views, increase collaboration among faculty and teachers, and work with…

  14. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  15. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  16. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  17. Counseling Minor Clients. The ACA Legal Series, Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Mark M.; Shumate, Stephen G.

    This monograph addresses many of the questions mental health professionals find themselves asking when faced with counseling minor clients. The monograph begins by examining how children and adolescents are viewed in the eyes of the law and discusses a minor's legal right to seek or refuse counseling services. Issues involving custody and…

  18. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Google search was made to identify legal opinions on the subject of informed consent for medical treatment and minors. Findings from the search were analysed against the background of current practices of healthcare providers. Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give ...

  20. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  1. Leadership Identity Development through an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership development among postsecondary students can occur through a variety of experiences; one such experience is a leadership minor. The purpose of this descriptive interpretive study was to analyze students' experiences while enrolled in a leadership minor with a focus on exploring evidence of leadership identity development. By exploring…

  2. Representations of Ethnic Minorities in China's University Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou; Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of ethnic minorities in China through a review of campus newspapers, a major print medium in which universities exercise power over the discourse of cultural recognition. Three universities attended by minority students were selected. A two-dimensional mode (content and configuration) is established to…

  3. Building Bridges: Cultivating Partnerships between Libraries and Minority Student Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Emily

    2007-01-01

    Research on multiculturalism in libraries focuses primarily on collection development and on the recruitment of minorities to the profession. Although multicultural student outreach is relatively uncommon, it is essential in helping to combat the social, education, technological and financial barriers that leave many minority students at a…

  4. Language Policy and Illiteracy in Ethnic Minority Communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minglang

    2000-01-01

    Examines statistics on minority illiteracy from the 1990 Chinese national census across age groups in relation to China's changing language policy among three types of minority communities: those with writing systems of historically broad usage; those with historically limited usage; and those without functional writing systems. (Author/VWL)

  5. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities : barriers and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn; Raynor, Theo; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system.

  6. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  7. Relating Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Attitudes toward Treating Minority Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Mehta, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The attitudes of medical students of Indian decent (N=150) toward treating minority clients and using alternative therapies were assessed in relationship to the students' ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-concept. Students with strong ethnic identity and acculturation were more likely to treat minority patients and use alternative…

  8. Schooling and Minority Adolescents' Mobility Goals: A Causal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elaine M.

    1987-01-01

    In spite of recent reforms, minorities remain marginalized, especially if they are poor. Correlations can be measured between schooling, class, and minority goals to show that equal opportunity in schooling is not sufficient to permit social mobility for all. Society must be reformed economically, racially, and structurally to eradicate…

  9. Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Collegiate Athletes: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Zdroik, Jennifer; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research examining substance use among sexual minority collegiate athletes is sparse. Problematically, this group may be at a greater risk of substance use due to their marginalized status within the context of sport. We examined different types of substance use during the past 30 days, and diagnosis of substance use disorders during the past 12 months, among sexual minority collegiate athletes. This study uses data from college students for the fall semester between 2008 and 2012 from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment. Sexual minority collegiate athletes had greater odds of past 30-day cigarette use, past 30-day alcohol use, past 30-day marijuana use, and indicating being diagnosed or treated for a substance use disorder during the past 12 months when compared to either heterosexual collegiate athletes or heterosexual nonathletes, but had similar odds on these outcomes when compared to sexual minority nonathletes. Sexual minority collegiate athletes also had greater odds of binge drinking during the past 2 weeks when compared to either heterosexual nonathletes or sexual minority nonathletes, but had similar odds on this outcome when compared to heterosexual collegiate athletes. Additional analyses by gender reveal that male sexual minority athletes are at the greatest risk of being diagnosed or treated for a substance use disorder. Possible explanations as to why sexual minority collegiate athletes (particularly males) may be at a greater risk of substance use disorders could include the difficulty of trying to maintain an athletic identity within a social environment that is traditionally homophobic.

  10. Minority International Research Training Program: Global Collaboration in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElmurry, Beverly J.; Misner, Susan J.; Buseh, Aaron G.

    2003-01-01

    The Minority International Research Training Program pairs minority nursing students with faculty mentors at international sites for short-term research. A total of 26 undergraduate, 22 graduate, and 6 postdoctoral students have participated. Challenges include recruitment, orientation, and preparation of students; identification and preparation…

  11. Fear and anxiety in patients undergoing minor oral surgery | Saheeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the causes of fear and anxiety in consecutive patients who attended the University of Benin Teaching Hospital for minor oral surgical treatment. Method: All consenting consecutive patients referred for minor oral surgery were studied. Information on all the patients was ...

  12. Lines of Deterritorialization: The Becoming-Minor of Carter's Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Invoking Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's configuration of minor literature, the author of this case study theorizes the drawing practice of a young boy (Carter) as a process of becoming-minor. Critical to this theorization is the creation and activation of a semblance between Brent and Marjorie Wilson's (1977) treatment of the…

  13. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further administered ...

  14. Minorities and Journalism: Career Orientations among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines factors influencing the educational and career choices of minority students, as well as their perception of journalism, job characteristic preferences, and differences in academic preparation and performance. Asserts that increased recruitment efforts are needed to attract the number of minorities needed in the journalism field. (MM)

  15. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  16. Constancy in Chemistry: Effects on Females and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Several legislators indicated that the primary goal of the Commission on Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering and Technology (CAWMSET) was to identify disincentives that cause attrition among females and minorities in science, engineering, and technology. Discusses why recent diversity legislation in Congress has now come…

  17. New Workers in the Banking Industry: A Minority Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, R. David

    To investigate the effects of the employment policies and practices of New York City banks upon minority employment, six banks were selected on the basis of their higher than average minority group employment. Nearly 200 interviews were conducted with bank personnel, including policy formulators, policy executors, and lower level personnel. These…

  18. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  19. A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…

  20. African Hrts Regime on the Rights of Minorities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beza_D

    Abstract. Minority issues in Africa have surfaced in various dimensions affecting the socio-political landscape of the continent. The protection of minorities is without doubt crucial to securing sustainable peace, economic development as well as protection and enforcement of human rights. Even though domestic mechanisms ...

  1. 25 CFR 117.6 - Allowance for minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance for minors. 117.6 Section 117.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF... Allowance for minors. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an Indian under 21 years of...

  2. Mother Tongue and Bilingual Minority Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Linda T. H.; Cruickshank, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Mother tongue education in separate schools has been in the norm for several of China's large minorities since 1949. In recent years, however, the shift in minority parental demand, media focus on low educational outcomes of mother tongue education combined with government concerns about separatism have led to the development of mixed schools for…

  3. Detailed calculations of minor actinide transmutation in a fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Kanawacho1-2-4,Tsuruga, Fukui, Japan 914-0051 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor is investigated by a new method to investigate the transmutation behavior of individual minor actinides. It is found that Np-237 and Am-241 mainly contributes to the transmutation rate though the transmutation behaviors are very different.

  4. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  5. Archaeology of Extrasolar Rocky Minor Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farihi, Jay

    2011-09-01

    Recent and ongoing work has demonstrated that empirical constraints on the frequency and chemistry of rocky planet formation around other stars, and signatures of water therein, can be found via the asteroidal debris orbiting and polluting white dwarf stars. These stellar remnants yield observable information that can be acquired no other way: the frequency, bulk chemical composition, and minimum mass of rocky minor planets around other stars. Asteroids are ancient planetesimals, the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In the Solar System, we indirectly measure the composition of asteroids by studying meteorites. Analogously, we can obtain a picture of terrestrial planet formation at A- and F-type stars by studying the composition of extant asteroids as they fall onto and chemically pollute their white dwarf remnants. Critically, it is possible to identify significant amounts of water in these asteroidal systems, providing an indication of (current or prior) habitable environments as well as extrasolar testing grounds for models of water delivery to the Earth. I will present the latest and new developments in this area of research. I hope to include some results of an ongoing HST COS effort to study asteroidal debris as a function of post-main sequence age and main-sequence progenitor mass. Other highlights are two stars polluted by the debris of rocky planetary bodies sufficiently large to have been differentiated, and thus at least as large as Vesta or Ceres, the two largest asteroids in the Solar System. Currently, there is at least one compelling case for the accretion of water-rich, asteroidal debris, while the totality of known polluted white dwarfs hints at a significant population of water-rich asteroid analogs orbiting other stars.

  6. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  7. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  8. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  9. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  10. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  11. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia.......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...

  12. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen...... is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.......This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject...

  13. LSU Geoscience Alliance to Enhance Minority Participation: Building Partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. C.; Ferrell, R. E.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Tomkin, J. H.; Bart, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    The LSU GAEMP (Geoscience Alliance to Enhance Minority Participation) program seeks to increase the number of under-represented minorities in the geosciences by targeting students at minority-serving institutions (MSIs) who have an undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, or math) major that is not geology. The program, sponsored by a 5-year NSF award through the OEDG program, is administered by Geology and Geophysics faculty at LSU in collaboration with key science faculty at nine regional minority serving institutions (MSIs; seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and two Hispanic Serving Institutions). These MSIs, especially several physics programs, provide well-trained, highly motivated graduates who compile excellent records in highly ranked graduate programs. These students also have strong potential because they have knowledge and skills relevant to graduate work in interdisciplinary areas. Forging collaborations with MSIs is crucial to exposing these talented students to geoscience education and career opportunities because most of these institutions do not have geoscience degree programs. The point of entry into GAEMP is a summer course that focuses on research to introduce basic geoscience concepts. Targeted recruits into GAEMP are MSI juniors that show high academic achievement and have non-geoscience STEM majors. Summer course participants are encouraged to, and supported in, cooperative research projects that are completed during the following academic year at the home institution. On receiving their baccalaureate degree, GAEMP participants are encouraged to apply to graduate school, especially at LSU where GAEMP graduate fellowships are available at both the M.S. and Ph.D. level. We use a variety of recruiting efforts to attract students into GAEMP including print media, a webpage, visits by LSU faculty and students to MSIs, and workshops at LSU for MSI faculty and students. With all these efforts, the enthusiastic

  14. Persistence among Minority STEM Majors: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Watson, Stacey

    The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.

  15. Cultural minority students' experiences with intercultural competency in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools increasingly value and focus on teaching students intercultural competency within present-day multicultural society. Little is known about the experiences of cultural minority students in intercultural competence activities. This article discusses the intercultural competence activities of medical education in a Dutch university from the perspective of cultural minority students. We will formulate recommendations for how to stimulate intercultural competency in, as well as inclusiveness of, medical education. A qualitative evaluation was performed within a medical school in the Netherlands. Data were collected through interviews (n = 23), a focus group (six participants) and participant observations (20 hours). Thematic analysis was performed. Cultural minority students experienced a lack of respect and understanding by cultural majority students and teachers. Education activities intended to transfer intercultural knowledge, address personal prejudice and stimulate intercultural sensitivity were perceived as stigmatising and as creating an unsafe climate for cultural minority students. Cultural minority and majority students on campus seemed segregated and the intercultural awareness of minority students was not integrated in intercultural competence activities. As cultural minority students were confronted with microaggressions, the medical school did not succeed in creating a safe education environment for all students. Contrary to their aims and intentions, intercultural competence activities had limited effect and seemed to support the polarisation of cultural minority and majority students and teachers. This can be seen as pointing towards a hidden curriculum privileging majority over minority students. For structural integration of intercultural competency in medical education, the focus must penetrate beyond curricular activities towards the critical addressing of the culture and structure of medical school. Collective commitment to

  16. Looking for Waldo: a potential thermodynamic signature to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Barry; Stone, Michael P; Marky, Luis A

    2014-04-15

    DNA in its simplest form is an ensemble of nucleic acids, water, and ions, and the conformation of DNA is dependent on the relative proportions of all three components. When DNA is covalently damaged by endogenous or exogenous reactive species, including those produced by some anticancer drugs, the ensemble undergoes localized changes that affect nucleic acid structure, thermodynamic stability, and the qualitative and quantative arrangement of associated cations and water molecules. Fortunately, the biological effects of low levels of DNA damage are successfully mitigated by a large number of proteins that efficiently recognize and repair DNA damage in the midst of a vast excess of canonical DNA. In this Account, we explore the impact of DNA modifications on the high resolution and dynamic structure of DNA, DNA stability, and the uptake of ions and water and explore how these changes may be sensed by proteins whose function is to initially locate DNA lesions. We discuss modifications on the nucleobases that are located in the major and minor grooves of DNA and include lesions that are observed in vivo, including oxidized bases, as well as some synthetic nucleobases that allow us to probe how the location and nature of different substituents affect the thermodynamics and structure of the DNA ensemble. It is demonstrated that disruption of a cation binding site in the major groove by modification of the N7-position on the purines, which is the major site for DNA alkylation, is enthalpically destabilizing. Accordingly, tethering a cationic charge in the major groove is enthalpically stabilizing. The combined structural and thermodynamic studies provide a detailed picture of how different DNA lesions affect the dynamics of DNA and how modified bases interact with their environment. Our work supports the hypothesis that there is a "thermodynamic signature" to DNA lesions that can be exploited in the initial search that requires differentiation between canonical DNA and

  17. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1, DNA ligase 3 (Lig3 and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4. While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER, homologous recombination repair (HRR and nucleotide excision repair (NER. Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ. Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche

  18. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  19. DNA damage response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Giglia-Mari (Giuseppina); A. Zotter (Angelika); W. Vermeulen (Wim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStructural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network ofDNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance

  20. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal factors such as UV radiation, high energy radiation such as X-. Keywords. DNA repair, DNA damage, base excision repair, nucleotide exci- sion repair, methlyl-directed mis- match repair, Nobel Prize. rays and gamma rays, mutagenic chemicals and viruses. Different types of DNA ... be especially important in plants.

  1. Future Goal Setting, Task Motivation and Learning of Minority and Non-Minority Students in Dutch Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority…

  2. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  3. Minority group identity : How do people handle their differences from others?

    OpenAIRE

    石丸, 径一郎

    2002-01-01

    Studies on identity and adjustment of minority group members exist independently in each minority group. The author tries to integrate studies on various minority groups in the viewpoint of identity development. An integrated model of minority group identity development is proposed on the basis of studies from three fields (ethnic minority, sexual minority, visual impairment). From this integrated viewpoint, many minority group members can benefit from preceding studies of other fields.

  4. Interactions of cytotoxic amino acid derivatives of tert-butylquinone with DNA lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilipić Jovana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of nine amino acid derivatives of tert-butylquinone with biomacromolecules were studied. SDS electrophoresis and mass spectrometry confirmed the absence of modifications of lysozyme by any of the synthesized compounds. Spectrophotometric studies demonstrated hyperchromism, i.e. existence of interactions between the quinones and CT-DNA. Determination of binding constant by absorption titration indicates weak interactions between quinone derivatives and CT-DNA. The quenching of fluorescence of intercalator ethidium bromide from EB-CT-DNA system and of minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 from H-CT-DNA system by the synthesized derivatives indicates interactions of compounds and CT-DNA. CD spectra demonstrate non-intercalative binding mode of quinone derivaties to CT-DNA. Molecular docking results confirm binding to the minor groove. Electrophoretic pattern showed no cleavage of pUC19 plasmid in the presence of any of the synthesized compounds. The ability of the derivatives to scavenge radicals was confirmed by DPPH test. All the presented results suggest that the DNA minor groove binding is the principal mechanism of action of the examined amino acid derivatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172055

  5. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske

    2008-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  6. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...

  7. Archaeal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  8. [Preface to the population problems of minority groups in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K

    1988-04-01

    The population of minority groups in China totals 67,233,300 according to the 1982 census. This comprises about 6.7% of the whole population of China. These minority groups are grouped into 55 identifiably distinct groups and 879,201 unidentified non-Han people. The presence of minority groups is very important in terms of political and economic integration within China, as well as for military reasons. Most of these groups live near the national borders and in the areas where mining resources exist. It is important to realize that their population has been increasing since 1978. 1 reason for this is that family planning has not been strictly enforced for these groups. Moreover, economics in minority group areas has been improved so that infant death rates have plunged. With respect to the 2nd factor, since 1978, minority groups have been treated warmly by the government, with governmental policies much like affirmative action plans for blacks in the US. This policy is most advantageous in terms of school entrance, job-seeking, delivery of children, and promotion to positions of party leadership. Thus, many hidden minorities and the Han-Chinese have begun using the names of minority groups. Examination of the groups in greater detail, especially their kinship and customs, has become an issue of the 1st priority to help pave the way to a smooth modernization. (author's modified)

  9. DNA structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-06-01

    The proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA over 60 years ago provided an eminently satisfying explanation for the heritability of genetic information. But why is DNA, and not RNA, now the dominant biological information store? We argue that, in addition to its coding function, the ability of DNA, unlike RNA, to adopt a B-DNA structure confers advantages both for information accessibility and for packaging. The information encoded by DNA is both digital - the precise base specifying, for example, amino acid sequences - and analogue. The latter determines the sequence-dependent physicochemical properties of DNA, for example, its stiffness and susceptibility to strand separation. Most importantly, DNA chirality enables the formation of supercoiling under torsional stress. We review recent evidence suggesting that DNA supercoiling, particularly that generated by DNA translocases, is a major driver of gene regulation and patterns of chromosomal gene organization, and in its guise as a promoter of DNA packaging enables DNA to act as an energy store to facilitate the passage of translocating enzymes such as RNA polymerase. © 2015 FEBS.

  10. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  11. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  12. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertsens, Joris; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Degraeuwe, Bart; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo; Liekens, Inge; Mayeres, Inge; Meeusen, Romain; Thomas, Isabelle; Torfs, Rudi; Willems, Hanny; Int Panis, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled. Therefore related policies are hampered by a lack of accurate data. This paper provides more insight into the importance of minor bicycle accidents and reports the frequency, risk and resulting costs of minor bicycle accidents. Direct costs, including the damage to bike and clothes as well as medical costs and indirect costs such as productivity loss and leisure time lost are calculated. We also estimate intangible costs of pain and psychological suffering and costs for other parties involved in the accident. Data were collected during the SHAPES project using several electronic surveys. The weekly prospective registration that lasted a year, covered 1187 persons that cycled 1,474,978 km. 219 minor bicycle accidents were reported. Resulting in a frequency of 148 minor bicycle accidents per million kilometres. We analyzed the economic costs related to 118 minor bicycle accidents in detail. The average total cost of these accidents is estimated at 841 euro (95% CI: 579-1205) per accident or 0.125 euro per kilometre cycled. Overall, productivity loss is the most important component accounting for 48% of the total cost. Intangible costs, which in past research were mostly neglected, are an important burden related to minor bicycle accidents (27% of the total cost). Even among minor accidents there are important differences in the total cost depending on the severity of the injury. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Testing a Model of Minority Identity Achievement, Identity Affirmation and Psychological Well-Being among Ethnic Minority and Sexual Minority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one’s identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one’s social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one’s minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  15. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  16. Tropic origins, a dispersal model for saprotrophic mushrooms in Agaricus section Minores with descriptions of sixteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mao-Qiang; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Jun-Liang; Ratchadawan, Cheewangkoon; Hyde, Kevin D; Zhao, Rui-Lin

    2017-07-11

    Agaricus section Minores contains the richest species diversity within the genus. Its Phylogeny is firstly presented by a Maximum Likelihood tree generated through DNA sequences from four gene regions of 91 species. Furthermore, a molecular dating analysis is conducted used those sequences, and it provided the divergence times of the clades within section Minores. Study showed section Minores has a tropical origin. Four main dispersal routes are proposed: (1) species from South Asia migrated through the Tibetan Plateau and reached Europe ca. 9-13 Ma; (2) species from out of South Asia dispersed to Europe in the earlier time of ca. 22 Ma; (3) species from South Asia dispersed through North Asia to Alaska, and reached West America around ca. 9 Ma; and (4) species from South Asia dispersed south and reached Oceania by at least three invading events about ca. 9, 12 and 16-18 Ma respectively. Those routes excepting the second route coincide with those of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. To know whether the second route existed in the saprotrophic mushrooms requires further studies, and the fourth route may explain why the secotioid species occurring in Australia are morphologically similar but cluster in different phylogenetic clades. This study also demonstrates a great biodiversity of A. section Minores in China. Sixteen new species and three new records are introduced from China with morphological descriptions, illustrations, color photographs and phylogenetic analyses.

  17. The deportation of unaccompanied minors from the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin; Schuster, Liza; Stern, Rebecca

    his report is the outcome of a joint effort between the University of Copenhagen and the Refugee Studies Centre at the University of Oxford to examine European governments’ plans to deport unaccompanied minors from the EU. With support from the Migration Industry Research Network, Danish Institute...... for International Studies, the workshop “The deportation of unaccompanied minors from the EU: family tracing and government accountability in the European Return Platform for Unaccompanied Minors (ERPUM) project” was convened at the Refugee Studies Centre (RSC) in Oxford on 3 May 2013. Its explicit aim...

  18. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  19. The changing epitome of species identification - DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal Ali, M; Gyulai, Gábor; Hidvégi, Norbert; Kerti, Balázs; Al Hemaid, Fahad M A; Pandey, Arun K; Lee, Joongku

    2014-07-01

    The discipline taxonomy (the science of naming and classifying organisms, the original bioinformatics and a basis for all biology) is fundamentally important in ensuring the quality of life of future human generation on the earth; yet over the past few decades, the teaching and research funding in taxonomy have declined because of its classical way of practice which lead the discipline many a times to a subject of opinion, and this ultimately gave birth to several problems and challenges, and therefore the taxonomist became an endangered race in the era of genomics. Now taxonomy suddenly became fashionable again due to revolutionary approaches in taxonomy called DNA barcoding (a novel technology to provide rapid, accurate, and automated species identifications using short orthologous DNA sequences). In DNA barcoding, complete data set can be obtained from a single specimen irrespective to morphological or life stage characters. The core idea of DNA barcoding is based on the fact that the highly conserved stretches of DNA, either coding or non coding regions, vary at very minor degree during the evolution within the species. Sequences suggested to be useful in DNA barcoding include cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA (e.g. cox1) and chloroplast DNA (e.g. rbcL, trnL-F, matK, ndhF, and atpB rbcL), and nuclear DNA (ITS, and house keeping genes e.g. gapdh). The plant DNA barcoding is now transitioning the epitome of species identification; and thus, ultimately helping in the molecularization of taxonomy, a need of the hour. The 'DNA barcodes' show promise in providing a practical, standardized, species-level identification tool that can be used for biodiversity assessment, life history and ecological studies, forensic analysis, and many more.

  20. The changing epitome of species identification – DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal Ali, M.; Gyulai, Gábor; Hidvégi, Norbert; Kerti, Balázs; Al Hemaid, Fahad M.A.; Pandey, Arun K.; Lee, Joongku

    2014-01-01

    The discipline taxonomy (the science of naming and classifying organisms, the original bioinformatics and a basis for all biology) is fundamentally important in ensuring the quality of life of future human generation on the earth; yet over the past few decades, the teaching and research funding in taxonomy have declined because of its classical way of practice which lead the discipline many a times to a subject of opinion, and this ultimately gave birth to several problems and challenges, and therefore the taxonomist became an endangered race in the era of genomics. Now taxonomy suddenly became fashionable again due to revolutionary approaches in taxonomy called DNA barcoding (a novel technology to provide rapid, accurate, and automated species identifications using short orthologous DNA sequences). In DNA barcoding, complete data set can be obtained from a single specimen irrespective to morphological or life stage characters. The core idea of DNA barcoding is based on the fact that the highly conserved stretches of DNA, either coding or non coding regions, vary at very minor degree during the evolution within the species. Sequences suggested to be useful in DNA barcoding include cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA (e.g. cox1) and chloroplast DNA (e.g. rbcL, trnL-F, matK, ndhF, and atpB rbcL), and nuclear DNA (ITS, and house keeping genes e.g. gapdh). The plant DNA barcoding is now transitioning the epitome of species identification; and thus, ultimately helping in the molecularization of taxonomy, a need of the hour. The ‘DNA barcodes’ show promise in providing a practical, standardized, species-level identification tool that can be used for biodiversity assessment, life history and ecological studies, forensic analysis, and many more. PMID:24955007

  1. DNA origami: the art of folding DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccà, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2012-01-02

    The advent of DNA origami technology greatly simplified the design and construction of nanometer-sized DNA objects. The self-assembly of a DNA-origami structure is a straightforward process in which a long single-stranded scaffold (often from the phage M13mp18) is folded into basically any desired shape with the help of a multitude of short helper strands. This approach enables the ready generation of objects with an addressable surface area of a few thousand nm(2) and with a single "pixel" resolution of about 6 nm. The process is rapid, puts low demands on experimental conditions, and delivers target products in high yields. These features make DNA origami the method of choice in structural DNA nanotechnology when two- and three-dimensional objects are desired. This Minireview summarizes recent advances in the design of DNA origami nanostructures, which open the door to numerous exciting applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA methylation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of siRNA-DNA

  4. Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

  5. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  6. A grounded theory for unaccompanied foreign minors in Italy: the case study of Egyptian minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Bianchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests to share a research first emerging categories according to methodological universe of the "Grounded Theory" based on a mental construction/orientation process. The main target is to investigate in the educational relationship between an unaccompanied minor (MSNA and his educator, and so has also to consider the progressive changes in the learning of the language and the corresponding humanization of the same, so well the continued definition and shared construction of the intercultural practice. At this stage of doctoral research, some categories are emerging that are particularly pertinent to the Egyptian participants in the study. The egyptians are the main nationality present in italian system of host. The theory which is emergeting will be a scratch theory and has not a validation target of preconceived hypothesis.

  7. Screening for protein-DNA interactions by automatable DNA-protein interaction ELISA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise H Brand

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins (DBPs, such as transcription factors, constitute about 10% of the protein-coding genes in eukaryotic genomes and play pivotal roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression by binding to short stretches of DNA. Despite their number and importance, only for a minor portion of DBPs the binding sequence had been disclosed. Methods that allow the de novo identification of DNA-binding motifs of known DBPs, such as protein binding microarray technology or SELEX, are not yet suited for high-throughput and automation. To close this gap, we report an automatable DNA-protein-interaction (DPI-ELISA screen of an optimized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA probe library that allows the high-throughput identification of hexanucleotide DNA-binding motifs. In contrast to other methods, this DPI-ELISA screen can be performed manually or with standard laboratory automation. Furthermore, output evaluation does not require extensive computational analysis to derive a binding consensus. We could show that the DPI-ELISA screen disclosed the full spectrum of binding preferences for a given DBP. As an example, AtWRKY11 was used to demonstrate that the automated DPI-ELISA screen revealed the entire range of in vitro binding preferences. In addition, protein extracts of AtbZIP63 and the DNA-binding domain of AtWRKY33 were analyzed, which led to a refinement of their known DNA-binding consensi. Finally, we performed a DPI-ELISA screen to disclose the DNA-binding consensus of a yet uncharacterized putative DBP, AtTIFY1. A palindromic TGATCA-consensus was uncovered and we could show that the GATC-core is compulsory for AtTIFY1 binding. This specific interaction between AtTIFY1 and its DNA-binding motif was confirmed by in vivo plant one-hybrid assays in protoplasts. Thus, the value and applicability of the DPI-ELISA screen for de novo binding site identification of DBPs, also under automatized conditions, is a promising approach for a

  8. Motivations, interests and retention of female minority engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Naila

    In an effort to potentially increase low enrollment of females, particularly minorities, in Engineering programs, this study used a survey to determine motivations, interests and retention of current female Engineering students. A total of 82 participants from varied ethnic (non-Hispanic white, Euro-American, African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, South Asian, Arab American, and Native American participants) and education (high school senior, undergraduate, graduate, and in-service Engineers) backgrounds filled out the survey. With approximately half of the participants being non-minorities (non-Hispanic white or Euro-American), they served as the `control' group for the data, and the comparison group was the minority participants. Notable differences between the two groups were: student participation in female community groups, and extra-curricular activities like sports and arts (writing, drama and band) clubs. Increasing female-minority participation in these clubs and other extra-curricular activities may potentially increase their enrollment numbers in Engineering programs.

  9. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on Lemna minor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Guanling; Hou, Wenhua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Niu, Qiang; Ma, Rulin; Mu, Lati; Wang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    .... Ecotoxicological studies of this kind of NPs effects on hydrophyte are very limited at present. Lemna minor was exposed to media with different concentrations of CuO NPs, bulk CuO, and two times concentration of Cu2...

  10. POTENSI DAN KARAKTERISTIK PRODUKSI Lemna minor PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA TANAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lemna minor merupakan jenis tanaman yang hidup dominan pada perairan dengan kualitas nutrisi tinggi dan potensial sebagai sumber hijauan pakan bagi ternak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur potensi Lemna minor dan karakteristiknya pada berbagai media tanam untuk mendapatkan teknik produksi yang optimal. Penelitian dilakukan pada bak plastik dengan ukuran 36.5×27×10 cm3 selama dua minggu. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan media dan lima ulangan. Jenis media yang digunakan adalah kontrol, hoagland, hyponex, kompos dan NPK. Parameter yang diukur meliputi serapan nitrogen, pH media, cover area, penyusutan media, dan produksi biomassa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lemna minor efektif dalam memanfaatkan nitrogen dengan nilai serapan > 98 %, media kompos memberikan status pH media yang stabil/netral dan pertambahan luas cover area (LCA tercepat dan tingkat produksi biomassa Lemna minor terbaik pada media kompos dan Hoagland.

  11. Minors' exposure to online pornography: prevalence, motivations, contents and effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eva González-Ortega; Begoña Orgaz-Baz

    2013-01-01

    .... This study examined the prevalence and extent of minors' exposure to online pornography, the reasons for exposure, the types of images seen and the strong effects of exposure, as reported by college students...

  12. Digital Divide: Low German and other Minority Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Wiggers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the online presence of Low German, a minority language spoken in northern Germany, as well as several other European regional and minority languages. In particular, this article presents the results of two experiments, one involving Wikipedia and one involving Twitter, that assess whether and to which extent minority languages are used on these websites. The article argues that minority and regional languages are not only underrepresented online due to a combination of historical, linguistic, sociological, and demographic reasons, but that the overall architecture of the World Wide Web and its most visited websites is such that smaller languages do not stand a chance to gain a meaningful online presence.

  13. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asachi, Maryam; Hassanpour, Ali; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Bayly, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  14. Multicultural media outreach: increasing cancer information coverage in minority communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, James; Kwon, Harry T; Strecher, Rachael; Bartholomew, Jill

    2013-12-01

    Ethnic media can serve as an opportunity for cancer education and outreach to minority communities. The National Cancer Institute developed the Multicultural Media Outreach (MMO) program which utilizes an integrated approach of both traditional and social media to disseminate evidence-based cancer education information for minority communities. The MMO program is the contact point for multicultural media outlets seeking evidence-based cancer information, education materials, minority spokespersons, and news tailored to minority communities affected by cancer health disparities. MMO developed Lifelines®, a cancer education series that addresses cancer prevention, treatment, survivorship, clinical trials, and other cancer-related topics for African American, Hispanic, Asian American, American Indian, and Alaska Native audiences. Lifelines® content is disseminated through traditional media (radio, print, and television) as well as social media (web, Twitter, YouTube, and RSS feed). This article describes the MMO program and lessons learned to date.

  15. MSX INFRARED MINOR PLANET SURVEY V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Midcourse Space Experiment Infrared Minor Planet Survey (MIMPS) includes infrared data for 168 main-belt asteroids serendipitously observed by the Midcourse...

  16. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  17. Vocational Interest of Minority Disadvantaged Students: Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James H.; Whitney, Douglas

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study of how minority students respond to an interest inventory indicated that they generally achieved lower means on all Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales than did the college freshmen population. (Author/AM)

  18. Details on Exclusive Use Data Protection for Minor Use Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about issues related to exclusive use data protection for minor use registrations, including extension of the exclusive use period and establishing a new exclusive use period.

  19. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems.

  1. Majority versus Minority: 'Governmentality' and Muslims in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-01-01

      This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority-minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim...

  2. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeDreu, CKW; DeVries, NK

    This experiment tested the general hypothesis that majority influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change on focal issues, whereas minority influence sometimes produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Results of a numerical support

  3. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; de Vries, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment tested the general hypothesis that majority influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change on focal issues, whereas minority influence sometimes produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Results of a numerical support

  4. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  5. 78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... doors of opportunity are cracked a little wider for a few, but whether our economic system provides a... minority enterprises, renew our commitment to helping them grow, and look with pride toward the promise of...

  6. Health Science Career Education for Minority Junior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy J.; Cohen, Ellen J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a health science career education program in which eighth- and ninth-grade minority students fulfill their science requirement by attending lecture and laboratory sessions at a Manhattan medical center and working individually with a professional. (DC)

  7. Perceived Support and the Retirement Expectations of Sexual Minority Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Steven E; Schryer, Emily

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of retirement planning among an aging population, little is known about the retirement planning of sexual minority adults (e.g., gay, lesbian, bisexual) and their potentially unique challenges. We compared retirement planning perceptions of these adults with heterosexual adults and examined the potential role of social support. There were no significant differences between sexual minorities and heterosexual adults regarding their expected retirement age, certainty of retirement age, and anticipated income adequacy in retirement, and higher levels of perceived support were associated with younger anticipated retirement age and greater certainty in retirement planning perceptions. Perceived support also had a stronger association with retirement planning perceptions for sexual minority adults compared to heterosexuals, such that lower perceived support was associated with a later retirement age and less certainty about retirement age, and lower levels of perceived support were linked to diminished anticipated retirement income adequacy for sexual minority adults.

  8. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... organizations with a history of working with minority farmers and ranchers; (3) not less than two civil rights... Questionnaire (Form AD-755). Form AD-755 is available on the Internet at http://www.fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA...

  9. A Complete Security of Criminological Safety of Minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Saveliev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers questions relating to the diversity of theoretical comprehension levels of criminological safety of minors. The Author analyzes the normative legal basis of activities of subjects of prevention and protection of children's rights

  10. Minority Business Enterprises and Woman Business Enterprises Grant Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The policy goal of the MBE/WBE Programs is to assure that minority business enterprises and woman business enterprises are given the opportunity to participate in contract and procurement for supplies, construction, equipment & services under any EPA grant

  11. National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Minorities and Mental Health: Moving Beyond the Stigma Mental illness is one of the most prevalent ... Populations ( R01 ) Understanding Factors in Infancy and Early Childhood That Influence Obesity Development ( R01 ) Addressing Health Disparities ...

  12. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  13. Experimental life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Ciclo evolutivo experimental de Lagochilascaris minor, Leiper 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa Campos

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor was studied using material collected from human lesion and applying the experimental model: rodents (mice, hamsters, and carnivorae (cats, dogs. In mice given infective eggs, orally, hatch of the third stage larvae was noted in the gut wall, with migration to liver, lungs, skeletal musculature and subcutaneous tissue becoming, soon after, encysted. In cats infected with skinned carcasses of mice (60 to 235 days of infection it was observed: hatch of third stage larvae from the nodules (cysts in the stomach, migration through the oesophagus, pharynx, trachea, related tissues (rhino-oropharynx, and cervical lymphonodes developing to the mature stage in any of these sites on days 9-20 post inoculation (P.I.. There was no parasite development up to the mature stage in cats inoculated orally with infective eggs, which indicates that the life cycle of this parasite includes an obligatory intermediate host. In one of the cats (fed carcass of infected mice necropsied on day 43 P.I., it was observed the occurence of the self-infective cycle of L. minor in the lung tissues and in the cervical region which was characterized by the finding of eggs in different stages of development, third stage larvae and mature worms. It's believed that some component of the carnivorae gastrointestinal tracts may preclude the development of third stage larvae from L. minor eggs what explains the interruption of the life cycle in animals fed infective eggs. It's also pointed out the role of the intermediate host in the first stages of the life cycle of this helminth.A partir de material colhido de lesões humanas estudou-se o ciclo evolutivo de Lagochilascaris minor empregando-se o modelo experimental: roedores (camundongos, hamster e carnívoros (gatos, cão. Em camundongos inoculados com ovos infectantes, por via oral, observou-se eclosão de larvas de 3º estágio na parede do intestino, migração das mesmas para o fígado, pulm

  14. Studies of DNA-binding properties of lafutidine as adjuvant anticancer agent to calf thymus DNA using multi-spectroscopic approaches, NMR relaxation data, molecular docking and dynamical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongqin; Tang, Peixiao; Tang, Bin; Huang, Yanmei; He, Jiawei; Li, Shanshan; Li, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The interactions between lafutidine (LAF) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. UV-vis absorption studies confirmed that LAF binds to ctDNA through non-covalent interactions. Fluorescence quenching and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed that the binding of LAF with ctDNA occurred through static quenching mechanism, resulting in the formation of a LAF-ctDNA complex. The binding constants (K) of the complex were found to be around 10(3)M(-1) via NMR relaxation rates and fluorescence data, and the calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played major roles in the binding of LAF to ctDNA. The changes in CD spectra indicated that LAF induced a slight perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA. A comparative study of the LAF-ctDNA complex with respect to potassium iodide quenching experiments and competition displacement assays with ethidium bromide, acridine orange, and Hoechst 33258 probes suggested that LAF interacted with ctDNA by minor groove mode. Molecular docking analysis further supported the minor groove binding. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that LAF depart from the C-G region of DNA, but it can steadily bind with the middle part of DNA composed by A-T base pairs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon [Gyeongsang University College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys.

  16. Chromatic roots and minor-closed families of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Given a minor-closed class of graphs G, what is the in mum of the non-trivial roots of the chromatic polynomial of G ε G? When G is the class of all graphs, the answer is known to be 32/27. We answer this question exactly for three minor-closed classes of graphs. Furthermore, we conjecture...... precisely when the value is larger than 32/27....

  17. Smoking Among Sexual Minorities: Are There Racial Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Kasim S; Duncan, Dustin T; Blosnich, John R; Salloum, Ramzi G; Battle, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Smoking prevalence is higher among sexual minorities compared to their heterosexual peers. However, very little is known about potential racial differences in smoking among sexual minority populations. We examined differences by race in smoking status among a robust sample of sexual minorities. We used data from the 2010 Social Justice Sexuality project, a large national convenience sample of sexual minority adults that oversampled individuals from racial minority groups. Log-Poisson multivariable regression models were employed to determine the risk of current smoking among sexual minority individuals by race after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Among smokers, 22.35% identified as White, 26.98% identified as Black, 19.38% identified as Latino/Hispanic, 5.58% identified as Asian American, and 25.67% were other/multiracial. In fully adjusted gender stratified models, Black men (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.75) and Asian American men (aRR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.50, 0.75) were at lower risk of smoking compared to White men. Black women were the only to remain statistically significant for decreased risk of smoking in fully adjusted gender stratified models (aRR = 0.78, 95 % CI = 0.65, 0.95). Among sexual minorities, Black and Asian American individuals consistently were at decreased risk of current smoking compared to their White peers. Future research should seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to decreased smoking status among racial sexual minorities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adults Who Solicit Minors Online

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden (N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online (n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online (n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors on...

  19. Intraoral lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Milano, Massimiliano; Caputo, Cristian; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; D'Avino, Alfredo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and a case with involvement of minor salivary glands is very uncommon. We describe a case of LELC of the oral cavity with involvement of the upper lip and of minor salivary glands. The tumour was described at the clinical and instrumental level; moreover, its histopathological phenotype was defined. Finally, the problems of differential diagnosis and the most appropriate therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  20. MAIN TYPES OF MINOR AND MEDIUM INNOVATIVE ENTEPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of Eastern Europe countries and RF to market economics causes many organizational, legal and infrastructural problems to rise. By the degree of «innovativeness», minor and medium enterprises are classified to three categories: «leader», «successor» and «outsider». Minor enterprises to whom different support may be extended by regional powers are grouped to 4 types.