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Sample records for septicemia

  1. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  2. First Trimester Listeria monocytogenes Septicemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddijn, M.; Schipper, H. G.; Spanjaard, L.; Wolf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Little is known about fetal outcome after Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in the first trimester of pregnancy.Case: A primigravida with L. monocytogenes septicemia at 9 weeks gestation was treated with amoxicillin. At 40 weeks gestation a healthy female infant was born.Conclusion: This

  3. [Neonatal septicemia in the G-DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, M; Hentschel, R; Böhler, T; Dirschedl, P

    2006-12-01

    The introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups in Germany (G-DRG) has brought forward the obligation for physicians to take into account an intricate system of medical, economical and legal implementations. Mistakes in the process of encoding the principal diagnosis or procedures may have financial consequences. Problems to determine the correct ICD-code will be most prominent for diseases with poorly defined or even inconsistent diagnostic criteria as is the case for neonatal septicemia. We decided to evaluate whether the introduction of G-DRG resulted in a change of frequency of the diagnosis "neonatal septicemia". We analysed data derived from the quality assurance program "Neonatalerhebung" in the state of Baden-Württemberg during the years of 2001 through 2004, i. e., 2 years before and 2 years during the introduction of G-DRG. During this period an annual number of 12,316 up to 13,172 newborns were admitted to the participating hospitals. The mean number of diagnoses per patient increased from 2.2 to 3.8. The frequency of the diagnosis of septicemia remained constant. The percentage of newborns receiving antibiotic therapy did not change. The ratio of cases with "septicemia yes" over "antibiotics yes" did not change. Although it is difficult to determine the diagnosis of neonatal septicemia and in spite of the economic implications of this diagnosis, no change in the frequency of this diagnosis occurred during the introduction of DRG. Assuming that the participating hospitals used an identical database for the quality assurance program "Neonatalerhebung" and for accounting, we conclude that the DRG system is stable with respect to neonatal septicemia.

  4. Pattern of neonatal septicemia in a Malaysian maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, N Y; Wong, Y H; Lim, V K

    1989-09-01

    Over a 12 months period, out of 25,411 livebirths, 155 neonates (6.1 per 1000 livebirths) had proven septicemia by blood culture. The mortality rate was 26.5%. Septicemia was more common among the very low birthweight and preterm neonates of gestation of 30 weeks or less. 45.8% of the septicemia occurred during the first 48 hours of life. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common causative organism. However, mortality was highest among neonates who acquired multiresistant nosocomial infection during the later part of neonatal life.

  5. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

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    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  6. Septicemia caused by Vibrio parahemolyticus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G J; Young, T; Peng, M Y; Chang, F Y; Chou, M Y

    1993-11-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a halophilic marine vibrio commonly associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis which also sometimes causes serious wound infection. It is an uncommon cause of septicemia. A few reports suggest that patients with chronic liver disease and leukemia are more susceptible. A case of liver cirrhosis with septicemia caused by this organism is discussed. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and he died 12 hours after admission.

  7. Radiographic observation of toxemia and septicemia after delivery in Korea

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    Suh, Sung Hee; Shin, Young Sook [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    Radiographic finding of the chest of toxemia in pregnancy and septicemia are observed during 4 years period from January 1968 to December 1971. There were 930 cases of toxemia in pregnancy and 14 cases of septicemia encounted among the total deliveries of 8295 cases in Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. 1. The incidence of toxemia of pregnancy was 11.2% and that of septicemia was 0.2%. 2. Abnormalities of the chest roentgenogram of toxemia are analysed as cardiomegaly with pulmonary congestion and edema (20.7%), and other cases indicate pneumonitis. 3. In the case of septic pneumonia, 57.1% of its patient shows severe form, and in toxemia, 85% shows cardiac and pulmonary involvement in abnormal chest roentgenogram.

  8. [Post nearly Drowning Vibrio alginolyticus Septicemia Acquired in Reunion (Indian Ocean)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, B-A; Chanareille, P; Vandroux, D

    2016-08-01

    AbstractWe report the first case of Vibrio alginolyticus septicemia in the Indian Ocean (Reunion Island), in a patient (70-year-old-man) with multiple underlying conditions, following a nearly drowning in the lagoon of Reunion. From now on, V. alginolyticus should be considered as a possible agent of septicemia in the Indian Ocean, particularly following marine activities.

  9. Septicemia in a Neonate following Therapeutic Hypothermia: The Literature Review of Evidence

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    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a term neonate with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who underwent a 72-hour therapeutic hypothermia. He developed unstable body temperature associated with coagulase negative staphylococcus septicemia 2 weeks later which was promptly treated with intravenous antibiotics and made a good recovery. PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “therapeutic hypothermia” and “septicemia,” with limits activated (humans, English, age 0–18 years. There were only 6 randomized controlled trials, 1 non-randomized controlled trial, 1 retrospective cohort, and 1 case-control trial, which showed no definite evidence of increased risk of septicemia or neutrophil dysfunction in infants following hypothermia therapy.

  10. Clostridium subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Daganou Maria; Kyriakoudi Ann; Moraitou Helen; Pontikis Konstantinos; Avgeropoulou Stavrina; Tripolitsioti Paraskevi; Koutsoukou Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium subterminale is a Clostridium species that has been rarely isolated in the blood of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of C. subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient who presented with acute mediastinitis following spontaneous esophageal rupture.

  11. Clostridium subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daganou, Maria; Kyriakoudi, Ann; Moraitou, Helen; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Avgeropoulou, Stavrina; Tripolitsioti, Paraskevi; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium subterminale is a Clostridium species that has been rarely isolated in the blood of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of C. subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient who presented with acute mediastinitis following spontaneous esophageal rupture.

  12. Clostridium subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daganou Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium subterminale is a Clostridium species that has been rarely isolated in the blood of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of C. subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient who presented with acute mediastinitis following spontaneous esophageal rupture.

  13. Bacteriological profile of septicemia and the risk factors in neonates and infants in Sikkim

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    Dechen C Tsering

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial infections remain an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. It might be possible to reduce these factors by early diagnosis and proper management. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriological profiles with their antibiogram, and to register the risk factors for septicemia in neonates and infants. Setting and design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants. Materials and Methods: Blood culture reports were studied in 363 cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates and infants, using the standard technique of Mackie and McCartney. The antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Risk factors for sepsis in the children were registered. Results: Blood culture was positive in 22% of cases. Gram-negative septicemia was encountered in 61% of the culture-positive cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst gram-negative organisms. Most gram-negative organisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Co-trimoxazole. The most common gram-positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (97%. More than 70% of Staphylococci isolated were resistant to Penicillin, but were sensitive to Clindamycin (70% and Vancomycin (40%. The most important risk factors of septicemia in our study population were preterm birth (31%, followed by respiratory distress (5% and low birth weight (4%. Conclusion: As the cultures showed variable antibiogram with complicated patterns of resistance, culture and sensitivity test should be performed in all cases of septicemia.

  14. Meningococal Septicemia with Cutaneous Vasculitis

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    Radha Mittal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases-had meningococcal septicemia with vasculitis of skin. Out 9 year old female developed generalised ,asymptomatic, purpuric atrophic plaques on the limbs, trunk and face on the fourth day of high fever. The second patient was 20 year old male who developed purplish plaques. Nodules, and bullae mainly on the extensor surface of the hands and feet on the tenth day, of high fever. Bullae had clear fluid and bluish-black peripheral rim

  15. CDC Signos Vitales: Piense en la septicemia. El tiempo es crucial. (Think Sepsis. Time Matters.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de agosto del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La septicemia es una emergencia médica y puede ocurrir rápidamente. Conozca los signos de la septicemia y la forma de prevenirla.

  16. Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia in a tertiary care hospital from Western India

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    Vrishali Avinash Muley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The present study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of prevalent pathogens isolated from the blood of septicemic neonates from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. A total of 180 blood samples of septicemic neonates were studied bacteriologically. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method in accordance to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI guidelines. 26.6% (48 out of 180 cases of septicemia could be confirmed by blood culture. Of these, 66.7% cases were of early onset septicemia (EOS and 33.3% were of late onset septicemia (LOS. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen (35.4% among the Gram-negative pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus (22.9% was the predominant Gram-positive pathogen. 28% of K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers. 18.1% of the Staphylococcus isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Multi-drug-resistance pattern was observed with all the isolates. Ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides were the most effective drugs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. This study highlights the predominance of Gram-negative organisms in causing neonatal sepsis and emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains in our set up.

  17. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

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    B.R. Harish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  18. Amikacin treatment of Serratia septicemia in critically ill patients.

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    Mosquera, J M; de Villota, E D; de la Serna, J L; Diez-Balda, V; Tomás, M I; Galdos, P; Rubio, J J

    1981-09-01

    Serratia marcescens septicemia represents a serious problem in high risk critical care patients. Treatment is difficult because Serratia is usually resistant to most antibiotics. Amikacin is at present the most effective antibiotic in vitro against gentamycin-resistant Serratia, although significant loss of activity may occur in vivo in the group of compromised patients, whose ultimate prognosis may depend eventually upon other associated conditions. In this Medical ICU, 15 patients with Serratia septicemia who were treated with in vitro effective antibiotics (14 were given amikacin) had a mortality of 60%, while 5 patients who received ineffective in vitro antibiotics had a mortality of 100%. In this ICU, 80% of the Serratia isolates were resistant to gentamycin, while only 2.8% were resistant to amikacin. Because amikacin-resistant strains of Serratia have already emerged, appropriate use of this antibiotic is essential in order not to promote the selection of amikacin-resistant strains.

  19. CDC Signos Vitales: Piense en la septicemia. El tiempo es crucial. (Think Sepsis. Time Matters.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de agosto del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. La septicemia es una emergencia médica y puede ocurrir rápidamente. Conozca los signos de la septicemia y la forma de prevenirla.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  20. Typing of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Sano, Motohiko

    2012-01-01

    Seven mAbs with specific reaction patterns against each of the four genotypes and eight subtypes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were produced, aiming to establish an immunoassay for typing VHSV isolates according to their genotype. Among the mAbs, VHS-1.24 reacted with all genotypes...

  1. Chryseobacterium indologenes Septicemia in an Infant

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    Turkan Aydin Teke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium indologenes is a rare cause of infection in children. The organism causes infections mostly in hospitalised patients with severe underlying diseases. The choice of an effective drug for the treatment of infections due to C. indologenes is difficult as the organism has a limited spectrum of antimicrobial sensitivity. We present a case of nosocomial septicemia caused by C. indologenes in an infant with congenital heart disease who was successfully treated with trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and also reviewed fourteen additional cases of C. indologenes infections reported in the English literature in this report.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from motile Aeromonas septicemia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, R.; Rozi; Dinda, N. D.; Nurjanah, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fish suffer, from bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites or by physical ailments. Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy), nila (Oreochromis niloticus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Clarias sp.) were the most reported infections caused by Aeromonas are bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia or Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS). Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms included MAS. However, the use of antibiotics in the long term can cause negative impacts, among others, feared the occurrence of bacterial resistance in certain antibiotics. The results showed five of isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamycin, oxytetracycline, cefradoxil and nalidixic acid but resistant to vancomycin colistin sulphate, rifampisin, cephalosporin and novobiocin.

  3. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations

  4. Acute gastric dilatation secondary to septicemia in newborn: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... case of acute gastric dilatation that developed in a two-days old child who was born premature and was suffering from septicemia and respiratory distress. The causes and the differential diagnosis of the rare condition are discussed. Keywords: Acute, dilatation, gastric, newborn. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol.

  5. Passive immunization of Pacific herring against viral hemorrhagic septicemia.

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    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii that survived laboratory-induced viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) epizootics contained humoral substances that, when injected into naive animals, conferred passive immunity against the disease. Among groups exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), injection of donor plasma from VHS survivors resulted in significantly greater survival (50%) and significantly lower tissue titers (1.5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units [PFU]/g) than the injection of plasma from VHSV-naive donors (6% survival; 3.7 x 10(6) PFU/g). Additionally, the magnitude of the protective immune response increased during the postexposure period; plasma that was collected from survivors at 123 d postexposure (931 degree-days) provided greater protection than plasma collected from survivors at 60 d postexposure (409 degree-days). These results provide proof of concept that the VHSV exposure history of Pacific herring populations can be determined post hoc; furthermore, the results can be used as the foundation for developing additional high-throughput diagnostic techniques that may be effective at quantifying herd immunity and forecasting the potential for future VHS epizootics in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  6. Aeromonas veronii septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

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    Paula McKenzie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a 29-year-old healthy man who fell into an industrial auger, sustaining acrushed, open pelvic injury, multiple comminuted fractures of the right leg, and traumaticamputation of his left foot. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonasspp and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus. Treatment included cefepime, levofloxacin,daptomycin, and metronidazole. Aeromonas veronii is a Gram negative bacillus usuallyfound in fresh and brackish water in warm climates. It can cause severe skin andsoft tissue infections, typically after injured tissue is exposed to contaminated water.Aeromonas septicemia is uncommon and is usually associated with underlying diseases,such as malignancy, cirrhosis, diabetes, or immunosuppression. It rarely occurs in ahealthy host.

  7. Candida albicans septicemia in a premature infant successfully treated with oral fluconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, S; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Lars; Hjelt, K

    1992-01-01

    A premature male infant, birth-weight 1460 g, was treated successfully for a Candida albicans septicemia with orally administered fluconazole for 20 days. Dosage was 5 mg/kg/day. No side effects were seen. Fluconazole may present a major progress in treatment of invasive C. albicans infections...

  8. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates associated with septicemia in swine

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    Bergeron, Nadia; Corriveau, Jonathan; Letellier, Ann; Daigle, France; Quessy, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently isolated from pigs and may also cause enteric disease in humans. In this study, 33 isolates of S. Typhimurium associated with septicemia in swine (CS) were compared to 33 isolates recovered from healthy animals at slaughter (WCS). The isolates were characterized using phenotyping and genotyping methods. For each isolate, the phage type, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA profiles were determined. In addition, the protein profiles of each isolate grown in different conditions were studied by Coomassie Blue-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. Various phage types were identified. The phage type PT 104 represented 36.4% of all isolates from septicemic pigs. Resistance to as many as 12 antimicrobial agents, including some natural resistances, was found in isolates from CS and WCS. Many genetic profiles were identified among the PT 104 phage types. Although it was not possible to associate one particular protein with septicemic isolates, several highly immunogenic proteins, present in all virulent isolates and in most isolates from clinically healthy animals, were identified. These results indicated that strains associated with septicemia belong to various genetic lineages that can also be recovered from asymptomatic animals at the time of slaughter. PMID:20357952

  9. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

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    M. Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  10. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: An approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Signoli, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    1998-01-01

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on...

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

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    Hosuru Subramanya Supram

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  12. Septicemia caused by the gram-negative bacterium CDC IV c-2 in an immunocompromised human.

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, M; Berger, S A; Aderka, D; Levo, Y

    1986-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with plasma cell leukemia developed nonfatal septicemia caused by the gram-negative bacterium CDC IV c-2. Recovery followed appropriate treatment with antibiotics. The biochemical features of this organism are reviewed.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila as cause of hemorrhagic septicemia in a ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus).

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    Ocholi, R A; Kalejaiye, J O

    1990-01-01

    An acute hemorrhagic septicemia in a captive ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus) is reported. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from lungs, liver, kidney, and intestines. Postmortem lesions were characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs. Microscopically, necrotic lesions were found in the liver, lungs, and kidney. Factors that might have contributed to the clinical disease condition are discussed.

  14. Fatal Vibrio parahemolyticus septicemia in a patient with cirrhosis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hally, R J; Rubin, R A; Fraimow, H S; Hoffman-Terry, M L

    1995-06-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus has been well documented to cause outbreaks of infectious diarrhea, usually related to poor food handling; only rarely has it been reported to cause fetal septicemia. In contrast, Vibrio vulnificus is a well-known cause of septicemia, especially in patients with cirrhosis. A 31-year-old woman with cirrhosis who developed fatal V. parahemolyticus sepsis after ingesting raw seafood is described. We review the clinical syndromes associated with sepsis caused by these two organisms. Leg pain and bullous skin lesions may be a clue to the diagnosis. Febrile patients with cirrhosis should be questioned regarding recent seafood ingestion, and appropriate antibiotics chosen if this history is obtained. Physicians should inform patients at risk to avoid raw seafood in an attempt to prevent this potentially lethal syndrome.

  15. Fatal septicemia linked to transmission of MRSA clonal complex 398 in hospital and nursing home, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Kemp, Michael; Holm, Anette

    2016-01-01

    We describe 2 fatal cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 septicemia in persons who had no contact with livestock. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolated MRSA strains strongly suggest that both were of animal origin and that the patients had been infected...

  16. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Age-Specific Bacteriological Profile of Pediatric Septicemia; A Population- Based Study

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    Seyyed Shahin Eftekhari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Septicemia is a life-threatening condition particularly among pediatric population. Early initiating a proper empiric antimicrobial treatment prior to definite isolation of the pathogen through blood culture has pivotal role in reducing further mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological properties of a distinct Iranian population by patients’ age and gender throughout the year. Materials and Methods As a retrospective study between March 2013 and March 2017, all consecutive patients referred to the Hazrat Masumeh hospital of Qom-Iran with suspicious of septicemia were reviewed. Patients with prior history of antibiotic consumption as well as patients over 6 years of age were excluded; incomplete hospital records were also excluded from further evaluations. Prespecified data-extraction forms were used to collect data including characteristics of patients and the results of antibiogram. Results Total of 378 patients were enrolled in this study and 200 of them were boys (52.91%. Escherichia coli (11.6% and Klebsiella (9.5% were the most common isolated pathogens (Gram-negative after coagulase-negatives. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter (Gram-negative, and Staph. Aureus (Gram-positive were the most common pathogens among age group of 0-1 year. Winter had the greatest outbreak of bacteremia (29.1% and the autumn had the least incidence (21.4%. The least and the most antimicrobial resistance were associated with Imipenem (1.8% and Ampicillin (78.78%, respectively. Conclusion Escherichia coliand Klebsiella were the most common isolated bacteria in patients suspected to bacteremia in our region. Imipenem and Ampicillin had the least and the most antimicrobial resistance in our population, respectively.

  18. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection

  19. Triad of infective endocarditis, splenic abscess, and septicemia caused by Brucella melitensis

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    Shashank Purwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old farmer from the district of North Karnataka who had received treatment for high fever of 8 days duration was admitted with fever, dyspnea, and poor general condition. Ultrasonography and echocardiogram revealed multiple splenic abscesses, vegetation on atrioventricular valve, aortic regurgitation (Grade I–II, and mitral valve regurgitation (Grade II–III, respectively. Brucella melitensis was detected in blood culture, and high titers of IgM and IgG anti-Brucella antibodies were observed in Brucella specific serological tests. The patient developed fulminant septicemia and succumbed due to multi-organ failure.

  20. Bone scintigraphic assessment of multifocal sequelae of staphylococcus aureus septicemia, a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamisandratsoa, N.; Yu, O.; Grucker, D.; Bole, J.C.; Weber, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    A 71-year old patient suffering from untreated non-insulin-dependent diabetes presented anti-inflammatory drug-resistant lumbalgia with referred inguinal pain either on the right or left side, corresponding to the first signs of septicemia due to staphylococcus aureus, with urinary onset. Despite specific antibiotic treatment, pulmonary, cardiac and neurological complications followed. Simultaneous investigations by MRI and bone scintigraphy performed in the remitting patient showed multiple septic metastatic localization in the soft tissues and bones. It was hence necessary to pursue the antibiotic therapy to avoid relapses. (author)

  1. Expression of microRNAs and interferon-related genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) infected with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    The fish rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes severe disease in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The potential threat from wildlife marine reservoir of VHSV, particularly to sea-farmed fish demands disease protection measures. Identification of biomarkers during...

  2. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  3. The value of serum procalcitonin content for assessing the inflammation and organ injury in neonatal septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Fang Li1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of serum procalcitonin content for assessing the inflammation and organ injury in neonatal septicemia. Methods: 48 children with neonatal septicemia who were treated in our hospital between April 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the observation group, 50 healthy newborns who were delivered in our hospital during the same period were selected as the normal control group, and the observation group were further divided into high PCT group and low PCT group (n=24 according to the median of serum PCT content. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum contents of inflammatory mediators, and color Doppler diasonograph was used to measure heart injury index levels. Results: Peripheral blood PCT content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α contents of high PCT group and low PCT group were significantly higher than those of normal control group, and as the PCT content increased, serum inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α contents increased (P<0.05; routine ultrasound parameters cardiac output (CO and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF levels as well as the absolute value of twodimensional speckle tracking imaging parameters left ventricular global longitudinal strain rate (GLSr and left ventricular global circumferential strain rate (GCSr of high PCT group and low PCT group were lower than those of normal control group while serum myocardial injury indexes cardiac troponin I (cTnI, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP and α-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (HBDH contents were higher than those of normal control group, and as the PCT content increased, CO and LVEF levels as well as the absolute value of GLSr and GCSr decreased while the indexes cTnI, H-FABP and HBDH contents increased (P<0

  4. Involvement of T cells in enhanced resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae septicemia in mice treated with liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine or gamma interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, ten T.L.; Vianen, van W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Heremans, H.; Buurman, W.A.; Bakker-Woudenberg, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic administration of the liposome-encapsulated immunomodulating agents muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTPPE) and gamma interferon (IFN-) results in strongly increased survival of mice from a normally lethal septicemia with Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  5. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted......, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib...

  6. Comparison of two regimens of RhG-CSF in neutropenic neonatal septicemia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh; Soheili, Habib; Kaveh, Mahbod; Oloomi Yazdi, Zohre; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    Considering the 50% mortality rate of neonatal septicemia associated with neutropenia and increasing resistance to antibiotics, simultaneous antibiotic therapy strategies are becoming more important. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate effectiveness of RhG-CSF in the treatment of neutropenia in neonates. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 neutropenic neonates with septicemia who were hospitalized in Vali-e-Asr and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals (Tehran, Iran). The neonates were randomly divided into two equal groups RhG-CSF was administered as a subcutaneous single dose of 10 μg/kg/s.c. to neonates in group A and as 10 μg/kg/s.c./day once daily for 3 days to neonates in group B. CBC and differential count was checked 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. There was no significant difference in mean birth weight, gender, age, and risk factors between two groups. Neutropenia was improved 48 hours after the last dose, whilst there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05). The final outcome including death, duration of hospitalization and duration of antibiotics therapy after RhG-CSF administration did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). The results of this study showed that administration of a single dose of RhG-CSF (10 μg/kg) was effective in treating neonatal septicemic neutropenia.

  7. Comparison of Two Regimens of RhG-CSF in Neutropenic Neonatal Septicemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nConsidering the 50% mortality rate of neonatal septicemia associated with neutropenia and increasing resistance to antibiotics, simultaneous antibiotic therapy strategies are becoming more important. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate effectiveness of RhG-CSF in the treatment of neutropenia in neonates. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 neutropenic neonates with septicemia who were hospitalized in Vali-e-Asr and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals (Tehran, Iran. The neonates were randomly divided into two equal groups RhG-CSF was administered as a subcutaneous single dose of 10μg/kg/s.c. to neonates in group A and as 10μg/kg/s.c./day once daily for 3 days to neonates in group B. CBC and differential count was checked 6, 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. There was no significant difference in mean birth weight, gender, age, and risk factors between two groups. Neutropenia was improved 48 hours after the last dose, whilst there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P>0.05. The final outcome including death, duration of hospitalization and duration of antibiotics therapy after RhG-CSF administration did not differ between two groups (P>0.05. The results of this study showed that administration of a single dose of RhG-CSF (10μg/kg was effective in treating neonatal septicemic neutropenia.

  8. Genetic diversification of an emerging pathogen: A decade of mutation by the fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) virus in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is an RNA rhabdovirus, which causes one of the world's most serious fish diseases, infecting >80 freshwater and marine species across the Northern Hemisphere. A new, novel, and especially virulent substrain - VHSv-IVb - first appeared in the Laurentian Gre...

  9. Cupriavidus pauculus (Ralstonia paucula) concomitant meningitis and septicemia in a neonate: first case report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, S; Gur, R; Nayar, R; Rongpharpi, S R; Jain, D; Gupta, R K

    2013-01-01

    Ralstonia paucula (formerly classified as CDC (Centre for Disease Control) group IVc-2, Wautersia paucula; recently renamed as Cupriavidus pauculus) is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus isolated from water sources and can cause serious human infections. Patients recover bacteriologically indicating low virulence. A total of 32 cases have been reported world-wide, but no isolation has ever been reported from cerebrospinal fluid or in India. The first case of R. paucula meningitis and septicemia is being reported here along with the brief summary of cases reported world-wide.

  10. Cupriavidus pauculus (Ralstonia paucula concomitant meningitis and septicemia in a neonate: First case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Duggal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia paucula (formerly classified as CDC (Centre for Disease Control group IVc-2, Wautersia paucula; recently renamed as Cupriavidus pauculus is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus isolated from water sources and can cause serious human infections. Patients recover bacteriologically indicating low virulence. A total of 32 cases have been reported world-wide, but no isolation has ever been reported from cerebrospinal fluid or in India. The first case of R. paucula meningitis and septicemia is being reported here along with the brief summary of cases reported world-wide.

  11. In Vivo Efficacy of Plazomicin Alone or in Combination with Meropenem or Tigecycline against Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Exhibiting Various Resistance Mechanisms in an Immunocompetent Murine Septicemia Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraouf, Kamilia; Kim, Aryun; Krause, Kevin M; Nicolau, David P

    2018-06-04

    Background : Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with potent in vitro activity against multidrug- and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of plazomicin exposure, alone and in combination with meropenem or tigecycline, against Enterobacteriaceae in the immunocompetent murine septicemia model. Methods : ICR mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with bacterial suspensions. Eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates with wide ranges of plazomicin, meropenem and tigecycline MICs were utilized. Treatment mice were administered plazomicin, meropenem or tigecycline human-equivalent doses alone or in combinations of plazomicin/meropenem and plazomicin/tigecycline. Treatments were initiated 1h post-infection and continued for 24h. Efficacy was assessed by survival through 96h. Results : Compared with controls, plazomicin monotherapy produced significant improvement in survival for all isolates (P32 and 2 mg/L, respectively), combination therapies showed significant reduction in mortality compared with any monotherapy (P<0.05). Conclusion : Plazomicin monotherapy resulted in improved survival in the immunocompetent murine septicemia model, notably for isolates with plazomicin MIC ≤4 mg/L. As evidenced by our current data, co-administration of meropenem or tigecycline could potentially lead to further improvement in survival. These data support a role for plazomicin in the management of septicemia due to Enterobacteriaceae with plazomicin MIC ≤4 mg/L, including carbapenem-resistant isolates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. A literature review of the epidemiology of sepsis in Latin America Revisión bibliográfica de la distribución epidemiológica de la septicemia en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Jaimes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies from the United States of America and from Europe have shown that sepsis is a widely prevalent syndrome, with either steady or slightly decreasing rates of morbidity and of mortality in recent decades. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review regarding the description and characterization of sepsis in Latin America. METHODS: To locate materials on sepsis in Latin America, a comprehensive search strategy was employed with three medical bibliographic databases, using combinations of the terms "sepsis," "septicemia," "bacteremia," "sepsis syndrome," "epidemiology," "incidence," and "prevalence." The materials selected were in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. RESULTS: The titles of more than 1 000 potentially relevant articles were screened, and more than 600 selected abstracts were reviewed in detail. Twenty papers published from 1990 through 2004 were selected and analyzed. The studies described in the 20 articles were extremely heterogeneous in design, population, sample size, end points, and follow-up. The studies did not all apply the same clinical definition for sepsis, thus making it impossible to produce a precise overall estimate of the magnitude of the problem of sepsis in Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the literature review suggest that the clinical and epidemiological approaches to the problem of sepsis in Latin America have sometimes been inappropriate with respect to research design, study population, and clinical outcome. Further, some data suggest that in terms of both frequency and mortality the situation with sepsis and severe systemic infections may be worse in Latin America than it is in developed countries.OBJETIVOS: Algunos estudios epidemiológicos realizados en Estados Unidos de Amé-rica y en Europa han demostrado que la septicemia es un síndrome de muy amplia distribución cuya frecuencia ha permanecido estable o ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos

  13. Method of inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome and also inhibiting the onset of septicemia and a composition therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribi, E E

    1986-01-14

    A method is described for inhibiting the onset of acute radiation syndrome caused by the exposure of warm-blooded animals to a whole body dose of at least 100 rads of x-radiation. Also described is a method for inhibiting the onset of septicemia. The methods comprise administering to a warm-blooded animal an effective amount of a pharmaceutical preparation containing refined detoxified endotoxin in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

  14. Molecular diagnosis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2002-01-01

    The fish rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), cause extensive losses among salmon and trout in several areas of the world (Bootland and Leong, 1999; Smail, 1999; Wolf, 1988). Historically, IHNV was endemic among wild anadromous salmonids in the western portion of North America, but the virus has spread to stocks of cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the United States, Asia and Western Europe, probably as a result of the movement of infected fish or eggs (Winton, 1991). Prior to 1989, VHSV was thought to be largely restricted to freshwater fishes in Western Europe (Wolf, 1988); however, in the last decade, VHSV has been isolated from an increasing number of free-living marine fish species in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans (Dixon et al., 1997; Dixon, 1999; Kent et al., 1998; Meyers and Winton, 1995; Meyers et al., 1999; Mortensen et al., 1999; Smail; 2000, Takano et al., 2000). These findings have lead to the conclusion that both viruses are principally endemic among marine or anadromous fish species, but have established themselves in freshwater among cultured salmonids where their effects are most frequently observed.

  15. [Dermohypodermitis and gut translocation Escherichia coli septicemia in a newborn infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouache, E; Chantier, E; Hubert, N; Rivière, M-F

    2013-01-01

    The burden of neonatal bacterial infections continues. They remain a significant cause of death and morbidity, despite recommendations for prevention. The epidemiology of these infections has changed. Currently the two most causative pathogens for early-onset neonatal sepsis and for late-onset sepsis in term infants are Group B streptococci (GBS) and Escherichia coli. E. coli's role is increasingly important since the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. In late-onset infections, one of the suggested pathophysiological mechanisms is microbial translocation in the gut secondary to digestive colonization, particularly when E. coli is isolated in blood cultures. This can occur either before or after birth. Bacterial sepsis can be associated with various non-specific peripheral manifestations involving skin and soft tissues. We report the case of a full-term, 26-day-old newborn admitted to the hospital for fever. She presented with dermohypodermitis of the left trunk and was diagnosed with E. coli septicemia. She was discharged in good condition after appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Purpura fulminans associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia in an asplenic pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Zell, D; Milikowski, C; Alonso-Llamazares, J

    2013-09-01

    Purpura fulminans is a rapidly progressive syndrome of small-vessel thrombosis and hemorrhagic necrosis of the skin accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation. We describe a case of Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia in an asplenic 5-year-old boy on oral tacrolimus, with a past medical history of multivisceral organ transplantation and subsequent development of purpura fulminans on his chest and distal extremities. The acute infectious form of purpura fulminans is usually caused by gram-negative bacteria. Cases secondary to gram-positive encapsulated bacteria usually occur when individuals are immuno-suppressed or have anatomic or functional asplenia. Our patient had both, which likely increased his susceptibility, and he responded well to antimicrobial therapy in addition to prophylactic coverage in the setting of his immunosuppression. We review the literature for similar cases due to S. pneumoniae in the pediatric population and discuss the etiology and treatment of purpura fulminans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of PCR-based DNA sequencing technique for the detection of Leptospira in peripheral blood of septicemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, dark field detection and microscopic agglutination test (MAT are considered ―gold standard‖ tests for diagnosis of Leptospirosis. Several PCR assays are reported but very few have been evaluated for detection of Leptospirosis. Therefore, this study was undertaken. This study aims to design and standardize polymerase chain reaction (PCR - based DNA sequencing technique for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira from peripheral blood of patients clinically diagnosed with septicemia. Methodology and Results: Two hundred and seven (207 blood samples from patients were diagnosed with septicemia which includes 100 bacterial (other than Leptospira culture positive and 107 bacterial culture negative samples were studied. Primers for Nested PCR targeting LipL32 gene of Leptospira interrogans were designed and the specificity of primers was tested against serum samples positive/negative by either MAT or dark field microscopy. PCR amplified products were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The standardized nPCR was sensitive and specific to Leptospira interrogans. Twenty-one (21% out of 100 culture positive blood samples, three (2.8% out of 107 culture negative samples showed nPCR positivity and were confirmed as Leptospira interrogans by DNA sequencing (p<0.001. A sensitive nPCR specific to Leptospira interrogans was developed. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The p value (<0.001 signifies that Leptospira is commonly associated with other bacteria circulating in blood indicating that a decreased immune status is created primarily by a bacterium with enhanced possibility of development of Leptospiral infection probably be of an endogenous origin.

  18. Sero-Surveillance of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Buffaloes and Cattle in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq*, Zaka Saeed1, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Iftikhar Ali1 and Muhammad Fiaz Qamar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was executed to study the sero-surveillance of hemorrhagic septicemia (HS in buffaloes and cattle in district Dera-Ghazi-Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The average geometric mean titers (GMT recorded against HS in diseased buffaloes and cattle were 5.7 and 6.1, respectively. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 57.58, 52.30 and 90.83% in young buffalo calves; and 3.17, 1.92 and 60.65%, in adult buffaloes, respectively. Whereas, in case of young cattle calves, morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 8.63, 5.27 and 61.11%, respectively. While in adult cattle, morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 4.83, 2.18 and 45.23%, respectively. The present study revealed that the mortality, morbidity and case fatality rates due to HS were greater in young calves than the adults both in buffaloes and cattle. Furthermore, buffaloes were found to be more susceptible to the disease than the cattle.

  19. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  20. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Séverine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8) cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  1. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera. The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  2. The first imported human case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia presents with acute appendicitis-like syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human nonplague yersiniosis occurs more commonly in temperate regions than in tropical or subtropical regions. In Taiwan, which is located in a subtropical region of Southeast Asia, only environmental isolates and human infection of Yersinia enterocolitica were reported, but a human case of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection had not been identified. We report the first person with Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia who presented with acute appendicitis-like syndrome and who was probably contracted the infection via ingestion of raw foods in a barbecue restaurant in Japan.

  3. Cell-mediated immune responses in rainbow trout after DNA immunization against the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke, Katrin; Kock, Holger; Schuetze, Heike

    2008-01-01

    injection site rather than to injection sites of heterologous vaccines, suggesting the antigen specificity of homing. By demonstrating CMC responses to distinct viral proteins and homing in rainbow trout, these results substantially contribute to the understanding of the teleost immune system.......To identify viral proteins that induce cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-infected cells, rainbow trout were immunized with DNA vectors encoding the glycoprotein G or the nucleocapsid protein N of VHSV. The G protein was a more potent trigger...... of cytotoxic cells than the N protein. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from trout immunized against the G protein killed both VHSV-infected MHC class I matched (RTG-2) and VHSV-infected xenogeneic (EPC) target cells, suggesting the involvement of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells...

  4. Resistencia a antimicrobianos y evaluación del tratamiento combinado en la septicemia neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Espino Hernández

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudiar la resistencia a los antibióticos de las cepas bacterianas aisladas de pacientes con septicemia neonatal en un hospital ginecobstétrico de La Habana, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 1998, y evaluar el valor predictivo del método del "tablero de damas" (checkerboard para seleccionar el tratamiento con combinaciones de antibióticos en pacientes graves. MÉTODOS: Se estudió a 229 neonatos, a quienes se les extrajo sangre para hemocultivo y estudios de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos. El estudio de la susceptibilidad de las cepas se realizó por el método de microdilución en caldo y se utilizó el tablero de damas en bandejas de caldo para evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano combinado. RESULTADOS: Cincuenta por ciento de las cepas aisladas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa-negativas y 37% de las cepas de S. aureus, principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal, fueron resistentes a la meticilina. De ellas, 94,5% resultaron resistentes a varios antibióticos. Cuatro cepas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa-negativas y una de Enterococcus faecium fueron resistentes a la vancomicina (concentración mínima inhibidora = 128 myg/mL. Se observó una alta probabilidad de eficacia clínica (P < 0,01 con combinaciones de antibióticos que mostraron un efecto sinérgico in vitro, mientras que las reacciones antagónicas se correspondieron con la probabilidad altamente significativa de fracaso terapéutico clínico. DISCUSIÓN: La principal causa de septicemia neonatal en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital "América Arias" en La Habana, Cuba, está constituida por las cepas de estafilococo resistentes a la meticilina y a otros antibióticos. En pacientes graves (atendiendo a lo establecido en el programa de política de este centro, la primera línea de tratamiento la constituye la combinación de un antibiótico aminoglucósido con un betalactámico. Este estudio demostr

  5. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G; Signoli, M; Dutour, O; Raoult, D

    1998-10-13

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on which to base such research. We hypothesized that it would be a lasting refuge for Yersinia pestis, the plague agent. DNA extracts were made from the dental pulp of 12 unerupted teeth extracted from skeletons excavated from 16th and 18th century French graves of persons thought to have died of plague ("plague teeth") and from 7 ancient negative control teeth. PCRs incorporating ancient DNA extracts and primers specific for the human beta-globin gene demonstrated the absence of inhibitors in these preparations. The incorporation of primers specific for Y. pestis rpoB (the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-encoding gene) and the recognized virulence-associated pla (the plasminogen activator-encoding gene) repeatedly yielded products that had a nucleotide sequence indistinguishable from that of modern day isolates of the bacterium. The specific pla sequence was obtained from 6 of 12 plague skeleton teeth but 0 of 7 negative controls (P plague was achieved for historically identified victims, and we have confirmed the presence of the disease at the end of 16th century in France. Dental pulp is an attractive target in the quest to determine the etiology of septicemic illnesses detected in ancient corpses. Molecular techniques could be applied to this material to resolve historical outbreaks.

  6. DNA vaccination of rainbow trout against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: A dose-response and time-course study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Martinussen, T.

    2000-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss is caused by VHS virus (VHSV), which belongs to the rhabdovirus family. Among the different strategies for immunizing fish with a recombinant vaccine, genetic immunization has recently proven to be highly effective. To further...... investigate the potential for protecting fish against VHS by DNA vaccination, experiments were conducted to determine the amount of plasmid DNA needed for induction of protective immunity. The time to onset of immunity and the duration of protection following administration of a protective vaccine dose were...... serologically different from the isolate used for vaccine development. Following administration of 1 mug of a DNA vaccine, significant protection against VHS was observed in the fish as early as 8 d postvaccination. At 168 d postvaccination, the fish had increased in size by a factor of 10 and protection...

  7. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Dunhua Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS, caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh, is emerging as a major disease in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that predispose catfish to vAh infection and establish a waterborne challenge model that mimics natural occurrence of MAS. Results of this study indicated that wounding on the fish body surface was one of the key factors that predisposed catfish to vAh infection via waterborne route. Relatively uniform wounds were created by clipping part of the fish adipose fin. Adipose fin clipped (Af-clipped fish behaved normally in terms of swimming and feeding and no mortality occurred in the control treatment (a mock challenge. When subjected to challenge in vAh-infected water, Af-clipped fish were highly susceptible, showing typical symptoms of MAS observed in the field. The mortality rate of Af-clipped fish was significantly associated with vAh concentration, challenge time and water temperature. About 90% mortality occurred within 48 h when Af-clipped fish were challenged for 1 h with vAh at the concentration of 2 × 107 colony forming units per mL of water (27 ± 1 °C. The waterborne challenge model was further tested using four field isolates including A. hydrophila and A. veronii. All vAh isolates caused about 90% mortality of Af-clipped fish and one isolate of Aeromonas veronii caused no mortality under the same challenge conditions. The waterborne challenge model described in this study would facilitate urgently-needed studies of MAS prevention (such as wound avoidance and healing and control (such as prophylactic vaccination; antibiotics treatment and probiotics screening. Keywords: Adipose fin, Channel catfish, Motile Aeromonas septicemia, Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, Waterborne challenge

  8. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Emergence and resurgence of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Novirhabdovirus, Rhabdoviridae, Mononegavirales

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    Robert Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is one of the most serious pathogens of finfish worldwide in terms of its wide host-range, pathogenicity, disease course, and mortality rates. The disease was first documented in the 1930s in Europe in association with heavy losses in rainbow. Data collected over 50 years show that VHSV is a virus of marine origin: its ability to alternate between marine and freshwater environments remains an enigma which requires further investigation. In 2003, VHSV invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes basin causing devastating losses. VHSV is believed to have negative impacts on a number of important Atlantic, Pacific, and Great Lakes fish species. Phylogenetic analysis has offered clues into the geographic and host range of the virus, but sporadic outbreaks of the disease in uncommon locations have imparted unforeseen challenges in delineating the virus’ regional distribution. The virus’ ability to gain access to aquaculture farms has also positioned it as a disease of utmost priority once detected in these settings. Current diagnostic methods, while greatly improved, are hampered by the variability of disease course among susceptible species. In general, VHSV causes severe degeneration in the hematopoietic tissues of affected fish. Based on historical and current data, it is feared that VHSV will continue to mutate, expand to other geographic areas, and infect new host species. As a result, immediate international attention and coordination of efforts are needed. The objective of this review article is to provide an updated synopsis on the current status of VHSV epizootiology and pathogenicity.

  10. Bone scintigraphic assessment of multifocal sequelae of staphylococcus aureus septicemia, a case report; Un cas de septicemie a staphylocoque dore: evaluation des sequelles multifocales en scintigraphie osseuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamisandratsoa, N.; Yu, O.; Grucker, D. [Faculte de Medecine, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Institut de Physique Biologique, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Bole, J.C.; Weber, J.C. [Hopital Universitaire de Strasbourg, Hopital Civil, Service de Medecine Interne A, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2003-10-01

    A 71-year old patient suffering from untreated non-insulin-dependent diabetes presented anti-inflammatory drug-resistant lumbalgia with referred inguinal pain either on the right or left side, corresponding to the first signs of septicemia due to staphylococcus aureus, with urinary onset. Despite specific antibiotic treatment, pulmonary, cardiac and neurological complications followed. Simultaneous investigations by MRI and bone scintigraphy performed in the remitting patient showed multiple septic metastatic localization in the soft tissues and bones. It was hence necessary to pursue the antibiotic therapy to avoid relapses. (author)

  11. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture.

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    Michael Cieslak

    Full Text Available One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS, caused by the VHS virus (VHSV. For the past few decades, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971-2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population and the strong mixing of Ia isolates, assumed to be the result of the Europe-wide trout trade. For example, the Ia lineage underwent a radiation into nine Ia clades, most of which are difficult to allocate to a specific geographic distribution. Furthermore, we found indications for two rapid, large-scale population growth events, and identified three polytomies among the Ia clades, both of which possibly indicate a rapid radiation. However, only about 4% of Ia haplotypes (out of 398 occur in more than one European country. This apparently conflicting finding regarding the Europe-wide spread and mixing of Ia isolates can be explained by the high mutation rate of VHSV. Accordingly, the mean period of occurrence of a single Ia haplotype was less than a full year, and we found a substitution rate of up to 7.813 × 10-4 nucleotides per site per year. Finally, we documented significant differences between Germany and Denmark regarding their VHS epidemiology, apparently due to those countries' individual handling of VHS.

  12. PCR AND ELOCTRON MICROSCOPY BASED DIAGNOSIS OF AN OUTBREAK OF HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN BUFFALO AND ITS CONTROL IN A FARM OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Mintu Chowdhury

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhagic Septicemia was investigated in Cattle Re-Settlement Project Farm, Ganganagar, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India in the month of December, 2013. Out of 102 nos. of buffalo, 25 animals were affected and 17 were died within 12 - 72 hours. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of history, clinical signs, post mortem findings, histopathological examination, bacteriological study, biochemical tests, biological test, PCR assay and finally by Electron microscopical examination. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for the isolate. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by therapeutic measures, immunization, restriction of movement of animals and proper disposal of carcasses.

  13. Increased mortality by septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis among bone marrow transplant recipients receiving an increased mean dose rate of total irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringden, O.; Baaryd, I.; Johansson, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seven bone marrow transplant recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving a mean dose rate of 0.07 Gy/min of total body irradiation towards the pelvic midpoint and the lungs had an increased (p<0.01) overall death rate of 86 per cent compared with 33 per cent among 27 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a mean dose rate of 0.04 Gy/min. Among the patients receiving the higher dose rate there was an increased mortality in causes related to radiation toxicity like early septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, compared with all patients receiving the lower dose rate (p<0.01) and also with 10 patients from this group with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p<0.02). (Auth.)

  14. Development and evaluation of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay to detect antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna; Goldberg, Tony; Marcquenski, Susan; Olson, Wendy; Goetz, Frederick; Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas M.; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a target of surveillance by many state and federal agencies in the United States. Currently, the detection of VHSV relies on virus isolation, which is lethal to fish and indicates only the current infection status. A serological method is required to ascertain prior exposure. Here, we report two serologic tests for VHSV that are nonlethal, rapid, and species independent, a virus neutralization (VN) assay and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that the VN assay had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 42.9%; the anti-nucleocapsid-blocking ELISA detected nonneutralizing VHSV antibodies at a specificity of 88.2% and a sensitivity of 96.4%. The VN assay and ELISA are valuable tools for assessing exposure to VHSV.

  15. Multiorgan Failure and Refractory Lactic Acidosis due to Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with No Animal Exposure

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    Damaris Pena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative coccobacillus pathogenic to animals. It can cause infection in humans by a bite, scratch, or lick from a cat or dog. P. multocida can cause a variety of infections in humans, including cellulitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, and septic shock. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of fever, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. He denied exposure to cats, dogs or other pets. He had severe respiratory distress requiring ventilator support, profound septic shock requiring multiple vasopressors, severe lactic acidosis, and renal failure requiring emergent hemodialysis. Blood cultures confirmed the presence of P. multocida. The patient subsequently died of cardiopulmonary arrest due to multiorgan failure with refractory shock. Conclusion. P. multocida septicemia can lead to septic shock. Early identification of this organism may decrease mortality. Although our patient had no known cat or dog exposure, physicians should enquire about a history of animal exposure when a patient presents with an infection with no obvious cause.

  16. Use of a two-step ultrafiltration procedure to concentrate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) has been reported to be stable in both fresh as well as seawater, suggesting that VHSV exists in natural aquatic environments and might have an effect on the wild and cultured fish. However, VHSV is below the detectable limits of laboratory tests in natural seawater. In this study, a two-step ultrafiltration (UF) procedure was used to concentration of VHSV in seawater, providing samples that were tested for infectivity by cell culture and the presence of VHSV by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) methods. Overall, VHSV was approximately concentrated 100-1000 times in 1, 5 and 10 L, seawater volumes respectively: from 2.81×10(6) to 6.53×10(7)/mL and 10(3.3) to 10(3.8)TCID50/mL prior to the UF procedure, to 3.78×10(8), 1.16 × 10(11), and 9.12 × 10(10)/mL after the procedure. This is the first report of concentrating VHSV using an UF method that was specifically designed for seawater samples. In addition, the two-step UF procedure appears to be compatible with viral cell culture and qRT-PCR methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro infection of salmonid epidermal tissues by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of two rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), to infect fish skin was investigated by in vitro infection of excised tissues. Virus replication was determined by plaque assay of homogenized tissue extracts, and the virus antigen was detected by immunohistology of tissue sections. Gill, fin, and ventral abdominal skin tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that had been infected in vitro with a virulent strain of IHNV (193–110) produced substantial increases in virus titer within 24 h. Titers continued to increase up until day 3 of incubation; by this time, virus had increased 1,000-fold or more. This increase in IHNV titer occurred in epidermal tissues of fingerlings and of older fish. In another experiment, IHNV replicated in excised rainbow trout tissues whether the fish had been subject to prior infection with a virulent strain of IHNV (Western Regional Aquaculture Consortium isolate) or whether the fish had been infected previously with an attenuated strain of the virus (Nan Scott Lake, with 100 passes in culture). A virulent strain of VHSV (23/75) replicated effectively in excised gill tissues and epidermal tissues of rainbow trout and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha; however, the avirulent North American strain of VHSV (Makah) replicated poorly or not at all.

  18. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  19. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  20. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  1. Autovaccination confers protection against Devriesea agamarum associated septicemia but not dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Blooi, Mark; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bullaert, Evelien; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections.

  2. Autovaccination confers protection against Devriesea agamarum associated septicemia but not dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hellebuyck

    Full Text Available Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps. Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections.

  3. VAKSINASI IKAN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus MENGGUNAKAN VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN BIVALEN UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONAS SEPTICEMIA DAN STREPTOCOCCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Sugiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan respon antibodi pascavaksinasi dengan antigen tunggal dan campuran dari bakterin Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya tahan ikan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus terhadap penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia/MAS dan Streptococcosis. Sediaan vaksin disiapkan dengan metode pembuatan dan formula yang berbeda, proses inaktifasi dilakukan dengan menambahkan 3% Neutral Buffer Formalin (NBF 10% pada biakan bakteri dalam media tumbuh BHI dan TSB. Vaksinasi diberikan melalui injeksi intraperitoneal dengan sediaan vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila, monovalen S. agalactiae, dan bivalen A. hydrophila + S. agalactiae (Sel utuh, produk ektraselular/ECP, crude supernatan, campuran sel utuh + ECP, dan broth. Uji tantang dilakukan menggunakan dosis LD50 infeksi tunggal maupun ko-infeksi dari bakteri A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae. Efektivitas dan keampuhan vaksin tersebut dihitung berdasarkan nilai RPS (Relative Percent Survival dan hasil respon hematologi. Titer antibodi dapat terdeteksi setelah satu minggu pemeliharaan pasca vaksinasi. Nilai titer antar perlakuan vaksin bivalen berbeda nyata (P<0.05 dengan vaksin monovalen dan kontrol. Nilai RPS vaksin bivalen (campuran sel utuh + ECP mencapai 100 untuk uji tantang dengan A. hydrophila dan 56,7 pada uji tantang ko-infeksi. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila maupun S. agalactiae hanya mampu memproteksi terhadap bakteri homolog, tidak terjadi proteksi silang di antara keduanya.

  4. Expression kinetics of key genes in the early innate immune response to Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb infection in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Wendy; Emmenegger, Eveline; Glenn, Jolene; Simchick, Crystal; Winton, Jim; Goetz, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV-IVb, represents an example of the introduction of an extremely pathogenic rhabdovirus capable of infecting a wide variety of new fish species in a new host-environment. The goal of the present study was to delineate the expression kinetics of key genes in the innate immune response relative to the very early stages of VHSV-IVb infection using the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) as a model. Administration of VHSV-IVb by IP-injection into juvenile yellow perch resulted in 84% cumulative mortality, indicating their high susceptibility to this disease. In fish sampled in the very early stages of infection, a significant up-regulation of Mx gene expression in the liver, as well as IL-1β and SAA activation in the head kidney, spleen, and liver was directly correlated to viral load. The potential down-regulation of Mx in the hematopoietic tissues, head kidney and spleen, may represent a strategy utilized by the virus to increase replication.

  5. Virulence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotypes Ia, IVa, IVb, and IVc in five fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Moon, Chang Hoon; Hershberger, Paul K.; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility of yellow perch Perca flavescens, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, koi Cyprinus carpio koi, and Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to 4 strains of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was assessed. Fish were challenged via intraperitoneal injection with high (1 × 106 plaque-forming units, PFU) and low (1 × 103 PFU) doses of a European strain (genotype Ia), and North American strains from the West coast (genotype IVa), Great Lakes (genotype IVb), and the East coast (genotype IVc). Pacific herring were exposed to the same VHSV strains, but at a single dose of 5 × 103 PFU ml-1 by immersion in static seawater. Overall, yellow perch were the most susceptible, with cumulative percent mortality (CPM) ranging from 84 to 100%, and 30 to 93% in fish injected with high or low doses of virus, respectively. Rainbow trout and Chinook salmon experienced higher mortalities (47 to 98% CPM) after exposure to strain Ia than to the other virus genotypes. Pacific herring were most susceptible to strain IVa with an average CPM of 80% and moderately susceptible (42 to 52% CPM) to the other genotypes. Koi had very low susceptibility (≤5.0% CPM) to all 4 VHSV strains. Fish tested at 7 d post challenge were positive for all virus strains, with yellow perch having the highest prevalence and concentrations of virus, and koi the lowest. While genotype Ia had higher virulence in salmonid species, there was little difference in virulence or host-specificity between isolates from subtypes IVa, IVb, and IVc.  

  6. Transcriptomic responses in rainbow trout gills upon infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Carolina; Castro, Rosario; Fischer, Uwe; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that even though the fin bases constitute the main portal of entry of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an important number of chemokine genes are up-regulated in the gills upon bath exposure to the virus. Because chemokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes through the action of specific chemokine receptors, in the current study, we have studied the transcription of several immune genes in response to a VHSV bath infection in the gills, focusing both on chemokine receptor genes and on genes characteristic of distinct leukocyte populations such as IgM, IgD, IgT, CD4, CD8, perforin and MHC-II. We have studied the response to the virus in naïve fish as well as in fish that had been previously intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with a VHSV DNA vaccine. Additionally, we have sorted both IgM(+) and CD8(+) cells from the gills of naïve and infected animals to study some of these up-regulated genes in specific leukocyte populations. Our results indicate that despite the low replication level, VHSV provokes an up-regulation of IgM, IgT, CD3 and perforin transcription together with the up-regulation of CCR7, CCR9, CXCR3B and CXCR4 mRNA levels. Interestingly, MHC-II mRNA was up-regulated and CCR7 was down-modulated in IgM(+) cells from infected gills, whereas perforin, CCR7 and CXCR4 mRNA levels were higher in sorted CD8(+) cells from infected animals. Surprisingly, when fish had been previously injected with either the empty plasmid or the VHSV DNA vaccine, these up-regulations in immune gene transcription were no longer observed. Our results point to the gills as an important site for innate and acquired viral defense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological features and financial loss due to clinically diagnosed Haemorrhagic Septicemia in bovines in Karnataka, India.

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    Govindaraj, G; Krishnamoorthy, P; Nethrayini, K R; Shalini, R; Rahman, H

    2017-09-01

    The epidemiological features and financial losses due to Haemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) in bovines were studied in Karnataka state using the primary data collected from 133 clinically diagnosed HS affected farms. The various losses due to HS and the Benefit- Cost of the vaccination programme in cattle and water buffaloes were studied using mathematical models. The number of HS outbreaks were higher during the year 2002 and peaked during 2005 and thereafter declined due to targeted vaccination against HS. The morbidity and mortality risks were lower in large farms than medium and small farms, and lower in indigenous cattle compared to high yielding crossbred cattle and water buffaloes. The disease occurrence was more in in-milk animals causing serious economic loss to the farmers. Most outbreaks were observed during monsoon season, though the disease was prevalent throughout the year. The mean milk loss per animal was $2, $11 and $50 in indigenous cattle, water buffaloes and crossbred cattle, respectively. In the case of draught animals, the average effective draught power was unavailable for 1.2days/outbreak resulting in a loss of $5 per affected oxen. The treatment and extra labor expenses incurred per animal were $24 and $7, respectively. The average loss per animal due to mortality loss was $275, $284 and $415 in case of indigenous cattle, water buffaloes and crossbred cattle, respectively. The projected loss for the state of Karnataka were $23.89, $17.92 and $11.95 million under high, medium and low HS incidence scenarios, respectively. The Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) of the vaccination against HS has been estimated at 5.97:1, 4.48:1 and 2.98:1 under high, medium and low incidence scenarios, respectively. The results highlight the important epidemiological features and financial losses to the affected households and the state of Karnataka. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  9. Molecular characterization of the Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV isolate from USA

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    Vakharia Vikram N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is a highly contagious viral disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. VHSV caused several large scale fish kills in the Great Lakes area and has been found in 28 different host species. The emergence of VHS in the Great Lakes began with the isolation of VHSV from a diseased muskellunge (Esox masquinongy caught from Lake St. Clair in 2003. VHSV is a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae. It has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11 kbp, with six genes. VHSV replicates in the cytoplasm and produces six monocistronic mRNAs. The gene order of VHSV is 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. This study describes molecular characterization of the Great Lakes VHSV strain (MI03GL, and its phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates. Results The complete genomic sequences of VHSV-MI03GL strain was determined from cloned cDNA of six overlapping fragments, obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of MI03GL comprises 11,184 nucleotides (GenBank GQ385941 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 4 nucleotides at the termini of the VHSV genome are complementary and identical to other novirhadoviruses genomic termini. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis show that the Great Lakes virus is closely related to the Japanese strains JF00Ehi1 (96% and KRRV9822 (95%. Among other novirhabdoviruses, VHSV shares highest sequence homology (62% with snakehead rhabdovirus. Conclusion Phylogenetic tree obtained by comparing 48 glycoprotein gene sequences of different VHSV strains demonstrate that the Great Lakes VHSV is closely related to the North American and Japanese genotype IVa, but forms a distinct genotype IVb, which is clearly different from the three European genotypes. Molecular

  10. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

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    Lindsey R Pierce

    Full Text Available Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02 and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2 = 0.99, ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  11. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S; Crawford, Erin L; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6) actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  12. Utility of lytic bacteriophage in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia in mice

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    Vinodkumar C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is the major cause of increase in morbidity and mortality in neonates. One thousand six hundred forty-seven suspected septicemic neonates were subjected for microbiological analysis over a period of 5 years. Forty-two P. aeruginosa were isolated and the antibiogram revealed that 28 P. aeruginosa were resistant to almost all the common drugs used (multidrug-resistant. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is one of the most critical problems of modern medicine. As a result, a novel and most effective approaches for treating infection caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are urgently required. In this context, one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages (viruses that kill bacteria in the treatment of infection caused by drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, the utility of lytic bacteriophages to rescue septicemic mice with multidrug-resistant (MDR P. aeruginosa infection was evaluated. MDR P. aeruginosa was used to induce septicemia in mice by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of 10 7 CFU. The resulting bacteremia was fatal within 48 hrs. The phage strain used in this study had lytic activity against a wide range of clinical isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa. A single i.p. injection of 3 x 10 9 PFU of the phage strain, administered 45 min after the bacterial challenge, was sufficient to rescue 100% of the animals. Even when treatment was delayed to the point where all animals were moribund, approximately 50% of them were rescued by a single injection of this phage preparation. The ability of this phage to rescue septicemic mice was demonstrated to be due to the functional capabilities of the phage and not to a nonspecific immune effect. The rescue of septicemic mice could be affected only by phage strains able to grow in vitro on the bacterial host used to infect the animals and when such strains are heat-inactivated, they lose their ability to rescue the infected mice. Multidrug-resistant bacteria have

  13. Investigations Concerning Possibilities of Diagnosis and Treatement in One Pesthole of Bacterial Haemorrhagic Septicemia in Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

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    Octavian Negrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on 7 alive samples in agonic or death stage, taken from an extensive exploitation pond, innorth-east Transylvanian zone, with an water surface of 0,2 ha and a total fish quantity of about 200 kg, secondsummer carp of an average weight of 300 g/individual. As a result of clinical, bacterioscopy and bacteriology andalso necropsy laboratory exam it were put in evidence some aspects. So, clinical exam has revealed, by the presenceof integument hemorrhagic ulcerous lesions, also the presence of some crustacaee ectoparasites, Argulus foliaceusspecies, which have made easier the disease spreading in whole effective. Necropsy exam puts in evidence, anatomyclinic,the presence of integument hemorrhagic lesions under a point or diffuse form, but also ulcers and muscle –cutaneous necrosis. As a following of bacterioscopy exam of smears done from pathologic material taken incutaneous lesions and colored by Gram method it was ascertained the presence of a bacterial polymorph flora, ofbacillus and cocobacillus type, Gram negative. Bacteriologic exam (cultural, realized on ordinary culture mediums(sauce, water and selective mediums (agar with blood isolates in pure culture germs from Aeromonas kind, basis onmorphological and cultural characters, which are framed in Aeromonas genus patterns described by specialityliterature. As a following of biochemical characters exam, with the help of multitest API20E system it wasestablished that Aeromonas spp. strains isolated, belong to hydrophila group 1 species, species which is responsibleof bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia performing in carp. By testing the sensitiveness to antibodies and chemiotherapyin strains which have been found as diagnosis (diffusiometric method of antibiogram, it was ascertained that group 1Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from disease pesthole, were in decreasing order sensitive to: Eurofloxocin,Florfenicol (Floron and Oxitetracycline and resistant to

  14. Temporal variation in viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus antibodies in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) indicates cyclic transmission in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Rothering, Anna; Marcquenski, Susan; Koenigs, Ryan P.; Bruch, Ronald; Kamke, Kendall; Isermann, Daniel A.; Thurman, Andrew; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Goldberg, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in multiple fish species. In 2007, the Great Lakes freshwater strain, type IVb, caused a large die-off of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, USA. To evaluate the persistence and transmission of VHSV, freshwater drum from Lake Winnebago were tested for antibodies to the virus using recently developed virus neutralization (VN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Samples were also tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect viral RNA. Of 548 serum samples tested, 44 (8.03%) were positive by VN (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) and 45 (8.21%) were positive by ELISA, including 7 fish positive by both assays. Antibody prevalence increased with age and was higher in one northwestern area of Lake Winnebago than in other areas. Of 3,864 tissues sampled from 551 fish, 1 spleen and 1 kidney sample from a single adult female fish collected in the spring of 2012 tested positive for VHSV by rRT-PCR, and serum from the same fish tested positive by VN and ELISA. These results suggest that VHSV persists and viral transmission may be active in Lake Winnebago even in years following outbreaks and that wild fish may survive VHSV infection and maintain detectable antibody titers while harboring viral RNA. Influxes of immunologically naive juvenile fish through recruitment may reduce herd immunity, allow VHSV to persist, and drive superannual cycles of transmission that may sporadically manifest as fish kills.

  15. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  16. Emergence of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tarin M; Batts, William N; Faisal, Mohamed; Bowser, Paul; Casey, James W; Phillips, Kenneth; Garver, Kyle A; Winton, James; Kurath, Gael

    2011-08-29

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North America. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with previously naive host populations.

  17. GWAS analysis using interspecific backcross progenies reveals superior blue catfish alleles responsible for strong resistance against enteric septicemia of catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suxu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Wenwen; Jin, Yulin; Wang, Xiaozhu; Geng, Xin; Luo, Jian; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Shi, Huitong; Gao, Dongya; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2018-05-08

    Infectious diseases pose significant threats to the catfish industry. Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri is the most devastating disease for catfish aquaculture, causing huge economic losses annually. Channel catfish and blue catfish exhibit great contrast in resistance against ESC, with channel catfish being highly susceptible and blue catfish being highly resistant. As such, the interspecific backcross progenies provide an ideal system for the identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL). We previously reported one significant QTL on linkage group (LG) 1 using the third-generation backcrosses, but the number of founders used to make the second- and third-generation backcross progenies was very small. Although the third-generation backcross progenies provided a greater power for fine mapping than the first-generation backcrosses, some major QTL for disease resistance may have been missing due to the small numbers of founders used to produce the higher generation backcrosses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study using first-generation backcrosses with the catfish 690 K SNP arrays to identify additional ESC disease resistance QTL, especially those at the species level. Two genomic regions on LG1 and LG23 were determined to be significantly associated with ESC resistance as revealed by a mixed linear model and family-based association test. Examination of the resistance alleles indicated their origin from blue catfish, indicating that at least two major disease resistance loci exist among blue catfish populations. Upon further validation, markers linked with major ESC disease resistance QTL should be useful for marker-assisted introgression, allowing development of highly ESC resistant breeds of catfish.

  18. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  19. A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Kurath, Gael; Thompson, Tarin M.; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse genetics system was developed to generate a recombinant VHSV of genotype IVb from cloned cDNA. The recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was comparable to the parental wild-type strain both in vitro and in vivo, causing high mortality in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). A modified recombinant VHSV was generated in which the NV gene was substituted with an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP), and another recombinant was made by inserting the EGFP gene into the full-length viral clone between the P and M genes (rVHSV-EGFP). The in vitro replication kinetics of rVHSV-EGFP was similar to rVHSV; however, the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP grew 2 logs lower. In yellow perch challenges, wtVHSV and rVHSV induced 82-100% cumulative per cent mortality (CPM), respectively, whereas rVHSV-EGFP produced 62% CPM and rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP caused only 15% CPM. No reversion of mutation was detected in the recovered viruses and the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign gene after several passages. These results indicate that the NV gene of VHSV is not essential for viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but it plays an important role in viral replication efficiency and pathogenicity. This system will facilitate studies of VHSV replication, virulence, and production of viral vectored vaccines.

  20. EFEKTIVITAS KOMBINASI PROBIOTIK MIKROENKAPSULASI MELALUI PAKAN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONADS SEPTICEMIA PADA IKAN LELE, Clarias gariepinus

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    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas kombinasi probiotik mikroenkapsulasi melalui pakan dalam pengendalian penyakit pada ikan lele, Clarias gariepinus. Penelitian dilakukan mulai dari penyiapan kombinasi probiotik Bacillus cereus ND2 dan Staphylococcus lentus L1K, mikroenkapsulasi probiotik, uji probiotik mikroenkapsulasi, serta uji dosis secara in vivo. Proses mikroenkapsulasi menggunakan BUCHI mini spray dryer dengan suhu inlet 131°C-133°C dan suhu outlet 65°C-70°C. Pakan yang digunakan adalah pakan buatan dengan kadar protein 38% yang dicampur dengan probiotik mikroenkapsulasi sesuai dengan dosis perlakuan dan diberi putih telur 2% sebagai binder. Perlakuan yang dilakukan adalah membandingkan secara in vivo probiotik mikroenkapsulasi (PM dan probiotik non-mikroenkapsulasi (PNM, dan dilanjutkan pengujian dosis melalui pakan untuk memperoleh dosis terbaik dari aplikasi probiotik mikroenkapsulasi. Parameter pengamatan berupa tingkat sintasan, biomassa, kadar hematokrit, hemoglobin, respiratory burst activity, dan total bacterial count. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi kombinasi probiotik mikroenkapsulasi Bacillus cereus ND2 dan Staphylococcus lentus L1K pada pakan lebih efektif, dan dengan dosis 2% menunjukkan hasil yang lebih baik dalam meningkatkan sintasan hingga 97,33%, biomassa dan respons imun (NBT assay, hematocrit, hemoglobin ikan lele terhadap A. hydrophila. This study was aimed to know the effectivity of microencapsulated probiotic combinations administered through diet to control motile aeromonads septicemia disease in catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The research stages consisted of preparation probiotics, microencapsulation of probiotics and probiotic microencapsulation testing in vivo. BUCHI mini spray dryer was used in the microencapsulation process with inlet temperature ranged between 131°C-133°C and outlet temperature ranged between 65°C-70°C. The diets used in the research were pelleted

  1. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus by Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction from Two Fish Species at Two Sites in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Emily R.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Batts, William N.; Casey, Rufina N.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Bowser, Paul R.; Bain, Mark B.; Casey, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 2005 during a mortality event in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Subsequent analysis of archived samples determined that the first known isolation of VHSV in the Laurentian Great Lakes was from a muskellunge Esox masquinongy collected in Lake St. Clair in 2003. By the end of 2008, mortality events and viral isolations had occurred in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes except Lake Superior. In 2009, a focused disease surveillance program was designed to determine whether VHSV was also present in Lake Superior. In this survey, 874 fish from 7 sites along the U.S. shoreline of Lake Superior were collected during June 2009. Collections were focused on nearshore species known to be susceptible to VHSV. All fish were dissected individually by using aseptic techniques and were tested for the presence of VHSV genetic material by use of a quantitative reverse transcription (qRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene. Seventeen fish from two host species at two different sites tested positive at low levels for VHSV. All attempts to isolate virus in cell culture were unsuccessful. However, the presence of viral RNA was confirmed independently in five fish by using a nested PCR that targeted the glycoprotein (G) gene. Partial G gene sequences obtained from three fish were identical to the corresponding sequence from the original 2003 VHSV isolate (MI03) from muskellunge. These detections represent the earliest evidence for the presence of VHSV in Lake Superior and illustrate the utility of the highly sensitive qRT-PCR assay for disease surveillance in aquatic animals.

  2. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

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    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  3. Fatal Vibrio vulnificus Infection Associated with Eating Raw Oysters, New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla, Cecile; Guigon, Aurelie; Noel, Martine; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Lacassin, Flore

    2011-01-01

    International audience; To the Editor: The bacterium Vi-brio vulnifi cus is a marine fl ora sap-rophyte that can cause necrotic skin infection and septicemia in humans who eat shellfi sh. Symptoms of sep-ticemia (mortality rate >50%) have been described mostly in Florida and Japan among persons who ate raw fi lter-feeding shellfi sh when seawater temperatures are >20°C (1). V. vulnifi cus–related septicemia introduced through the digestive system appears within 7 days after inges-tion (2). Cl...

  4. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  5. Therapeutic effect of antibiotics in the compromised host : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roosendaal (Robert)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe present study was performed in a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia and septicemia in rats. This experimental model was used because in leukopenic patients septicemia is a real threat, and K.pneumoniae is one of the pathogens that may be recovered [68, 74, 99, 116, 122,

  6. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  7. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA. Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively. Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+. Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of

  8. Clinical significance of the serum biomarker index detection in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purevdorj, Narangerel; Mu, Yun; Gu, Yajun; Zheng, Fang; Wang, Ran; Yu, Jinwei; Sun, Xuguo

    2018-02-01

    To explore a panel of serum biomarkers for laboratory diagnosis of pediatric Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). The blood white blood cells (WBC) and serum levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin E (IgE), C-reactive protein (CRP), complement component 3 (C3), complement component 4 (C4), and ASO (anti-streptolysin O) were detected in 127 patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP), 110 cases of septicemia patients, and 121 healthy volunteers. The diagnostic ability of biomarkers selected from HSP and septicemia patients was analyzed by ROC curve. By designing the calculation model, the biomarker index was calculated for laboratory diagnosis of HSP and differential diagnosis between HSP and septicemia. The levels of serum WBC, CRP, IL-6 and SAA in the septicemia patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.05). Compared with the healthy individuals, serum levels of WBC, CRP, IL-6, SAA, IgA and IgM were significantly increased in patients with HSP (p<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of SAA, IgA, IgM, WBC, IL-6, and CRP in the patients with HSP was 0.964, 0.855, 0.849, 0.787, 0.765, and 0.622, respectively. The values of SAA, IgA, IgM, WBC, IL-6, and CRP in septicemia patients were 0.700, 0.428, 0.689, 0.682, 0.891, and 0.853, respectively. Biomarker index=SAA+IgA/4000+IgM/4000×0.4CRPmean valueCRPi . The biomarker index in HSP patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. However, the biomarker index in septicemia patients was significantly lower than the control. The biomarker index of HSP patients is higher than that of the control group. While in the infectious disease represented by septicemia, it is decreased. The detection of biomarker index could exclude the interference of infection as the auxiliary examination to HSP patients. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by

  9. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three...... and the antibiogram and resistome revealed no antibiotic resistance....

  10. Symptomatic hydrocephalus in a newborn infected with listeria monocytogenes Hidrocefalia sintomática em um recém-nascido infectado com Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía L. Laciar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system infections caused by Listeria monocytogenes produce a wide range of clinical symptoms which include cerebral abscesses, meningitis and nonmeningitic parenchymal cerebritis. A case study is presented of early listeriosis with signs of meningitis accompanied with septicemia and complicated with severe hydrocephalus.As infecções do sistema nervoso central produzidas por Listeria monocytogenes provocam una grande variedade de sintomas clínicos que incluem abscessos cerebrais, meningites e cerebrites parenquimáticas não meningíticas. Apresenta-se um caso de listeriose precoce com sinais de meningite acompanhada de septicemia e agravado com hidrocefalia grave.

  11. Risk factors and outcome of neonatal jaundice in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedowra Zabeen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of newborn hospital admission. The risk factors, the characteristics and outcomes related to neonatal jaundice in Bangladesh has not been studied so far. This study addressed the outcomes, characteristics and risks of the jaundiced newborn admitted into hospital. The babies who had significant jaundice and required phototherapy and /or exchange transfusion were investigated. A detailed history of delivery with gestational age was noted and clinical examination of the admitted newborn was done. Birth weight was recorded. The investigations included complete blood count, ABO and Rh compatibility, serum bilirubin, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and ultrasonography (USG of brain. The newborns were closely monitored for the prognosis. The requirement of individualized phototherapy and exchange transfusion were also noted. Finally, the outcomes were recorded. Overall, 60 (m v. f = 58.3 v. 41.7% newborns were found who developed significant jaundice and were investigated. Of them, 35% had gestational age less than 32wks and only 32% had equal to or greater than 35wks. Regarding delivery, 83.3 % had the history of caesarean section. ABO- and Rh– incompatibilities were found in 13.3% and 3.3%, respectively. Septicemia was diagnosed among 26.7% though blood culture yielded growth only in 20%. Compared with the higher gestational age-group ( 35 wks the lower group (<32 wks showed significantly higher rate of septicemia (12.5 v. 68.8%, p<0.005. G6PD deficiency was found in only one (1.7% case. Birth asphyxia was found as a concomitant factor in three patients. Exchange transfusion was done only in 2 (3.3% babies. Among them one was preterm IDM with septicemia and other had G6PD deficiency. None of these babies developed kernicterus. Five (8.3% babies died, all of them had septicemia and one baby also had intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH with PDA. The study revealed that a

  12. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheter - urine; Foley catheter; Indwelling catheter; Suprapubic catheters ... stones Blood infections ( septicemia ) Blood in the urine (hematuria) Kidney damage (usually only with long-term, indwelling ...

  13. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ETIOLOGY, CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH FEVER, JAUNDICE AND ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study etiology, risk factors, various clinical and lab parameters and outcome of patients presenting with fever, jaundice and acute kidney injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS : An open prospective study was done on 100 patients presented with triad of fever, jaundice and acute kidney injury (AKI in the Depar tment of Medicine of G R Medical College and JA Group of Hospitals, Gwalior, MP from September 2011 to November 2012. Patients having temperature more than >100 0 F, serum creatinine ≥1.3 mg/dL or a 50 % increase from baseline or a reduction in urine output (documented oliguria of 6 hours, serum bilirubin >1.8 mg/dL were included in the study. A detailed history, clinical examination and investigations were done to find the cause of these derangements and all the patients were managed acc ordingly. RESULTS: A total 100 patients were included in study out of which 70% were males. Out of 100 patients, 50% were of septicemia, 34% were having malaria, 12% had acute pancreatitis and 4% patients were of dengue. Out of 50 septicemia patients, 35(7 0% were male, out of which 11(31.42% were of 56 - 65 years of age. Out of 17 deaths, 13(76% were males. Among total death, 11(22% were in septicemia followed by 5(14.70% in malaria patients. CONCLUSION: Many infectious and non - infectious diseases like malaria, septicemia, acute pancreatitis, dengue fever etc. can present with fever, jaundice and deranged renal functions. This triad of presentation is associated wi th high morbidity and mortality and the advanced age, male gender presences of anemia were the risk factors for high mortality. AKI occurs most commonly in association with P. falciparum malaria. Early diagnosis and prompt management including dialysis can reduce mortality and expedite recovery of renal function

  14. Plesiomonas shigelloides Periprosthetic Knee Infection After Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Ahmed, Sarim

    Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish. P shigelloides usually causes a self-limiting watery diarrhea, but in immunosuppressed people it can cause septicemia. In this case report, a chemically and biologically immunosuppressed man consumed raw oysters and developed P shigelloides septicemia and acute periprosthetic knee infection that required surgical intervention.

  15. 9 CFR 354.130 - Diseases or conditions evident which require condemnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., pericardium, peritoneum or meninges; septicemia or pyemia, whether traumatic, or without evident cause..., pleura, pericardium, peritoneum or meninges, shall be condemned. (g) Carcasses showing any degree of...

  16. Resistencia a antimicrobianos y evaluación del tratamiento combinado en la septicemia neonatal Resistance to antimicrobials and combination therapy assessment in neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Espino Hernández

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudiar la resistencia a los antibióticos de las cepas bacterianas aisladas de pacientes con septicemia neonatal en un hospital ginecobstétrico de La Habana, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 1998, y evaluar el valor predictivo del método del "tablero de damas" (checkerboard para seleccionar el tratamiento con combinaciones de antibióticos en pacientes graves. MÉTODOS: Se estudió a 229 neonatos, a quienes se les extrajo sangre para hemocultivo y estudios de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos. El estudio de la susceptibilidad de las cepas se realizó por el método de microdilución en caldo y se utilizó el tablero de damas en bandejas de caldo para evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano combinado. RESULTADOS: Cincuenta por ciento de las cepas aisladas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa-negativas y 37% de las cepas de S. aureus, principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal, fueron resistentes a la meticilina. De ellas, 94,5% resultaron resistentes a varios antibióticos. Cuatro cepas de Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa-negativas y una de Enterococcus faecium fueron resistentes a la vancomicina (concentración mínima inhibidora = 128 myg/mL. Se observó una alta probabilidad de eficacia clínica (P OBJECTIVES: To estimate antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains isolated from patients with neonatal sepsis from January 1994 through December 1998, and to assess the predictive value of the checkerboard method for selecting treatment with combination antibiotic therapy in seriously ill patients. METHODS: The study of strain susceptibility was carried out by microdilution in broth, and the checkerboard method in broth trays was used to assess the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy. RESULTS: Fifty per cent of the strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. and 37% of S. aureus strains, which are the main pathogens involved in neonatal sepsis, were resistant to methycillin. Of

  17. Disease: H00329 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lso recognized as an infrequent cause of non-gastrointestinal infections such as ocular infections, septicemia, meningitis, endocardi...tis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. Infectious disease

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE GLOBAL TREND OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    an important bacterial pathogen causing nosocomial and community-onset ... septicemia (sepsis) (14), acute endocarditis and ... country revealed that out of all hospital bacterial isolates .... Injection or intravenous drug use and homosexuals.

  19. Engineering vaccines against hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... ... disease in cattle and buffaloes; globally the disease ranks second in ... of stimulating protective immune responses against all known variants of the bacteria. ... Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

  20. [Septic pylephlebitis associated with Enterobacter cloacae septicemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezyane, T; Abouzahir, A; El Kharrass, A; Bassou, D; Fatihi, J; Hammi, S; Mahassin, F; Ghafir, D; Ohayon, V

    2010-02-01

    Septic pylephlebitis or purulent thrombosis of the portal venous system generally results from a progressive extension of suppurated thrombophlebitis, secondary to an intrabdominal infection. Germs most often found are Escherichia coli and Streptococcus, isolation of Enterobacter cloacae is unusual. We report a particular observation of septic pylephlebitis associated with E. cloacae bacteremia, without biliary, digestive or pancreatic lesion on the CT-scan. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolated germ and the negative epidemiologic investigation pled in favour of community acquired infection. The infection resolved with antibiotics and anticoagulation, followed by total repermeation of the portal system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Group B streptococcal septicemia of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time ( PT ) and partial thromboplastin time ( PTT ) Blood gases (to see if the baby needs help with ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  2. Aeromonas veronii septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Paula McKenzie; David Sotello; Yared Hailemariam; Vipul Desai; Brian Temple

    2013-01-01

    We present a 29-year-old healthy man who fell into an industrial auger, sustaining acrushed, open pelvic injury, multiple comminuted fractures of the right leg, and traumaticamputation of his left foot. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonasspp and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus. Treatment included cefepime, levofloxacin,daptomycin, and metronidazole. Aeromonas veronii is a Gram negative bacillus usuallyfound in fresh and brackish water in warm climates. It can cause severe s...

  3. Search Results | Page 110 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This call will support cutting edge applied field and/or laboratory research ... Creative solutions can overcome barriers to access to health services in fragile contexts. ... Engineering vaccines against hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants.

  4. 21 CFR 520.2240b - Sulfaethoxypyridazine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (pneumonia, shipping fever), foot rot, calf scours; as adjunctive therapy in septicemia accompanying mastitis... sole source of sulfonamide; not for use in lactating dairy cows; Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  5. Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate a novel vaccine for contagious caprine ... Engineering vaccines against hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants ... Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  6. Nanostructures for the development of vaccines against avian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate a novel vaccine for contagious caprine ... Engineering vaccines against hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants ... Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  7. A Report of Three Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case 1. A 55-year-old gentleman presented to the surgical emergency with complaints of progressively increasing pain and ... Department of General Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical. College .... peritonitis, septicemia with shock was made.

  8. Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in a paediatric patient with septic arthritis using multiplexed diagnostic PCR targeting meningitis/encephalitis (ME).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Donnchadh

    2018-03-23

    Neisseria meningitidis is associated with meningitis and septicemia. Septic meningococcal arthritis is relatively uncommon and its diagnosis associated with clinical and microbiological challenges. Early recognition and treatment is required to prevent joint destruction.

  9. Search Results | Page 110 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This call will support cutting edge applied field and/or laboratory research projects with the potential to generate ... Can South Asia address barriers to women's paid work? ... Engineering vaccines against hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants.

  10. Medical causes of death in a teaching hospital in South‑Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-25

    Apr 25, 2014 ... Other important causes of death in order of prevalence were cerebrovascular ... chronic liver disease (7.0%), septicemia (6.5%), respiratory failure (5.3%), ..... use of tobacco and increasing atmospheric pollution because.

  11. Routine antibiotic cover for newborns intubated for aspirating meconium: is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, L; Nasruddin; Prabhakar, P; Bhaskaranand, N

    1995-05-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 215 babies to evaluate the incidence of septicemia in babies intubated at birth for aspirating meconium from the trachea. Only term, appropriate for gestational age babies were included. Babies with any known perinatal risk factor for infection were excluded from the study and none of the babies had been put on "prophylactic antibiotics." There were 88 babies in the intubated group in a one year period from January 1991 to December 1991. One hundred and twenty seven babies were taken as controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of early septicemia in the two groups. There were no deaths in either group. It is concluded that well term babies who are intubated for aspirating meconium need not be put on routine antibiotic cover.

  12. Search Results | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 131 - 140 of 8491 ... This call will support cutting edge applied field and/or laboratory research projects with ... Can South Asia address barriers to women's paid work? ... Engineering vaccines against hemorrhagic septicemia in ruminants.

  13. Clinical Parameters and Challenges of Managing Cervicofacial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    devised protocol of antibiotic therapy, serial debridement and honey dressings. Results: ... metronidazole and dressed with dilute honey gauze dressing. The first sets of .... Scar and injury to the marginal mandibular nerve. 1 (4.2). Septicemia ...

  14. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  15. Identification of clinically relevant nonhemolytic Streptococci on the basis of sequence analysis of 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and partial gdh gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Dargis, Rimtas

    2009-01-01

    Nonhemolytic streptococci (NHS) cause serious infections, such as endocarditis and septicemia. Many conventional phenotypic methods are insufficient for the identification of bacteria in this group to the species level. Genetic analysis has revealed that single-gene analysis is insufficient...

  16. Efforts Towards The Development Of Recombinant Vaccines Against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida.

  17. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, Do Huu; Phuong, Cam Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  18. Riboregulation in Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, R.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) is primarily a commensal of the human oropharynx that sporadically causes septicemia and meningitis. Meningococci adapt to diverse local host conditions that differ in nutrient supply such as the nasopharynx, blood and cerebrospinal fluid by changing

  19. The Concept of Ecthyma Gangrenosum Illustrated by a Fusarium oxysporum Infection in an Immunocompetent Individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) involves necrotic cutaneous lesions caused by bacteria, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients with septicemia. However, clinically similar infections have been published with fungi as etiologic agents. We present a case of an

  20. Bacterial meningitis in adults at the University of Calabar Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common complications associated with adult bacterial meningitis were septicemia, aspiration pneumonia and cranial nerve palsies. Bacterial meningitis still remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this environment. Adequate therapeutic coverage, health education, and immunization where available, ...

  1. A Visual Review of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kilian, Mogens; Goodsell, David

    2017-01-01

    Being the principal causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and septicemia, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major global health problem. To highlight the molecular basis of this problem, we have portrayed essential biological processes of the pneumococcal life...

  2. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Aerococcus christensenii CCUG 28831T, Aerococcus sanguinicola CCUG 43001T, Aerococcus urinae CCUG 36881T, Aerococcus urinaeequi CCUG 28094T, Aerococcus urinaehominis CCUG 42038 BT, and Aerococcus viridans CCUG 4311T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carkaci, Derya; Dargis, Rimtas; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Strains belonging to the genus Aerococcus are causative agents of human and animal infections, including urogenital infections, bacteremia/septicemia, and infective endocarditis. This study reports the first fully closed and complete genome sequences of six type strains belonging to the genus Aer...

  4. Search Results | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 131 - 140 of 8491 ... Development WOMEN'S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT Gender ... Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute and often fatal bacterial disease that affects mainly cattle and buffaloes in Asian and African countries. ... Pigs are among the most profitable livestock for poor farmers.

  5. Neonatal appendicitis: a survival case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Linha Secco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of neonatal appendicitis in a children’s hospital in southern Brazil, demonstrating the impact on neonatal survival. Method: Case study with data collection from medical records, approved by the Institution and Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings. Results: The clinical picture is initially characterized by food intolerance, evolving to hypoactivity, alteration of vital signs and septicemia due to intestinal perforation. Management is exclusively surgical, since no case described in the literature was diagnosed preoperatively and the findings usually point to acute abdomen. Conclusion: A focused clinical surveillance should be established when the infant presents peritoneal irritation. Follow-up of the evolution and the worsening of the symptoms by nurses, as part of the care team in partnership with the medical team, enables an early surgical intervention, thereby avoiding complications such as septicemia and death.

  6. Bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Afridi, F.I.; Farooqi, B.J.; Qureshi, A.; Hussain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) is a low virulent organism but may cause devastating fatal infections in immunocompromised host especially in liver cirrhosis. It is rarely reported to cause septicemia in a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The mortality rate of septicemia due to A. hydrophila is 29% to 73%. We report a case of 59-year-old female patient who was a known case of ALL, presented with the complaints of fever, lethargy and generalized weakness for one month. After taking blood samples for investigations, empirical antimicrobial therapy was started. She did not improve after 48 hours of therapy. Meanwhile blood culture revealed pure growth of A. hydrophila. After sensitivity report was available, ciprofloxacin was started. Patient became afebrile after 48 hours of treatment with ciprofloxacin. It is very vital to correctly identified and treat bacteremia due to A. hydrophila especially in the underlying leukemic patient. (author)

  7. Efforts towards the development of recombinant Vaccines against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida. In this review an ...

  8. Short-term complications for percutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy of renal masses in adult outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars René; Loft, Martina; Nielsen, Tommy Kjaergaard

    2018-01-01

    intervention and two patients with septicemia. Minor complications occurred in 2.8% of cases (eight patients); six patients with self-limiting gross hematuria, one patient with small asymptomatic subcapsular hematoma, and one patient with vasovagal syncope. The timing of both minor and major complication onset...

  9. C-reactive protein collaborates with plasma lectins to boost immune response against bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Patricia M L; Le Saux, Agnès; Lee, Chia M

    2007-01-01

    Although human C-reactive protein (CRP) becomes upregulated during septicemia, its role remains unclear, since purified CRP showed no binding to many common pathogens. Contrary to previous findings, we show that purified human CRP (hCRP) binds to Salmonella enterica, and that binding is enhanced ...

  10. Representational difference analysis of Neisseria meningitidis identifies sequences that are specific for the hyper-virulent lineage III clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, A.; Dankert, J.; van der Ende, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis may cause meningitis and septicemia. Since the early 1980s, an increased incidence of meningococcal disease has been caused by the lineage III clone in many countries in Europe and in New Zealand. We hypothesized that lineage III meningococci have specific DNA sequences,

  11. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  12. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Büller, H. R.; van Deventer, S. J.; de Boer, J. P.; Hack, C. E.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be involved in the disturbance of the procoagulant-fibrinolytic balance in septicemia, leading to microvascular thrombosis. To assess the dynamics of the fibrinolytic response to TNF in humans, we performed a crossover saline-controlled study in six healthy men,

  13. Comprehensive Analysis of Homologous Proteins for Specific Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... minimize drug failures by predicting drug efficacy and toxicity. One of the most important pathogenic bacterium is Aeromonas species which causes tissue damage, acute gastroenteritis and neonatal septicemia. Bacterial proteins are the ultimate target to inhibit their growth and these are the executors of cellular function.

  14. Emergence of Edwardsiella piscicida in farmed channel femal, Ictalurus punctatus X blue male, Ictalurus furcatus, hybrid catfish cultured in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    here is a trend toward the increased incidence and prevalence of Edwardsiella piscicida septicemia in US catfish aquaculture, particularly in channel ', Ictalurus punctatus, × blue ', I. furcatus, hybrid catfish. From 2013 to 2017, a total of 3242 disease case submissions were made to the Aquatic Re...

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of urinary calculi. Results from the first 306 patients treated at the Copenhagen Municipal Stone Center with a second generation lithotriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T; Mogensen, P

    1991-01-01

    % had residual stones. Corresponding rates after 3 and 6 months were 58%, 24% and 18% and 70%, 21% and 9% respectively. Septicemia occurred in 4 patients and cardial arrhythmia in 34 patients (11%). No serious intra- or perirenal hematomas were registered. In 9% additional procedures were required...

  16. Materials Research Society Spring Meeting Symposium KK: Microbial Life on Surfaces: Biofilm-Material Interactions: Life at Interfaces. Held in San Francisco, California on 25-27 April 2011 (Abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    cases, virulent strains can cause for haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), peritonitis, mastitis , septicemia and gram-negative pneumonia. E. coli...and betaine-modified rods exposed to 50% fetal bovine serum for 1, 30, 60, or 90 days were tested for antimicrobial/antibiofilm activity using the mCDC

  17. Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... of gram positive and gram negative septicemia in appropriately ... negative predictive value and a better correlation with .... Ten healthy baboons (Papio ursinus), weighing between 5 and 9 ... testing of drugs and related substances in South Africa (South ..... guide to the methods in biochemical genetics.

  18. Genomics of an emerging clone of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ST313 from Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Zankari, Ea

    2013-01-01

    We showed in a limited number of isolates that S. Typhimurium ST313 is a prevalent sequence-type causing gastrointestinal diseases and septicemia in patients from Nigeria and DRC. We found three distinct phylogenetic clusters based on the origin of isolation suggesting some spatial evolution. Com...

  19. Fatal infections in older patients with inflammatory bowel disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Seah Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years. All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. One patient developed disseminated tuberculosis, another patient developed cholera diarrhea followed by nosocomial pneumonia, while the third patient developed multiple opportunistic infections (Pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcal septicemia and meningitis, Klebsiella septicemia. All 3 patients died within 1 year from the onset of the infection(s. We recommend that anti-TNF, especially when combined with other immunosuppressive therapy, should be used with extreme caution in older adult patients with IBD.

  20. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the P...

  1. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report, Volume 20, Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    primary diagnostic position, 99 (55.6%) had secondary diagnoses indica- tive of infections (e.g., streptococcus infec- tion, cellulitis , UTI) (data not...respiratory infections (e.g., pneumonia), and skin infections (e.g., cellulitis ), all of which are risk factors for septicemia.7,12,13 It is not clear why

  2. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single area. Spring viremia of carp (SVC). A disease caused by infection with spring viremia of carp... biosecure water supply that does not contain pathogens or has not had the opportunity to be contaminated... rhabdovirus of fish. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS). A disease caused by infection with VHS virus. General...

  3. Antibiotic resistance profile of staphylococci from clinical sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    was recorded in 2 infants while another 2 had impetigo along with urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection with skin sepsis was recorded in 6 subjects and tetanus occurred along with septicemia in 2 subjects. Distribution of Staphylococci. Altogether, a total of 178 staphylococcal isolates were cultured from 245 samples ...

  4. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: Tertiary centre experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... entity in the developed countries but still a common occurrence in developing countries. ... Materials and Methods: Total 520 patients of ARF of various aetiology were ... Septicemia was present in 25 (41.7%), hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in 20 ... (61.7%) patients were not dialyzed, 33 (55%) recovered normal renal ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Surgical site infection and sepsis were the commonest complications observed with an ... outcome and post operative complications. The cases .... Surgical site infection. 27. 20.77. Wound dehiscence. 12. 9.23. Pelvic abscess. 2. 1.54. Septicemia. 10. 7.69. Post operative fever. 16. 12.31. Adhesive bowel obstruction 2. 1.54.

  6. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by... who issues the ICI. (2) Cleaning and disinfection must be sufficient to neutralize any VHS virus to...

  7. Methicilline resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Pilcher, D.V.; Jamal, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare disease and may be seen as a complication of pneumonia, septicemia particularly in immunocompromised patients. It is rare but can be fatal if not promptly and adequately treated. One such case was successfully managed in our intensive care department, which we want to share in this report. (author)

  8. Bilateral Choanal Atresia: Highlighting The Role Of Computerised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A neonate delivered at UCH Ibadan was diagnosed to have bilateral choanal atresia being membranous on the right side and bony on the left side by computed tomography. She had surgical correction of the right sided obstruction but died on the seventh post operative day due to septicemia. The literature has been ...

  9. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis septicemia in a beaver from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Zabek, Erin; Raverty, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    An emaciated, free-ranging, sub-adult, male beaver (Castor canadensis) was found dead and was necropsied. Microscopically, the beaver had acute necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis with florid lobulated colonies of extracellular coccobacilli. Intravascular septic emboli were identified in lung, small intestine, and kidney, and discrete ulcers with scattered superficial extracellular accumulation of coccobacilli were noted on tail margins and plantar surfaces of the hind feet. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cultured on Columbia blood and MacConkey agar and identified by API 20E. Based on the pathology and acute mortality described in this case, as well as historical reports of Y. pseudotuberculosis related mortality in other beavers, this species could serve as a public health sentinel for localized occurrences of this bacterium.

  10. Mastite com septicemia em caninos causada por Staphylococcus intermedius

    OpenAIRE

    Borowsky, Luciane; Driemeier, David; Rozza, Daniela; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2003-01-01

    Os casos de mastite em caninos ocorrem mais comumente no período pós-parto ou como complicação de casos de pseudociese. Os microrganismos mais isolados nestes casos têm sido enterobactérias, estreptococos e estafilococos. Neste relato, são descritos três casos de cães com mastite aguda que evoluíram para óbito. Os animais apresentavam vômitos, abatimento, dificuldade respiratória e hálito urêmico. Na necropsia havia mastite gangrenosa e abscessos mamários nas mamas abdominais caudais e inguin...

  11. Nosocomial septicemia and therapeutic angiography. Report of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ph.; Reizine, D.; Merland, J.J.; Guerin, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic angiography may be responsible for rare, but serious infectious complications.The authors report 4 cases occurring immediately following angiography. Three modes of contamination are proposed. Contamination by material used during the angiography is due to multiresistant hospital organisms. Penetration of cutaneous organisms into the circulation from the puncture site and bacterial contamination of a focus of tissue necrosis distal to the embolisation explain the other cases. Curative treatment is difficult because of the possibility of contamination of the embolisation material. Prophylactic treatment is essential and consists of respect of the rules of surgical asepsis, bacteriological control of the fluids used and eradication of adjacent septic foci. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis has yet to be evaluated [fr

  12. A case of severe septicemia following traditional Samoan tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Layman, Clifton; Bacomo, Ferdinand; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Samoan tattoos, or tatau, are created by master tattooists, or tufuga ta tatau, and their assistants using multi-pointed handmade tools. These tools are used to tap tattoo pigment into the skin, usually over several days. This traditional process is considered an honor to the one receiving the tatau. Unfortunately, as it is typically practiced according to cultural traditions, the sanitary practices are less than ideal. There have been several reported cases of severe infection, sepsis, shock, and even death as a result of traditional Samoan tattoos. Although Hawai'i is the home of the second largest Samoan population in the United States, short of only American Samoa, literature review found no published case reports in this state. Presented is a case of a 46-year-old man, who, after undergoing a modified version of traditional Samoan tattooing for 5 days, was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe septic shock due to poly-microbial bacteremia with Group A Streptococcus and Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus. In addition, we will discuss the previously reported cases, mainly documented in New Zealand, and review some of the mandatory sanitary standards put into place there.

  13. Infections following the application of leeches: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maetz Benjamin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Since the 1980s, leeches have been ingeniously used in the management of venous flap congestion. The presence of anticoagulative substances in their saliva improves the blood drainage. Their digestive tract contains several bacterial species, the main ones being Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, which contribute to the digestion of ingested blood. These bacteria can be the cause of infections. Case presentation We report two cases of septicemia related to Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for delayed mammary reconstructions. Patient number 1 was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the sixth postoperative day she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s skin and blood bacteriological samples. Her fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Patient number 2 was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the seventh postoperative day we noticed that she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Her fever ceased on the eleventh postoperative day after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Conclusion The rate of infection after application of leeches is not negligible. The concentration of Aeromonas inside the digestive tracts of leeches largely decreases when the patient is under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on oral antibioprophylaxy with a fluoroquinolone

  14. Nosocomial coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation recipients with central vein catheter. A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, D; Elishoov, H; Strauss, N; Naparstek, E; Nagler, A; Simhon, A; Raveh, D; Slavin, S; Or, R

    1996-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients with central vein catheters by investigating incidence, clinical relevance, risk factors, methicillin resistance, clinical impact of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy without vancomycin, and management of documented catheter-related infections. A 5-year prospective study was conducted with daily evaluation of 242 BMT patients during hospitalization, including clinical assessment and blood culture via the Hickman/Broviac catheter. If fever or infected appearance occurred, peripheral blood cultures or exit site cultures, respectively, were done. Results showed a septicemia incidence of 7.0%, including in 6 patients following colonization, in 1 patient with tunnel infection, in 1 patient with thrombophlebitis, in 1 patient with exit site infection, and in 8 patients with septicemia of unknown origin. Total colonization incidence was 7%, with colonization only in 11 patients who had 16 episodes; incidence of exit site infection was 3.7%. Age > or = 18 years was the only identified risk factor for developing staphylococcal infection (P = 0.03). Despite a methicillin resistance rate of 45% and omission of vancomycin from the routine initial empiric antimicrobial regimen, the clinical course of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections was relatively benign. A single patient, who experienced marrow rejection, died on day +31 with septicemia and only one patient experienced microbiological failure with recurrent colonization. Bacteria grown in both aerobic and anaerobic bottles were more likely true bacteremia than contaminant (P = 0.03). We conclude that the hazard of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection does not mandate inclusion of a glycopeptide in the initial empiric antimicrobial regimen in BMT patients, even during febrile neutropenia. Hickman/Broviac-related staphylococcal infections, except for tunnel infection or

  15. Crusted scabies in a chid with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C.F. Wanke

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas bestiarum GA97-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Salih; Tekedar, Hasan C; Griffin, Matt J; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Liles, Mark R; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Lawrence, Mark L; Karsi, Attila

    2018-06-14

    Aeromonas bestiarum is a Gram-negative mesophilic motile bacterium causing acute hemorrhagic septicemia or chronic skin ulcers in fish. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. bestiarum strain GA97-22, which was isolated from rainbow trout in 1997. This genome sequence will improve our understanding of the complex taxonomy of motile aeromonads.

  17. Production potentials of anti-Plesiomonas shigelloides antibody

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... Sci. 71: 5083-5087. Nolte FS, PooleRM, Murphy GW, Clark, Ranner BJ (1988). Proctitis and fatal septicemia and cause by P. shigelloides in a bisexual man. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 388-391. Obi CL,Coker AO (1988). Production of antisera against Campylobacter species in Lagos, Nigeria. Cent. Afr. J. Med.

  18. [Therapeutic effects of a combination treatment with flomoxef and tobramycin against infections complicated with hematological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, T; Tanaka, K; Hasuike, T; Hirai, M; Misu, K; Ota, K; Ohira, H; Nakao, Y; Yasui, Y; Inoue, T

    1992-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of a combination regimen using flomoxef (FMOX) and tobramycin (TOB) were evaluated in the treatment of infections complicated with hematological disorders. The primary diseases in 40 patients included acute leukemia, malignant lymphoma and others. Complicated infections included 35 cases with suspected septicemia, 4 cases with septicemia and 1 case with pleuritis. Clinical responses were excellent in 10 (25.0%), good in 14 (35.0%), fair in 2 (5.0%) and poor in 14 (35.0%). The efficacy rate was 73.1% in patients with neutrophil counts higher than 501/microliters after administration, but it was 35.7% in patients with counts less than 501/microliters; the difference was statistically significant. No side effects were observed in any of the 40 patients. Abnormal laboratory data in liver functions were identified in 1 patient (2.5%). Degree of this abnormality was very slight, and the continuation of treatment was not disturbed. In conclusion, this combination therapy of FMOX and TOB thus appears to be useful and safe in therapies for infections complicated with hematological disorders.

  19. Bacteremic infection in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsouli, K A; Lazarus, M; Schoenbaum, S C; Gottlieb, M N; Lowrie, E G; Shocair, M

    1979-11-01

    This is a retrospective study of 133 episodes of bacteremic infection in 112 hemodialysis patients. The frequency of bacteremic infection was 9.5% in patients with chronic renal failure and 10.9% in patients with acute renal failure. In patients with acute renal failure, pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess were the most frequent sources of septicemia. Sepsis was usually due to Gram-negative organisms and mortality was high. In patients with chronic renal failure, infection of the shunt or fistula was the most common cause, was frequently due to Staphylococcus organism, and had a more favorable survival rate. Gram-negative septicemia from a nonaccess source in patients with chronic renal failure was associated with a higher mortality. Bacterial endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli occurred in 3.6% of septic episodes and 0.35% of patients at risk and had very low mortality. A low threshold for obtaining blood cultures and early antibiotic treatment are believed to be important in the treatment of bacteremic infections in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

  20. Aspectos ultra-sonográficos da trombose da veia porta Ultrasonographic features of portal vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martins Machado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A trombose da veia porta pode estar associada a várias alterações, como a presença de tumores (por exemplo: hepatocarcinoma, doença metastática hepática e carcinoma do pâncreas, pancreatite, hepatite, septicemia, trauma, esplenectomia, derivações porto-cava, estados de hipercoagulabilidade (por exemplo: gravidez, em neonatos (por exemplo: onfalite e cateterização da veia umbilical e desidratação aguda. Os autores discutem, neste artigo, os aspectos ultra-sonográficos da trombose de veia porta e alguns aspectos de relevância clínica.Portal vein thrombosis may be associated with many alterations, such as the presence of tumors (for example, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic liver disease and carcinoma of the pancreas as well as pancreatitis, hepatitis, septicemia, trauma, splenectomy, portacaval shunts, hypercoagulable conditions (for example, pregnancy, in neonates (for example, omphalitis and umbilical vein catheterization and in acute dehydration. The authors discuss herein the sonographic features of portal vein thrombosis as well as some aspects of clinical relevance.

  1. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    27 sept. 2017 ... avant toute antibiothérapie sont revenues positives après 72heures d'incubation à 37°C sur l'automate .... Brown AM, Rothburn MM, Roberts C, Nye FJ. Septicemia with probable endocarditis caused by Kingella denitrificans. J Infect. 1987; 15(3):225-8. Google Scholar. 2. Henriksen SD, Bovre K. Transfer of ...

  2. Molecular detection of Edwardsiella tarda with gyrB gene isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Swabs from the gills, brain, liver, spleen and kidney were streaked onto tryptic soy ... distilled water, the mixture was boiled for 10 min and centrifuged at. 1000 xg for ... et al., 1983). It causes septicemia with extensive skin ... 10: 147-152. Choresca CH Jr., Kim JH, Gomez DK, Jang H, Joh SJ, Park SC (2008).

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abba, Y. Vol 14, No 2 (2016) - Articles Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-093X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  4. Cross Sectional Study of Burn Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern for the Improvement of Treatment Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Pirbonyeh

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: By evaluating the infectious agents during the period of the study, it was found that due to the focus on treatment of Gram negative bacteria, Gram positive bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus have at least doubled. This increase in two important nosocomial infections is a next threat of infection and septicemia for burn victims.

  5. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  6. The Concept of Ecthyma Gangrenosum Illustrated by a Fusarium oxysporum Infection in an Immunocompetent Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanping; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Xiang, Yining; Cao, Yu; van den Ende, Albert H G Gerrits; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Meis, Jacques F; Lu, Hongguang; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-10-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) involves necrotic cutaneous lesions caused by bacteria, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients with septicemia. However, clinically similar infections have been published with fungi as etiologic agents. We present a case of an EG-like lesion due to Fusarium oxysporum confirmed by clinical diagnosis, culture and molecular identification and discuss the definition of EG.

  7. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  8. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle F.

    2016-01-01

    -scale population growth events, and identified three polytomies among the Ia clades, both of which possibly indicate a rapid radiation. However, only about 4% of Ia haplotypes (out of 398) occur in more than one European country. This apparently conflicting finding regarding the Europe-wide spread and mixing of Ia...... isolates can be explained by the high mutation rate of VHSV. Accordingly, the mean period of occurrence of a single Ia haplotype was less than a full year, and we found a substitution rate of up to 7.813 × 10-4 nucleotides per site per year. Finally, we documented significant differences between Germany......, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using...

  9. Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +60 1116689774, E-mail: usuba5050@yahoo.com. Abstract. This case reports bacterial co-infection in a dead albino python (Python bivittatus). The snake was brought in dead to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Necropsy was conducted and organ.

  10. Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The snake was brought in dead to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Necropsy was conducted and organ samples were sent for virus and bacterial isolation, as well as histopathology. Gross pathological lesions ...

  11. Fatal septicemia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum in a child from Colombia Septicemia mortal causada por Chromobacterium violaceum en una paciente pediátrica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martinez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year old child living in Colombia presented with a history of fever and severe abdominal pain for four days. The patient developed pneumonia, septic shock, multiple organ failure and died on the fifth day of hospitalization. Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated from admission blood cultures and was resistant to ampicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenems and aminoglycosides.Una niña de 4 años que vivía en Colombia presentó historia de fiebre y dolor abdominal severo por cuatro días. La paciente desarrollo neumonía, shock séptico, múltiple falla de órganos y muerte el quinto día de hospitalización. Chromobacterium violaceum fue aislado de cultivos de sangre y mostró resistencia a ampicilina, cefalosporinas, carbapenems y aminoglicosidos.

  12. Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    No Blood Alcohol Level mg/100ml blood Pregnancy Test Done Yes No Type of sample Serum Urine Result: Positive Negative IV...PNEUMONIA / WOUND Bacteremia Fever (Temp>38.5) of unknown origin Presumed Infection Sepsis Septicemia UTI Septic Shock Other Other OTHER...314 Hospital Emergency Department (4) Blood Alcohol Level Parameter Name EDPregTestDone CRF Field Pregnancy Test Done CRF Description CRF Input Type

  13. Etiologies and contributing factors of perinatal mortality: A report from southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadavi

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Prematurity, cardiac arrest, and septicemia were the most important causes of neonatal mortality. It is concluded that attention to the following points is very important: adopting program for pregnancy care improvement, finding and removing risk factors of premature birth, control of infection in mother’s and newborn’s wards, examining of personnel skill about correct newborn resuscitation methods, and arrangement of training courses.

  14. Rates of Community-based Antibiotic Prescriptions and Hospital-treated Infections in Individuals With and Without Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Berencsi, Klara; Nielsen, Jens S

    2016-01-01

    .52). The aRRs were increased particularly for urinary tract infections (UTIs, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.45), skin infections (1.50; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.55), septicemia (1.60; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.67), and tuberculosis (1.61; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.06) and of community-based antibiotics prescribed for UTIs (1.31; 95% CI...

  15. Length of stay, hospitalization cost, and in-hospital mortality in US adult inpatients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the length of stay, hospitalization cost, and risk of in-hospital mortality among US adult inpatients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We analyzed nationally representative data obtained from Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample database of discharges from 2006 to 2012. In the US, there were an estimated 296,870 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 284,831-308,909) patient discharges recorded for ITP from 2006 to 2012, during which ITP-related hospitalizations had increased steadily by nearly 30%. The average length of stay for an ITP-related hospitalization was found to be 6.02 days (95% CI: 5.93-6.10), which is 28% higher than that of the overall US discharge population (4.70 days, 95% CI: 4.66-4.74). The average cost of ITP-related hospitalizations was found to be US$16,594 (95% CI: US$16,257-US$16,931), which is 48% higher than that of the overall US discharge population (US$11,200; 95% CI: US$11,033-US$11,368). Gender- and age-adjusted mortality risk in inpatients with ITP was 22% (95% CI: 19%-24%) higher than that of the overall US discharge population. Across diagnosis related groups, length of stay for ITP-related hospitalizations was longest for septicemia (7.97 days, 95% CI: 7.55-8.39) and splenectomy (7.40 days, 95% CI: 6.94-7.86). Splenectomy (US$25,262; 95% CI: US$24,044-US$26,481) and septicemia (US$18,430; 95% CI: US$17,353-US$19,507) were associated with the highest cost of hospitalization. The prevalence of mortality in ITP-related hospitalizations was highest for septicemia (11.11%, 95% CI: 9.60%-12.63%) and intracranial hemorrhage (9.71%, 95% CI: 7.65%-11.77%). Inpatients with ITP had longer hospital stay, bore higher costs, and faced greater risk of mortality than the overall US discharge population.

  16. Resistance Escherichia coli isolates to antibiotics from the organ samples originating from swine farms

    OpenAIRE

    Došen R.; Prodanov-Radulović J.; Pušić I.; Stojanov I.; Stojanović D.; Ratajac R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli) is a ubiquitous microorganism with a different serotypes, that cause septicemia in neonatal piglets, diarrhea in suckling piglets, diarrhea and edemic disease in weaned piglets. Vaccination and antibiotic treatment are less effective ways in solving the problem, especially when the category of pig is not taken into consideration, as well as feed safety and chemical composition of feed. The resistance of pathogens depends o...

  17. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  18. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Azwai; E.A. Alfallani; S.K. Abolghait; A.M. Garbaj; H.T. Naas; A.A. Moawad; F.T. Gammoudi; H.M. Rayes; I. Barbieri; I.M. Eldaghayes

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localitie...

  19. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings; Pyomyosite des mulcles adducteurs mimant une appendicite aigue: aspects tomodensitometriques et IRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-04-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  20. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  1. Successful outcome of descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to neck trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurowski, K.; Matuszek, I.; Nunez, C. F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is an uncommon form of mediastinitis that can rapidly progress to septicemia. The optimal surgical approach still remains controversial. In this paper we would like to present a case of descending necrotizing mediastinitis that was treated successfully by means of thoracic drainage through trans-thoracic approach. In our case DNM occurred as a complication of oropharyngeal abscesses and a complication of cervical spine trauma. (authors)

  2. Acute respiratory failure in Pakistani patients: risk factors associated with mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.F.; Irfan, M.; Naqi, Y.S.; Islam, M.; Akhtar, W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome and risk factors associated with mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 1997 and June 2001. Patients and Methods: All adult patients admitted with a medical cause of acute respiratory failure were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was mortality and secondary outcome measures were factors associated with mortality in ARF. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors for mortality. Results: A total of 270 patients were admitted with ARF. Hypercapnic respiratory failure was seen in 186 (69%) and hypoxemic in 84 (31%) cases. Pneumonia and COPD exacerbation were the most common underlying causes of ARF. Ventilator support was required in 93 (34.4%) patients. Hospital mortality was 28%. Chronic renal failure, malignancy, hypokalemia, severe acidosis (pH <7.25), septicemia and ARDS independently correlated with mortality. Mortality rate increased sharply (84%) with the presence of three or more risk factors. Conclusion: Acute respiratory failure has a high mortality rate (28%). Development of ARDS or septicemia was associated with high mortality. Presence of more than one risk factor significantly increased the mortality rate. (author)

  3. Septicaemia and meningitis caused by infection of New Zealand sea lion pups with a hypermucoviscous strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, W D; Rogers, L; Pinpimai, K; Dittmer, K; Marshall, J; Chilvers, B L

    2015-04-17

    This study describes a syndrome of neonatal septicemia and meningitis in New Zealand sea lions, caused by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that is phenotypically similar to strains causing environmentally-acquired septicemia and neuro-invasive disease in humans. Between late 2006 and early 2010, 123 pups from the Enderby Island breeding colony died of K. pneumoniae infection, with lesions including fibrinous to fibrinosuppurative meningitis, subdural hemorrhage, septic arthritis, herniation and hemorrhage of the cerebellar vermis, lymphadenitis and cellulitis. This infection was responsible for 58% of observed pup mortality over this time period, with most deaths occurring in the latter part of the breeding season (mid February onwards). The results of this study suggest that the pattern of this disease has changed since it was first described in 2002, when most deaths occurred early in the season (early to mid-January), and that it is an important and consistent cause of pup mortality in this population. In addition, a similar disease syndrome and bacterial strain was diagnosed in a single pup in a fragile recolonizing New Zealand sea lion population on mainland New Zealand, and the potential effect on this population is unknown but could have a negative impact on recolonisation at this site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A 26-Year-Old Retained Demised Abdominal Pregnancy Presenting with Umbilical Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Nnadi; Bashir, Bello; Ibrahim, Ango; Swati, Singh

    2014-01-01

    This is a report on a 72-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with passage of fetal bones through an umbilical fistula. She was diagnosed as a case of demised abdominal pregnancy, which had been retained for 26 years. She subsequently had exploratory laparotomy, evacuation of the abdominal pregnancy, hysterectomy, and bowel resection. The patient's condition remained unstable throughout the postoperative period and she died from septicemia on the eleventh day. PMID:24639908

  5. A 26-Year-Old Retained Demised Abdominal Pregnancy Presenting with Umbilical Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnadi Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on a 72-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with passage of fetal bones through an umbilical fistula. She was diagnosed as a case of demised abdominal pregnancy, which had been retained for 26 years. She subsequently had exploratory laparotomy, evacuation of the abdominal pregnancy, hysterectomy, and bowel resection. The patient’s condition remained unstable throughout the postoperative period and she died from septicemia on the eleventh day.

  6. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis and its toxins are widely used for insect control. Notwithstanding the remarkable importance of this insect pathogen, its killing mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the microbiota resident in the host midgut triggers a lethal septicemia. The infection process is enhanced by reducing the host immune response and its control on replication of midgut bacteria invading the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. The experimental approa...

  7. Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Typhoid Fever in A Child and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Peter James; Moriarty, Paul; Vaska, Vikram L; Levitt, David; Nourse, Clare

    2017-09-01

    Typhoid fever is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, particularly in children, but is infrequently observed in the developed world and can occur in patients without a significant travel history. Rhabdomyolysis as a complication has rarely been reported, and never in a child. A child with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi septicemia, complicated by rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy and pancreatitis is described and all 15 reported cases to date are summarized.

  8. Effect of Injury and Infection on Visceral Metabolism and Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    diabetes mellitus. 39. Yeung CY. Hypoglycemia in neonatal sepsis. J Pediatr 1970: J Clin Invest 1972: 51:1870- 1878. 77:812-817. APPENI)IX with a... hypoglycemia in the newborn associated with the noninfected burn subjects. These data ;4uggest that gram negative sepsis." While animal studies suggest that...lesated. duction falls. We cannot exclude the possibility that there is oxida- and the cause of thee abnormalities appears related toi the septicemia

  9. The Many Faces of Meningococcal Disease: A Case Series and Review of Presentations and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    United States. Classic findings include headache, fevers , and a petechial rash that begins on the lower extremities with a predilection for areas of...cough and sore throat, but no headache or fevers . He reported to the medical clinic at 9:00 a.m., 6 hours after the rash began. He was in acute...meningitidis septicemia (meningococcemia). Case 2 A 22-year-old active-duty female developed fevers , headaches, confusion, and a rash on her

  10. Pasteurella multocida Septicemia in a Patient with Cirrhosis: An Autopsy Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More people are keeping pets in their homes but may not be sufficiently aware of the potential danger from infections. We report an autopsy case of a 57-year-old man affected by cirrhosis. Septic shock with Pasteurella multocida pneumonia was the cause of his death. P. multocida was the source of infection via the respiratory tract and caused pneumonia. Cirrhosis is one of the risk factors for P. multocida infection. A detailed patient history about animal exposure should be obtained and a differential diagnosis of P. multocida infection must be kept in mind.

  11. Association between periodontal disease and septicemia due to pyogenic hepatic abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Análida Elizabeth Pinilla; Myriam Consuelo López; Martha Isabel Murcia

    2014-01-01

    Case of a 65 year-old man with type-2 diabetes mellitus for 15 years who complained of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant associated with unquantified fever and weight loss over a period of 25 days. In the emergency room, he presented tachycardia, tachypnea and fever of 37 º C, diffuse abdominal pain from light palpation without peritoneal irritation or right upper quadrant tenderness upon fist percussion test. Within a few hours the patient evolved to septic shoc...

  12. UTERINE PROLAPSE IN QUEEN AND UTERINE PROLAPSO UTERINO EM GATA E RETROFLEXÃO UTERINA EM CADELA

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano Queiroz Mostachio; Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente; Diogo José Cardilli; Tathiana Ferguson Motheo; Gilson Hélio Toniollo

    2008-01-01

    Obstetrical emergencies are problem in veterinary clinics and hospital. So, the aim of this report is to describe the clinical-surgical aspect of one of them, the uterine prolapse. Complete protrusion and retroflexion of uterus had been diagnosed in a queen and female dog, respectively. After the stabilization of the animals and reduction of the prolapses followed by ovary-hysterectomy, one of the animals came to death due to septicemia and hypovolemic sho...

  13. Fulminant citrobacter meningitis with multiple periventricular abscesses in a three-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anoop

    Full Text Available Citrobacter, a Gram-negative enteric bacillus, is a rare cause of septicemia and meningitis, seldom reported beyond the neonatal period. It is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a high incidence of complications, including brain abscesses. We studied a three-month-old infant with Citrobacter meningitis, who developed acute communicating hydrocephalus and multiple periventricular brain abscesses while on treatment. The patient died, despite intensive antibiotic treatment directed towards the causative organism, C. diversus.

  14. [Sepsis in neonate, A 291 cases study (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Giménez, C; Gómez-Taylor, J C; Otero, M C; Fernández-Gilino, C; Mascarós, E

    1979-02-01

    A four-year experience with sepsis in the neonate is described. Clinical picture, laboratory data and mortality of 291 newborn, aged 0-28 days, are analyzed. The rise in the incidence of septicemia in the group of newborn with clinical onset within the first 24 hours of life and the preterm 5. degrees to 9. degrees day of life, was commented. The need to develop a more effective profilaxis toward the reduction of morbidity and mortality is emphasized.

  15. Concentração inibitória mínima de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas Hydrophila obtidos de diferentes fontes Minimal inhibitory concentration to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas Hydrophila strains isolated from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delton José Pereira Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila obtidos de pescado, água de cultivo de peixes e casos de septicemia hemorrágica em peixes. Foi determinado MIC de 100 isolados de A. hydrophila, oriundos de 12 pisciculturas localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando a técnica de macrodiluição em caldo. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 isolados apresentaram MIC>100 µg/mL (resistentes e 86 apresentaram MICThe aim of this paper was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water of piscicultures and fish suffering hemorrhagic septicemia. These strains were obtained from 12 different piscicultures from Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul states. It was determined the MIC to 100 strains, using the broth macrodilution method, and the results showed that 86 strains shown value of MIC100µg/mL (classified as resistant. No differences were observed among strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water and disease outbreaks. I was concluded that the variation detected may represent a risk of selection of resistant bacterial strains in aquatic environments under use of oxitetracycline.

  16. Factors associated with mortality in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Cavalcante Valença Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To describe the factors associated with mortality of newborns hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the period from 2012 to 2015. Methods: This was a descriptive, quantitative study of secondary data, correlated with the causes of death and hospitalization according to classification by ICD-10.  The categorical variables were presented in absolute and relative frequencies, with measurements of central tendency and dispersion. Evaluation of the factors associated with neonatal death was made by the logit model of analysis with correction of robust errors by the statistical program Stata 12.0, considering values of p<0.05 and interval of confidence of 95%.  Results: Of the 563 newborns, 58.6% were of the male sex; 89.0% were early newborns, 73.0% were premature. 181 newborns died (32.3%. The main causes of hospitalization were: difficulties during birth, conditions of birth and immaturity (45.0%, pathologies associated with the respiratory system (21.1%, congenital malformations (9.7%. The main causes of death were: septicemia of the NB (40.4%, respiratory discomfort of the NB (22.4%. The significant associations for mortality were the use of ventilatory supports: Mechanical Ventilation (p=0.001, Hallo (p=0.000, CPAP (p=0.000, VNI (p=0.005. Conclusions: The major risk factors for neonatal mortality were associated with septicemia and use of mechanical ventilation.

  17. Knockout of MIMP protein in lactobacillus plantarum lost its regulation of intestinal permeability on NCM460 epithelial cells through the zonulin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Kang, Liang; Li, Chao; Tong, Chao; Huang, Meijin; Zhang, Xingwei; Huang, Nanqi; Moyer, Mary Pat; Qin, Huanlong; Wang, Jianping

    2014-10-03

    Previous studies indicated that the micro integral membrane protein located within the media place of the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1258 had protective effects against the intestinal epithelial injury. In our study, we mean to establish micro integral membrane protein -knockout Lactobacillus plantarum (LPKM) to investigate the change of its protective effects and verify the role of micro integral membrane protein on protection of normal intestinal barrier function. Binding assay and intestinal permeability were performed to verify the protective effects of micro integral membrane protein on intestinal permeability in vitro and in vivo. Molecular mechanism was also determined as the zonulin pathway. Clinical data were also collected for further verification of relationship between zonulin level and postoperative septicemia. LPKM got decreased inhibition of EPEC adhesion to NCM460 cells. LPKM had lower ability to alleviate the decrease of intestinal permeability induced by enteropathogenic-e.coli, and prevent enteropathogenic-e.coli -induced increase of zonulin expression. Overexpression of zonulin lowered the intestinal permeability regulated by Lactobacillus plantarum. There was a positive correlation between zonulin level and postoperative septicemia. Therefore, micro integral membrane protein could be necessary for the protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on intestinal barrier. MIMP might be a positive factor for Lactobacillus plantarum to protect the intestinal epithelial cells from injury, which could be related to the zonulin pathway.

  18. A bumblefoot outbreak and fatal septicemia in captive aquatic birds in Brazil Surto de esparavão e septicemia fatal em aves aquáticas cativas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Romero Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A bumblefoot outbreak with different prognosis according to host species was studied in captive aquatic avian species. Six wood ducks (Aix sponsa, three scarlet-ibis (Eudocimus ruber, two black-swans (Cygnus atratus, five white-faced ducks (Dendrocygna viduata and two roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja were kept in a common pen with abrasive pavement pond margin, predisposing to podal skin wear. Incoordination and mortality occurred in the two roseate spoonbils and one black swan. Coagulase-positive penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the synovial fluid and from the liver. All birds sharing the pen presented active or cicatricial foot lesions, indicating a possible challenge to the environmental Staphylococci. However, except for the roseate spoonbill and the black swan, which had fatal disease, for all other species the case did not evolve to a clinically debilitating or fatal disease. The different susceptibility to a fatal Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive infection is discussed.Este trabalho relata um surto de esparavão em aves aquáticas cativas com prognóstico variado conforme a espécie de ave. Foram examinados um marreco carolina (Aix sponsa, três guarás (íbis vermelha (Eudocimus ruber, dois cisnes negros (Cygnus atratus, cinco marrecas piadeiras (Dendrocygna viduata e dois colhereiros (Platalea ajaja mantidos em recinto comunitário, em cativeiro e em criatório. No recinto, a piscina é margeada por borda de cimento abrasivo que possibilita a abrasão da pele podal. Todas as aves apresentaram erosões da pele na face de apoio dos pés, indicando fator predisponente (erosão similar e possível semelhante desafio infeccioso. Entretanto, incoordenação e mortalidade ocorreram em colhereiros e no cisne negro, mas não nas outras espécies. Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positivo e resistente à penicilina foi isolado do líquido sinovial e do fígado das aves recém-mortas e conservadas em geladeira. A susceptibilidade diferenciada das espécies aquáticas estudadas à infecção por S. aureus coagulase positivo é discutida.

  19. Bilateral breast abscesses due to Salmonella Enterica serotype typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal infection is an uncommon complication of Salmonella septicemia, particularly in immunocompetent patients. The localization of Salmonella infection to breast tissue is regarded as a rare event. We report a case of bilateral breast abscesses due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in a nonlactating female and highlight the fact that Salmonella spp. should be included in differential diagnosis of abscesses in individuals coming from endemic areas with the history of recent typhoid fever and should be treated accordingly.

  20. Cryptosporidial Infection of Lower Respiratory Tract in a Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharagozlou, M.J.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporial and bacterial co-infection is reported in a budgerigar with clinical manifestations of septicemia and respiratory tract infection. Microscopically large number of round to oval 2-5μm cryptosporidial organisms were found to be lodged on the parabronchial epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. The bacterial colonies were seen around the parabronchial spaces of the lung tissue. It is suggested that the C. baileyi is the most likely cryptosporidium species which caused respiratory cryptosporidiosis in the budgerigar.

  1. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardgrib, Nina; Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia...... and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic...

  2. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with Pneumococcal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Schriber

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The first documented case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP associated with pneumococcal septicemia is reported. This association has been previously demonstrated with hemolytic uremic syndrome. The patient presented with recurrent seizures, oliguric renal failure, fever, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; coagulation studies were normal. Blood and sputum cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. The patient responded to therapy with plasmapheresis and antiplatelet agents as well as antibiotics. Coincident infection should be searched for in all cases of TTP.

  3. Endogenous E. coli endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, H F

    1977-01-01

    A case of Escherichia coli septicemia with associated metastatic en dophthalmitis and endocarditis is presented. The ocular signs and symptoms were the initial manifestations of sepsis. Irreversible damage to the eye occurred in less than 24 hours. The pattern of metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis has changed since the introduction of potent antimicrobial agents, with an increased incidence of Gram-negative bacillemia. E. coli endophthalmitis carries a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and systemic treatment will prevent the life-threatening complications of sepsis.

  4. SEPTICEMIA EM GIRINOS DE CRIAÇÃO NA FASE PRÉ-METAMÓRFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe septicemic outbreaks affecting pre-metamorphic bullfrog tadpoles (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana Shaw, 1802. The survey was performed in three commercial frog farms located in Goiás State. Clinical assessment and tadpole sampling for necropsy, histopathology, microbiology, parasitology, transmission electronic microscopy and molecular studies were performed. Septicemic outbreaks were characterized by edema, ascites and nervous signs. Main etiological agents identified were Gram-positive cocci. Lesions were more prevalent in liver and kidney, but they were also found in other internal organs. Typical lesions were degeneration and necroses associated to mononuclear lympohcytes and granuloma formation. The disease may be considered as a “secondary streptococcal septicemia”. It was not possible to determine the primary cause preceding tissue colonization by streptococci, but the intensive husbandry practices might have an important role.

  5. Nosocomial epidemic of Serratia marcescens septicemia ascribed to contaminated blood transfusion bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Ole; Skov, F; Gerner-Smidt, P

    1993-01-01

    isolates was performed. For comparison, a strain from the production plant and eight other, unrelated bacteremia isolates were examined. In addition, a retrospective national survey was carried out. S. marcescens was cultured from 11 (0.73%) of 1515 blood units, and an additional (third) bacteremic patient...... was identified. The clinical isolates from three patients, the three units of blood transfused, and the plant-derived strain shared a unique ribotype. The incident is interpreted as a sporadic, bacterial contamination of blood bags with the S. marcescens epidemic strain, occurring during the manufacturing...... or packaging. A similar incident has not previously been reported. Attention is drawn to the possibility of significant contamination during the complex production of multiple-bag blood collection systems. Guidelines for improved registration and handling of transfusion complications in wards are suggested...

  6. Coil embolization of mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeen Woo; Lee, Jae Kyo; Hwang, Mi Soo; Cho, Kil Ho [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery are rare, with mycotic aneurysms occurring most frequently. This latter type may also occur in association with a lung abscess or septicemia, particularly in drug addicts. As far as we are aware, the radiologic findings of mycotic aneurysm of the pulmanary artery have not been reported in Korea. We present the simple chest radiographs, as well as the CT and angiographic findings, of a case of aneurysm of the pulmonary artery which was successfully embolized using a coil. (author)

  7. Patent urachus with subsequent joint infection in a free-living Grevy's zebra foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndung'u, Francis K; Ndegwa, Margaret W; deMaar, Thomas W J

    2003-01-01

    A free-living, female Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) foal was found lethargic, lame, with swollen joints, pyrexia, and urine dripping from the umbilicus. It died 2 days later despite intensive care. Gross examination revealed patent urachus and suppurative arthritis. Swabs were taken from the joints, the patent urachus, and urine for bacteriology. The dominant isolate was Escherichia coli. The joint infection was probably secondary to septicemia, resulting from the patent urachus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal patent urachus in a wild equid.

  8. Coil embolization of mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeen Woo; Lee, Jae Kyo; Hwang, Mi Soo; Cho, Kil Ho

    2000-01-01

    Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery are rare, with mycotic aneurysms occurring most frequently. This latter type may also occur in association with a lung abscess or septicemia, particularly in drug addicts. As far as we are aware, the radiologic findings of mycotic aneurysm of the pulmanary artery have not been reported in Korea. We present the simple chest radiographs, as well as the CT and angiographic findings, of a case of aneurysm of the pulmonary artery which was successfully embolized using a coil. (author)

  9. A glimpse of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from comparative genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiaqi; Dong, Wei

    2007-01-01

    shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different......BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic...

  10. First isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Chromobacterium violaceum from oysters in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berebichez-Fridman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative, anaerobic, non-sporing, fermentative and oxidase-positive coccobacillus. Human infections caused by Chromobacterium violaceum are infrequent. There are a few reported cases in several countries. Those infections appear after a skin contact with soil or contaminated water. Infections can progress to necrotizing metastatatic lesions and multiple abscesses of the lung, liver, skin, spleen, lymph nodes and brain with fatal septicemia. Infections caused by this bacterium have a high lethality rate, with a low recovery rate among survivors. It has been described that this bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics. Materials and methods: Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated, cultivated, and identified from oysters from thirteen different restaurants in Mexico City and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Results: Four isolations of Chromobacterium violaceum were obtained from oysters. Three of them corresponded to biotype 36 and all of them had a confidence factor of 0.987. All isolations were resistant to Carbencillin, Cephalothin and Cephotaxime. Two isolations were also resistant to Ampicillin and one was resistant to Amikacin. All isolations were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin, Netilmicin, Nitrofurantoin, Pefloxacine and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: The presence of Chromabacterium violaceum in food obtained from salt marshes that usually are eaten fresh (like oysters means a high potential risk for human health because this bacterium has been associated with high morbidity and mortality. In our report, this bacterium showed resistance to several antibacterial agents. Patients should be cautions when eating fresh seafood, and healthcare personnel should suspect an infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum if the patient presents with sepsis, enteritis or abscesses and they have risk factors for acquiring this

  11. UTERINE PROLAPSE IN QUEEN AND UTERINE PROLAPSO UTERINO EM GATA E RETROFLEXÃO UTERINA EM CADELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Queiroz Mostachio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Obstetrical emergencies are problem in veterinary clinics and hospital. So, the aim of this report is to describe the clinical-surgical aspect of one of them, the uterine prolapse. Complete protrusion and retroflexion of uterus had been diagnosed in a queen and female dog, respectively. After the stabilization of the animals and reduction of the prolapses followed by ovary-hysterectomy, one of the animals came to death due to septicemia and hypovolemic shock. Rapid assessment and intensive treatments are required to sustain the life of the animal.

    KEY WORDS: Cat, dog, uterine prolapse, uterine retroflexion.

    Emergências obstétricas, como o prolapso uterino, constituem um problema em clínicas e hospitais veterinários. Neste relato descreve-se o aspecto clínico-cirúrgico do prolapso uterino. Diagnosticaram-se, em uma gata e em uma cadela, protrusão completa e retroflexão uterina, respectivamente. Após a estabilização dos animais e redução dos prolapsos seguidos de ovário-histerectomia, um dos animais veio a óbito, em decorrência de septicemia e choque hipovolêmico. Portanto, a rápida avaliação e tratamentos intensivos são requeridos para assegurar a vida do animal.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cão, gato, prolapso uterino, retroflexão uterina

  12. Demographics and Clinical Features of Postresuscitation Comorbidities in Long-Term Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A National Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Pei Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is very poor, and postresuscitation comorbidities increase long-term mortality. This study aims to analyze new-onset postresuscitation comorbidities in patients who survived from OHCA for over one year. The Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI Database was used in this study. Study and comparison groups were created to analyze the risk of suffering from new-onset postresuscitation comorbidities from 2011 to 2012 (until December 31, 2013. The study group included 1,346 long-term OHCA survivors; the comparison group consisted of 4,038 matched non-OHCA patients. Demographics, patient characteristics, and risk of suffering comorbidities (using Cox proportional hazards models were analyzed. We found that urinary tract infections (n=225, 16.72%, pneumonia (n=206, 15.30%, septicemia (n=184, 13.67%, heart failure (n=111, 8.25% gastrointestinal hemorrhage (n=108, 8.02%, epilepsy or recurrent seizures (n=98, 7.28%, and chronic kidney disease (n=62, 4.61% were the most common comorbidities. Furthermore, OHCA survivors were at much higher risk (than comparison patients of experiencing epilepsy or recurrent seizures (HR = 20.83; 95% CI: 12.24–35.43, septicemia (HR = 8.98; 95% CI: 6.84–11.79, pneumonia (HR = 5.82; 95% CI: 4.66–7.26, and heart failure (HR = 4.88; 95% CI: 3.65–6.53. Most importantly, most comorbidities occurred within the first half year after OHCA.

  13. The Surface-Exposed Protein SntA Contributes to Complement Evasion in Zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Simin; Xu, Tong; Fang, Qiong; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Jiaqi; Chen, Long; Liu, Jiahui; Zhou, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing streptococcal toxic shock like syndrome (STSLS), meningitis, septicemia, and even sudden death in human and pigs. Serious septicemia indicates this bacterium can evade the host complement surveillance. In our previous study, a functionally unknown protein SntA of S. suis has been identified as a heme-binding protein, and contributes to virulence in pigs. SntA can interact with the host antioxidant protein AOP2 and consequently inhibit its antioxidant activity. In the present study, SntA is identified as a cell wall anchored protein that functions as an important player in S. suis complement evasion. The C3 deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation on the surface of sntA -deleted mutant strain Δ sntA are demonstrated to be significantly higher than the parental strain SC-19 and the complementary strain CΔ sntA . The abilities of anti-phagocytosis, survival in blood, and in vivo colonization of Δ sntA are obviously reduced. SntA can interact with C1q and inhibit hemolytic activity via the classical pathway. Complement activation assays reveal that SntA can also directly activate classical and lectin pathways, resulting in complement consumption. These two complement evasion strategies may be crucial for the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen. Concerning that SntA is a bifunctional 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase/3'-nucleotidase in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, these complement evasion strategies may have common biological significance.

  14. Factors predicting the outcomes of elderly hospitalized myasthenia gravis patients: a national database study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiamkao S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Somsak Tiamkao,1,2 Sineenard Pranboon,3 Kaewjai Thepsuthammarat,4 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth1,5,6 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2The Neuroscience Research and Development Group, 3Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital, 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, 5Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, 6Ambulatory Medicine Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG in elderly populations is increasing. This study aimed to evaluate predictors for treatment outcomes in elderly hospitalized MG patients using the national database. Methods: We collected data of elderly hospitalized MG patients from the National Health Security Office from October 2009 to September 2010. Predictors for treatment outcomes were examined. Results: During the study period, 1,948 identified MG patients were admitted to hospitals throughout Thailand. Of those, 441 patients (22.64% were aged ≥ 60 years. There were 66 patients (14.97% who had poor outcomes. There were only three significant factors in the final model. Presence of pneumonia, use of mechanical ventilators, and septicemia had adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval of 2.83 (1.03, 7.75, 5.33 (2.24, 12.72, and 4.47 (1.86, 10.75, respectively. Conclusion: Pneumonia, being on a mechanical ventilator, and septicemia were independent factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in elderly hospitalized MG patients according to national data. Keywords: pneumonia, ventilator, mortality, predictor 

  15. Surgimiento y diseminación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant: emergence and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones nosocomiales ocasionadas por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistentes (SAMR son un problema de salud importante en todo el mundo. Este microorganismo produce una gran variedad de infecciones incluyendo osteomielitis, endocarditis invasora, artritis séptica y septicemia. La multirresistencia es un factor que influye en la persistencia de los SAMR dentro del ámbito hospitalario. La introducción de técnicas de tipificación molecular dentro de las investigaciones epidemiológicas ha provisto nuevas herramientas para conocer el origen y las vías de diseminación de este microorganismo. Una de las conclusiones importantes que han surgido de este tipo de estudios es que un número pequeño de clonas son las responsables de las infecciones estafilocócicas en todo el mundo.Nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important health problem worldwide. This microorganism causes a variety of clinical infections, including osteomyelitis, invasive endocarditis, septic arthritis and septicemia. Antimicrobial resistance is a factor that influences the persistence of MRSA in the hospital environment. The introduction of molecular typing techniques in epidemiological investigations has provided new tools for identifying the microorganism's origin and routes of dissemination. One of the most important conclusions that have resulted from these types of studies is that a small number of clones are responsible for most of the staphylococcal infections throughout the world.

  16. Chronic granulomatous disease: the European experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, J Merlijn; van Koppen, Elsbeth; Ahlin, Anders

    2009-01-01

    .6 years) than in XL CGD (37.8 years), suggesting a milder disease course in AR patients. The disease manifested itself most frequently in the lungs (66% of patients), skin (53%), lymph nodes (50%), gastrointestinal tract (48%) and liver (32%). The most frequently cultured micro-organisms per episode were......, and 53% antifungal prophylaxis. 33% were treated with gamma-interferon. 24 patients (6%) had received a stem cell transplantation. The most prominent reason of death was pneumonia and pulmonary abscess (18/84 cases), septicemia (16/84) and brain abscess (4/84). These data provide further insight...

  17. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order...... of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any to other within the order....

  18. A Case of Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficient abdominal wall muscles, urinary tract malformation, and, in males, cryptorchidism. We present a case of PBS in China. The patient was a newborn baby boy who had wrinkled, “prune-like” abdominal skin, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urinary system malformation, complicated with hypoplasia of the lung and branch of the coronary artery–right ventricular fistula. His kidney function was inadequate. The patient subsequently died at age 28 days due to septicemia from a severe urinary tract infection.

  19. A case of prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Dong-Xuan; Mu, Zhi-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficient abdominal wall muscles, urinary tract malformation, and, in males, cryptorchidism. We present a case of PBS in China. The patient was a newborn baby boy who had wrinkled, "prune-like" abdominal skin, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urinary system malformation, complicated with hypoplasia of the lung and branch of the coronary artery-right ventricular fistula. His kidney function was inadequate. The patient subsequently died at age 28 days due to septicemia from a severe urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A rare case of Shewanella putrefaciens bacteremia in a patient of road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes human infection. These are mostly found in environment and food stuffs. Shewanella are often found in mixed culture. It has been implicated in cellulitis, otitis media, and septicemia. It may be found in respiratory tract, urine, feces, and pleural fluid. There is no definite guideline for therapeutic option. In general, these are susceptible to various antimicrobial agents but are often resistant to penicillin and cephalothin. We report a rare case of bacteremia by S. putrefaciens in a patient of head injury with polytrauma after a road traffic accident.

  1. Pneumonia due to Rhodococcus equi in a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri de França Bonilha

    Full Text Available The authors reported a lung infection by Rhodococcus equi in a 25 years-old male patient admitted to hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and previous diagnosis of pleural effusion. R. equi was isolated from pleural fluid and the patient acquired nosocomial infection by Acinetobacter baumannii, isolated from chest drain. The patient was treated with antibiotics. During hospitalization, he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma of precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma subtype in biopsy of pleura. After undergoing surgery for pulmonary decortication for drain empyema, the patient died due to septicemia.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus: Revisión de los mecanismos de patogenicidad y la fisiopatología de la infección estafilocócica.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado, M. P.; de la Parte, M. A.; Brito, A.

    2002-01-01

    Resumen Staphylococcus aureus es un patógeno humano importante que coloniza e infecta a pacientes hospitalizados y a personas inmunocompetentes en la comunidad. Produce patologías diversas, desde un absceso de piel hasta septicemias mortales y choque tóxico estafilocócico (SSTS). Puede ser causante de intoxicación por alimentos, debido a la ingestión de la enterotoxina B termoestable preformada, producida por una cepa toxigénica. La mayoría de los niños y adultos están colonizados por S. aure...

  3. Caracterização Genética da Resistência à Eritromicina em Streptococcus agalactia e Degestantes saudáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Sandra Marisa de Oliveira Sequeira

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Biologia Clínica Laboratorial Streptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B de Lancefield, EGB), um microrganismo comensal do homem, reconhecido em 1920 como o agente etiológico da mastite bovina, tem sido associado a infecções em parturientes e recém-nascidos, sendo o principal agente de septicemia e meningite neonatal. Para evitar a infecção perinatal recomenda-se a pesquisa da bactéria na região vagino-perianal durante o terceiro semestre de gravidez, indicando o tratamen...

  4. The effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M

    1998-01-01

    AND TREATMENT: One hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients undergoing acute colorectal surgery for perforated and/or obstructed large bowel were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive ranitidine 100 mg i.v. twice a day commencing at induction of anesthesia and continued for five days (group I...... patients were withdrawn from the study (for reasons such as other diagnosis, refused to continue, medication not given as prescribed). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were observed for signs of infectious complications; such as wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia. RESULTS...

  5. The pragmatics of feeding the pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Judy T; Bradshaw, Darla J; Henry, Elizabeth; Roberts, Kathryn E

    2004-09-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents the ultimate pulmonary response to a wide range of injuries, from septicemia to trauma. Optimal nutrition is vital to enhancing oxygen delivery, supporting adequate cardiac contractility and respiratory musculature, eliminating fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and supporting the proinflammatory response. Research is providing a better understanding of nutrients that specifically address the complex physiologic changes in ARDS. This article highlights the pathophysiology of ARDS as it relates to nutrition, relevant nutritional assessment, and important enteral and parenteral considerations for the pediatric patient who has ARDS.

  6. Occurrence of weak mutators among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates causing salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires dos Santos, Teresa M S; Bisgaard, Magne; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 46 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates was examined for the presence of mutators by determining the rate of mutation to rifampicin resistance. The collection included 34 E. coli isolates obtained in pure culture from chronic lesions of salpingitis and peritonitis in 34...... broiler breeders, of which 12 were associated with the development of secondary septicemia. Twelve additional isolates were obtained from a clonal outbreak (ST95) of E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS), the lesions of which changed gradually over time into a subacute/chronic form. The hypothesis...

  7. Risk-benefit assessment of cold-smoked salmon: microbial risk versus nutritional benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Andersen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Heart Disease (CHD) mortality and stroke, as well as enhanced cognitive (IQ) development of unborns following maternal intake, are identified as the main health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid from CSS. Contrary, risk of meningitis, septicemia and abortion/stillborn are identified as a major health risk......The objective of the study is to perform an integrated analysis of microbiological risks and nutritional benefits in a fish product, Cold Smoked Salmon (CSS). Literature study identified the major health risks and benefits in connection with CSS consumption. The reduction of the risk of Coronary...

  8. The Clinical Risks of Infection Associated with Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair E Cowen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning of flexible endoscopes is difficult and time consuming. Any method of attempted sterilization or high level disinfection will fail if prior cleaning has been defective. Inadequate reprocessing of endoscopes may result in patient to patient transmission of serious bacterial and viral diseases or infection with endemic hospital pathogens. Antibiotic prophylaxis is required to prevent septicemia and bacterial endocarditis in high risk patients undergoing specific endoscopic procedures. Prevention of serious endoscopy-associated clinical infections requires strict compliance with detailed reprocessing protocols by specially trained nursing staff.

  9. Kajian patogenisitas bakteri Edwardsiella ictaluri pada ikan patin Pangasionodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Susanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of major problem of striped catfish Pangasionodon hypophthalmus culture is enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC, bacterial disease of Edwardsiella ictaluri, caused of more than 50% of mortalities. This reaserch was aimed to determine pathogenicity of local isolate E. ictaluri. Thirty individu of five group fishes, 6–10 g in body weight, injected intraperitoneally with 0,1 mL of bacteria suspension of 102 cfu/mL; 104 cfu/mL; 106 cfu/mL; 108 cfu/mL; 1010 cfu/mL; and PBS as control, were culture in 18 of 60×40×45 cm3 aquarium for seven days. External organs of fish (skin and abdomen and internal organs (liver, kidney, and brain were examined macroscopicly and microscopicly. Internal organ sample were taken on the 5th day for histopatologic test while blood sample was on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day after infection. Mortality rate was count to reach LD50. Clinical signs and pathology anatomy of co-infection fish showed vertical swim, petechial hemorrhage in the skin, dropsy, ascites in the abdominal cavity, pale liver and the kidney was dark red. Histopathology showed hydropic degeneration, fatty degeneration, hemorrhage and necrosis in the liver, melano macrophage center (MMC and necrosis in the kidneys, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltrates were also found in the kidneys and brain. Decreased of hematocrit and hemoglobin values of all tread group were statistically significant different (P<0,05 compared to controls. LD50 dose was 2,8×104 cfu/mL. The result indicated that E. ictaluri was very pathogenic on striped catfish P. hypophthalmus.  Keywords: Edwardsiella ictaluri, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC, pathogenicity, striped catfish  ABSTRAK Salah satu kendala yang dijumpai pada budidaya ikan patin Pangasionodon hypophthalmus yaitu serangan penyakit bakterial. Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC adalah penyakit infeksi bakteri Edwardsiella ictaluri yang dapat menyebabkan kematian ikan patin sampai >50%. Penelitian ini

  10. Postoperative adverse outcomes in intellectually disabled surgical patients: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-An Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intellectually disabled patients have various comorbidities, but their risks of adverse surgical outcomes have not been examined. This study assesses pre-existing comorbidities, adjusted risks of postoperative major morbidities and mortality in intellectually disabled surgical patients. METHODS: A nationwide population-based study was conducted in patients who underwent inpatient major surgery in Taiwan between 2004 and 2007. Four controls for each patient were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Preoperative major comorbidities, postoperative major complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without intellectual disability. Use of medical services also was analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analyses with 95% confidence intervals were applied to verify intellectual disability's impact. RESULTS: Controls were compared with 3983 surgical patients with intellectual disability. Risks for postoperative major complications were increased in patients with intellectual disability, including acute renal failure (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 6.37, pneumonia (odds ratio 2.01, 1.61 to 2.49, postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.35, 1.09 to 1.68 and septicemia (odds ratio 2.43, 1.85 to 3.21 without significant differences in overall mortality. Disability severity was positively correlated with postoperative septicemia risk. Medical service use was also significantly higher in surgical patients with intellectual disability. CONCLUSION: Intellectual disability significantly increases the risk of overall major complications after major surgery. Our findings show a need for integrated and revised protocols for postoperative management to improve care for intellectually disabled surgical patients.

  11. Diabetes mellitus in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P S; Khatwa, U A

    2000-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is uncommon in infancy and newborn period. The two common forms seen are the transient and permanent forms of diabetes mellitus of the newborn. They have to be differentiated from the transient hyperglycemic states (Blood sugar > 125 mg/dl) seen in newborns who receive parenteral glucose infusions and in those with septicemia and CNS disorders. Transient diabetes mellitus of the newborn (TDNB) is defined as hyperglycemia occurring within the first month of life lasting at least 2 weeks and requiring insulin therapy. Most of these cases resolve spontaneously by 4 months. It has a reported incidence of 1 in 45,000 to 60,000 live births. The most likely etiology is a maturational delay of cAMP mediated insulin release. The clinical features include small for datedness, proneness for birth asphyxia, open-eye alert facies, dehydration, emaciation, polyuria and poydipsia. These children are prone to septicemia and urinary tract infections. They have hyperglycemia, glucosuria, absent or mild ketonuria, low basal insulin, C-peptide and IGF-1 levels. Treatment consists of hydration and judicious administration of insulin with close monitoring. Thirty percent of these children are likely to develop permanent neonatal diabetes. Compared to transient form, permanent diabetes mellitus is uncommon. It is usually due to pancreatic dysgenesis often associated with other malformations and rarely due to type 1 diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic dysfunction. These children are managed as type 1 diabetes mellitus. They are prone to develop the vascular complications of diabetes at an earlier date.

  12. Swine infection by Streptococcus suis: a retrospective study Infecção em suínos por Streptococcus suis: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Del'Arco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic aspects of swine infections caused by Streptococcus suis were studied, focusing mainly on the occurrence of several serotypes. A total of 323 samples of S. suis were isolated from clinically ill animals, serotyped according to the co-agglutination procedure, and analyzed. The serotyping revealed that S. suis was present in several Brazilian states. The largest number was isolated from the states of Minas Gerais (62.5%, São Paulo (10.8%, and Paraná (9.3%. Serotype 2 was the most frequent (61.0%, followed by the serotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. The largest number of isolations was obtained from the brain (60.1%, followed by the lungs (10.4%. About 9.4% of the cases were due to septicemia.Estudaram-se os aspectos epidêmicos das infecções de suínos causadas por Streptococcus suis, enfocando, principalmente, a ocorrência de diferentes sorotipos. Foram analisadas 323 amostras isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes, as quais foram sorotipadas de acordo com o procedimento de co-aglutinação. Foi verificado que S. suis está presente em vários estados brasileiros e o maior número de isolados originou-se dos estados de Minas Gerais (62,5%, São Paulo (10,8% e Paraná (9,3%. O sorotipo 2 foi o mais freqüente (61.0%, seguido pelos sorotipos 1, 3, 4, 7 e 8. Os isolamentos foram obtidos principalmente de cérebro (60,1% e pulmões (10,4%. Os casos de septicemia representaram 9,4%.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  14. The clinical significance of gastrointestinal decontamination in the occurrence of endogenous infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, A; Nagao, T; Sawamura, S; Ikigai, H

    1984-12-01

    No significant difference was seen in the incidence of infections between subjects receiving complete, selective and no decontamination aimed at the intestinal microflora in studies evaluating the preventative potential against endogenous infections in the compromised host maintained under protective isolation. This finding is reported together with a report of Serratia marcescens septicemia in a patient with leukemia who was given antibiotics systemically and kept under protective isolation. The establishment of opportunistic infections in relation to these results is discussed in terms of the biological phenomena of the interaction between the intestinal flora and the host, and between the species comprising the intestinal flora.

  15. Caracterização das manifestações oftálmicas odontogênicas em cães e gatos

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Sávia Calline Carneiro Santos

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Os sinais clínicos oftálmicos não necessariamente correspondem à doença exclusivamente do bulbo ocular ou anexos. Sabe-se que existem manifestações oftálmicas decorrentes de doenças metabólicas, parasitárias, infecciosas, neoplásicas, traumas e anomalias. Doenças que provoquem bacteremia ou septicemia também podem desencadear sinais clínicos oftálmicos. O aparelho estomatognático nos carnívoros é composto por tecidos moles como músculos, mucosa, gengiva e língua, e por tecidos duros c...

  16. A rare case of anterior mediastinal mass caused by Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2017-03-01

    A previously healthy man, who had undergone coronary artery bypass 10 years earlier and had been diagnosed with brucellosis due to Brucella septicemia after Brucella arthritis, presented with chest pain and high fever. Anti- Brucella antibiotics were started, but after 4 weeks, his high fever remained. An infected mass was confirmed by computed tomography, and surgical intervention was performed via a median sternotomy. A large amount of thick pus gushed from an abscess in the upper mediastinum. The abscess cavity had a thick granulation wall, and cultured pus was positive for Brucella only. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy.

  17. An initially unidentified case of urinary tract infection due to Aerococcus urinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, Georgios; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Tsingerlioti, Fani; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a microorganism responsible for urinary tract and blood stream infections which are rarely reported in clinical practice. However, it has been proposed that the infrequency of such reports may be partially due to difficulties related to pathogen identification. We present here a case of an elderly male patient with urinary tract infection where A. urinae was initially not identified by a private microbiology laboratory. Our report highlights the need to consider A. urinae as a causative agent of urinary tract infections because if not identified and properly treated it may lead to endocarditis or septicemia.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Understudied Drugs Administered to Children Per Standard of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Adenovirus; Anesthesia; Anxiety; Anxiolysis; Autism; Autistic Disorder; Bacterial Meningitis; Bacterial Septicemia; Benzodiazepine; Bipolar Disorder; Bone and Joint Infections; Central Nervous System Infections; Convulsions; Cytomegalovirus Retinitis; Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders; Epilepsy; General Anesthesia; Gynecologic Infections; Herpes Simplex Virus; Infantile Hemangioma; Infection; Inflammation; Inflammatory Conditions; Intra-abdominal Infections; Lower Respiratory Tract Infections; Migraines; Pain; Pneumonia; Schizophrenia; Sedation; Seizures; Skeletal Muscle Spasms; Skin and Skin-structure Infections; Thromboprophylaxis; Thrombosis; Treatment-resistant Schizophrenia; Urinary Tract Infections; Withdrawal; Sepsis; Gram-negative Infection; Bradycardia; Cardiac Arrest; Cardiac Arrhythmia; Staphylococcal Infections; Nosocomial Pneumonia; Neuromuscular Blockade; Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus; Endocarditis; Neutropenia; Headache

  19. Epidemiologia molecular de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de diferentes fontes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Micke Moreno; Renata Paixão; Luisa Zanolli Moreno; Débora Dirani Sena de Gobbi; Daniele Cristine Raimundo; Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira; Ernesto Hofer; Maria Helena Matte; Marina Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes é um importante patógeno de origem alimentar que afeta principalmente grávidas, neonatos, idosos e indivíduos imunocomprometidos, e pode causar abortamento, septicemia e meningite. Dos 13 grupos capsulares descritos, os sorotipos 4b, 1/2b e 1/2a são os mais relacionados à infecção humana. Por esta razão, a sorotipagem possui valor limitado como ferramenta epidemiológica e, dessa forma, métodos mais discriminatórios são necessários para melhorar o conhecimento sobre a co...

  20. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Beatriz Tavares Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico. A identificação desta bactéria direcionou a investigação para a síndrome MIM. O diagnóstico de deficiência do receptor da interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1 foi confirmado através da dosagem de IL-12 e do interferon (IFN-gama produzido pelas células do paciente em meio de cultura. O resultado demonstrou ausência de produção de IL-12 e do IFN-gama mesmo após estímulo adequado. COMENTÁRIOS: a identificação da Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico de septicemia sugere uma disfunção do sistema imunológico. Foi realizada avaliação laboratorial das imunidades humoral, celular e inata. Após avaliação laboratorial direcionada para síndrome MIM, foi confirmada a deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1. O uso do IFN-gama é recomendado nos casos graves, assim como o tratamento de suporte e o aconselhamento genético.

  1. Ultraviolet blood irradiation: Is it time to remember "the cure that time forgot"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ximing; Hu, Xiaoqing; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma, and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However, with the development of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined and it has now been called "the cure that time forgot." Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers, and in other Eastern countries, and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial. This review discusses the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to current methods used to treat infections, as an immune-modulating therapy and as a method for normalizing blood parameters. Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes. However, the use of UBI to treat septicemia cannot be solely due to UV-mediated killing of bacteria in the bloodstream, as only 5-7% of blood volume needs to be treated with UV to produce the optimum benefit, and higher doses can be damaging. There may be some similarities to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) using psoralens and UVA irradiation. However, there are differences between UBI and ECP in that UBI tends to stimulate the immune system, while ECP tends to be immunosuppressive. With the recent emergence of bacteria that are resistant to all known antibiotics, UBI should be more investigated as an alternative approach to infections, and as an immune-modulating therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Long-term risks after splenectomy among 8,149 cancer-free American veterans: a cohort study with up to 27 years follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Gridley, Gloria; Hoover, Robert N; Check, David; Landgren, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Although preservation of the spleen following abdominal trauma and spleen-preserving surgical procedures have become gold standards, about 22,000 splenectomies are still conducted annually in the USA. Infections, mostly by encapsulated organisms, are the most well-known complications following splenectomy. Recently, thrombosis and cancer have become recognized as potential adverse outcomes post-splenectomy. Among more than 4 million hospitalized USA veterans, we assessed incidence and mortality due to infections, thromboembolism, and cancer including 8,149 cancer-free veterans who underwent splenectomy with a follow-up of up to 27 years. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using time-dependent Poisson regression methods for cohort data. Splenectomized patients had an increased risk of being hospitalized for pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia (rate ratios=1.9–3.4); deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (rate ratios=2.2); certain solid tumors: buccal, esophagus, liver, colon, pancreas, lung, and prostate (rate ratios =1.3–1.9); and hematologic malignancies: non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and any leukemia (rate ratios =1.8–6.0). They also had an increased risk of death due to pneumonia and septicemia (rate ratios =1.6–3.0); pulmonary embolism and coronary artery disease (rate ratios =1.4–4.5); any cancer: liver, pancreas, and lung cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and any leukemia (rate ratios =1.3–4.7). Many of the observed risks were increased more than 10 years after splenectomy. Our results underscore the importance of vaccination, surveillance, and thromboprophylaxis after splenectomy. PMID:24056815

  3. MR features of a case of afferent loop syndrome presenting as obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.; Souci, J.; Oddo, F.; Diaine, B.; Padovani, B.; Gueyffier, C.

    2001-01-01

    The afferent loop syndrome corresponds to an acute or chronic obstruction of the afferent loop following a partial gastrectomy with Billroth II gastro-jejunal anastomosis. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with history of partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease performed 31 years ago and currently admitted for jaundice and poor general status. MR imaging showed dilatation of biliary and pancreatic ducts and showed a soft tissue mass between the afferent loop and the residual stomach. Endoscopy showed complete obstruction of the afferent loop by a biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma. The patient died of sepsis shortly after endoscopy of septicemia. (authors)

  4. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  5. Experiencia con la fístula arteriovenosa interna para hemodiálisis periódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rebollo

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available Dos y medio años después de experiencia con 600 diálisis en 8 pacientes han demostrado que el uso de fístula anteriovenosa descrita por brescia es en el momento el mejor método para el acceso repetido a los vasos sanquíneos durante el tratamiento de la hemodiálisis periódica suprimiendo algunos de los inconvenientes a la cánula externa de teflón y sylastic, trombosis, embolismo pulmonar y septicemia son complicaciones previsibles en si mayor parte y debidas a fallas, mal manejo y omiciones de asepsia elemental durante las punciones.

  6. MR features of a case of afferent loop syndrome presenting as obstructive jaundice; IRM d'un syndrome de l'anse afferente revele par un ictere obstructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, P.; Souci, J.; Oddo, F.; Diaine, B.; Padovani, B. [Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, Hopital Archet 2., Service d' Imagerie Medicale, 06 - Nice (France); Gueyffier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de Cannes, Service d' Hepato-Gastro-enterologie, 06 - Cannes (France)

    2001-02-01

    The afferent loop syndrome corresponds to an acute or chronic obstruction of the afferent loop following a partial gastrectomy with Billroth II gastro-jejunal anastomosis. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with history of partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease performed 31 years ago and currently admitted for jaundice and poor general status. MR imaging showed dilatation of biliary and pancreatic ducts and showed a soft tissue mass between the afferent loop and the residual stomach. Endoscopy showed complete obstruction of the afferent loop by a biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma. The patient died of sepsis shortly after endoscopy of septicemia. (authors)

  7. Erysipelothrix endocarditis with previous cutaneous lesion: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion P. Rocha

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first documented case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis in Latin America. The patient was a 51-years-old male, moderate alcoholic, with a previous history of aortic failure. He was used to fishing and cooking as a hobby and had his left hand wounded by a fish-bone. The disease began with erysipeloid form and developed to septicemia and endocarditis. He was treated with antibiotics and surgery for aortic valve replacement. There are only 46 cases of E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis reported to date. The authors wonder if several other cases might go unreported for lack of microbiological laboratorial diagnosis.

  8. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in Patients with MRSA Septicemia: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shailaja Bhat; Thotakura, Meena; Kamath, Yogish; Bekur, Ragini

    2016-10-01

    To report the presentation, predisposing factors, clinical features and outcome in 6 eyes of 3 patients with endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) septicaemia. Retrospective review of case records of 3 patients who were treated for endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to MRSA septicaemia in a tertiary referral institution. All three patients had systemic predisposition to endogenous endophthalmitis (diabetes, urosepsis). Two patients presented within 1 week of onset of visual symptoms and the third after 3 months. Blood culture was positive for MRSA in all patients. Visual and anatomical improvement was noted in two patients who presented early. The third patient's visual outcome despite early treatment with intravitreal antibiotics and vitrectomy was not satisfactory. Endogenous endophthalmitis by MRSA is a rare but serious condition. Early and specific therapy based on reliable detection of the underlying microorganism is needed for good anatomical and functional outcome.

  9. Avaliação dos óbitos e necropsias em pacientes internados em um serviço de reumatologia pediátrica por um período de dez anos Deaths and necropsies evaluation in hospitalized patients of a pediatric rheumatology unit for a period of ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Moreira Facó

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar os dados clínicos do óbito com achados de necropsia em pacientes internados em uma unidade de reumatologia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: o estudo é uma coorte histórica. Em dez anos, no período compreendido entre janeiro de 1994 e dezembro de 2003, ocorreram 57.159 internações com 1.907 (3% óbitos no Instituto da Criança. Destas internações, 548 (1% apresentaram doenças reumáticas ou pediátricas e foram acompanhadas pela Unidade de Reumatologia Pediátrica, incluindo 348 pacientes. Os óbitos e as necropsias foram analisados e a classificação de Goldman foi utilizada para detectar discordância entre o diagnóstico clínico do óbito e a necropsia. RESULTADOS: no período do estudo, 34 (10% pacientes evoluíram para óbito. As principais doenças associadas ao óbito foram: lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil (LESJ em 18 pacientes (53% e artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ em sete casos (21%. Necropsias foram realizadas em 21 pacientes (64% dos óbitos. Nos 18 casos de LESJ, a atividade da doença esteve presente em 16 casos, sendo associada à septicemia em 15 deles. Discordância entre o diagnóstico clínico e necropsia foi evidenciada em seis casos com LESJ: três com infecções fúngicas, um com tuberculose, um com nefrite proliferativa difusa e outro com aterosclerose. Sete pacientes com AIJ evoluíram para óbito: septicemia em quatro e síndrome de ativação macrofágica em três. Em um caso de AIJ foi diagnosticado, exclusivamente na necropsia: linfoma de Hodgkin, aterosclerose e infarto anterior do miocárdio. CONCLUSÕES: a freqüência de óbitos foi 10% e necropsia evidenciou doença infecciosa, aterosclerose ou neoplasia não diagnosticadas previamente. A necropsia é importante para determinar eventos não esclarecidos ou duvidosos no óbito e deve ser sempre solicitada.OBJECTIVE: to correlate the clinical data of necropsies in hospitalized patients of a Pediatric Rheumatology Unit. METHODS: this

  10. The Phosphocarrier Protein HPr Contributes to Meningococcal Survival during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Antunes

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusively human pathogen frequently carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx but it can also provoke invasive infections such as meningitis and septicemia. N. meningitidis uses a limited range of carbon sources during infection, such as glucose, that is usually transported into bacteria via the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS, in which the phosphocarrier protein HPr (encoded by the ptsH gene plays a central role. Although N. meningitidis possesses an incomplete PTS, HPr was found to be required for its virulence. We explored the role of HPr using bioluminescent wild-type and ΔptsH strains in experimental infection in transgenic mice expressing the human transferrin. The wild-type MC58 strain was recovered at higher levels from the peritoneal cavity and particularly from blood compared to the ΔptsH strain. The ΔptsH strain provoked lower levels of septicemia in mice and was more susceptible to complement-mediated killing than the wild-type strain. We tested whether meningococcal structures impacted complement resistance and observed that only the capsule level was decreased in the ΔptsH mutant. We therefore compared the transcriptomic profiles of wild-type and ΔptsH strains and identified 49 differentially expressed genes. The HPr regulon contains mainly hypothetical proteins (43% and several membrane-associated proteins that could play a role during host interaction. Some other genes of the HPr regulon are involved in stress response. Indeed, the ΔptsH strain showed increased susceptibility to environmental stress conditions. Our data suggest that HPr plays a pleiotropic role in host-bacteria interactions most likely through the innate immune response that may be responsible for the enhanced clearance of the ΔptsH strain from blood.

  11. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of spontaneous acute prostatitis and transrectal prostate biopsy-related acute prostatitis: Is transrectal prostate biopsy-related acute prostatitis a distinct acute prostatitis category?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kang, Seok Ho; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics between acute bacterial prostatitis and transrectal biopsy-related acute prostatitis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 135 patients hospitalized for acute prostatitis in three urological centers between 2004 and 2013. Acute bacterial prostatitis was diagnosed according to typical symptoms, findings of physical examination, and laboratory test results. Clinical variables, laboratory test results, and anti-microbial susceptibility results were reviewed. Patients were classified into the spontaneous acute prostatitis group (S-ABP) or biopsy-related acute prostatitis (Bx-ABP) for comparison of their clinical, laboratory, and microbiological findings. The mean age of all patients was 61.7 ± 12.9 years. Compared with S-ABP patients, Bx-ABP patients were significantly older, had larger prostate volumes, higher PSA values, higher peak fever temperatures, and higher incidence of septicemia and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overall, of the 135 patients, 57.8% had positive bacterial urine and/or blood cultures. Bx-ABP patients had a higher incidence of bacterial (urine and/or blood) positive cultures compared to S-ABP patients (66.7% versus 55.6%). Escherichia coli was the predominant organism in both groups, but it was more common in Bx-ABP (88.9%) than in S-ABP (66.7%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase -producing bacteria accounted for 64.7% of culture-positive patients in the Bx-ABP group compared to 13.3% in the S-ABP group. Bx-ABP patients showed a higher incidence of septicemia and antibiotic-resistant bacteria than S-ABP patients. These results have important implications for the management and antimicrobial treatment of Bx-ABP, which may well deserve to be considered a distinct prostatitis category. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Ethiopian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legese, Melese Hailu; Weldearegay, Gebru Mulugeta; Asrat, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging problem in children nowadays. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among children suspected of septicemia and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2014. A total of 322 study participants suspected of septicemia and UTIs were recruited. All blood and urine samples were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar. All positive cultures were characterized by colony morphology, Gram stain, and standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on Muller-Hinton agar using disk diffusion. ESBL was detected using combination disk and double-disk synergy methods, and the results were compared. Carbapenemase was detected by modified Hodge method using meropenem. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results The overall prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 78.57% (n=22/28) and 12.12%, respectively. Among the Enterobacteriaceae tested, Klebsiella pneumoniae (84.2%, n=16/19), Escherichia coli (100%, n=5/5), and Klebsiella oxytoca (100%, n=1/1) were positive for ESBL. Double-disk synergy method showed 90.9% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, 95.2% positive predictive value, and 50% negative predictive value. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were K. pneumoniae (9.09%, n=3/33) and Morganella morganii (3.03%, n=1/33). Conclusion Screening Enterobacteriaceae for ESBL production is essential for better antibiotics selection and preventing its further emergence and spread. In resource-limited settings, double-disk synergy method can be implemented for screening and confirming ESBL production. Moreover, occurrence of CRE in countries where no carbapenems are sold is worrying microbiologists as well as clinicians. Hence, identifying factors that induce

  13. Subdural abscess in infant and child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, E; Shigemori, M; Hayashi, T; Kuratomi, A; Kuramoto, S [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-02-01

    Two cases of subdural abscess in infant and child treated with irrigation via burr holes were reported. The first case was a 1.4-year-old boy with right hemiparesis and mental retardation since severe head trauma at 9 months old. The patient with manifested with an acute onset of high fever followed by disturbance of consciousness and convulsive seizures 2.5 months prior to admission to our department. During admission in the other hospital, the diagnosis of septicemia caused by E. coli was made by blood cultures when CT scan demonstrated a huge lentiform low density area over the right hemisphere and contralateral crescent low density area. The low density area on the right side was well circumscribed by high density rim which was enhanced by contrast medium. Under the diagnosis of bilateral subdural abscess secondary to septicemia caused by E. coli, irrigation of the purulent cavity was carried out. The contralateral low density area was found to be chronic subdural effusion. The second case of 3-month-old infant who complained of high fever, neck stiffness, unconsciousness and right hemiconvulsions 8 days prior to admission. CT scan showed bilateral crescent low density areas indicating subdural effusion. Subdural punctures performed via the fontanelle revealed pus in the left subdural space and xanthocromic fluid in the right side. The low density area on CT scan was changed to the lentiform high density area circumscribed smooth high density rim during the course of the patient. The subdural abscess was treated with irrigation via burr holes. In this report, the etiology of the subdural abscess and route of infection in addition to follow up study of CT findings were presented with the literature.

  14. Clinical and microbiological profile of babies born with risk of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Liu, Xiao; Wu, Jie-Bin; Jin, Bao; Zhang, Yan-Yan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antibiotics on the condition of babies born with risk of neonatal sepsis. From March, 2014 to February, 2015, 200 neonates born with risk factors of septicemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Xuzhou Central Hospital, were enrolled in the present study. Venous blood samples were collected within 6 h of birth using aseptic technique. Part of the blood specimens were cultured using BACTEC PEDS PLUS/F Culture Vials. Subsequently, the subcultures were prepared from each presumptive positive vial and bacterial isolates were identified. The remaining portion was used to measure the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and total leukocyte count (TLC). The result showed that 32% of neonates were infected, of whom, 21.9% had Staphylococcus aureus , 21.9% had Acinetobacter Baumanni , and 12.5% had Klebsiella pneumoniae . Additionally, Staphylococcus epidermis , Enteroccus spp ., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli was isolated from 9.4, 7.8, 6.3 and 4.7% of neonates, respectively. The neonates enrolled in the present study had ≥1 risk factor for neonatal sepsis, and the average number of risk factors was 1.95 per neonate. Neonates (39.1%) with positive blood culture results, had a CRP level >0.8 mg/dl, and 12.5% was shown to have an abnormal increase in their leukocyte counts. The association between leukocyte counts and blood culture results was not statistically significant. Of the neonates with positive blood cultures 45.3% died within 7 days after birth, while there was no mortality among those with negative culture results. The results indicate that in the presence of risk factors for sepsis, irrespective of clinical features of septicemia, neonatal sepsis screening should be performed. Rational and appropriate use of antibiotics may minimize the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria in neonatal units.

  15. Iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs.

  16. Histophilus somni IbpA Fic cytotoxin is conserved in disease strains and most carrier strains from cattle, sheep and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekarias, B; O'Toole, D; Lehmann, J; Corbeil, L B

    2011-04-21

    Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia, septicemia, myocarditis, thrombotic meningoencephalitis and arthritis, as well as a genital or upper respiratory carrier state in normal animals. However, differences in virulence factors among strains are not well studied. The surface and secreted immunoglobulin binding protein A (IbpA) Fic motif of H. somni causes bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) cells to retract, allowing virulent bacteria to cross the alveolar monolayer. Because H. somni IbpA is an important virulence factor, its presence was evaluated in different strains from cattle, sheep and bison to define whether there are syndrome specific markers and whether antigenic/molecular/functional conservation occurs. A few preputial carrier strains lacked IbpA by Western blotting but all other tested disease or carrier strains were IbpA positive. These positive strains had either both IbpA DR1/Fic and IbpA DR2/Fic or only IbpA DR2/Fic by PCR. IbpA Fic mediated cytotoxicity for BAT2 cells and sequence analysis of IbpA DR2/Fic from selected strains revealed conservation of sequence and function in disease and IbpA positive carrier strains. Passive protection of mice against H. somni septicemia with antibody to IbpA DR2/Fic, along with previous data, indicates that the IbpA DR1/Fic and/or DR2/Fic domains are candidate vaccine antigens for protection against many strains of H. somni. Since IbpA DR2/Fic is conserved in most carrier strains, they may be virulent if introduced to susceptible animals at susceptible sites. Conservation of the protective IbpA antigen in all disease isolates tested is encouraging for development of protective vaccines and diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A real-time PCR antibiogram for drug-resistant sepsis.

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    John R Waldeisen

    Full Text Available Current molecular diagnostic techniques for susceptibility testing of septicemia rely on genotyping for the presence of known resistance cassettes. This technique is intrinsically vulnerable due to the inability to detect newly emergent resistance genes. Traditional phenotypic susceptibility testing has always been a superior method to assay for resistance; however, relying on the multi-day growth period to determine which antimicrobial to administer jeopardizes patient survival. These factors have resulted in the widespread and deleterious use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The real-time PCR antibiogram, described herein, combines universal phenotypic susceptibility testing with the rapid diagnostic capabilities of PCR. We have developed a procedure that determines susceptibility by monitoring pathogenic load with the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene in blood samples exposed to different antimicrobial drugs. The optimized protocol removes heme and human background DNA from blood, which allows standard real-time PCR detection systems to be employed with high sensitivity (<100 CFU/mL. Three strains of E. coli, two of which were antimicrobial resistant, were spiked into whole blood and exposed to three different antibiotics. After real-time PCR-based determination of pathogenic load, a ΔC(t<3.0 between untreated and treated samples was found to indicate antimicrobial resistance (P<0.01. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for susceptible bacteria and pan-bacterial detection was demonstrated with 3 gram-negative and 2 gram-positive bacteria. Species identification was performed via analysis of the hypervariable amplicons. In summary, we have developed a universal diagnostic phenotyping technique that assays for the susceptibility of drug-resistant septicemia with the speed of PCR. The real-time PCR antibiogram achieves detection, susceptibility testing, minimum inhibitory concentration determination, and identification in less than 24

  18. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient

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    Miguel Angel Ariza-Prota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  19. AFRRI reports. First Quarter, January-March 1991. Scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    Ionizing radiation reduces the host's defenses to infection (1) and enhances its susceptibility to systemic infection due to endogenous and exogenous organisms. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most frequent causes of gram-negative bacteremia, and is especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients. Therapy for severe systemic infection due to gram-negative bacteria generally involves the use of aminoglycosides in combination with beta lactam antibiotics. However, several recently developed quinolone compounds have exhibited high in vitro bactericidal activity against most gram negative bacteria. including K. pneumoniae. In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of oral therapy with several quinolones in a model of experimental septicemia due to orally ingested K pneumoniae in irradiated mice.

  20. A Case of Anicteric Leptospirosis Presenting with Rectal Bleeding and Hyperpyrexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a globally widespread zoonotic infection caused by leptospira-type spirochetes. In humans the infection generally occurs by way of direct or indirect contact with infected animal urine. The main clinical symptoms are fever, septicemia, headache, fatigue and myalgia. The disease usually begins with a high fever. The largest risk factor for leptospirosis is occupational and it includes farmers, ranchers, military personnel and, sewer workers. There is also a risk through recreational exposure such as freshwater swimming and kayaking. This report describes a case of leptospirosis following a course with hyper-pyrexia, for the first time in the medical literature. [Dis Mol Med 2016; 4(2.000: 18-20

  1. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.; Casola, G.; Vatney, R.R.; Wittich, G.R.; Harker, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous drainage of lung abscesses in 12 patients. Indications for drainage were septicemia and persistence or worsening of radiographic findings. These lung abscesses were refractory to intravenous antibiotics and to bronchial toilet. Etiology of the abscesses included pneumonia (most frequently), trauma, postoperative development, infected necrotic neoplasm, and infected sequestration. Guidelines for drainage included passage of the catheter through contiguously abnormal lung and pleura, inability of the patient to cough, and/or bronchial obstruction precluding bronchial drainage. Cure was achieved in 11 of 12 patients. Catheters were removed on an average of 16 days after insertion. Antibiotics were administered an average of 18 days before drainage. No major complications occurred

  2. Impetigo presenting as an acute necrotizing swelling of the lower lip in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Mohammed; Halsnad, Moorthy; Fowell, Christopher; Millar, Brian G

    2012-06-01

    The authors present an unusual case of an acute swelling of the lower lip and septicemia in a 35-year-old, recent immigrant male arriving from India. The patient presented in our emergency department with a 48-hour history of a worsening, painful swelling of the lower lip. On presentation, he was pyrexial and the lip was found to be acutely inflamed with honey-colored crusting, pustular lesions, and induration . A diagnosis of impetigo leading to necrosis of the lip was established, a rare phenomenon potentially resulting in significant tissue destruction. Appropriate medical management achieved a good outcome and prevented disabling tissue loss of the orofacial region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-01-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental

  4. Plant Natural compounds with antibacterial activity towards common pathogens of pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L).

  5. Restriction of cephalosporins and control of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram negative bacteria in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murki, Srinivas; Jonnala, Sravanthi; Mohammed, Faheemuddin; Reddy, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    This interventional study with historical controls was conducted to study the effect of cephalosporin restriction on the incidence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gram negative infections in neonates admitted to intensive care unit. All gram negative isolates from the blood were evaluated for beta lactamase production. The incidence of ESBL production was compared before (year 2007) and after cephalosporin restriction (year 2008). Thirty two neonates (3% of NICU admissions) in the year 2007 and fifty six (5.2%) in the year 2008, had gram negative septicemia. The incidence of ESBL gram negatives decreased by 22% (47% to 25%, P=0.03). Restriction of all class of cephalosporins significantly decreased the incidence of ESBL gram negative infections.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10, a virulent isolate from the Gulf of Bothnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kåre Olav; Nilsson, Kristina; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Milton, Debra L

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum causes a fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in marine fish that leads to great economical losses in aquaculture world-wide. Vibrio anguillarum strain NB10 serotype O1 is a Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from a diseased fish on the Swedish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and is slightly halophilic. Strain NB10 is a virulent isolate that readily colonizes fish skin and intestinal tissues. Here, the features of this bacterium are described and the annotation and analysis of its complete genome sequence is presented. The genome is 4,373,835 bp in size, consists of two circular chromosomes and one plasmid, and contains 3,783 protein-coding genes and 129 RNA genes.

  7. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  8. Partial splenectomy and autotransplantation of splenic fragments in pigs: a model for prevention of septicemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Binns, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Normal young piglets and miniature piglets of the Gottingen breed were used as animal models for autotransplantation of splenic fragments. In pigs, regeneration kinetics seem to be comparable to man. Even after six mo, only small splenic nodules with a reduced blood flow were found. No effective stimulator of splenic regeneration has been found for pigs. Pig spleen size and blood supply enable partial splenectomies and ligation of the splenic artery which are models for spleen surgery in man

  9. Human Infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum without Jugular Venous Thrombosis: A Varied Presentation of Lemierre’s Syndrome

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    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is also known as postangina septicemia, which is commonly caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum also known as Necrobacillus and also by other microorganisms like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Bacteroides. Though the disease starts as an upper respiratory tract infection, it may spread and cause thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It may present itself through cranial nerve palsy or sepsis involving distant organs like the lungs or bones. It is also known as forgotten disease because of its rarity. Fusobacterium necrophorum usually causes infection in animals and rarely affects humans. We hereby present a case of Necrobacillus infection which did not cause any thrombophlebitis but resulted in severe pneumonia and acute kidney injury, leading to respiratory failure and requiring mechanical ventilation.

  10. Island Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap and a Perforator Flap in Repairing Post-Gunshot Thoracic Spine CSF Fistula: Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangole F. Wanjala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent posttraumatic CSF fluid leakage may present a challenge to manage. Failure to address the leakage may result in complications such as meningitis, septicemia, radiculopathy, muscle weakness, and back pains. While the majority of the leakages may be managed conservatively, large dura defects as a result of gunshot wounds or motor vehicle accidents are best managed by surgical interventions. This may range from primary closure of the defect to fascial grafts, adhesive glues, and flaps. We present our experience with the use of flaps in a patient who had sustained such wounds in the thoracic spine. An island latissimus dorsal flap and a perforator fasciocutaneous flap were used to close the defect. Postoperatively the patient recovered well and the wounds healed without any complications.

  11. Testing the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has in view to establish and test the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics. There are different injuries caused by superficial skin infections: from simple pimples to infections that endanger our lives, like an abscess, furuncle septicemia, meningitis, toxic food, urinary tract infection at sexually active young women. Samples have been taken from 30 people with staphylococcus infections. They were nineteen women and eleven men, between the age of 2 and 79. During this study some antibiograms have been made, based on pharyngeal exudates, acne secretion and urine culture. It has been established that the most efficient recommended antibiotics are: oxacilin, erythromycin, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. The penicillin turned out to be less efficient to remove and destroy the Staphylococcus aureus species.

  12. Vibrio infections in Louisiana: twenty-five years of surveillance 1980-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Annu; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sokol, Theresa M; Ratard, Raoult C

    2007-01-01

    A total of 1,007 Vibrio infections were reported to the Infectious Disease Epidemiology Department at the Louisiana Office of Public Heath, between 1980 and 2005. The most common were Vibrio vulnificus (257 infections), Vibrio parahemolyticus (249 infections), and Vibrio cholerae non O1 (200 cases). Other species were much less common. Vibrio vulnificus infections, which are associated with consumption of raw seafood (particularly oysters) or contact with sea water, and severe immuno-suppression or liver disease were increasing. Septicemia and blood stream infections are the main manifestations of this infection. The number of infections due to Vibrio parahemolyticus on the other hand, causing mostly gastroenteritis, has remained stable. Vibrio cholerae infections are less common and almost always associated with consumption of partially cooked or contaminated crabs.

  13. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  14. Centralização de fluxo sanguíneo fetal: comparação entre os índices diagnósticos Brain-sparing effect: comparison of diagnostic indices

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    Cleide Mara Mazzotti de Oliveira Franzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever os resultados perinatais adversos em pacientes com centralização de fluxo sanguíneo fetal, utilizando a relação entre os índices de pulsatilidade das artérias cerebral média e umbilical (IPACM/IPAU e entre os índices de resistência das artérias cerebral média e umbilical (IRACM/IRAU, assim como comparar os dois índices diagnósticos. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 151 gestantes com diagnóstico de centralização de fluxo sanguíneo atendidas na maternidade da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, cujo parto ocorreu até 15 dias após o diagnóstico ultrassonográfico. Foram considerados como resultados perinatais adversos: índice de Apgar inferior a sete no quinto minuto, internação em UTI neonatal, concepto pequeno para a idade gestacional, sofrimento fetal agudo, mortalidade perinatal, hipoglicemia, policitemia, enterocolite necrosante, hemorragia cerebral, hemorragia pulmonar, anemia, septicemia, doença de membrana hialina, síndromes convulsivas, síndrome de hiper-reflexia e insuficiência renal. As frequências dos resultados perinatais adversos (RPA para as relações cérebro-placentária foram comparadas utilizando-se o teste exato de Fisher ou o do χ2 de Pearson, considerando-se como estatisticamente significativo o nível de 5%. Os resultados perinatais adversos foram avaliados de acordo com a idade gestacional, utilizando-se o teste de tendência de Cochrane-Armitage. RESULTADOS: os resultados perinatais adversos para o grupo em que os dois índices apresentaram-se alterados constatou que 62,5% dos recém-natos necessitaram de internação em UTI, conceptos pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG ocorreram em 75,2%, sofrimento fetal agudo em 35,3%, hipoglicemia em 84,4%, policitemia em 8,3%, enterocolite necrosante em 4,2% e hemorragia cerebral em 2,1%. Constatou-se associação significativa das relações IPACM/IPAU e IRACM/IRAU, no decorrer da idade gestacional, para necessidade de cuidados

  15. Nasal Nosocomial Myiasis Infection Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae Following the Septicemia: A Case Report

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    Seyed Farzin MIRCHERAGHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domes­tic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in remote past, were nota­ble parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radio­graphic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumo­nia (HCAP. Despite the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and ap­propriate supportive care, she had a poor response to the treatment. During the daily visit in Intensive Care Unit (ICU, numerous white larvae were de­tected in both nostrils. Further investigation of oropharynx and tracheal tube aspiration, showed no more larvae in mentioned parts. An hour later, nasal spontaneous bleeding occurred. Otorhinolaryngology consultation was per­formed and led to surgical procedure. In ENT examination, there were nu­merous larvae and massive clot formation in both inferior meatuses and distal nasal septum perforation. Thirty-seven extracted larvae were transferred to Medical Entomology lab by vial 70% ethanol and 5 live larvae for rearing. After pre­cise investigation by aid of light microscopy, the larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Due to discovered 2nd larvae stage and duration of hospitalization, this infestation was identified as nasal myiasis.

  16. Cupriavidus pauculus (Ralstonia paucula) concomitant meningitis and septicemia in a neonate: First case report from India

    OpenAIRE

    S Duggal; R Gur; R Nayar; S R Rongpharpi; D Jain; R K Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Ralstonia paucula (formerly classified as CDC (Centre for Disease Control) group IVc-2, Wautersia paucula; recently renamed as Cupriavidus pauculus) is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus isolated from water sources and can cause serious human infections. Patients recover bacteriologically indicating low virulence. A total of 32 cases have been reported world-wide, but no isolation has ever been reported from cerebrospinal fluid or in India. The first case of R. paucula meningitis and sep...

  17. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: "The Cure That Time Forgot"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, UBI use declined and it has now been called "the cure that time forgot". Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial.This chapter discusses the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to current methods used to treat infections, as an immune-modulating therapy and as a method for normalizing blood parameters. No resistance of microorganisms to UV irradiation has been reported, and multi-antibiotic resistant strains are as susceptible as their wild-type counterparts. Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes. However the use of UBI to treat septicemia cannot be solely due to UV-mediated killing of bacteria in the blood-stream, as only 5-7% of blood volume needs to be treated with UV to produce the optimum benefit. UBI may enhance the phagocytic capacity of various phagocytic cells (neutrophils and dendritic cells), inhibit lymphocytes, and oxidize blood lipids. The oxidative nature of UBI may have mechanisms in common with ozone therapy and other oxygen therapies. There may be some similarities to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) using psoralens and UVA irradiation. However there are differences between UBI and ECP in that UBI tends to stimulate the immune system, while ECP tends to be immunosuppressive. With the recent emergence of bacteria that are resistant to all known antibiotics, UBI should be more investigated as an alternative approach to infections, and as an immune

  18. Prevalence of Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Calabar, South-South Nigeria: A Five-year Review Study

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    Sunny Oteikwu Ochigbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilirubin encephalopathy is a clinical syndrome, associated with bilirubin toxicity in the central nervous system, resulting in chronic and permanent sequelae. It has been estimated that approximately 60% and 80% of term and preterm newborns develop jaundice in the first week of life, respectively. In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of bilirubin encephalopathy in the neonatal unit of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive review, medical records of all newborns, diagnosed with bilirubin encephalopathy over the past five years (from January 2010 to December 2014, were studied. Information retrieved from the medical records included age, sex, presence of fever, duration of disease, place of delivery, causes of the disease, and selected treatments. Variables such as hospital discharge, discharge against medical advice, and mortality were also evaluated. Results: Out of 2,820 newborns, 21 (0.74% cases were admitted on account of bilirubin encephalopathy. Among these affected cases, 17 (81% were male and 4 (19% were female (male-to-female ratio of 5:1. Based on the findings, 18 newborns (85.7% had pyrexia, while 8 (38.1% and 6 (28.6% cases were hypertonic and hypotonic, respectively upon admission. Only 33.3% of deliveries took place in healthcare facilities. The established factors responsible for jaundice included infection, i.e., septicemia (n=15, 71.4%, ABO incompatibility (n=4, 19.1%, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency (n=2, 9.5%. The mean maximum total bilirubin level in subjects was 321.3 μmol/L (range: 242.5–440.3 μmol/L. Also, mortality was reported in 4 (19% out of 21 cases. Conclusion: Based on the findings, neonatal septicemia is associated with bilirubin encephalopathy. Therefore, identification and prompt treatment are of utmost importance in preventing the associated morbidity and

  19. Adjusting health spending for the presence of comorbidities: an application to United States national inpatient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Baral, Ranju; Johnson, Elizabeth; Bulchis, Anne; Birger, Maxwell; Bui, Anthony L; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Gabert, Rose; Hamavid, Hannah; Horst, Cody; Joseph, Jonathan; Lomsadze, Liya; Squires, Ellen; Tobias, Martin

    2017-08-29

    One of the major challenges in estimating health care spending spent on each cause of illness is allocating spending for a health care event to a single cause of illness in the presence of comorbidities. Comorbidities, the secondary diagnoses, are common across many causes of illness and often correlate with worse health outcomes and more expensive health care. In this study, we propose a method for measuring the average spending for each cause of illness with and without comorbidities. Our strategy for measuring cause of illness-specific spending and adjusting for the presence of comorbidities uses a regression-based framework to estimate excess spending due to comorbidities. We consider multiple causes simultaneously, allowing causes of illness to appear as either a primary diagnosis or a comorbidity. Our adjustment method distributes excess spending away from primary diagnoses (outflows), exaggerated due to the presence of comorbidities, and allocates that spending towards causes of illness that appear as comorbidities (inflows). We apply this framework for spending adjustment to the National Inpatient Survey data in the United States for years 1996-2012 to generate comorbidity-adjusted health care spending estimates for 154 causes of illness by age and sex. The primary diagnoses with the greatest number of comorbidities in the NIS dataset were acute renal failure, septicemia, and endocarditis. Hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities across all age groups. After adjusting for comorbidities, chronic kidney diseases, atrial fibrillation and flutter, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased by 74.1%, 40.9%, and 21.0%, respectively, while pancreatitis, lower respiratory infections, and septicemia decreased by 21.3%, 17.2%, and 16.0%. For many diseases, comorbidity adjustments had varying effects on spending for different age groups. Our methodology takes a unified approach to account for excess spending caused

  20. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  1. Endocardite por lactococcus garvieae: primeiro relato de caso da América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Franco Hirakawa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, é responsável por mastite em ruminantes e septicemia em peixes. Embora seja considerado oportunista e raramente causar infecções em humanos, sua incidência deve estar subestimada devido à dificuldade do diagnóstico. Há pouquíssimos relatos de osteomielite, abscesso hepático e peritonite, e apenas nove casos descritos na literatura mundial de endocardite. Relatamos o primeiro caso de endocardite por Lactococcus garvieae da América Latina em paciente portadora de prótese valvar metálica, com quadro de febre diária, calafrios, nodos de Osler e seis hemoculturas positivas para Lactococcus garvieae, que preenchiam os critérios de Duke para o diagnóstico de "endocardite infecciosa definitiva"

  2. Prevalence and underlying etiologies of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najati, N; Saboktakin, L

    2010-08-01

    This study aims at determining the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia and its underlying causes. In this prospective study 14168 newborns delivered in Tabriz Alzahra Hospital during 2 years were evaluated in regard to blood glucose level at first 24 h of life. Glucose oxidase method with 4-aminophenazone with a Greiner G-300 was the used method for determining the blood glucose level. Cases with blood glucose causes of this condition, as well as the short-term mortality rate were determined. Prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia was 0.4% (52 newborns). Underlying causes of hypoglycemia were prematurity (61.5%), diabetic mother (13.6%), septicemia (9.6%), perinatal asphyxia (9.6%), stress (3.8%) and neonatal hyperinsulinism (1.9%). The mortality rate was 53.8%, with prematurity as the leading cause of death.

  3. Hippocrates on Pediatric Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Giatsiou, Styliani; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    Hippocrates of Kos is well known in medicine, but his contributions to pediatric dermatology have not previously been examined. A systematic study of Corpus Hippocraticum was undertaken to document references of clinical and historical importance of pediatric dermatology. In Corpus Hippocraticum, a variety of skin diseases are described, along with proposed treatments. Hippocrates rejected the theory of the punishment of the Greek gods and supported the concept that dermatologic diseases resulted from a loss of balance in the body humors. Many of the terms that Hippocrates and his pupils used are still being used today. Moreover, he probably provided one of the first descriptions of skin findings in smallpox, Henoch-Schönlein purpura (also known as anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, allergic purpura), and meningococcal septicemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.

  5. Impaired CD163-mediated hemoglobin-scavenging and severe toxic symptoms in patients treated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, M.B.; Hasle, H.; Friis-Hansen, L.

    2008-01-01

    , and low bilirubin after septicemia-induced intravascular hemolysis indicated abrogated clearance of haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. This was further supported by low levels of plasma soluble CD163 and a concordant low number of CD163-expressing monocytes. We show that CD163 positive monocytes...... and macrophages from liver, spleen, and bone marrow coexpress CD33, thus suggesting that the GO-induced cellular cytotoxicity of CD33 positive cells eradicates a significant part of the CD163 positive monocytes and macrophages. The risk of severe toxic symptoms from plasma hemoglobin should be considered after CD......33-targeted chemotherapy when the disease is complicated by a pathologic intravascular hemolysis. Furthermore, the cases provide further circumstantial evidence of a key role of (CD163-expressing) monocytes/macrophages in plasma hemoglobin clearance in vivo Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/15...

  6. Meningencefalite por Pasteurella multocida: estudo clínico-laboratorial de um caso em lactente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Levy

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam descrição clínico-laboratorial e evolutiva do caso de lactente com o diagnóstico de meningencefalite por Pasteurella multocida que apresentou na evolução atraso neuromotor, manifestações epilépticas, surdez neurossensorial e paresia crural à esquerda. Fazem também breve revisão do papel deste agente etiológico na patologia humana. Ressaltam a importância da P. multocida em casos de meningites bacterianas, fazendo-se o diagnóstico laboratorial diferencial com o Haemophilus influenzae e Neisseria meningitidis em processos infecciosos conseqüentes a arranhadura ou mordida de animais e nas bacteremias ou septicemias em pacientes com hepatopatias crônicas ou em estados de imunodepressão.

  7. Clinical Case of Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopaty, Enteropathy, X-Linked (IPEX Syndrome with Severe Immune Deficiency and Late Onset of Endocrinopathy and Enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the clinical characteristics of IPEX syndrome in a child with FOXP3 mutation. Clinical Case. A boy aged 2.3 years was born from first normal pregnancy with a weight of 3420 gr. Family History. Two brothers of the mother died before the age of 3 years with severe infections, diarrhea, erythroderma, and elevated immunoglobulins class E (IgEs. Since first month of life, our patient suffered from septicemia, pneumonias, pyelonephritis, and meningitis, accompanied with eczematous dermatitis and IgEs up to 4000 IU/L (normal A, p. (Arg337Gln, which confirmed IPEX syndrome. The same mutation in heterozygotic state was found in the mother. A prenatal diagnosis of her second pregnancy ensured a daughter carrier of the mutation.

  8. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  9. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  10. Pneumonia caused by Neisseria meningitidis: report of a case and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta M, Rafael E; Rada E, Robin A

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcus affecting only humans, is a rare disease that was first recognized more than 60 years ago. The infection is usually manifested as meningitis and septicemia with cutaneous manifestations. Involvement of the lower respiratory tract is much less frequently diagnosed, partly because this microorganism can be present in the oropharyngeal flora of up to 10% of asymptomatic people. The serotypes most frequently involved in lung infections are: B, Y, and W-135. Serotype Y has been held to be most important. In cases of pneumonia, diagnosis has to be reached by isolation of the microorganism in blood and/or pleural fluid. Mortality is low, and person-to-person transmission, although documented, is rare. Complications such as pulmonary abscess, pleural effusion, and pericarditis are infrequent.

  11. In silico analysis of different generation β lactams antibiotics with penicillin binding protein-2 of Neisseria meningitidis for curing meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vijay; Tripathi, Pooja; Srivastava, Navita; Gupta, Dwijendra

    2014-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a gram negative, diplococcic pathogen responsible for the meningococcal disease and fulminant septicemia. Penicillin-binding proteins-2 (PBPs) is crucial for the cell wall biosynthesis during cell proliferation of N. meningitidis and these are the target for β-lactam antibiotics. For many years penicillin has been recognized as the antibiotic for meningococcal disease but the meningococcus has seemed to be antibiotic resistance. In the present work we have verified the molecular interaction of Penicillin binding protein-2 N. meningitidis to different generation of β-lactam antibiotics and concluded that the third generation of β-lactam antibiotics shows efficient binding with Penicillin binding protein-2 of N. meningitidis. On the basis of binding efficiency and inhibition constant, ceftazidime emerged as the most efficient antibiotic amongst the other advanced β-lactam antibiotics against Penicillin-binding protein-2 of N. meningitidis.

  12. CesRK, a two-component signal transduction system in Listeria monocytogenes, responds to the presence of cell wall-acting antibiotics and affects beta-lactam resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H; Ingmer, Hanne; Gahan, Cormac G

    2003-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can cause a variety of illnesses ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicemia. The beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin remains the drug of choice for the treatment of listeriosis. We have previously identified a response regulator...... of L. monocytogenes to tolerate ethanol and cell wall-acting antibiotics of the beta-lactam family. Furthermore, CesRK controls the expression of a putative extracellular peptide encoded by the orf2420 gene, located immediately downstream from cesRK. Inactivation of orf2420 revealed that it contributes...... to ethanol tolerance and pathogenesis in mice. Interestingly, we found that transcription of orf2420 was strongly induced by subinhibitory concentrations of various cell wall-acting antibiotics, ethanol, and lysozyme. The induction of orf2420 expression was abolished in the absence of CesRK. Our data suggest...

  13. Involvement of two microRNAs in the early immune response to DNA vaccination against a fish rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-ong, Dennis Berbulla; Schyth, Brian Dall; Zou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms that account for the high protective efficacy in teleost fish of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (G) of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are thought to involve early innate immune responses mediated by interferons (IFNs). Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a diverse...... class of small (18–22 nucleotides) endogenous RNAs that potently mediate post-transcriptional silencing of a wide range of genes and are emerging as critical regulators of cellular processes, including immune responses. We have recently reported that miR-462 and miR-731 were strongly induced in rainbow......RNAs using anti-miRNA oligonucleotides was conducted in poly I:C-treated rainbow trout fingerlings. Following VHSV challenge, anti-miRNA-injected fish had faster development of disease and higher mortalities than control fish, indicating that miR-462/731 may be involved in IFN-mediated protection conferred...

  14. Study of bacteria isolated from the foot pad of Spheniscus magellanicus with and without bumblefoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Osório

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bumblefoot or pododermatitis is among the diseases with the highest morbidity in Magellanic penguins, sometimes evolving to septicemia and death. Therefore, this study aimed to relate the main species involved in the disorder, as well as the in vitro susceptibility profile of the microorganisms against routine antimicrobial usage in Veterinary Medicine. During two years in vivo material was harvested from 200 footpads (n=100 animals for microbiological analysis and in vitro susceptibility tests against the Antibiotic enrofloxacin, streptomycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. Bacteria have been identified both as part of permanent and transient microbiota, also being associated to 100% of the pododermatitis cases. The most prevalent genus were Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. The antibiograms of all the isolated bacteria resulted in greater susceptibility of the strains facing cephalosporin, followed by enrofloxacin, streptomycin and penicillin.

  15. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  16. Plague: Clinics, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Vladimir V; Gao, He; Zhou, Lei; Anisimov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Plague still poses a significant threat to human health and as a reemerging infection is unfamiliar to the majority of the modern medical doctors. In this chapter, the plague is described according to Dr. Nikiforov's experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, and also a review of the relevant literature on this subject is provided. The main modern methods and criteria for laboratory diagnosis of plague are briefly described. The clinical presentations include the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Early diagnosis and the prompt initiation of treatment reduce the mortality rate associated with bubonic plague and septicemic plague to 5-50 %; although a delay of more than 24 h in the administration of antibiotics and antishock treatment can be fatal for plague patients. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics.

  17. Reativação da infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi em paciente com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida

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    Galhardo Maria Clara Gutierrez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma paciente com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA e doença de Chagas, com xenodiagnóstico positivo, estava em uso prolongado de cetoconazol com o objetivo de suprimir a parasitemia e prevenir a reativação da doença de Chagas. O cetoconazol foi suspenso inadvertidamente após 6 meses de uso. Um mês após, a paciente foi internada com febre, cefaléia, vômitos, taquicardia e hepatoesplenomegalia. Tanto o xenodiagnóstico como o exame de sangue a fresco demonstraram a presença de Trypanosoma cruzi. O tratamento com benzonidazol foi instituído, com supressão da parasitemia. A paciente desenvolveu concomitantemente uma provável neurotoxoplasmose, evoluindo para o óbito em septicemia. À necropsia, não foram encontrados parasitas.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Neonatal Pyometrocolpos Under Local Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algin, Oktay; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Kilic, Nizamettin

    2011-01-01

    Hydrometrocolpos is an uncommon congenital disorder with cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus that occurs as a result of accumulated secretions from the reproductive tract due to distal genital tract obstruction. Secondary infection may also occur, resulting in pyometrocolpos, a potentially lethal disease. Immediate drainage of the cystic mass in patients determined to have pyometrocolpos is required to prevent or treat uropathy and septicemia until definitive corrective surgery can be performed. We report an unusual cause of obstructive uropathy in three infants: pyometrocolpos due to lower genital tract atresia. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the pyometrocolpos resulted in dramatically improved clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage under local anesthesia is a simple, minimally invasive, safe, and effective procedure that facilitates later successful corrective surgery and avoids the need for more complex drainage procedures.

  19. Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    In this study, four broiler parent flocks have been followed from the onset of the production period (week 20) until slaughter (week 60). Every week, approximately ten dead broiler breeders, randomly selected among birds dead on their own, were collected and subjected to a full post mortem analysis...... including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same...... from both broiler breeders and broilers. Three isolates were whole genome sequenced to obtain knowledge on virulence genes. The isolates harbored a number of genes encoding different fibrinogen binding proteins and toxins which might be important for virulence. The present findings demonstrate that S...

  20. Effect of overweight and obesity on weight loss and length of stay in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Sisse; Rasmussen, Ditlev; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    as overweight, and ≥30 kg/m2 as obesity. The Nutritional Risk Screening score-2002 was calculated to identify patients at risk for undernutrition. Results We included 38 patients (61% men, 68% with infected necrosis; 40% normal weight; 60% overweight/obesity). Four patients (11%) required treatment at the semi......-intensive care unit, 11 (29%) developed pneumonia, and 10 (26%) developed septicemia. One patient died due to respiratory failure and hemorrhage. The remaining patients were discharged after a median of 49 d (36–64 d). During admission, 14 patients (38%) achieved an energy–protein intake of at least 75% and 17...... (46%) achieved ≥70% coverage. The percentage weight loss was different (P obesity (14%). There was no difference between groups regarding percentage of energy or protein coverage. Patients with overweight/obesity had a longer hospital...

  1. Virucidal activity of two Iodophors to salmonid viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    Wescodyne® and Betadine®, organic iodine complexes, were compared in vitro for virucidal activity against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) viruses. Both iodophors were about equally effective on all three viruses. Each iodophor completely destroyed IHN virus within 30 sec at 12 ppm iodine, and was not affected by water hardness. Virucidal activity, however, was reduced at pH levels above 8.0 and in the presence of organic matter. Wescodyne was also compared with seven disinfectants commonly used in fish hatcheries, for virucidal properties against IHN virus. Wescodyne and chlorine were the only disinfectants to completely destroy the virus. Either Wescodyne or Betadine would effectively destroy the salmonid viruses at less than 25 ppm iodine within 5 min in solutions near neutrality.

  2. Complete Healing of the Diabetic Ulcerative Osteomyelitis with Atherectomy and Flexible Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Temizkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes arterial and neurological disorders. Extremities threatening a diabetic foot ulcer might occur in the long term, especially in irregular glycemia levels. A multidisciplinary approach including infection treatment, pressure relief in the wound and arterial revascularization is important for limb salvage and to prevent such life-threatening complications as septicemia. Compared to the surgery, endovascular procedures can be performed with low complication rates in diabetic foot ulcers complicated with infection. Atherectomy is an alternative to the classical percutaneous angioplasty techniques, especially in totally occluded lesions. We are reporting complete healing of osteomyelitis associated with critical limb ischemia, resistant to classical treatment with debridement, antibacterial therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, by atherectomy following long-segment flexible stent implantation. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 193-196

  3. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  4. Clinical associations of immature breathing in preterm infants: part 1-central apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Karen; Mohr, Mary; Paget-Brown, Alix; Tabacaru, Christa; Lake, Douglas; Delos, John; Moorman, Joseph Randall; Kattwinkel, John

    2016-07-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is nearly universal among very preterm infants, but neither the apnea burden nor its clinical associations have been systematically studied in a large consecutive cohort. We analyzed continuous bedside monitor chest impedance and electrocardiographic waveforms and oxygen saturation data collected on all neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients 50 infant-years of data). Apneas, with bradycardia and desaturation (ABDs), defined as central apnea ≥10 s associated with both bradycardia hemorrhage (IVH) after accounting for GA. In the day before diagnosis of late-onset septicemia and necrotizing enterocolitis, ABD events were increased in some infants. Many infants continued to experience short ABD events in the week prior to discharge home. Frequency of apnea events is a function of GA and PMA in infants born preterm, and increased apnea is associated with acute but not with chronic pathologic conditions.

  5. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum septicaemia in northern Laos, a modified oxidase test and post-mortem forensic family G6PD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Günther; Douangdala, Phouvieng; Inthalad, Saythong; Silisouk, Joy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Sengduangphachanh, Amphonesavanh; Moore, Catrin E; Mayxay, Mayfong; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Newton, Paul N

    2009-07-29

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram negative facultative anaerobic bacillus, found in soil and stagnant water, that usually has a violet pigmented appearance on agar culture. It is rarely described as a human pathogen, mostly from tropical and subtropical areas. A 53 year-old farmer died with Chromobacterium violaceum septicemia in Laos. A modified oxidase method was used to demonstrate that this violacious organism was oxidase positive. Forensic analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase genotypes of his family suggest that the deceased patient did not have this possible predisposing condition. C. violaceum infection should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with community-acquired septicaemia in tropical and subtropical areas. The apparently neglected but simple modified oxidase test may be useful in the oxidase assessment of other violet-pigmented organisms or of those growing on violet coloured agar.

  6. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of an endocarditis valvularis in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroff, Sandra; Schmidt, Volker; Kiefer, Ingmar; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Pees, Michael

    2010-12-01

    An 11-yr-old Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) was presented with a history of respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography and an endoscopic examination of the left lung were performed and revealed severe pneumonia. Microbiologic examination of a tracheal wash sample and an endoscopy-guided sample from the lung confirmed infection with Salmonella enterica ssp. IV, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Computed tomographic examination demonstrated a hyperattenuated structure within the heart. Echocardiographic examination revealed a hyperechoic mass at the pulmonic valve as well as a dilated truncus pulmonalis. As therapy for pneumonia was ineffective, the snake was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed pneumonia and infective endocarditis of the pulmonic valve caused by septicemia with Salmonella enterica ssp. IV. Focal arteriosclerosis of the pulmonary trunk was also diagnosed. The case presented here demonstrates the possible connection between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in snakes.

  7. Incidence of bloodstream infection among patients on hemodialysis by central venous catheter Incidencia de infección de la corriente sanguínea em los pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis por catéter venoso central Incidência de infecção da corrente sanguínea nos pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise por cateter venoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Grothe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the incidence and risk factors of bloodstream infection (BSI among patients with a double-lumen central venous catheter (CVC for hemodialysis (HD and identified the microorganisms isolated from the bloodstream. A follow-up included all patients (n=156 who underwent hemodialysis by double-lumen CVC at the Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP, Brazil, over a one-year period. From the group of patients, 94 presented BSI, of whom 39 had positive cultures at the central venous catheter insertion location. Of the 128 microorganisms isolated from the bloodstream, 53 were S. aureus, 30 were methicillin-sensitive and 23 were methicillin-resistant. Complications related to BSI included 35 cases of septicemia and 27 cases of endocarditis, of which 15 cases progressed to death. The incidence of BSI among these patients was shown to be very high, and this BSI progressed rapidly to the condition of severe infection with a high mortality rate.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de infección de la corriente sanguínea (ICS en pacientes con catéter venoso central (CVC doble lumen, para hemodiálisis (HD e identificar los microorganismos aislados en la corriente sanguínea. Como método, se uso el acompañamiento, realizado en el período de un año, incluyendo todos los 156 pacientes que estaban en tratamiento de HD por CVC doble lumen, en la Universidad Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP. Los resultados mostraron que de los 156 pacientes estudiados, 94 presentaron ICS, de estos, 39 tuvieron culturas positivas en el local de inserción del catéter. De los 128 microorganismos aislados de la corriente sanguínea, 53 eran S.aureus, de los cuales 30 eran sensibles a la metilcilina y 23 resistentes. Entre las complicaciones relacionadas a la ICS, hubo 35 casos de septicemia y 27 casos de endocarditis, de los cuales 15 resultaron en muerte. La incidencia de ICS en este grupo de pacientes se mostr

  8. In-hospital Mobility Variations across Primary Diagnoses among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiani, Vincenzo; Gao, Shiyao; Chen, Zhiguo; Swami, Sunil; Harle, Christopher A.; Lipori, Gigi; Sourdet, Sandrine; Wu, Samuel; Nayfield, Susan G.; Sabbá, Carlo; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between primary diagnoses and mobility impairment and recovery among hospitalized older adults. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting UF Health Shands Hospital, an 852-bed level I trauma center located in Gainesville, Florida. Participants 18,551 older adults (≥65 years) with 29,148 hospitalizations between 1/2009 and 4/2014. Measurements Incident and discharge mobility impairment and recovery were assessed using the Braden activity subscale score that was recorded by the nursing staff at every shift change–approximately three times per day. Primary diagnosis ICD-9 codes were used as predictors and re-categorized by using the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Clinical Classification Software. Results Out of the 15,498 hospital records where the patient was initially observed to “walk frequently”, 3,186 (20.6%) developed incident mobility impairment (chair-fast or bedfast). Primary diagnoses with a surgical or invasive procedure were the most prevalent (77.2 %) among the hospital observations with incident mobility impairment; otherwise primary diagnoses without surgery were much more associated with discharge mobility impairment (59%). The highest incidence of mobility impairment occurred in patients with heart valve disorders and aortic and peripheral/visceral artery aneurysms (6.24 and 6.05 events per 30 person-days, respectively); septicemia showed the highest incidence rate for mobility limitation at discharge (0.94 events per 30 person-days). Mobility impairment was observed in 13,650 (46.8% of total) records at admission and 5,930 (43.44%) were observed to recover to a state of walking occasionally or frequently. Osteoarthritis and cancer of gastrointestinal organs/peritoneum had the highest incidence rate for mobility recovery (7.68 and 5.63 events per 30 person-days respectively). Conclusions Approximately 1 out of 5 patients who were mobile at admission became significantly impaired during

  9. Doenças infecciosas e parasitárias no Brasil: uma década de transição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neir Antunes Paes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Em pleno período de transição epidemiológica e demográfica, também marcado pela melhoria na qualidade dos registros de óbitos no Brasil, é crucial entender o comportamento recente da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias neste país. Este trabalho apresenta as mudanças nos padrões de mortalidade por causas infecciosas e parasitárias para o Brasil e seus estados durante a década de 1980. Foram utilizados para tanto os dados de mortalidade provenientes do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, classificados de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Doenças (nona revisão. O resultado desta análise revela mudanças nos padrões de mortalidade com acentuadas quedas nas taxas de mortalidade por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias para o Brasil (variação de 41% para homens e 44% para mulheres, em particular para os estados das regiões Norte e Nordeste. No entanto, estes estados ainda são detentores das mais elevadas taxas de mortalidade do país. Em termos de distribuição etária, as variações atingiram com maior intensidade os extremos de idade, especialmente o grupo de menores de 1 ano. Dentre as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, o estudo observou ainda o comportamento da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas intestinais (na sua maioria classificadas como mal definidas, tuberculose e septicemia. As taxas de mortalidade por doenças infecciosas intestinais e tuberculose apresentaram uma expressiva queda; o risco de morte por septicemia, por sua vez, apresentou um aumento real durante a década. Apesar do decréscimo global das taxas de mortalidade e da diminuição da mortalidade proporcional por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, a mortalidade por esta causa ainda permanece elevada no Brasil, e exige atenção prioritária por parte dos setores competentes.

  10. Effect of vaginal progesterone suppository (200 mg on preventing preterm labor after the inhibition of uterine contractions: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Alavi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labor implies a childbirth before the completion of 37 weeks, and accounts for the majority of infant mortalities. Finding proper medications is essential in the treatment procedure. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of vaginal progesterone suppository (200 mg on the prevention of preterm labor after inhibiting uterine contractions. Participants were patients hospitalized in Shariati Hospital of Bandar Abbas in 2014-15. As a randomized clinical trial, the present research focused on all pregnant women who referred to Shariati Hospital in Bandar Abbas due to preterm uterine contractions in 2014-15. The inclusion criteria were: pregnancy with a singleton and passing one’s 26th-34th week of pregnancy. Through convenient sampling method, 200 women were selected to enter the study. According to the table obtained from Random Allocation software, they were randomly divided into two groups, each comprised of 100 subjects. They were monitored for 48 hours in terms of uterine contractions and then if there were no contractions and change of dilatation or cervical effacement, they were discharged. They were asked to return for a revisit one week later in their 34th week of pregnancy. SPSS (version 17 was used to analyze the data through Man-Whitney U-test, Fisher’s exact test, t-test and chi-squared test. P-value of significance was set at ≤.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the frequency of term and preterm labors (P<0.05. The Apgar score of infants in the intervention group was higher than the control (P<0.05. The rate of respiratory problems in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.001. The rate of septicemia in the infants of the intervention group was 8% as compared to the control group 20%. The weight of infants in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control (P<0.05. Prescribing vaginal progesterone suppository

  11. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

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    Christiane Cuny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA, which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms. For about 77%–86% of humans with occupational exposure to pigs, nasal carriage has been reported; it can be lost when exposure is interrupted. Among family members living at the same farms, only 4%–5% are colonized. Spread beyond this group of people is less frequent. The prevalence of LA-MRSA in livestock seems to be influenced by farm size, farming systems, usage of disinfectants, and in-feed zinc. LA-MRSA CC398 is able to cause the same kind of infections in humans as S. aureus and MRSA in general. It can be introduced to hospitals and cause nosocomial infections such as postoperative surgical site infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, septicemia, and infections after joint replacement. For this reason, screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts. Intrahospital dissemination, typical for HA-MRSA in the absence of sufficient hygiene, has only rarely been observed for LA-MRSA to date. The proportion of LA-MRSA among all MRSA from nosocomial infections is about 3% across Germany. In geographical areas with a comparatively high density of conventional farms, LA-MRSA accounts for up to 10% of MRSA from septicemia and 15% of MRSA from wound infections. As known from comparative genome analysis, LA-MRSA has evolved from human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the jump to

  12. MicroRNA Expression during Viral Infection or PolyI:C Stimulation in a Fish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Bøgelund Juel; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish are important as small vertebrate models for studying various aspects of development and disease. MicroRNA regulation in fish has so far received attention especially in studies of their expression and function during embryonic development. In the studies carried out at the National Veterinary...... Institute in Århus we aim at using fish models for studying microRNA regulation during viral infection. In the studies presented here we make use of a qPCR method to detect miRNAs in fish cells. We present results regarding the expression of the immunologically relevant microRNAs, miR-155, miR-146a and mi......R-146b in fish cells during infection with the fish pathogenic virus viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and during immune stimulation with double stranded RNA (polyI:C). We highlight the need of finding stable normalization genes for microRNA detection....

  13. Infective endocarditis caused by Neisseria elongata on a native tricuspid valve and confirmed by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Pyo; Kang, Ki-Woon; Yoon, Hyeon Soo; Yoo, Seungmin; Lee, Myung-Shin

    2014-04-01

    Neisseria elongata, a common oral bacterium, has been recognized as a cause of infections such as infective endocarditis, septicemia, and osteomyelitis. Neisseria-induced infective endocarditis, although infrequently reported, typically arises after dental procedures. Without antibiotic therapy, its complications can be severe. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with fever, severe dyspnea, and a leg abscess from cellulitis. An echocardiogram showed a vegetation-like echogenic structure on the septal leaflet of the patient's native tricuspid valve, and an insignificant Gerbode defect. Three blood cultures grew gram-negative, antibiotic-susceptible coccobacilli that were confirmed to be N. elongata. Subsequent DNA sequencing conclusively isolated N. elongata subsp nitroreducens as the organism responsible for the infective endocarditis. The patient recovered after 21 days of antibiotic therapy. In addition to the patient's unusual case, we discuss the nature and isolation of N. elongata and its subspecies.

  14. Cellulitis and Bacteremia Caused by Bergeyella zoohelcum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ru Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergeyella zoohelcum is a rod-shaped, aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile and non-saccharolytic bacterium. It is frequently isolated from the upper respiratory tract of dogs, cats and other mammals. Clinically, B. zoohelcum has been known to cause cellulitis, leg abscess, tenosynovitis, septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis, and is associated with animal bites. In addition, food-borne transmission was considered in a recent case report. We report a 73-year-old man with liver cirrhosis who had no history of dog bite but had dog exposure, who developed cellulitis of the left lower leg and B. zoohelcum was isolated from blood culture. This patient, without evidence of polymicrobial infection, was treated with cefazolin and gentamicin with a good outcome. B. zoohelcum is a zoonotic pathogen that may cause bacteremia in patients with underlying disease such as liver cirrhosis; it can be treated with a beta-lactam or quinolone.

  15. Common variable immunodeficiency in horses is characterized by B cell depletion in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Salles-Gomes, Cristina O M; Matychak, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in horse patients is characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia or depletion, hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, impaired humoral response to tetanus toxoid vaccination, and recurrent fevers and bacterial infections. This study describes the clinical and immunologic findings of 14 affected horses (average age 10.7 +/- 4.4 years) of both genders (six females, eight males) and different breeds (eight Thoroughbreds, four Quarter Horses, one Warmblood, one Pony). Serial immunological testing in peripheral blood revealed persistent, severe B cell lymphopenia (mean 1.3 +/- 2.3% positive cells) in all patients. Serum IgG (range horses. Serum IgA concentrations declined with time. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed absence of lymphoid follicles and B cells in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. CVID is a cause of recurrent pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis in adult horses and has a grave prognosis for clinical management and survival.

  16. Ultrasensitive multiplex optical quantification of bacteria in large samples of biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Pazos, Elena; Catala, Carme; Mir-Simon, Bernat; Gómez-de Pedro, Sara; Sagales, Juan; Villanueva, Carlos; Vila, Jordi; Soriano, Alex; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient treatments in bacterial infections require the fast and accurate recognition of pathogens, with concentrations as low as one per milliliter in the case of septicemia. Detecting and quantifying bacteria in such low concentrations is challenging and typically demands cultures of large samples of blood (~1 milliliter) extending over 24–72 hours. This delay seriously compromises the health of patients. Here we demonstrate a fast microorganism optical detection system for the exhaustive identification and quantification of pathogens in volumes of biofluids with clinical relevance (~1 milliliter) in minutes. We drive each type of bacteria to accumulate antibody functionalized SERS-labelled silver nanoparticles. Particle aggregation on the bacteria membranes renders dense arrays of inter-particle gaps in which the Raman signal is exponentially amplified by several orders of magnitude relative to the dispersed particles. This enables a multiplex identification of the microorganisms through the molecule-specific spectral fingerprints. PMID:27364357

  17. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  18. Application of zwitterionic detergent to the solubilization of Klebsiella pneumoniae outer membrane proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz-Misa, I; Serek, P; Dudek, B; Pawlak, A; Bugla-Płoskońska, G; Gamian, A

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of nosocomial respiratory, urinary and gastrointestinal tract infections and septicemia with the multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae being a major public health concern. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are important virulence factors responsible for the appropriate adaptation to the host environment. They constitute of the antigens being the first in contact with infected organism. However, K. pneumoniae strains are heavily capsulated and it is important to establish the OMPs isolation procedure prior to proteomics extensive studies. In this study we used Zwittergent Z 3-14® as a detergent to isolate the OMPs from K. pneumoniae cells and resolve them using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). As a result we identified 134 protein spots. The OMPs identified in this study are possible candidates for the development of a protein-based vaccine against K. pneumoniae infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum septicaemia in northern Laos, a modified oxidase test and post-mortem forensic family G6PD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayxay Mayfong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram negative facultative anaerobic bacillus, found in soil and stagnant water, that usually has a violet pigmented appearance on agar culture. It is rarely described as a human pathogen, mostly from tropical and subtropical areas. Case presentation A 53 year-old farmer died with Chromobacterium violaceum septicemia in Laos. A modified oxidase method was used to demonstrate that this violacious organism was oxidase positive. Forensic analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase genotypes of his family suggest that the deceased patient did not have this possible predisposing condition. Conclusion C. violaceum infection should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with community-acquired septicaemia in tropical and subtropical areas. The apparently neglected but simple modified oxidase test may be useful in the oxidase assessment of other violet-pigmented organisms or of those growing on violet coloured agar.

  20. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

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    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  1. Radiation-induced splenic atrophy in patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailey, M.O.; Coleman, C.N.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Effective treatment of Hodgkin's disease requires the determination of the extent of the disease. This usually involves staging laparotomy, which includes splenectomy and biopsies of the para-aortic lymph nodes, liver, and bone marrow. Absence of the spleen predisposes a person to fulminant septicemia from encapsulated bacteria, a risk even greater in patients undergoing treatment for Hodgkin's disease. For this reason, some investigators have suggested that spleens not be removed for diagnosis but, rather, that they be included within the fields of radiation, which would preserve normal splenic function. We present a case of fatal spontaneous pneumococcal sepsis in a patient with splenic atrophy; the sepsis occurred 12 years after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease by total nodal and splenic irradiation. A retrospective study of patients treated for Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas indicated that atrophy and functional asplenia may be an important sequela of splenic irradiation

  2. Use of Tetravalent Galabiose for Inhibition of Streptococcus Suis Serotype 2 Infection in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Krogfelt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen associated with a variety of infections such as meningitis, arthritis and septicemia. The bacterium is zoonotic and has been found to cause meningitis especially in humans occupationally exposed to infected pigs. Since adhesion is a prerequisite for colonization and subsequent infection, anti-adhesion treatment seems a natural alternative to traditional treatment with antibiotics. In order to optimize the inhibitory potency a multivalency approach was taken in the inhibitor design. A synthetic tetravalent galabiose compound was chosen which had previously shown promising anti-adhesion effects with S. suis in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of the compound using an infection peritonitis mouse model. As such S. suis serotype 2 infection and treatment were tested in vivo and the effects were compared to the effect of treatment with penicillin.

  3. Detection of virus level in tissues of rainbow trout, Oncoryhinchus mykiss in clinical stage of viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Farzad; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    tanks containing 70 fish. Group one was considered as control and group two infected by bath challenge with 103 TCID50 ml-1 of a VHS virus strain serologically similar to reference strain F1 with high pathogenicity in rainbow trout. At days 12, 13 and 14 post infection the organs including kidney...... liver, gill, pyloric caeca and skin showed the lowest with brain and spleen lying in between. These results point out that the significant levels of VHS virus found in rainbow trout tissues are relevant for the biosecurity in VHS-free areas mainly when fish are displayed and retained as whole fish....

  4. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    OpenAIRE

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Severine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yves

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the ...

  5. Application of PCR-based DNA sequencing technique for the detection of Leptospira in peripheral blood of septicemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, S.; Vimalin, J.M.; Jambulingam, M.; Tiru, V.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Madhavan, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Isolation, dark field detection and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) are considered ―gold standard‖ tests for diagnosis of Leptospirosis. Several PCR assays are reported but very few have been evaluated for detection of Leptospirosis. Therefore, this study was undertaken. This study aims to design and standardize polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - based DNA sequencing technique for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira from peripheral blood of patients clinically diagnosed with septi...

  6. Rainbow trout surviving infections of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) show lasting antibodies to recombinant G protein fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encinas, P.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Grandes, Fregeneda

    2011-01-01

    sera from trout infected with the homologous VHSV isolate but also with the VHSV-DK-201433 heterologous isolate, which had 13 amino acid changes. Sera from healthy trout and/or from trout surviving infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infection, were used to calculate cut-off absorbances...... refinements of the frg-ELISA could allow detection of anti-VHSV trout Abs in natural outbreaks caused by different heterologous VHSV isolates. The homologous frg-ELISA method could be useful to follow G immunization attempts during vaccine development and/or to best understand the fish Ab response during VHSV...... infections. The viral frgs approach might also be used with other fish species and/or viruses....

  7. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia

  8. Vibrios on the half shell: what the walrus and the carpenter didn't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A

    1983-10-01

    At least nine Vibrio species have been associated with disease in the United States. Vibrio fluvialis, V. hollisae, V. mimicus, and V. parahaemolyticus cause diarrheal diseases, but may also be encountered in extraintestinal infections such as wound and ear infections, septicemia, and cholecystitis. Vibrio alginolyticus, V. damsela, V. metschnikovii, and V. vulnificus primarily cause extraintestinal disease. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 is the cause of epidemic cholera, whereas nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae have been associated with both diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Most reports of vibrio infections have come from states along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and from Hawaii, and most of the infections have occurred during summer and fall. Wound and ear infections have occurred after exposure to salty or brackish water or to drippings from raw seafoods. Foodborne vibrio infections are almost all caused by seafoods, especially oysters eaten raw. Thorough cooking and careful handling will render seafoods safe for consumption.

  9. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  10. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger's beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yuko; Maeda, Kaori; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger's beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger's beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger's beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases.

  11. Blood culture results from healthy captive and free-ranging elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Harris, Brigita; Wilborn, Rachel E; Young, Forrest A

    2007-09-01

    Blood culture is a diagnostic tool used in confirming bacterial disease in teleostean and elasmobranch fishes. Unlike teleosts, elasmobranchs have a normal microflora in multiple organs, but their blood has generally been considered to be sterile. In regular exams of elasmobranchs conducted at a public aquarium, occasional blood samples have tested positive on culture. This finding prompted a blood culture survey of healthy captive and wild elasmobranchs (sharks and stingrays), which showed that 26.7% of all animals were positive. Stingrays alone showed a 50% occurrence of positive blood cultures, although the total number of animals was low and freshwater species were included in this number. When elasmobranchs other than stingrays were evaluated according to metabolic category, pelagic animals had a higher percentage of positive cultures than nonpelagic animals (38.7% versus 13.9%). These results indicate that a single positive blood culture without other corroborating diagnostics is not sufficient to confirm septicemia in elasmobranchs.

  12. Protective environment for marrow transplant recipients. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, C.D.; Clift, R.A.; Sanders, J.E.; Meyers, J.D.; Counts, G.W.; Farewell, V.T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    Laminar air flow isolation and decontamination procedures were evaluated in a prospective randomized study in patients with aplastic anemia or acute leukemia undergoing marrow transplantation from HLA-matched siblings. Patients transplanted in the laminar air flow group had significantly less septicemia and major local infections than did patients in the control group. Nineteen of 46 laminar air flow patients and six of 44 control patients are alive at present. In patients with aplastic anemia the survival was 13 of 17 in the laminar air flow group compared with four of 17 in the control group. In patients with acute leukemia the survival was six of 29 in the laminar air flow group versus two of 27 in the control group. These differences were not statistically significant. Death in both the laminar air flow and control groups was predominantly due to interstitial pneumonitis or recurrent leukemia, which were unaffected by isolation and decontamination

  13. Liver repair and hemorrhage control by using laser soldering of liquid albumin in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Y; Xie, H; Kajitani, M

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated laser soldering by using liquid albumin for welding liver injuries. Major liver trauma has a high mortality because of immediate exsanguination and a delayed morbidity from septicemia, peritonitis, biliary fistulae, and delayed secondary hemorrhage. Eight laceration (6 x 2 cm) and eight nonanatomic resection injuries (raw surface, 6 x 2 cm) were repaired. An 805-nm laser was used to weld 50% liquid albumin-indocyanine green solder to the liver surface, reinforcing it with a free autologous omental scaffold. The animals were heparinized and hepatic inflow occlusion was used for vascular control. All 16 soldering repairs were evaluated at 3 hours. All 16 laser mediated liver repairs had minimal blood loss as compared with the suture controls. No dehiscence, hemorrhage, or bile leakage was seen in any of the laser repairs after 3 hours. Laser fusion repair of the liver is a reliable technique to gain hemostasis on the raw surface as well as weld lacerations. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Is single-dose fosfomycin trometamol a good alternative for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimesterof pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Inegöl, Ilknur; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Koç, Akif; Turhan, Nilgün Oztürk

    2007-05-01

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with acute pyelonephritis, which may have a role in many maternal and fetal complications. Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy is related to anemia, septicemia, transient renal dysfunction, and pulmonary insufficiency. A randomized study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological efficacy of a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimester of pregnancy compared with a 5-day regimen of cefuroxime axetyl. Forty-four women received fosfomycin trometamol and 40 women received cefuroxime axetyl. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding the mean age and mean duration of pregnancy. Therapeutic success was achieved in 93.2% of the patients treated with fosfomycin trometamol vs 95% of those treated with cefuroxime axetyl. A single dose of fosfomycin trometamol is a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  15. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Following a Minor Dog Bite to the Finger: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Coghill, Sarah; Chandrashekar, Nanda Kumar S; Bindra, Randy R

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacillus present in the oral cavities of 22% to 74% of healthy dogs. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has unique virulence factors that enable it to evade the human immune system and cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite. We report a previously well 68-year-old woman who presented with septic shock and multiorgan failure following a seemingly minor dog bite to the finger. The patient required intensive care treatment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and multiple surgical procedures including amputation of the affected finger. The septicemia and coagulopathy that ensued resulted in gangrene and amputation of additional fingers and toes. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of this organism among hand surgeons when faced with a patient presenting in septic shock and minimal signs at the site of a dog bite. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of an improved species specific PCR test for detection of Haemophilus parasuis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Oliveira, Simone; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , the present PCR test was found to be 100% species specific for H. parasuis, in contrast to the PCR test of Oliveira et al., which also tested positive for strains belonging to A. indolicus, A. porcinus, and A. minor, species commonly occurring in the upper respiratory tract. However, when the PCR test...... with representatives of H. parasuis. The test was further evaluated on 55 clinical samples from 16 Danish pigs suspected for being infected with H. parasuis, showing polyserositis or septicemia at autopsy as well as on 492 nasal swabs. The test was compared with the performance of a PCR test earlier published...... by Oliveira et al. [Oliveira, S., Galina, L., Pijoan, C., 2001. Development of a PCR test to diagnose Haemophilus parasuis infections. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 13, 495-501]. The sensitivity of the present PCR test was found to be slightly lower when applied on clinical samples from diseased pigs and 10-fold...

  17. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doney, K; Buckner, C D; Sale, G E; Ramberg, R; Boyd, C; Thomas, E D [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute; Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). School of Medicine)

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration.

  18. Widespread bacterial infection affecting Rana temporaria tadpoles in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mass die-offs of Rana temporaria tadpole populations have occurred in the ponds of prealpine mountain areas of Brescia (northern Italy since the early 2000s. The author reports some observational data and analytical results from three sites: tadpoles from mortality events had erythema, especially on the legs, suggestive of septicemia. Bacterial culture of these tadpoles revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, two organisms often associated with Red leg disease. Egg mass counts from 29 pastureland ponds did not revealed breeding activity declines over five years in the Monte Guglielmo area. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria usually behave as opportunistic bacteria that can become pathogenic after suppression of the immune system by endogenous or exogenous stressors. Thus, a plurality of environmental factors may contribute to mortality events; some of them are discussed, including loss of high altitude breeding ponds resulting in overcrowding and poor water quality in remaining ponds and the presence of other pathogens.

  19. Dangerous to mix: culture and politics in a traditional circumcision in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Meel

    2015-03-01

    Traditional circumcision (initiation) is an integral part of the Xhosa speaking communities. Circumcision is the first step towards manhood. It involves a number of cultural, religious, legal and ethical issues, which in terms of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa, are rights that must be protected. To highlight the problem of circumcision related death in South Africa. This case report examines a 16- year boy who had died as result of botched circumcision by an unqualified traditional surgeon. He kept the boy in his custody despite his serious illness. He applied a tight bandage to control the bleeding, resulting in gangrene of the penis followed by septicemia. The histories, postmortem findings, cause of death and medico- legal and social aspects have been discussed in this manuscript. There are unacceptable deaths related with circumcision in South Africa. The right to life cannot be sacrificed at the altar of culture and politics.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel outer membrane protein receptor required for hemin utilization in Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shreya

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, the cause of septicemia and serious wound infection in humans and fishes, require iron for its pathogenesis. Hemin uptake through the outer membrane receptor, HupA, is one of its many mechanisms by which it acquires iron. We report here the identification of an additional TonB-dependent hemin receptor HvtA, that is needed in conjunction with the HupA protein for optimal hemin utilization. The HvtA protein is significantly homologous to other outer membrane hemin receptors and its expression in trans restored the uptake of hemin and hemoglobin, the latter to a weaker extent, in a mutant strain that was defective in both receptors. Quantitative RT-PCR suggested that transcription of the hvtA gene was iron regulated. The operon containing the hvtA gene is homologous to the operon in V. cholerae containing the hemin receptor gene hutR suggesting a vertical transmission of the hvtA cluster from V. cholerae to V. vulnificus. PMID:22015545

  1. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doney, K.; Buckner, C.D.; Sale, G.E.; Ramberg, R.; Boyd, C.; Thomas, E.D.; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration. (Author)

  2. A preliminary study on prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in beef, lamb and poultry at retails of Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shakerian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is a pathogenic organism that has recently emerged world-wide and its incidence is increasing. Human infection with Y.enterocolitica could cause diarrhea, abdominal pains, appendicitis like syndrome, vomiting, fever and septicemia. The main sources of human illness include pork, beef, milk vegetables, water and wild and domestic animals. This study was carried out on  300 meat samples including 100 beef, 100 lamb and 100 poultry samples at retail of Shahre-kord. The samples were transferred to PBS containing sorbitol. After 21 days of incubation at 40C, samples were cultured on CIN agar supplemented with CIN antibiotics. Putative colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests. Results showed that, 42 (14% of samples including 4(4% beef, 4(4% lamb and 34(34% poultry samples were contaminated with Y.enterocolitica. According to results of  this study, intensive hygienic measures should be considered during slaughtering, storage and distribution of different kinds of meat.

  3. A Rare Disorder with Common Clinical Presentation: Neonatal Bartter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shabbir; Tarar, Saba Haider; Al-Muhaizae, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubulopathy that presents with hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis associated with increased urinary loss of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride. There is hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronemia but normotension. A full term male neonate was referred at 20-day of age with features of sepsis and respiratory distress. He was evaluated and managed as case of septicemia with all supportive paraphernalia including mechanical ventilation. Investigations revealed electrolytes imbalance and metabolic alkalosis suggestive of Neonatal Bartter Syndrome (NBS). Raised aldosterone and renin levels confirmed the diagnosis. Electrolyte imbalance was corrected with fluids and indomethacin, treated successfully, discharged and parents counseled. He was thriving well at 9 months of age. Another 2 months old male baby presented with recurrent episodes of lethargy with dehydration and failure to gain weight. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of NBS. He was also successfully treated with same medication. We report these 2 cases because of the rarity of NBS, presentation of which may mimic common illnesses like sepsis and gastroenteritis.

  4. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Verma, Ashutosh; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Beierschmitt, Amy; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Arauz, Maziel; Illanes, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fatal enteric disease over a period of 1 mo on the island of St Kitts. The affected monkeys presented with a history of mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, marked dehydration, and depression. Fifteen bacterial isolates were recovered from the spleen, liver, and lungs of affected monkeys. All isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica by biochemical analysis and sequence comparison of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the recovered isolates revealed homogeneity among the recovered bacteria, and all isolates gave a random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern resembling that given by genotype D under serotypes O:7,8. This outbreak represents the first isolation and characterization of Y. enterocolitica as the causative agent of fatal enteric disease in primates in the Caribbean.

  5. Genetic characterization of feline leukemia virus from Florida panthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Cunningham, Mark W; Roca, Alfred L; Troyer, Jennifer L; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    From 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) occurred in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). Clinical signs included lymphadenopathy, anemia, septicemia, and weight loss; 5 panthers died. Not associated with FeLV outcome were the genetic heritage of the panthers (pure Florida vs. Texas/Florida crosses) and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus. Genetic analysis of panther FeLV, designated FeLV-Pco, determined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-species transmission from a domestic cat. The FeLV-Pco virus was closely related to the domestic cat exogenous FeLV-A subgroup in lacking recombinant segments derived from endogenous FeLV. FeLV-Pco sequences were most similar to the well-characterized FeLV-945 strain, which is highly virulent and strongly pathogenic in domestic cats because of unique long terminal repeat and envelope sequences. These unique features may also account for the severity of the outbreak after cross-species transmission to the panther.

  6. Characterization of intramolecular disulfide bonds and secondary modifications of the glycoprotein from viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh; Roepstorff, Peter

    1998-01-01

    were analyzed by mass spectrometry before and after chemical reduction, and six disulfide bonds were identified: Cys29-Cys339, Cys44-Cys295, Cys90-Cys132, Cys172-Cys177, Cys195-Cys265, and Cys231-CyS236. Mass spectrometric analysis in combination with glycosidases allowed characterization of the glycan...... of the protein, The present study was initiated to identify the disulfide bonds and other structural aspects relevant to vaccine design. The N-terminal amino acid residue was identified as being a pyroglutamic acid, corresponding to Gln21 of the primary transcript, Peptides from endoproteinase-degraded G protein...... cysteine residues are situated at conserved positions, This finding suggests that there might be some common disulfide bonding pattern among the six rhabdoviruses....

  7. Os radicais livres de oxigênio e as doenças pulmonares Oxygen free radicals and pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os radicais livres de oxigênio são moléculas que apresentam elétrons não pareados em sua órbita externa, capazes de transformar outras moléculas com as quais se encontram, como proteínas, carbohidratos, lípides e o ácido desoxirribonucleico. Essas moléculas são geradas em situações clínicas onde microambientes de hipóxia são seguidos por microambientes de reoxigenação. Nesse grupo estão o choque hemodinâmico, a septicemia, a resposta inflamatória sistêmica, as hepatites fulminantes, o transplante de órgãos, e a insuficiência respiratória, entre outras condições. Neste trabalho discutimos os principais conceitos sobre os radicais livres de oxigênio: os principais tipos, sua formação e a forma como atuam sobre todas as estruturas celulares provocando lesão tecidual significativa. Os principais sistemas de defesa antioxidante existentes para combater o estresse oxidativo são comentados, com destaque para a glutationa, superóxido dismutase, catalase, glutationa peroxidase e N-acetilcisteína. A influência dos radicais livres de oxigênio sobre as principais doenças pulmonares também é discutida, com ênfase nos produtos do cigarro, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, asma, apnéia obstrutiva do sono e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.Oxygen free radicals are molecules that present unpaired electrons in their outer orbit and can transform other molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and deoxyribonucleic acid. Oxygen free radicals are produced in various clinical conditions in which hypoxic microenvironments are generated and reoxygenation follows. Such situations include clinical shock, septicemia, systemic inflammatory response, fulminant hepatitis, organ transplant and respiratory failure. In this review, we discuss the main concepts related to oxygen free radicals: the principal types and their formation, as well as the way in which they affect cellular structures and cause

  8. When and how to operate on spondylodiscitis: a report of 13 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Igoumenou, Vasilis; Tsiavos, Konstantinos; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Vottis, Christos; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Soultanis, Konstantinos C

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting reports exist regarding the surgical indications, timing, approach, staged or not operation, and spinal instrumentation for patients with spondylodiscitis. Therefore, we performed this study to evaluate the outcome of a series of patients with spondylodiscitis aiming to answer when and how to operate on these patients. We retrospectively studied the files of 153 patients with spondylodiscitis treated at our institution from 2002 to 2012. The approach included MR imaging of the infected spine, isolation of the pathogen with blood cultures and/or biopsy, and further conservative or surgical treatment. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range 1-13 years). We evaluated the indications, timing (when), and methods (how) for surgical treatment, and the clinical outcome of these patients. Orthopedic surgical treatment was necessary for 13 of the 153 patients (8.5 %). These were patients with low access to healthcare systems because of low socioeconomic status, third-country migrants, prisoners or intravenous drug use, patients in whom a bacterial isolate documentation was necessary, and patients with previous spinal operations. The most common pathogen was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The surgical indications included deterioration of the neurological status (11 patients), need for bacterial isolate (10 patients), septicemia due to no response to antibiotics (five patients), and/or spinal instability (three patients). An anterior vertebral approach was more commonly used. Nine of the 13 patients had spinal instrumentation in the same setting. Improvement or recovery of the neurological status was observed postoperatively in all patients with preoperative neurological deficits. Postoperatively, two patients deceased from pulmonary infection and septicemia, and heart infarction. At the last follow-up, patients who were alive were asymptomatic; ten patients were neurologically intact, and one patient experienced paraparesis. Imaging showed spinal fusion, without

  9. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  10. Vitamin A deficiency may lead to severe septicemia in germfree rats being colonized from birth with an Escherichia coli strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, U.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hanson, L. A.; Kahu, H.; Dahlgren, U. I.

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (1997), s. A22 ISSN 0818-9641. [International Congress of Mucosal Immunology /9./. Sydney, 27.01.1997-31.01.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/96/1256; GA ČR GA311/97/0784 Impact factor: 0.909, year: 1997

  11. Traumatic ventriculitis following consumption of introduced insect prey (Hymenoptera) in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Rosemary J; Alley, Maurice R; Castro, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nestling mortality in the endangered and endemic Hihi, also called Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta), was studied over the 2008-09 breeding season at Zealandia-Karori Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. Histopathology showed traumatic ventriculitis in seven of 25 (28%) dead nestlings. Single or multiple granulomas centered on chitinous insect remnants were found lodged within the gizzard mucosa, muscle layers, and ventricular or intestinal serosa. The insect remnants were confirmed as bee or wasp stings (Hymenoptera) using light and electron microscopy. Bacteria or yeasts were also found in some granulomas, and death was due to bacterial septicemia in four cases. Endemic New Zealand birds are likely to lack evolutionary adaptations required to safely consume introduced honey bees (Apis mellifera) and vespulid wasps (Vespula germanica [German wasp], and Vespula vulgaris [common wasp]). However, these insects are attracted to feeding stations used to support translocated Hihi populations. As contact between bees, wasps, and the endemic fauna of New Zealand seems inevitable, it may be necessary to minimize the numbers of these introduced insects in areas set aside for ecologic restoration.

  12. Andrographolide interferes quorum sensing to reduce cell damage caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xun; Zhang, Li-Yan; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Xia, Fang; Fu, Yun-Xing; Wu, Yong-Li; Leng, Chun-Qing; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2014-12-05

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induce septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes to breach the blood-air barrier. The virulence of APEC can be regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Andrographolide is a QS inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Therefore, we investigate whether andrographolide inhibits the injury of chicken type II pneumocytes by avian pathogenic E. coli O78 (APEC-O78) by disrupting the bacterial QS system. The results showed that sub-MIC of andrographolide significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), F-actin cytoskeleton polymerization, and the degree of the adherence to chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78. Further, we found that andrographolide significantly decreased the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity and the expression of virulence factors of APEC-O78. These results suggest that andrographolide reduce the pathogenicity of APEC-O78 in chicken type II pneumocytes by interfering QS and decreasing virulence. These results provide new evidence for colibacillosis prevention methods in chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Guillain-Barre syndrome with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj F Banakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinicoradiologic entity commonly associated with eclampsia, septicemia, chemotherapeutic drugs etc. Concurrent occurrence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS with PRES is a rare entity. Dysautonomia is a proposed mechanism for such occurrence. Here we present a non-diabetic, non-hypertensive 63-year-old male patient, who came with acute onset flaccid quadriparesis, developing generalized seizures, altered sensorium and raised blood pressure on fifth day of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain showed altered signal intensities involving the parieto-occipital areas suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed albuminocytological dissociation, nerve conduction studies revealed demyelinating type of polyneuropathy. The patient was treated with antihypertensives and antiepileptics. After resolution of the encephalopathy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg was given. The patient recovered gradually over few months. Our case concludes GBS as independent risk factor, for PRES may be secondary to dysautonomia and physicians should be aware of such rare coexistence so that early treatment can be done to reduce the mortality and morbidity.

  14. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  15. Sutureless liver repair and hemorrhage control using laser-mediated fusion of human albumin as a solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Y; Xie, H; Kajitani, M

    2001-07-01

    Major liver trauma has a high mortality because of immediate exsanguination and a delayed morbidity from septicemia, peritonitis, biliary fistulae, and delayed secondary hemorrhage. We evaluated laser soldering using liquid albumin for welding liver injuries. Fourteen lacerations (6 x 2 cm) and 13 nonanatomic resection injuries (raw surface, 8 x 2 cm) were repaired. An 805-nm laser was used to weld 53% liquid albumin-indocyanine green solder to the liver surface, reinforcing it by welding a free autologous omental scaffold. The animals were heparinized and hepatic inflow occlusion was used for vascular control. For both laceration and resection injuries, 16 soldering repairs were evaluated acutely at 3 hours. Eleven animals were evaluated chronically, two at 2 weeks and nine at 4 weeks. All 27 laser mediated-liver repairs had minimal blood loss compared with the suture controls. No dehiscence, hemorrhage, or bile leakage was seen in any of the laser repairs after 3 hours. All 11 chronic repairs healed without complication. This modality effectively seals the liver surface, joins lacerations with minimal thermal injury, and works independently of the patient's coagulation status.

  16. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  17. [Clinicopathologic characteristics and distribution of number of autopsies of patient death due to coccidioidomycosis at a referral hospital in northeastern México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Piña-Osuna, Karina; Leal-Moreno, Ana María; López-Cárdenas, Adriana; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2004-01-01

    1. To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with coccidioidomycosis (CM) who died from 1983-2000 at a hospital in northeastern Mexico, and 2, to know distribution of number of deaths due to CM per year and month. From 4598 autopsies, 31 cases of CM were selected. Clinical chart and autopsy protocols were examined. Distribution of cases was analyzed by contingence table and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. There were 10 women and 21 men (aged 4 months to 60 years). In women, pregnancy was present in 40% of cases. In men, chronic renal failure (CRF) (38%) and AIDS (19%) were the pathologic conditions most frequently observed. Variation in distribution of cases throughout 18 years was not observed (p > 0.05). Mortality due to CM was 0.67% and variation in number of deaths was not found. In this endemic area, CM must be included in differential diagnosis of patients with risk factors such as pregnancy, CRF, and AIDS, especially if associated with pneumonia with miliary pattern or septicemia with splenomegaly.

  18. Revista de tesis de la Facultad de Medicina de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1943-01-01

    Full Text Available "Alergia e histamina" Tesis de grado. 1942. - Por Ariel Díaz Echeverry /  "Algunos conceptos personales sobre anemia de los tropicos y fisiopatologia del edema en este sindrome" Tesis de grado. 1942. - Por Hemando Rubiallo Groot /  "Tratamlento de las septicemias puerperales por la inmunotransfusión" Tesis de grado, declarada Meritoria. 1942. - Por Rafael F. Ramírez M. /  "Constantes hematológicas en Bogotá" Tesis de grado, declarada Meritoria. 1942. Por Jesús Maria Barragán C. / "Estudio de una cuestión médico-social sus defectos y posibles correcciones" Tesis de grado. 1942. - Por Jaime Varela /  "Importancia de la provocación en el diagnóstico de la sifills" Tesis de grado. 1942. - Por Carlos Chaparro Saavedra /  "Implantación ureteral en el recto" Tesis de grado. 1942. Declarada Meritoria. - Por Carlos J. Sabogal / "La cirugia y la anestesia intravenosa con el pentothal sódico" Tesis de grado declarada Meritoria. 1942.- Por Tirso Mayor Rojas

  19. Role of total body irradiation as based on the comparison of preparation regimens for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in first complete remission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Ikeda, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tang, J.T.; Song, C.; Teshima, T.; Murayama, S.; Ohtani, M.; Shibata, H.; Masaoka, T.

    1993-01-01

    The role of total body irradiation (TBI) for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute leukemia in first complete remission was reevaluated in this study. From Japanese BMT Registry, data of 123 acute leukemia patients in first complete remission who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in 22 hospitals between 1988 and 1990 were available for the present comparative study of preparation regimens with or without total body irradiation. Two-year survivals were 77% and 51% in the TBI containing regimen group and in the non-TBI regimen group, respectively (p=0.0010). Corresponding two-year relapse rates were 16% and 37%, respectively (p=0.0197). Corresponding probabilities of developing interstitial pneumonitis were 21% and 24%, respectively (p=0.8127). The analysis of causes of death indicated that non-TBI regimen increased the incidence of septicemia and lethal organ failures, such as liver, heart, lung and other multiple sites. It was emphasized that an additional role of total body irradiation was to disperse the treatment-related toxicity in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. (orig.) [de

  20. Humanized Mouse Models of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Parker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice. These results have raised questions as to the utility of mice to predict patient outcome and suggest that humanized mice might prove useful in modeling infection. The development of humanized mouse models of S. aureus infection will allow us to assess the contribution of several human-specific virulence factors, in addition to exploring components of the human immune system in protection against S. aureus infection. Their use is discussed in light of several recently reported studies.

  1. Gas-Forming Pyogenic Liver Abscess with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad S. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pyogenic liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a rare but rapidly fatal infection. The main virulence factor of this pathogen is its α-toxin (lecithinase, which decomposes the phospholipid in cell membranes leading to cell lysis. Once the bacteria are in blood stream, massive intravascular hemolysis occurs. This can present as anemia on admission with evidence of hemolysis as indicated by low serum haptoglobin, high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, elevated indirect bilirubin, and spherocytosis. The clinical course of C. perfringens septicemia is marked by rapidly deteriorating course with a mortality rate ranging from 70 to 100%. The very rapid clinical course makes it difficult to diagnose on time, and most cases are diagnosed at autopsy. Therefore it is important to consider C. perfringens infection in any severely ill patient with fever and evidence of hemolysis. We present a case of seventy-seven-year-old male with septic shock secondary to pyogenic liver abscess with a brief review of existing literature on C. perfringens.

  2. Biochemical characterization of a catalase from Vibrio vulnificus, a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jihua; Wang, Haijun; Wu, Limin; Xia, Shenglong; Xu, Changlong; Zheng, Bo; Li, Tianya; Jiang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a virulent human pathogen causing gastroenteritis and possibly life threatening septicemia in patients. Most V. vulnificus are catalase positive and can deactivate peroxides, thus allowing them to survive within the host. In the study presented here, a catalase from V. vulnificus (CAT-Vv) was purified to homogeneity after expression in Escherichia coli. The kinetics and function of CAT-Vv were examined. CAT-Vv catalyzed the reduction of H 2 O 2 at an optimal pH of 7.5 and temperature of 35°C. The V max and K m values were 65.8±1.2 U/mg and 10.5±0.7 mM for H 2 O 2 , respectively. Mutational analysis suggests that amino acids involved in heme binding play a key role in the catalysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that in V. vulnificus, transcription of CAT-Vv was upregulated by low salinity, heat, and oxidative stresses. This research gives new clues to help inhibit the growth of, and infection by V. vulnificus.

  3. Exploration of Fungal Association From Hard Coral Against Pathogen MDR Staphylococcus haemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristianawati, O.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.; Trianto, A.; Sabdaningsih, A.; Sibero, M. T.; Nuryadi, H.

    2017-02-01

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus are opportunistic bacteria and as the second leading cause of nosocomial infections. It is a disease causing septicemia, peritonitis, otitis, and urinary tract infections and infections of the eye. It also a phenotype resistant to multiple antibiotics commercial. There is now an urgency to find an alternative antibiotics to combat this bacteria. It has been widely reported that many bioactive marine natural products from marine invertebrate have striking similarities to metabolites of their associated microorganisms including fungi. Hard coral associated microorganisms are among of the most interesting and promising marine natural product sources, which produce with various biological activities. The proposed work focused on the discovery of bioactive compounds and also estimated the phylogenetic diversity from fungal association of hard coral against pathogen MDR Staphylococcus haemolyticus. A total of 32 fungal association, FHP 7 which were isolated from Favia sp. capable of inhibiting the growth MDR. Molecular identification based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the active fungal association belonged 100% to the members from one of the genera Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Accession Number LC185084.1.

  4. Commensal microbes provide first line defense against Listeria monocytogenes infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littmann, Eric R.; Kim, Sohn G.; Morjaria, Sejal M.; Ling, Lilan; Gyaltshen, Yangtsho; Taur, Ying; Leiner, Ingrid M.

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis and chorioamnionitis and is associated with high mortality. Immunocompetent humans and animals, however, can tolerate high doses of L. monocytogenes without developing systemic disease. The intestinal microbiota provides colonization resistance against many orally acquired pathogens, and antibiotic-mediated depletion of the microbiota reduces host resistance to infection. Here we show that a diverse microbiota markedly reduces Listeria monocytogenes colonization of the gut lumen and prevents systemic dissemination. Antibiotic administration to mice before low dose oral inoculation increases L. monocytogenes growth in the intestine. In immunodeficient or chemotherapy-treated mice, the intestinal microbiota provides nonredundant defense against lethal, disseminated infection. We have assembled a consortium of commensal bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales order, which exerts in vitro antilisterial activity and confers in vivo resistance upon transfer into germ free mice. Thus, we demonstrate a defensive role of the gut microbiota against Listeria monocytogenes infection and identify intestinal commensal species that, by enhancing resistance against this pathogen, represent potential probiotics. PMID:28588016

  5. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  6. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasmids in Mycoplasma species isolated from goats and sheep and their preliminary typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Elmiro R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-five (105 clinical isolates of mycoplasma from caprine origin and one isolate from ovine were surveyed for plasmids, which were present in thirty-three (31% of them. These mycoplasmas originated from 13 herds. Ten of them were symptomatic for mycoplasmal disease (mastitis, polyarthritis, septicemia and three herds were asymptomatic, i.e., clinically normal. Twenty-eight isolates were Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides LC (large colony or caprine biotype, four were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and one was Mycoplasma cottewii. The isolated plasmids were linearized by EcoRI, EcoRV, EcoRI and EcoRV or BamHI and EcoRV, and were of five sizes (1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9 Kbp. Based on restriction enzyme digestion and size of the linearized supercoiled extrachromosomal DNA, five plasmid types were recovered (p1II, p2III, p2V, p3I, and p4IV. The small size of these DNA elements probably exclude replicative forms of DNA virus, which are equal or larger than 8.0 Kbp.

  8. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  9. Perinatal and infant mortality in urban slums under I.C.D.S. scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thora, S; Awadhiya, S; Chansoriya, M; Kaul, K K

    1986-08-01

    Perinatal and infant mortality during the year 1985 was analyzed through a prospective study conducted in 12 Anganwadis (total population of 13,054) located in slum areas of India's Jabalpur city. Overall, the infant mortality rate was 128.7/1000 live births and the perinatal mortality rate was 88.5/1000 live births. 58.5% of deaths occurred in the neonatal period. Causes of neonatal deaths included prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, birth asphyxia, septicemia, and neonatal tetanus. Postneonatal deaths were largely attributable to dehydration from diarrhea, bronchopneumonia, malnutrition, and infectious diseases. All mortality rates were significantly higher in Muslims than among Hindus. Muslims accounted for 28% of the study population, but contributed 63% of stillbirths and 55% of total infant deaths. This phenomenon appears attributable to the large family size among Muslims coupled with inadequate maternal-child health care. The national neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates are 88/1000 and 52/1000, respectively. The fact that the neonatal mortality rate in the study area was slightly lower than the national average may reflect the impact of ICDS services.

  10. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K.; Massicotte, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  11. Interleukin 6 stimulates hepatic glucose release from prelabeled glycogen pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines, derived from a wide variety of cell types, are now believed to initiate many of the physiological responses accompanying the inflammatory phase that follows either Gram-negative septicemia or thermal injury. Because hypoglycemia (after endotoxic challenge) and hyperglycemia (after thermal injury) represent well-characterized responses to these injuries, we sought to determine whether hepatic glycogen metabolism could be altered by specific cytokines. Cultured adult rat hepatocytes were prelabeled with [ 14 C]glucose for 24 h, a procedure that resulted in the labeling of hepatic glycogen pools that subsequently could be depleted (with concomitant [ 14 C]glucose release) by either glucagon or norepinephrine. After the addition of a highly concentrated human monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM) or various cytokines to these prelabeled cells, [ 14 C]glucose release was stimulated by MCM and recombinant human interleukin 6 (IL-6) but was not stimulated by other cytokines tested. Furthermore, only antisera to IL-6 were capable of reducing the glucose-releasing factor activity found in MCM. These data therefore suggest a novel glucoregulatory role for IL-6

  12. Group B streptococcal bacteremia in a major teaching hospital in Malaysia: a case series of eighteen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, N; Neela, V; Ismail, Z; Puzi, S M; Hamat, R A; Desa, M N M; Nordin, S A

    2013-09-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of infections such as meningitis and septicemia in neonates and pregnant women; however the significance of invasive GBS disease has not been clearly defined in non-pregnant adults. We reviewed the hospital records of 18 cases with GBS bacteremia who attended the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from June 2010 to October 2011. We analyzed the clinical findings of both bacteremic adults and neonates and compared them to previous studies of GBS bacteremia. Serotyping was done by latex agglutination test using 10 distinct antisera (Ia, Ib, and II-IX). During the period of 1 year and 4 months, there were 18 patients with GBS bacteremia. Five cases occurred in neonates, one in a parturient woman, and 12 in other adults. All neonates with bacteremia were males and two of them were premature. Septicemia was the most common clinical presentation in neonates. They were treated with intravenous (IV) penicillin G and gentamicin. The adults included nine men (69%) and four women (31%). Their mean age was 60 years and all patients had more than two underlying conditions. The most common clinical syndrome was pneumonia (n=6, 46.5%). The others were peritonitis (n=3, 23.1%), primary bacteremia (n=2, 15.5%), septic arthritis (n=2, 15.5%), skin and soft tissue infection (n=1, 7.7%), meningitis (n=1, 8%), urinary tract infection (n=1, 8%), and intravascular device infection (n=1, 7.7%). Cardiovascular diseases (n=7, 53.8%) were the most common underlying conditions, and diabetes mellitus (n=5, 38.5%) was second. The other co-morbid conditions were hyperlipidemia (n=3, 23.1%), renal disease (n=3, 23.1%), liver disease and/or alcohol abuse (n=3, 23.1%), autoimmune disease or immunosuppressive condition (n=2, 15.5%), malignancy (n=2, 15.5%), respiratory disease (n=1, 8%), and postpartum condition (n=1, 8%), as well as miscellaneous conditions including intravenous drug abuse, HIV infection, and trauma (n=2, 15

  13. Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue and Other Extraintestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amit; Shaik, Sabiha; Nandanwar, Nishant; Hussain, Arif; Tiwari, Sumeet K; Semmler, Torsten; Jadhav, Savita; Wieler, Lothar H; Alam, Munirul; Colwell, Rita R; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-08-15

    Escherichia coli , an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive. In the study reported here, ExPEC E. coli isolated from SSTIs was characterized, including virulence and drug resistance profiles, and compared with isolates from patients suffering either pyelonephritis or septicemia. Results revealed that the majority of the isolates belonged to two pathogenic phylogroups, B2 and D. Approximately 67% of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), with 85% producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and 6% producing metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL). The bla CTX-M-15 genotype was observed in at least 70% of the E. coli isolates in each category, conferring resistance to an extended range of beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics of the ExPEC isolates revealed that two of the four isolates from SSTIs, NA633 and NA643, belong to pandemic sequence type ST131, whereas functional characteristics of three of the ExPEC pathotypes revealed that they had equal capabilities to form biofilm and were resistant to human serum. Overall, the isolates from a variety of ExPEC infections demonstrated similar resistomes and virulomes and did not display any disease-specific functional or genetic coordinates. IMPORTANCE Infections caused by extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are of global concern as they result in significant costs to

  14. Assessment of bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice using Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In obstructive jaundice, the passage of bacteria and endotoxins through the intestine wall to reach the systemic circulation is associated with septicemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this work was to investigate bacterial translocation utilizing 99mTc-E.coli in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. The levels of bilirubin in rats that were subjected to ligature of the bile duct were significantly increased when compared to control animals (p 0.05. The evaluation of the intestinal permeability using "per os" administration of 99mTc-DTPA showed 1.61 ± 0.57% and 1.39 ± 0.72% of radioactivity in the urine of the control and jaundice animals, respectively. The histological analysis of the distal wall of the ileum showed that the covering epithelium and the crypt were morphologically preserved in both groups. The seven-day period after the ligature of the bile duct may not have been long enough to promote modifications in intestinal wall to occur so as to permit the passage of Tc-99m E.coli.Na icterícia obstrutiva, a passagem de bactérias e endotoxinas através da parede intestinal alcançando a circulação sistêmica está associada com septicemia, falência renal e disfunção pulmonar. A proposta deste trabalho foi investigar a translocação bacteriana, empregando a Tc-99m E.coli, em um modelo experimental de icterícia obstrutiva. Os níveis de bilirrubina nos ratos que sofreram a ligadura do ducto biliar estavam significativamente aumentados quando comparados com os valores dos animais controles (p0,05. A avaliação da permeabilidade intestinal usando a administração "per os" de 99mTc-DTPA mostrou um percentual de eliminação deste radiofármaco na urina de 1,61±0,57 e 1,39±0,72 para os animais controles e ictéricos, respectivamente. A análise histológica da parede distal do íleo mostrou que tanto o epitélio de revestimento quanto as criptas apresentaram morfologicamente conservados em ambos os

  15. Liver disease associated with intestinal failure in the small bowel syndrome Doença hepática associada à falência intestinal na síndrome do intestino curto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Kemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN has given rise to a new hope in the treatment of intestinal failure (LF associated with the Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS. However, together with the TPN and the increase of survival of these patients, new problems and questions have emerged, as well as new therapeutical procedures. Taking into consideration this emerging reality, this paper has the purpose to undertake a review of current concepts and available treatments for patients with IF associated-liver disease. Although TPN provides an increase of survival of patients with intestinal failure, it is a potential source of complication such as: septicemia, hyperglycemia, venous thrombosis and liver disease. There are several hypothesis conceived to explain the liver disease associated to intestinal failure, however the only definite treatment as a potential to reverse the non-cirrhotic liver disease is the small intestine transplantation. Despite indications for intestine transplantation are not entirely defined in literature, the trend is its early indication in high-risk patients, preserving the liver integrity and preventing the eventual need of both liver and intestine transplantations altogether.A introdução da Nutrição Parenteral Total (NPT despertou uma nova esperança para o tratamento da falência intestina (FI associada a Síndrome do Intestino Curto (SIC. No entanto, junto com a NPT e o aumento da sobrevida destes pacientes, novos problemas e perguntas emergiram, assim como novas terapêuticas. Tendo em vista esta realidade emergente, o intuito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão dos conceitos atuais e dos tratamentos disponíveis para pacientes com doença hepática associada a FI. A NPT apesar de proporcionar aumento da sobrevida nos pacientes com falência intestinal é fonte potencial de complicações, como: septicemia, hiperglicemia, trombose venosa e doença hepática. Diversas são as hipóteses aventadas para

  16. Sequence variation of the glycoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages within field isolates of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, A.; Bascuro, B.; Monnier, A.F.; Vende, P.; Winton, J.R.; de Kinkelin, P.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), the sequence of the glycoprotein genes (G) of 11 North American and European isolates were determined. Comparison with the G protein of representative members of the family Rhabdoviridae suggested that VHSV was a different virus species from infectious haemorrhagic necrosis virus (IHNV) and Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV). At a higher taxonomic level, VHSV, IHNV and HIRRV formed a group which was genetically closest to the genus Lyssavirus. Compared with each other, the G genes of VHSV displayed a dissimilar overall genetic diversity which correlated with differences in geographical origin. The multiple sequence alignment of the complete G protein, showed that the divergent positions were not uniformly distributed along the sequence. A central region (amino acid position 245-300) accumulated substitutions and appeared to be highly variable. The genetic heterogeneity within a single isolate was high, with an apparent internal mutation frequency of 1.2 x 10(-3) per nucleotide site, attesting the quasispecies nature of the viral population. The phylogeny separated VHSV strains according to the major geographical area of isolation: genotype I for continental Europe, genotype II for the British Isles, and genotype III for North America. Isolates from continental Europe exhibited the highest genetic variability, with sub-groups correlated partially with the serological classification. Neither neutralizing polyclonal sera, nor monoclonal antibodies, were able to discriminate between the genotypes. The overall structure of the phylogenetic tree suggests that VHSV genetic diversity and evolution fit within the model of random change and positive selection operating on quasispecies.

  17. Attempted Experimental Reproduction of Porcine Periweaning-Failure-to-Thrive Syndrome Using Tissue Homogenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS) is characterized by anorexia and progressive debilitation of newly weaned pigs, of which some also demonstrate repetitive oral behaviour. Although no relevant porcine pathogens have been shown to be causally associated, inoculation of susceptible pigs using tissue homogenates is needed to rule out infectious etiologies. Eight snatched-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs were inoculated with tissue homogenates made from PFTS-affected pigs orally, or combined orally, intraperitoneally (IP) and intramuscularly (IM) at day (D) 14 of age (INOC). On D21, IP and IM inoculation were repeated. Four sham-inoculated pigs served as control (CTRL). Three INOC pigs developed mixed bacterial septicemia between the first and second inoculation. All other pigs survived until termination on D49. Average daily gain (ADG) and the frequencies of diarrhea did not differ between INOC and CTRL pigs D14 and D29. Additionally, the progressive debilitation characteristic of PFTS was not observed in any pig, and repetitive oral behaviour was observed in both groups. In conclusion, PFTS was not experimentally reproduced by the current experimental approach providing evidence that PFTS may not have an infectious etiology. PMID:24594806

  18. Chronic suppurative joint effusion due to burkholderia pseudomallei: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacillus is the causative agent of Melioidosis, a glanders-like disease, primarily a disease of animals. Melioidosis has been only a rare and sporadic disease in humans outside its endemic region. Currently, diagnosis of B. pseudomallei in the clinical laboratory is very difficult, owing to low awareness of physicians to the nonspecific clinical manifestations, lack of responsiveness among microbiologists outside endemic areas, identification systems in the average sentinel laboratory, and the biosafety conditions necessary to process these organisms. We report a case of chronic left hip joint effusion in a known case of diabetes mellitus. Gram stain of computed tomography (CT-guided aspirate from the joint revealed Gram-negative bacilli along with pus cells. Culture was confirmed as Burkholderia pseudomallei on Vitek2C, which was sensitive to ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfmethoxazole. Unfortunately, patient could not be started on appropriate antibiotics due to delay in detection and patient succumbed to severe septicemia. This case is reported to highlight importance of automated identification and sensitivity especially in nonendemic areas and unusual antibiogram of this organism for which disc diffusion method is not standardized.

  19. Case of acute myelogenous leukemia following aplastic anemia after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Y; Chinen, T; Ogawa, M; Kato, Y; Kitagawa, T [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo. Hospital

    1980-12-01

    A 53 years old mastectomized woman for breast cancer treated with radiotherapy (total doses 12,600 rad) and with long term oral administration of cyclophosphamide (CPM) and ftorafur (FT), developed aplastic anemia and thereafter acute myelogenous leukemia. About six months after discontinuation of the above therapies, she developed anemia and leukopenia and was referred to our clinic. Hematological improvement was obtained by the administration of anabolic hormone, however, two months later she became pancytopenic again. At that time, quite atypical myeloblasts contained peroxidase positive granules, were found 39% in the peripheral blood and 89.4% in the bone marrow, respectively. Leukemic hiatus was present. A bone marrow biopsy revealed coexistence of leukemic cells and breast cancer cells. A diagnosis of breast cancer complicated with acute myelogenous leukemia was made. A combined therapy of adriamycin, CPM and FT was ineffective. OAP regimen of vincristine, cytosine arabinoside and predonisolone revealed transient hematologic improvement. Finally, the patient died of septicemia due to klebsiella. Autopsy revealed wide spread coexistence of leukemia and cancer in the bone marrow, liver, and thyroid. The authors discuss some possible explanations for development of acute leukemia after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  20. A visual review of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kilian, Mogens; Goodsell, David S; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Being the principal causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and septicemia, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major global health problem. To highlight the molecular basis of this problem, we have portrayed essential biological processes of the pneumococcal life cycle in eight watercolor paintings. The paintings are done to a consistent nanometer scale based on currently available data from structural biology and proteomics. In this review article, the paintings are used to provide a visual review of protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall synthesis, cell division, teichoic acid synthesis, virulence, transformation and pilus synthesis based on the available scientific literature within the field of pneumococcal biology. Visualization of the molecular details of these processes reveals several scientific questions about how molecular components of the pneumococcal cell are organized to allow biological function to take place. By the presentation of this visual review, we intend to stimulate scientific discussion, aid in the generation of scientific hypotheses and increase public awareness. A narrated video describing the biological processes in the context of a whole-cell illustration accompany this article. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.; Christensen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a 8904-nt sequence of the central part of the RNA genome of a novel virus with a filovirus-like, nonidentical morphology named Taastrup virus (TV) detected in the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Sequence analysis identified five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. Sequence analyses reveal an unusually large glycoprotein (G) containing both potential O-linked (14) and N-linked (9) glycosylation sites--a feature shared with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any, to other within the order

  2. In vitro inhibition of fish rhabdoviruses by Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Mx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A.; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A homologous fish cell line stably expressing the recombinant Japanese flounder Mx (JFMx) was infected with hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), both of which are negative single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family. Analysis of primary transcription of the two rhabdoviruses showed that there was lower expression level and copy number of the viral nucleoprotein transcript in the JFMx-transfected cell line than the infected, control cells, although no significant difference was observed. This suggests that JFMx may not be a potent inhibitor of rhabdoviral primary transcription. Kinetics of rhabdovirus expression by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed reduced levels of the rhabdoviral glycoprotein and nucleoprotein transcripts over time, indicating the possible role of JFMx in blocking rhabdoviral replication by interfering with the transcription of the viral subgenomic mRNAs. Significant inhibition in rhabdovirus replication consequently resulted in the synthesis of fewer viral particles. This may explain why JFMx-expressing cells are less susceptible to virus-induced cell lysis, and thus, why they would have a significantly higher survival than the infected, control cells. These results provide direct evidence that JFMx has an antiviral effect in vitro

  3. Subconjonctival hemorrhage secondary to use of diclofenac and paracetamol for suicidal attempt

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    Esra Yıldızhan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although paracetamol and diclofenac sodium are most commonly used drugs and considered as safe, they are also frequently become a current issue with complications in therapeutic doses or overdose situations. Both drugs can cause bleeding disorders as a result of platelet dysfunction and can be presented as an atypical clinical situation such as subconjunctival hemorrhage. In these presented cases, the subconjunctival hemorrhage seen after ingestion of paracetamol and diclofenac sodium in toxic doses for the purpose of suicide, is considered as related with the bleeding disorder that is associated with drug side effect. For these patients who do not have any known co-morbidities, the reasons that can cause subconjunctival hemorrhage other than drugs such as trauma, infections, thrombocytopenia, malignant blood disorders, septicemia, hypertension, severe cough are excluded. Although hepatic and renal toxicities are commonly known side effects that are related with high doses of these drugs, in our cases there were not any impairment of hepatic or renal function tests other than compensated metabolic acidosis. In this report, the relationship of parasetamol and diclofenac sodium with bleeding disorders is discussed over two cases which presented as subconjunctival hemorrhage.

  4. Superiority of SDS lysis over saponin lysis for direct bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottle by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Garnaud, Cécile; Raykova, Mariya; Bailly, Sébastien; Bidart, Marie; Maubon, Danièle

    2017-05-01

    Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here, a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures is proposed. Four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by MS directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating two lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and two protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP) are compared. One hundred and sixty-eight identification tests are carried out on 42 strains. Overall, there are correct identifications to the species level in 90% samples for the SDS-LP, 60% for the SDS-FP, 48% for the saponin LP, and 43% for the saponin FP. Adapted scores allowed 92, 86, 72, and 53% identification for SDS-LP, SDS-FP, saponin LP, and saponin FP, respectively. Saponin lysis is associated with a significantly lower score compared to SDS (0.87 [0.83-0.92], p-value saponin lysis and the application of this rapid and cost-effective protocol in daily routine for microbiological agents implicated in septicemia. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Systemic diseases and their treatments in the elderly: impact on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, E M; Ship, J A

    2000-01-01

    The lifespan of the US population is increasing, with the elderly desiring successful aging. This goal is jeopardized as multiple systemic conditions and their treatments become more prevalent with age, causing impaired systemic and oral health and influencing an older person's quality of life. To obtain successful aging, a compression of morbidity must be obtained through prevention and management of disease. This paper describes the most common systemic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in persons aged 65+ years: diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, influenza, diabetes mellitus, trauma, Alzheimer's disease, renal diseases, septicemia, and liver diseases. Disease prevalence and the impact of medications and other therapeutic measures used to treat these conditions are discussed. Oral sequelae are reviewed with guidelines for early detection of these deleterious consequences, considerations for oral treatment, and patient management. An understanding of the impact of systemic diseases and treatment on oral health is imperative for dental practitioners to appropriately treat and manage older patients with these conditions. With a focus on early detection and prevention, oral health care providers can improve the quality of life of this population and aid in the attainment of successful aging.

  6. Immunology of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Patricia; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2016-09-01

    In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk's immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant's ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant's secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  7. Occurrence of Putative Virulence Genes in Arcobacter Species Isolated from Humans and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douidah, Laid; de Zutter, Lieven; Baré, Julie; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Vandenberg, Olivier; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Interest in arcobacters in veterinary and human public health has increased since the first report of the isolation of arcobacters from food of animal origin. Since then, studies worldwide have reported the occurrence of arcobacters on food and in food production animals and have highlighted possible transmission, especially of Arcobacter butzleri, to the human population. In humans, arcobacters are associated with enteritis and septicemia. To assess their clinical relevance for humans and animals, evaluation of potential virulence factors is required. However, up to now, little has been known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity. Because of their close phylogenetic affiliation to the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter and their similar clinical manifestations, the presence of nine putative Campylobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, irgA, mviN, pldA, and tlyA) previously identified in the recent Arcobacter butzleri ATCC 49616 genome sequence was determined in a large set of human and animal Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii strains after the development of rapid and accurate PCR assays and confirmed by sequencing and dot blot hybridization. PMID:22170914

  8. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebiyan, Reza; Kheradmand, Mehdi; Khamesipour, Faham; Rabiee-Faradonbeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  9. Interaction between M-like protein and macrophage thioredoxin facilitates antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

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    Zhe Ma

    Full Text Available Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH. TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis.

  10. Interaction between M-Like Protein and Macrophage Thioredoxin Facilitates Antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Junxi; Li, Yue; Yi, Li; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z) is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP) is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX) was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH). TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis. PMID:22384152

  11. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%, Erythromycin (71.70%, Oxytetracycline (43.40%, Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%, Enrofloxacin (37.74%, Florfenicol (35.85%, Chlortetracycline (33.96%, Doxycycline (16.98%, Difloxacin (32.08%, Danofloxacin (28.30%, Chloramphenicol (20.75%, Ciprofloxacin (7.55%, and Gentamicin (5.66%. This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  12. A case report of radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma (G-CSF producting type) of the rectum, 17 years after irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masaichi; Ikeuchi, Kenji; Takeyama, Hiroshi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Sato, Shuji; Kurosawa, Kouji; Anazawa, Sadao; Yamazaki, Yoji

    2001-01-01

    We report a rare case of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing rectal leiomyosarcoma that developed following pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer after elapsing for 17 years. The patient was a 59-year-old woman, who had undergone uterectomy and pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer at the age of 42. For eight years from 1991 when she was 51 years old, she had been diagnosed as having ileus several times, which had been treated conservatively. This time, she was admitted to the hospital because of rectovesical fistula, and she was diagnosed as having a pelvic tumor on imaging procedures. So a T-colon colostomy following by 2nd operation was performed with a month interval. After the operation, she became to eat foods by mouth smoothly in a few week, but died from a rapid growth of the liver metastatic foci, peritoneal dissemination, and septicemia only three months after the last operation. The G-CSF producing leiomyosarcoma is very rare and its prognosis is so poor. The strict following after radiation therapy might be essential and treatments based on QOL would be mandatory for such advanced type of disease. (author)

  13. A case report of radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma (G-CSF producting type) of the rectum, 17 years after irradiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Masaichi; Ikeuchi, Kenji; Takeyama, Hiroshi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Sato, Shuji; Kurosawa, Kouji; Anazawa, Sadao; Yamazaki, Yoji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    We report a rare case of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing rectal leiomyosarcoma that developed following pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer after elapsing for 17 years. The patient was a 59-year-old woman, who had undergone uterectomy and pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer at the age of 42. For eight years from 1991 when she was 51 years old, she had been diagnosed as having ileus several times, which had been treated conservatively. This time, she was admitted to the hospital because of rectovesical fistula, and she was diagnosed as having a pelvic tumor on imaging procedures. So a T-colon colostomy following by 2nd operation was performed with a month interval. After the operation, she became to eat foods by mouth smoothly in a few week, but died from a rapid growth of the liver metastatic foci, peritoneal dissemination, and septicemia only three months after the last operation. The G-CSF producing leiomyosarcoma is very rare and its prognosis is so poor. The strict following after radiation therapy might be essential and treatments based on QOL would be mandatory for such advanced type of disease. (author)

  14. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water - United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, J W; Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Feinman, S J; Beach, M J

    2017-06-01

    Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio). We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease-specific surveillance systems (2003-2009). We documented 6,939 annual total deaths associated with the 13 infections; of these, 493 (7%) were caused by seven pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. A total of 6,301 deaths (91%) were associated with infections from Pseudomonas, NTM, and Legionella, environmental pathogens that grow in water system biofilms. Biofilm-associated pathogens can cause illness following inhalation of aerosols or contact with contaminated water. These findings suggest that most mortality from these 13 selected infections in the United States does not result from classical fecal-oral transmission but rather from other transmission routes.

  15. The world's best-known surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, A J

    1983-10-01

    Henry Norman Bethune was born in Ontario in 1890 and was to become the best-known physician in the world. Bethune, a thoracic surgeon, spent his professional life in Detroit and Montreal, with these periods separated by a year spent as a patient in a tuberculosis sanatorium. This was where his interest in pulmonary disease was stimulated. Pioneer thoracic surgeon, councillor to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, artist, poet, polemist, conservative-turned-communist, iconoclast, and soldier, Bethune was a highly complex individual. Diverting his energies from surgery to social issues during the depression, Bethune participated in the Spanish Civil War, at which time he designed the world's first mobile blood transfusion unit. Eight months later, Bethune joined Mao Tse-tung's Eight Route Army in China. In 1939 he died of septicemia acquired from a sliver of infected bone while he was operating on a wounded Chinese patient. Bethune's fame today derives principally from the popularization of his accomplishments by Mao, whom he met once and who subsequently decreed that all in China should learn about him. Bethune's posthumous influence played an important role in the reopening of relations between China and the West.

  16. Anti E. coli Activity of Herbal Medicines: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is the gram negative bacilli of Entrobacteriaceae family that commonly found in intestinal infections and many infections outside the intestine, like urinary tract infections (UTI, cholecystitis, wound infections, meningitis, septicemia, pulmonary infections, and many more. Plants are rich sources of bioactive compounds, hence they can be effective in a wide variety of diseases. The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria (i.e., extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE, Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE threaten healthcare Worldwide. The present review is a report of the most effective medicinal plants against E. coli. In this research, the required online database searches were conducted using the key words such as bacteria, E. coli and medicinal plants. Databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were explored to find and explore related articles. Since the incidence of E. coli is high, the aim of this study is to identify and report anti E. coli medicinal plants in Iran. The obtained results showed that there were 51 medicinal herbs that could be considered as the main medicinal plants capable of affecting E. coli.

  17. Chediak-Higashi: a case report

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    A Paymard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by immune deficiency, bleeding diathesis, recurrent bacterial infections, albinism dynamic and progressive neurological disorder, as well as major organs such as the liver and spleen lymphocytic infiltration is determined. The aim of this study was to report a case of a rare manifestation of the disease. Case Report: The case-study in the present report was a 4-month-old female that two months after vaccination had intermittent fever associated with fever, weakness, which lasted more than a week. After blood tests, ultrasound and examination of blood cells, Chédiak–Higashi syndrome diagnosis was made. In terms of blood cells, pancytopenia, platelets and fresh frozen plasma were administered to the patient to prevent bleeding. After Buttock infections, the patient was suffering from septicemia and septic shock followed by a lack of response to resuscitation and cardiopulmonary arrest and then died. Conclusion: In this patient all Chediak Higashi syndrome, including long fever, loss of appetite, frequent infections, albinism variable and multiple neurological deficit was seen. Chdyak Higashi syndrome is treatable with early diagnosis and bone marrow transplantation.

  18. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  19. Biofilm Formation of Listeria monocytogenes on Various Surfaces

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    M Mahdavi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is considered as a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen which can lead to serious infections, especially in newborns, elderly, pregnant, and immunocompromised people. The organism has been isolated from many foods and may cause meningitis, septicemia and abortion in pregnant women. Also L. monocytogenes forms biofilms on many food contact surface materials and medical devices. Development of biofilms on many surfaces is a potential source of contamination of foods that may lead to spoilage or transmission of foodborne pathogens. Materials & Methods: Biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes (RITCC 1293 serotype 4a was investigated. Hydrophobicity of L. monocytogenes was measured by MATH method. Then biofilm formation of the organism was assessed at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 hours on stainless steel (type 304 no 2B, polyethylene and glass by drop plate method. Results: Results indicated that L. monocytogenes with 85% of hydrophobicity formed biofilm on each of three surfaces. Biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces was significantly more than other surfaces (p<0.05. Conclusion: The ability of biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes on medical devices and food containers is very important as far as hygiene and disease outbreaks are concerned.

  20. Tularemia in the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000-2011

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    Marić Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is an infective disease of zoonotic character, bacterial etiology, which occurs predominantly among rodents, but also in other species of domestic and wild mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and humans. The cause of the disease is Francisella tularensis. Due to its epidemiological-epizootiological characteristics, the cause belongs to the group of biological agents and it has been used as a biological weapon. The disease is characterized by primary local ulcerous changes on the skin and mucosa, regional lymphadenitis, expressed general septicemia, and other changes. This disease is suspected on the grounds of epizootiological data on the incidence of the disease or the deaths of rabbits, sheep, or dogs, but also humans. During the observed period of twelve years, 317 cases of infected humans were recorded in the territory of the Republic of Serbia, without any mortal outcomes. The disease was confirmed in animals in only one case (2006.. In order to ensure full success in preventing the spreading and in the curbing of tularemia it is necessary to secure cooperation among a large number of professionals, in particular those engaged in the fields of human and veterinary medicine.

  1. Detection of a novel Rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2015-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles conjugated tannase and using it for enhancement of antibacterial activity of tannase produced by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsayef Muslim, D Sahira; Abbas Dham, Ziyad; J Mohammed, D Nadheer

    2017-09-01

    Fourteen isolates of Serratia marcescens were collected from patients suffering from septicemia. All theseisolates revealed different levels in tannase production. Tannase was partially purified from Serratia marcescens b9 by precipitation method at 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate. Au, Pt, SnO 2 and SiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction pattern and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Conjugation of SiO 2 nanoparticles to tannase by feeding and pulses methods were prepared and characterized by TEM, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV-Visible spectrum. SiO 2 nanoparticles conjugated partially purified tannase by feeding showed the higher effectiveness and higher significant level against all tested UTI causing in comparison with ciprofloxacin antibiotic, SiO 2 nanoparticles alone, partially purified tannase alone and partially purified tannase by pulses. So that we can conclude that feeding method was the best method for enhancement partially purified tannase activity to maximum level thus SiO 2 nanoparticles conjugated partially purified tannase may be a useful antibacterial agent for the treatment of urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attempted experimental reproduction of porcine periweaning-failure-to-thrive syndrome using tissue homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Harding, John C S

    2014-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS) is characterized by anorexia and progressive debilitation of newly weaned pigs, of which some also demonstrate repetitive oral behaviour. Although no relevant porcine pathogens have been shown to be causally associated, inoculation of susceptible pigs using tissue homogenates is needed to rule out infectious etiologies. Eight snatched-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs were inoculated with tissue homogenates made from PFTS-affected pigs orally, or combined orally, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at day (D) 14 of age (INOC). On D21, i.p. and i.m. inoculation were repeated. Four sham-inoculated pigs served as control (CTRL). Three INOC pigs developed mixed bacterial septicemia between the first and second inoculation. All other pigs survived until termination on D49. Average daily gain (ADG) and the frequencies of diarrhea did not differ between INOC and CTRL pigs D14 and D29. Additionally, the progressive debilitation characteristic of PFTS was not observed in any pig, and repetitive oral behaviour was observed in both groups. In conclusion, PFTS was not experimentally reproduced by the current experimental approach providing evidence that PFTS may not have an infectious etiology.

  5. An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutrosa subgutrosa) and a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Wünschmann, Arno; Morningstar-Shaw, Brenda; Pantlin, Gayle C; Rasmussen, James M; Thompson, Rachel L

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis enteritis occurred in two juvenile goitered gazelles and an adult Malayan tapir over a period of 5 wk at the Minnesota Zoo. Diagnosis was made postmortem on one gazelle and one tapir, and a second gazelle was diagnosed via fecal culture. The death of the tapir was attributed to S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis septicemia, while salmonellosis was considered to be a contributing factor besides ostertagiasis for the death of one goitered gazelle and for the diarrhea of another goitered gazelle. A third gazelle became ill in the same time period, but Salmonella infection was not confirmed by culture. All exhibited the clinical signs of profuse, watery diarrhea. The gazelles developed a protein-losing enteropathy, and the tapir showed signs of sepsis and endotoxemia. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the Salmonella isolates to be indistinguishable from each other. One year prior to this outbreak, Salmonella sp. was cultured from a Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) housed in the same building as the tapir. After further investigation into the outbreak, spread of this pathogen was speculated to be associated with human movement across animal areas.

  6. Treatment of non-healing sternum wound after open-heart surgery with allogenic platelet-rich plasma and fibrin glue-preliminary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasi Tashnizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-healing wound in the sternal region after coronary arteries bypass graft surgery is a serious complication. For healing a chronic wound, several novel approaches have been proposed recently such as using bone marrow stem cells, platelets and fibrin glue (PFG; but a non-invasive method is highly desirable in the first approach for treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the combination of PFG in one treatment. Materials and Methods: We report on the treatment of six patients with life-threatening chronic sternum wounds, which caused septicemia with multi-drug resistant pathogens. The ulcers were extensively debrided initially and were measured and photographed at weekly intervals. The combination of PFG was applied topically on the wound after every 2 days. Results: The wounds were completely closed in five patients and significantly reduced in size in one. There was no evidence of local or systemic complications and any abnormal tissue formation, keloid or hypertrophic scarring. Conclusions: Our study suggests, in the first approach, PFG can be used safely in order to heal a non healing sternum wound following coronary artery bypass surgery.

  7. Endocarditis infecciosa en válvula aórtica por Aggregatibacter aphrophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Broa

    Full Text Available Resumen Hoy día, la endocarditis infecciosa continúa siendo una causa importante de mor-bimortalidad en todo el mundo y es preocupante el aumento del número de infecciones asociadas con agentes virulentos y procedimientos médicos. Presentamos el caso de un indigente con antecedentes médicos desconocidos, ingresado por dolor lumbar, que comenzó a sentirse confuso, hipotenso y taquicárdico. Poco después de su ingreso su estado evolucionó a septicemia grave. Los resultados de las pruebas iniciales también eran indicativos de infarto agudo de miocardio, pero el ecocardiograma transtorácico reveló una vegetación masiva en la válvula aórtica con absceso perivalvular condicionando regurgitación aórtica grave. El paciente murió, con el diagnóstico definitivo de endocarditis infecciosa. Más tarde, en los hemocultivos se identificó Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, un microorganismo del grupo HACEK. Este caso confirma que, a pesar de los resultados favorables en general, hay casos de infecciones graves, sobre todo si el diagnóstico y el tratamiento fueron tardíos.

  8. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  9. [Clinical features and prognostic factors of meningococcal disease: a case series study in Chile during the 2012-2013 outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Isabel; Olea, Andrea; López, Darío; Loayza, Sergio; Nájera, Manuel; González, Claudia; Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Delgado, Iris; Pedroni, Elena; Alfaro, Tania; Gormaz, Ana María; Sanhueza, Gabriel; Vial, Pablo; Dabanch, Jeannette; Gallegos, Doris; Aguilera, Ximena

    2015-10-01

    Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major global problem because of its case fatality rate and sequels. Since 2012 cases of serogroup W have increased in Chile, with nonspecific clinical presentation, high case fatality rate and serious consequences. To characterize the evolution and outcome of MD cases between January 2012 and March 2013 in Chile. Case series considering 149 MD cases of 7 regions. A questionnaire was applied and clinical records were reviewed, including individual, agent, clinical course and healthcare process variables. The analysis allowed to obtain estimates of the OR as likelihood of dying. 51.5% was meningococcemia, the case fatality rate reached 27%, prevailing serogroup W (46.6%). Factors that increased the probability of dying: > age, belonging to indigenous people, having lived a stressful event, having diarrhea, impaired consciousness, cardiovascular symptoms, low oxygen saturation and low Glasgow coma scale score. The case fatality rate exceeded normal levels and was higher in serogroup W. Increasing in this serogroup, associated to the increased presence of nonspecific symptoms or rapid progression to septicemia, hit a health system accustomed to more classic meningococcal disease presentation, which could partly explain the observed increased fatality rate.

  10. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  11. A Rare Case of Chronic Diarrhea in an Elderly Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jong Bair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common condition in older age groups, and many patients do not seek medical attention unless their diarrhea is associated with other symptoms, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding or abdominal pain. It is a critical condition in the elderly, especially with systemic disease. We report the case of an elderly patient with chronic diarrhea secondary to intestinal capillariasis. Human intestinal capillariasis is a rare parasitosis of the gastrointestinal tract, which may be a fatal disease if early treatment is not given. The clinical hallmarks of capillariasis include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, marked weight loss, protein and electrolyte loss, and cachexia. Most patients die from electrolyte loss resulting in heart failure and/or septicemia. Taiwan, particularly in Taitung County, is a Capillaria-prevalent area. Thus, parasitosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with debilitating chronic diarrhea, especially in the elderly aboriginal population of Taitung County. A careful dietary and travel history is important in any such case; but even in the absence of clear-cut exposure, a parasitic infection should be considered and carefully investigated.

  12. [Infectious complications during treatments with interleukin-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morère, J F; Darras, C; Boaziz, C; Mihaila, L; Breau, J L; Scavizzi, M; Israël, L

    1993-03-13

    Between January 1989 and May 1991, 97 patients were treated with interleukin 2 in the Oncology Department of the Avicenne Hospital (Bobigny, France). IL 2 was given over 5 days by continuous infusion through an implantable port. Ten patients (4 males, 6 females), mean age 46 years (36-67) with various cancers (breast 3, kidney 1, melanoma 1, colorectal 5), developed infection: 4 local infections around the port, 1 phlebitis, 4 septicemias, 1 bacteremia were observed. In 9 cases blood cultures were positive: Staphylococcus aureus 5, Staphylococcus epidermidis 3, Streptococcus G 1. In 5 cases the same pathogen was isolated from the port and from the blood. The mean leucocyte count was 10,627/mm3 at the time of infection. The delay between the beginning of interleukin 2 treatment and the infection was 3 months. The mean dose of IL 2 administered before infection was 456 million IU. In all cases infection was controlled without lethal complication by antibiotics and catheter removal. This high incidence (8 percent) of staphylococcal infection is partly due to the skin toxicity of IL 2 and to depressed neutrophil chemotactic response. Prophylactic antibiotics are warranted during IL 2 intravenous therapy.

  13. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  14. Oral conditions in renal disorders and treatment considerations – A review for pediatric dentist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Gupta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current understanding of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal disease (CRD. A PubMed literature search was performed and all relevant studies were assessed. As the number of people suffering from CRD increases worldwide, dentists are expected to encounter more patients with CRD who need oral care. In children, CRD can elicit a wide spectrum of oral manifestations in the hard and soft tissues. Bleeding, altered drug metabolism, impaired immune function, and an increased risk of dentally induced bacterial endocarditis are some important features that require attention. Dental management of patients with CRD requires that clinicians appreciate that multiple systems can be affected by the disease. Dentists should consult with nephrologists regarding the specific precautions required for each patient. Medical treatments in these patients may need to be postponed due to an unfavorable oral health status or potential risk of life-threatening infection after surgery. Improving oral hygiene and performing necessary dental and oral treatment before hemodialysis or transplantation may prevent endocarditis and septicemia in these patients. Hence, treatment plans should be formulated to restore the patient’s dentition and protect them from potentially severe infections of dental origin.

  15. Acalculous cholecystitis and septicemia caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae: first reported case and review of biliary infections with Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, B C; Silberman, R; Otterson, W N

    1998-03-01

    The first case of septicemic acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae is described in a healthy traveler, and biliary tract infections from V. cholerae are reviewed. Immediately after a vacation in Cancun, Mexico, a 55-year-old man developed acute cholecystitis. Blood and bile cultures grew non-O1 V. cholerae. At surgery, the gallbladder was acalculous, inflamed, distended, and nearly ruptured. Pathogenetic factors may have included diarrhea prophylaxis with bismuth subsalicylate, distension of the gallbladder from illness-induced fasting, and bacterial toxins in the gallbladder. The patient received i.v. cephapirin, followed by oral cephradine for a total of 10 days, and he made a quick and complete recovery. V. cholerae should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persons from endemic areas who present with cholecystitis or acute jaundice.

  16. MicroRNA expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the glycoprotein gene of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    particularly to sea-farmed rainbow trout and thus necessitates strategies to mitigate potential disease outbreaks. A DNA vaccine encoding the glycoprotein gene of VHSV has been developed and shown to elicit protective immune responses in laboratory trials. It is important to identify key factors as biomarkers...

  17. Genotypic Characterization of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli Isolates from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis and/or Septicemia and from Environmental Mussel Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan-Edgar, Katrina L.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathleen A.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Jang, Spencer; Goertz, Caroline E. C.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type 128 Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli isolates from sea otters and mussels. Six SmaI PFGE groups were detected, with one predominant group representing 57% of the isolates collected over a wide geographic region. Several sea otter and mussel isolates were highly related, suggesting that an environmental infection source is possible. PMID:23052307

  18. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  19. Pathological and molecular based study of pneumonic pasteurellosis in cattle and buffalo (bubalus bubalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2014-01-01

    In present study the clinico-pathological findings were recorded in naturally infected cattle and buffaloes due to pasteurella multocida during an outbreak at different livestock herds. There was no significant difference in mortality among various groups of buffaloes (p>0.78) and cattle (p>0.49). The infected animals showed clinical signs of moderate to acute anorexia, salivation, fever, depression, dysponea, submandibular edema, mucopurulent nasal discharge and respiratory grunts. Few of infected animals died due to septicemia. the necropsy of dead animals was performed and visceral organs lungs, kidneys, heart and lymph nodes were observed for gross and histopathological lesions. The tissue samples from these organs were fixed in formalin for pathological changes. Necropsy of dead animals revealed severe pneumonia, consolidation of lungs and intense pleural adhesions. serosanguinous fluid was accumulated in pericardium and peritoneal cavities. Histopathologically affected lungs exhibited severe congestion, mononuclear cell infiltration, thick interlobular septae punctuated with macrophages, plasma cells and peri-vascular cuffing. Liver, kidneys and lymph nodes had degenerative changes in histological sections. The specificity of p. multocida was determined by colony characteristics on macconkey's agar and morphological features with gram's iodine. The pcr product size approximately 511bp from lung tissues confirmed a total of 82% (19/23) bacterial isolates from dead animals. (author)

  20. Immunology of Yersinia pestis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase. In contrast, the host also utilizes its immune system to eliminate the invading bacteria. Neutrophil and macrophage are the first defense against Yersinia pestis invading through phagocytosis and killing. Other innate immune cells also play different roles, such as dendritic cells which help to generate more T helper cells. After several days post infection, the adaptive immune response begins to provide organism-specific protection and has a long-lasting immunological memory. Thus, with the cooperation and collaboration of innate and acquired immunity, the bacterium may be eliminated from the host. The research of Yersinia pestis and host immune systems provides an important topic to understand pathogen-host interaction and consequently develop effective countermeasures.

  1. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  2. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Willenborg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system.

  3. Impact of public health strategies on reducing AIDS mortality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Sonia M; Ribeiro, Clea E; Almeida, Sergio M; Telles, João Paulo M; Azevedo, Marcos; Schaitza, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, all patients who fulfill the criteria for AIDS have had free access to antiretroviral therapy since 1996. We performed this cross-sectional study to evaluate the causes of death among 643 HIV-infected patients over three non-consecutive years (2000, 2006, and 2010), using their epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data. The causes of death were classified as AIDS-defining or non-AIDS-defining conditions. We observed a progressive increase in the prevalence of HIV infection over the study period, although there was also a decrease in the mortality rate for various groups, and especially among pediatric patients. An AIDS-defining condition was recorded as the cause of death for approximately 30% of the patients. There was also a high frequency (>70%) of infectious and parasitic diseases, including opportunistic infections, and the most common diagnoses were septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and pneumocystosis. Acute respiratory failure was the underlying cause of death in 30% of these cases. Despite advances in HIV therapy, the mortality rate remains high in Brazil. As few Brazilian studies have investigated HIV/AIDS-related mortality, it is important to evaluate and improve the mortality notification databases, in order to provide information regarding the effects of HIV and to guide the implementation of appropriate healthcare measures.

  4. Bowel injuries secondary to induced abortion: a dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.; Fatima, S.; Soomro, N.

    2006-01-01

    To study the pattern of bowel injuries incurred by induced abortion, and the morbidity and mortality associated with them. All patients with bowel injuries due to induced abortion. Detailed data of all the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 22 patients, mostly young with an average age of 26.86 years, presented with bowel injuries following induced abortion. Severe hemorrhage occurred in 8(36.4%) patients while 11(50%) had ileal perforation; 9(40.9%) underwent primary repair and 2(9.1%) ileostomy formation. Two (9.1%) patients with jejunal perforation had primary repair, whereas two with both jejunal and ileal perforations underwent resections with anastomosis in one and ileostomy in another. Seven (31.8%) with large gut involvement had colostomy formation. Septicemia and wound infection occurred in 7(31.8%) patients each, faecal fistula and abdominal wound dehiscence in 3(13.6%), and pelvic abscess in 1(4.6%) patient. The total mortality in this series was 6(27.3%) patients. Iatrogenic injuries during induced abortion, most commonly caused by quacks, can be minimized substantially if the procedure is performed by qualified medical personnel in proper health care facilities. There is a need for radical overhauling of the mind set in our society together with legislation. (author)

  5. Study on contamination of sheep meat in Shahrekord area with Listeria ivanovii and determination its antibiotic resistance pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Khalili Borujeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii are two pathogenic species of Listeria. The role of Listeria ivanovii is important in abortion, stillbirth, septicemia in animals and this bacterium sometimes is pathogenic in humans. Contamination of ovine carcasses during the slaughter and processing can cause foodborne infections in humans. In this study we examined the contamination of sheep meat in slaughter house of Shahrekord city to Listeria ivanovii and determined its antibiotic resistance pattern.Material and Methods: A total 200 samples of sheep meat were collected from abattoir and processed by use of two enrichment method. After doing specific biochemical tests and PCR, Listeria spp was identified and antibiotic resistance of isolated Listeria were tested by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The contamination of sheep carcasses with listeria was 2.5% (5 out of 200 samples. All five isolates (2.5% were recognized as Listeria ivanovii and were resistant to four antibiotics, sensitive to six antibiotics and intermediate to other antibiotics.  Conclusion: According to the contamination rate in sheep carcasses with Listeria ivanovii and the relatively high antibiotic resistance specified in this bacteria, the role of red meat in transmission of Listeria spp. and appropriate use of antibiotics against this bacteria should be considered.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes: Overview and Targeting Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa F.N. Abushahba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne zoonotic pathogen capable of causing gastroenteritis and severe systemic infections such as septicemia, meningitis or abortion in the infected individuals what is called listeriosis. The bacterium is reported as the third leading cause of death among the foodborne pathogens preceded by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii. The power to tolerate a wide range of temperatures is considered the most prominent trait distinguishing it from the other foodborne pathogens. Within the infected host, the bacteria harbor inside macrophages and jump from cell to another without leaving the safeguarding milieu of the host's cells utilizing a set of genes including hly (listeriolysin O, plcA (phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c, plcB (phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C and actA (actin-assembly inducing protein. In addition to the health concerns associated with antibiotics, treatment failure likely occurs among listeriosis-infected persons especially with the inability of most antibiotics to access intracellular replicative niches and achieve the optimum therapeutic concentrations within the infected cells. Recently, one novel choice, peptide nucleic acid (PNA, has been emerged to target this bacterium as a model of targeting intracellular pathogens with anti-sense agents. PNA is a one of the DNA analogues which works via specific inhibition of bacterial gene expression.

  7. Identification of Differentially Abundant Proteins of Edwardsiella ictaluri during Iron Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep R Dumpala

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe intracellular bacterium that causes enteric septicemia in channel catfish. Iron is an essential inorganic nutrient of bacteria and is crucial for bacterial invasion. Reduced availability of iron by the host may cause significant stress for bacterial pathogens and is considered a signal that leads to significant alteration in virulence gene expression. However, the precise effect of iron-restriction on E. ictaluri protein abundance is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially abundant proteins of E. ictaluri during in vitro iron-restricted conditions. We applied two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE for determining differentially abundant proteins and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS for protein identification. Gene ontology and pathway-based functional modeling of differentially abundant proteins was also conducted. A total of 50 unique differentially abundant proteins at a minimum of 2-fold (p ≤ 0.05 difference in abundance due to iron-restriction were detected. The numbers of up- and down-regulated proteins were 37 and 13, respectively. We noted several proteins, including EsrB, LamB, MalM, MalE, FdaA, and TonB-dependent heme/hemoglobin receptor family proteins responded to iron restriction in E. ictaluri.

  8. Risk factors for invasive reptile-associated salmonellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M; Relly, Christa; Hug, Martina; Wittenbrink, Max M; Berger, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) in children has been reported primarily due to direct contact with turtles, but recently also due to indirect contact with more exotic reptiles, causing disease in infants. To evaluate risk factors for RAS, we reviewed the RAS cases published in the literature since 1965. A case was defined as a child ≤18 years of age with an epidemiological link by identification of Salmonella enterica in cultures from both the affected child and the exposed reptile. We identified a total of 177 otherwise healthy children (median age 1.0 years, range 2 days to 17.0 years). RAS manifested mainly with gastrointestinal disease, but 15% presented with invasive RAS, including septicemia, meningitis, and bone and joint infection. The children with invasive RAS were significantly younger than children with noninvasive disease (median age 0.17 and 2.0 years, preptiles other than turtles, including iguanas, bearded dragons, snakes, chameleons, and geckos. Children exposed to those latter reptiles usually kept indoors were younger than children exposed to turtles mostly kept outdoors (preptiles, other than turtles, kept indoors is associated with RAS at younger age and more invasive disease. This finding is helpful for recognizing or even preventing invasive RAS in young infants that are at highest risk.

  9. Performance of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 serum levels in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever for the assessment of low-risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontny Udo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and fever are usually hospitalized and treated on empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early diagnosis of sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia remains difficult due to non-specific clinical and laboratory signs of infection. We aimed to analyze whether IL-6 and IL-8 could define a group of patients at low risk of septicemia. Methods A prospective study was performed to assess the potential value of IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein serum levels to predict severe bacterial infection or bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children with cancer during chemotherapy. Statistical test used: Friedman test, Wilcoxon-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Receiver Operating Characteristics. Results The analysis of cytokine levels measured at the onset of fever indicated that IL-6 and IL-8 are useful to define a possible group of patients with low risk of sepsis. In predicting bacteremia or severe bacterial infection, IL-6 was the best predictor with the optimum IL-6 cut-off level of 42 pg/ml showing a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (85%. Conclusion These findings may have clinical implications for risk-based antimicrobial treatment strategies.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Synonymous Codon Usage Patterns in Riemerella anatipestifer

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    Jibin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA belongs to the Flavobacteriaceae family and can cause a septicemia disease in poultry. The synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteria reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable bacteria to improve tolerance of the various environments. We detailed the codon usage patterns of RA isolates from the available 12 sequenced genomes by multiple codon and statistical analysis. Nucleotide compositions and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU analysis revealed that A or U ending codons are predominant in RA. Neutrality analysis found no significant correlation between GC12 and GC3 (p > 0.05. Correspondence analysis and ENc-plot results showed that natural selection dominated over mutation in the codon usage bias. The tree of cluster analysis based on RSCU was concordant with dendrogram based on genomic BLAST by neighbor-joining method. By comparative analysis, about 50 highly expressed genes that were orthologs across all 12 strains were found in the top 5% of high CAI value. Based on these CAI values, we infer that RA contains a number of predicted highly expressed coding sequences, involved in transcriptional regulation and metabolism, reflecting their requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. These results provide some useful information on the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage bias and evolution of RA.

  11. Is high dose methotrexate without irradiation of the brain sufficiently effective in prevention of CNS disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, J.; Foltinova, A.; Kaiserova, E.; Mojzesova, A.; Sejnova, D.; Jamarik, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present 5-year results of treatment in 93 children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia using two therapeutic protocols containing multidrug chemotherapy including high dose methotrexate. We could ascertain different results in standard and high risk patients. In a group of 62 children with standard risk we observed improvement in complete remission rate being 98.9% after induction phase of therapy, only one patient died on septicemia. Relapse rate in this group was 21.2% and that 14. 7% in the bone marrow and 6.5% in CNS and no testicular relapse at all. In the group of 31 children with high risk leukemia all patients achieved complete remission. Only one of them died on acute pancreatitis due to toxicity. Overall relapse rate in this group was 28.9% with 12.8% of medullary relapse and 16.1 % of CNS relapse. The last one was significantly higher than in the previous study when brain irradiation was a part of therapeutic procedure. It seems that this treatment is effective mainly in the standard risk leukemia, however, in the high risk leukemias this procedure appears to be less effective in preventing CNS leukemia. In this group of patients irradiation of the brain need to be enclosed in the therapy. (authors)

  12. Assessment of bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice using Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva; Bernardo Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, the passage of bacteria and endotoxins through the intestine wall to reach the systemic circulation is associated with septicemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this work was to investigate bacterial translocation utilizing 99m Tc-E.coli in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. The levels of bilirubin in rats that were subjected to ligature of the bile duct were significantly increased when compared to control animals (p 99m Tc-E.coli to the mesenteric lymphatic nodules, liver, spleen or lungs of the rats that suffered ligature of the bile duct (p > 0.05). The evaluation of the intestinal permeability using 'per os' administration of 99m Tc-DTPA showed 1.61 ± 0.57% and 1.39 ± 0.72% of radioactivity in the urine of the control and jaundice animals, respectively. The histological analysis of the distal wall of the ileum showed that the covering epithelium and the crypt were morphologically preserved in both groups. The seven-day period after the ligature of the bile duct may not have been long enough to promote modifications in intestinal wall to occur so as to permit the passage of Tc-99m E.coli. (author)

  13. Development of a new trend conjugate vaccine for the prevention of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infections, especially in newborns, blood cancer patients, and other immunocompromised candidates. The control of K. pneumoniae is a complicated issue due to its tight pathogenesis. Immuno-prophylactic preparations, especially those directed toward the bacterium O-antigen, showed to be the most successful way to prevent the infection incidence. However, all previously proposed preparations were either of limited spectrum or non-maternal, and hence not targeting the main Klebsiella patients. Moreover, all preparations were directed only to prevent the respiratory diseases due to that pathogen. This article addresses the development of a method originally used to purify the non-capsular bacterial- endotoxins, as a new and easy method for vaccine production against K. pneumoniae. The application of this method was preceded by a biotechnological control of capsular polysaccharide production in K. pneumoniae. The new produced natural conjugate between the bacterial O-antigen and its outer membrane proteins was evaluated by physicochemical and immunological methods to investigate its purity, integrity, safety and immunogenicity. It showed to be pure, stable, safe for use, and able to elicit a protective immunoglobulin titer against different Klebsiella infections. This immune-response proved to be transferable to the offspring of the vaccinated experimental rabbits via placenta.

  14. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H C; Lee, S S; Lin, H H; Lu, L Y; Liu, Y C

    2001-10-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased susceptibility to infection by Pneumocystis carinii, but this condition has rarely been reported in Taiwan. Here, we describe two cases of patients with SLE who developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). The first patient was a 39-year-old woman presenting with fever and dyspnea that had lasted 2 weeks. Chest roentgenography disclosed bilateral interstitial and alveolar infiltrates. The second patient was a 22-year-old woman presenting with a 4-day history of malaise, cough, dyspnea, and fever. She had concomitant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Both patients had been treated with varying doses of corticosteroids and/or cytotoxic drugs within 4 months before presentation. Diagnosis was established based on the findings of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). Both patients received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20 mg.kg-1.d-1 trimethoprim), but finally died of nosocomial septicemia (Acinetobacter baumanni and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in one, P. aeruginosa bacteremia in the other). These two cases demonstrate that PCP should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with SLE presenting with pneumonic processes. In addition, a second opportunistic pathogen should be suspected. Bronchoscopic examination should be performed if the diagnosis is not clear and should include TBLB and BAL.

  15. Pre-resuscitation factors associated with mortality in 49,130 cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest: a report from the National Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Copes, Wayne S; Nathanson, Brian H; Kaye, William

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate key pre-arrest factors and their collective ability to predict post-cardiopulmonary arrest mortality. CPR is often initiated indiscriminately after in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Improved understanding of pre-arrest factors associated with mortality may inform advance care planning. A cohort of 49,130 adults who experienced pulseless cardiopulmonary arrest from January 2000 to September 2004 was obtained from 366 US hospitals participating in the National Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (NRCPR). Logistic regression with bootstrapping was used to model in-hospital mortality, which included those discharged in unfavorable and severely worsened neurologic state (Cerebral Performance Category >/=3). Overall in-hospital mortality was 84.1%. Advanced age, black race, non-cardiac, non-surgical illness category, pre-existing malignancy, acute stroke, trauma, septicemia, hepatic insufficiency, general floor or Emergency Department location, and pre-arrest use of vasopressors or assisted/mechanical ventilation were independently predictive of in-hospital mortality. Retained peri-arrest factors including cardiac monitoring, and shockable initial pulseless rhythms, were strongly associated with survival. The validation model's AUROC curve (0.77) revealed fair performance. Predictive pre-resuscitation factors may supplement patient-specific information available at bedside to assist in revising resuscitation plans during the patient's hospitalization. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Identification of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Serratia sp. ANU101, and its hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggyun; Kim, Keunseob; Seo, Jiae; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, Hosanna H; Nalini, Madanagopal; Yi, Youngkeun

    2009-03-01

    Four different bacterial colonies were isolated from an old stock of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. They all showed entomopathogenicity to final instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, by hemocoelic injection. However, they varied in colony form, susceptibility to antibiotics, and postmortem change of the infected host insects. Biolog microbial identification and 16S rDNA sequence analyses indicate that these are four different species classified into different bacterial genera. owing to high entomopathogenicity and a cadaver color of infected insect host, Serratia sp. was selected as a main symbiotic bacterial species and analyzed for its pathogenicity. Although no virulence of Serratia sp. was detected at oral administration, the bacteria gave significant synergistic pathogenicity to fifth instar S. exigua when it was treated along with a spore-forming entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. The synergistic effect was explained by an immunosuppressive effect of Serratia sp. by its high cytotoxic effect on hemocytes of S. exigua, because Serratia sp. caused septicemia of S. exigua when the bacterial cells were injected into S. exigua hemocoel. The cytotoxic factor(s) was present in the culture medium because the sterilized culture broth possessed high potency in the cytotoxicity, which was specific to granular cells and plasmatocytes, two main immune-associated hemocytes in insects.

  17. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  18. ESTUDIOS DE AISLAMIENTO Y FRACCIONAMIENTO DE UN COMPLEJO GLICOPROTEICO DE PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA

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    Yolanda de Navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la extracción con solución de NaCl 2.5% (p/v a 47' C, se obtuvo un complejo glicoproteíco de Pasteurella multocida que fue parcialmente purificado mediante filtración por gel usando Sephacryl S-200. Las fracciones 1, 2 y 3 presentaron líneas de precipitinas en imnunodifusión contra sueros hiperimnunes de conejos inoculados con extracto salino 2.5% (P/V a 47" C y 66' C. Por electroforesis SDS-PAGE. se determinaron bandas de proteínas con pesos moleculares entre 98.800 y 17.700 daltons. Lafracción lyel extracto salino crudo a 47" C se utilizaron como antígenos adsorbidos en gel de Al(OHj y con ellos se efectuaron ensayos de protección en ratones, teniendo como referencia la vacuna comercial contra Septicemia Hemorrágica producida por VECOL S.A. Mediante el método estadístico de Reed Muench se estableció el índice de protección y se encontró que todos los antígenos fueron considerados prolectores, siendo la fracción 1 la de mayor índice de protección con una dosis inferior.

  19. Experimental vaccine against lactococcosis in cultured rainbowtrout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzeni Jula, Gh.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is the etiological agent of lactococcosis, an emerging disease which affects several fish species and causes important economic losses both in marine and freshwater aquaculture. Lactococcosis usually happens when water temperature increases over 15°C during the year. Normally, it causes a hyperacute and haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. This paper presents a procedure for producing experimental vaccine for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss lactococcosis including aspects such as pathogen characterization, pathogenicity, mass cultivation, safety, potency and field trial tests for immersion use. In the potency test, after challenging the vaccinated fish with live pathogenic bacteria (1×107 bacteria per milliliter of immersing solution and observing for 72 hours thereafter, 10% of fish died while the control group showed 60% mortality within the observation time. In the field trial from vaccination time onward till marketing of the fish, those mortalities that occurred in groups of vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish were recorded. Total death occurred in the vaccinated group was 11%, while in non vaccinated group this number was approaching 23%. This observation indicates a 50% reduction in mortality in the vaccinated group. This is the first report on experimental vaccine against lactococcosis in fish that is produced and tested in Iran.

  20. Limited Interactions between Streptococcus Suis and Haemophilus Parasuis in In Vitro Co-Infection Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Annabelle; Letendre, Corinne; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Segura, Mariela; Aragon, Virginia; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are normal inhabitants of the porcine upper respiratory tract but are also among the most frequent causes of disease in weaned piglets worldwide, causing inflammatory diseases such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Using an in vitro model of infection with tracheal epithelial cells or primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), it was possible to determine the interaction between S. suis serotype 2 and H. parasuis strains with different level of virulence. Within H. parasuis strains, the low-virulence F9 strain showed higher adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells and greater association levels to PAMs than the high-virulence Nagasaki strain. Accordingly, the low-virulence F9 strain induced, in general, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than the virulent Nagasaki strain from both cell types. In general, S. suis adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells were similar to H. parasuis Nagasaki strain. Yet, S. suis strains induced a significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression from epithelial cells and PAMs than those observed with both H. parasuis strains. Finally, this study has shown that, overall and under the conditions used in the present study, S. suis and H. parasuis have limited in vitro interactions between them and use probably different host receptors, regardless to their level of virulence. PMID:29316613

  1. Histopathology of adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G. S.; Okihiro, M. S.; Hinton, D. E.; Brown, E. D.; Hanes, D.

    1999-01-01

    The histopathology of Pacific herring sampled from oiled sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska, three weeks after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, is discussed. All samples showed multifocal hepatic necrosis and significantly increased tissue concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, Pacific herring from reference sites in 1989 and from all sites in 1990 and 1991 did not have hepatic necrosis or increase PAH concentrations. Naphthalenes were the predominant PAH in all tissue samples. The development of hepatic necrosis and the predominance of naphthalenes in samples from 1989 is considered consistent with results obtained from recent laboratory studies indicating that crude oil exposure resulted in dose-dependent expression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). It was concluded that adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound were likely exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in April 1989. Because Pacific herring near spawning condition in early spring are in a state of physiological stress, the added stress of oil exposure in 1989 could reasonably have led to expression of VHSV in these fish. The findings suggest that the immediate response to future large toxic spills should include consideration of the potential interaction of multiple stressors in exposed individuals. 29 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (blood, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid samples indicated Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.

  3. Lung transplantation for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after allo-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, A M; Riise, G C; Hansson, L; Brinch, L; Bjørtuft, O; Iversen, M; Simonsen, S; Fløisand, Y

    2013-05-01

    Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) associated bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a serious complication after allo-SCT, and lung transplantation (LTx) may be the ultimate treatment option. To evaluate this treatment, data on all patients with LTx after allo-SCT ever performed in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland were recorded and compared with survival data from the Scandiatransplant registry. In total, LTx after allo-SCT had been performed in 13 patients. Allo-SCT was done because of AML (n=6), CML (n=3), ALL (n=2), immunodeficiency (n=1) and aplastic anemia (n=1). All developed clinical cGVHD, with median interval from allo-SCT to LTx of 8.2 (0.7-16) years. Median age at LTx was 34 (16-55) years, and the median postoperative observation time was 4.2 (0.1-15) years. Two patients died, one due to septicemia, the other of relapsing leukemia, after 2 and 14 months, respectively. Four developed BOS, one of these was retransplanted. The survival did not significantly differ from the survival in matched LTx controls, being 90% 1 year and 75% 5 years after LTx compared with 85% and 68% in the controls. We therefore suggest that LTx may be considered in carefully selected patients with BOS due to cGVHD after allo-SCT.

  4. Screening Antibacterial Agent from Crude Extract of Marine-Derived Fungi Associated with Soft Corals against MDR-Staphylococcus haemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabdaningsih, A.; Cristianawati, O.; Sibero, M. T.; Nuryadi, H.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a Gram-positive bacteria and member of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which has the highest level of antimicrobial resistance. This nosocomial pathogen due to skin or soft tissue infections, bacteremia, septicemia, peritonitis, otitis media, meningitis and urinary tract infections. The ability to produce enterotoxins, hemolysins, biofilm, and cytotoxins could be an important characteristic for the successful of infection. Marine-derived fungi have potency as a continuous supply of bioactive compound. The aim of this research was screening antibacterial agent from crude extracts of marine-derived fungi associated with soft corals against MDR-S. haemolyticus. Among 23 isolates of marine-derived fungi isolated from 7 soft corals, there were 4 isolates active against MDR-S. haemolyticus. The screening was conducted by using agar plug diffusion method. Isolate PPSC-27-A4 had the highest antibacterial activity with diameter 23±9,6 mm. The crude extract from this isolate had been confirmed to antibacterial susceptibility test and it had the highest antibacterial activity in 12.2 mm with concentration of 300μg/ml from mycelia extract. PPSC-27-A4 had been characterized in molecular, based on the sequence analysis of 18S rRNA, PPSC-27-A4 isolate was identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

  5. A simple method for rapid microbial identification from positive monomicrobial blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Ge, Mao-Cheng; Liu, Tsui-Ping; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2017-06-30

    Rapid identification of microbes in the bloodstream is crucial in managing septicemia because of its high disease severity, and direct identification from positive blood culture bottles through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can shorten the turnaround time. Therefore, we developed a simple method for rapid microbiological identification from positive blood cultures by using MALDI-TOF MS. We modified previously developed methods to propose a faster, simpler and more economical method, which includes centrifugation and hemolysis. Specifically, our method comprises two-stage centrifugation with gravitational acceleration (g) at 600g and 3000g, followed by the addition of a lysis buffer and another 3000g centrifugation. In total, 324 monomicrobial bacterial cultures were identified. The success rate of species identification was 81.8%, which is comparable with other complex methods. The identification success rate was the highest for Gram-negative aerobes (85%), followed by Gram-positive aerobes (78.2%) and anaerobes (67%). The proposed method requires less than 10 min, costs less than US$0.2 per usage, and facilitates batch processing. We conclude that this method is feasible for clinical use in microbiology laboratories, and can serve as a reference for treatments or further complementary diagnostic testing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J. V.; Whipple, G. H.

    1918-01-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions. PMID:19868253

  7. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN : V. THE INCREASE IN NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN OF THE BLOOD IN ACUTE INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES AND ACUTE INTOXICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J V; Whipple, G H

    1918-08-01

    Sterile abscess formation in the dog is accompanied by a large increase in output of urinary nitrogen and also by a small but definite increase in the blood non-protein nitrogen. All this nitrogenous material of course is derived from body protein injury and autolysis. Septic inflammation in the dog (pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis, etc.) likewise shows a distinct rise in the blood non-protein nitrogen. This rise is not often so great as that frequently observed in the intoxication of intestinal obstruction. Many acute infections in man (septicemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, etc.) show a definite rise in the non-protein nitrogen and urea nitrogen of the blood; some cases show a very great rise above normal (over 100 mg. of non-protein nitrogen per 100 cc. of blood). There may be no anatomical change in the kidney beyond the familiar picture of cloudy swelling. This does not exclude the possibility of some transient functional derangement of the kidney epithelium. Certain obscure intoxications in man may show a considerable rise in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood, indicating a large amount of protein disintegration. These findings must be taken into account in any clinical analysis and interpretation of high non-protein nitrogen of the blood in pathological conditions.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  9. The effects of perioperative probiotic treatment on serum zonulin concentration and subsequent postoperative infectious complications after colorectal cancer surgery: a double-center and double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Huang, Mei-Jin; Zhang, Xing-Wei; Wang, Lei; Huang, Nan-Qi; Peng, Hui; Lan, Pin; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Yang, Zhen; Xia, Yang; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yang, Jun; Qin, Huan-Long; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Zonulin is a newly discovered protein that has an important role in the regulation of intestinal permeability. Our previous study showed that probiotics can decrease the rate of infectious complications in patients undergoing colectomy for colorectal cancer. The objective was to determine the effects of the perioperative administration of probiotics on serum zonulin concentrations and the subsequent effect on postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. A total of 150 patients with colorectal carcinoma were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 75), which received placebo, or the probiotics group (n = 75). Both the probiotics and placebo were given orally for 6 d preoperatively and 10 d postoperatively. Outcomes were measured by assessing bacterial translocation, postoperative intestinal permeability, serum zonulin concentrations, duration of postoperative pyrexia, and cumulative duration of antibiotic therapy. The postoperative infection rate, the positive rate of blood microbial DNA, and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications-including septicemia, central line infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and diarrhea-were also assessed. The infection rate was lower in the probiotics group than in the control group (P zonulin concentration (P zonulin concentrations in patients undergoing colectomy. We propose a clinical regulatory model that might explain this association. This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org/en/ as ChiCTR-TRC-00000423.

  10. The acute radiation syndrome in the miniature pig Troll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegl, R.

    1986-01-01

    8 animals at an average age of 230 days and an average body weight of 24.9 kg were whole-body gamma-irradiated from a cobalt-60 source with 3.0 Gy midline dose. 4 of the 8 pigs survived, the others died within day 14 and 17 after irradiation, mainly due to thrombopenia dependent hemorrhage. Hematologic examinations showed as well that the platelets decreased to a minimum on day 14 p.r. The granulocyte values and yet remarkable the lymphocyte values decreased at an earlier time. The absolute lymphocyte counts reached their lowest mark already on the first day after irradiation. The reticulocytes, which also decreased markedly on day 1 p.r., sank further on the following days, till after two weeks when they started to increase again. Furthermore 25 biochemical serum parameters have been investigated. The major pathological findings of the acute radiation sickness were the mostly heavy hemorrhages. Histological studies indicated primarily aplasia of bone marrow, intestinal mucosa damages and atrophy of lymphatic tissues. Signs for septicemia were rarely found. The investigations in Troll-pigs showed, their reactions to an irradiation of middle-lethal doses are similar to those of other pigs. Only the Vietnamese pot-bellied swine reacts differently: Profuse diarrheas already after low radiation-doses are reported. (orig./MG) [de

  11. CD44 deficiency enhanced Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus dissemination and inflammation response in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased. CD44 deficiency accelerated mortality, which was accompanied by increased peritoneal bacterial growth and dissemination to distant body sites. CD44 knock-out (KO) mice showed enhanced early inflammatory cell recruitment into the peritoneal fluid on S. zooepidemicus infection. In line with this, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines in peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal macrophages of CD44 KO mice were increased compared with those of WT mice. In addition, CD44 deficiency was associated with reduced expression of A20, a negative regulator in TLR signaling. Overall, the present study suggests that CD44 plays a protective role in antibacterial defense against S. zooepidemicus in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Liver repair and hemorrhage control using laser soldering of liquid albumin in a porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Yasmin; Xie, Hua; Kajitani, Michio; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser soldering using liquid albumin for welding liver lacerations and sealing raw surfaces created by segmental resection of a lobe. Major liver trauma has a high mortality due to immediate exsanguination and a delayed morbidity and mortality from septicemia, peritonitis, biliary fistulae and delayed secondary hemorrhage. Eight laceration injuries (6 cm long X 2 cm deep) and eight non-anatomical resection injuries (raw surface 6 cm X 2 cm) were repaired. An 805 nm laser was used to weld 53% liquid albumin-ICG solder to the liver surface, reinforcing it with a free autologous omental scaffold. The animals were heparinized to simulate coagulation failure and hepatic inflow occlusion was used for vascular control. For both laceration and resection injuries, eight soldering repairs each were evaluated at three hours. A single suture repair of each type was evaluated at three hours. All 16 laser mediated liver repairs were accompanied by minimal blood loss as compared to the suture controls. No dehiscence, hemorrhage or bile leakage was seen in any of the laser repairs after three hours. In conclusion laser fusion repair of the liver is a quick and reliable technique to gain hemostasis on the cut surface as well as weld lacerations.

  13. Caracterización molecular de la cadena gama común y Jak3 en un individuo afectado con inmunodeficiencia severa combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Patiño Grajales

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada (IDSC es una enfermedad
    de origen genético, que se puede heredar de forma autosómica
    recesiva o ligada al cromosoma X. La IDSC se caracteriza por un
    defecto en el número y la diferenciación de los linfocitos T y NK. Los
    individuos afectados desarrollan diarrea crónica, infecciones persistentes y severas como neumonía, septicemia e infecciones fúngicas.
    Estos pacientes presentan retardo en el crecimiento y pueden morir a
    temprana edad si no se realiza una terapia de corrección genética o un
    trasplante de células hematopoyéticas. Las mutaciones responsables
    de la IDSC comprometen principalmente el gen de la cadena gama
    común (γc y la proteína Jak3 que son proteínas fundamentales en la
    transducción de señales de los receptores para varias citoquinas esenciales en la diferenciación y activación de células del sistema inmune, las cuales incluyen IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 e IL-15 (1,2.

     

     

  14. Líquido cefalorraqueano em infecção do sistema nervoso central por leveduras do gênero Candida: análise de 11 casos

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    J. A. Livramento

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 44 amostras de liqüido cefalorraqueano (LCR de 11 pacientes em que foi possível fazer diagnóstico etiológico de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC por leveduras do gênero Candida. Todos os pacientes apresentavam fatores de risco para a afecção. Cinco apresentavam quadro de meningite crônica a esclarecer; dois, síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida; dois, traumatismo crânioencefálico seguido de meningite crônica; um, coagulação intravascular disseminada seguida de septicemia; um, candi-díase sistêmica pós-transplante renal. O diagnóstico etiológico foi feito pelo exame do LCR, possibilitando em 9 o isolamento da levedura por crescimento em meio de cultura. Em dois o diagnóstico foi feito pela presença das leveduras ao exame direto e, em um deles, também pela positividade da reação de fixação de complemento para Candida realizada em três amostras sucessivas de LCR. Discute-se a importância das alterações encontradas no exame do LCR na candidíase do SNC.

  15. Intoxicação experimental aguda por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Experimental acute poisoning by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Anjos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi delineado para investigar os seguintes pontos em relação à intoxicação aguda por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos: 1 a intensidade da trombocitopenia em diferentes momentos da intoxicação e sua relação com possíveis déficits na hemostasia secundária, 2 a relação da neutropenia com as manifestações morfológicas de septicemia ocasionalmente observadas na necropsia, e 3 o mecanismo da anemia e sua relação com a perda de sangue, a vida média eritróide e a evolução da doença. As hastes superiores mais verdes de P. aquilinum foram administradas a quatro bovinos sem raça definida, com idade média de 1,5 ano e pesos entre 190-215 kg. Um bovino de idade e peso semelhantes foi usado como controle e, exceto por não ter recebido P. aquilinum, foi mantido nas mesmas condições que os outros quatro. Os quatro bovinos que receberam a planta morreram com quadro característico da intoxicação aguda por samambaia após receberem durante 53-58 dias, doses diárias de 8,0, 8,6, 10,2 e 10,6g/kg de peso corporal, que totalizaram, ao final do experimento, respectivamente, 112,7, 107,6, 85,7, 90,15 kg da planta, o que corresponde, respectivamente, a 59,3%, 63,3%, 47,4%, 47,5% da planta em relação ao peso dos bovinos. A doença caracterizou-se por febre de até 42,5°C e diversos graus de hemorragias observadas clinicamente, na necropsia e na histopatologia. A morte ocorria 6-7 dias após o início do quadro febril. As alterações hematológicas revelaram trombocitopenia e neutropenia acentuadas. Em dois dos quatro bovinos havia anemia leve. Não houve variações significativas nos tempos de coagulação dos bovinos intoxicados, quando avaliados os fatores de coagulação (secundária, excluindo-se assim a possibilidade da participação de distúrbios da hemostasia secundária na patogênese das hemorragias nessa intoxicação. A determinação dos produtos da degradação da fibrina no soro revelou dados

  16. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  17. Mortality pattern in otorhinolaryngology ward: A 5 years retrospective study at an urban tertiary health care center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Satish; Chandra Sharma, Naresh; Kumar, Badal

    2017-10-01

    To recognize deaths in the otorhinolaryngology indoor wards, determine the reason behind the mortalities and recommend modifications for betterment of patient care and surgical outcomes. Data was collected from the mortality register, operation theatre registers, ward registers and case notes of patients declared dead at an urban tertiary health care center in India for a period of 5 years; from January 2012 to December 2016. The data included date of admission, age, sex, educational status, residence, and clinical diagnosis, course of hospital stay and medical cause of death. Data acquired was reviewed and statistically interpreted and presented in graphical and descriptive formats. 6157 admissions were made in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) ward in the 5 year period which included 3969 males and 2188 female patients. 58 deaths were recorded during this period which gives overall death per admission crude mortality rate of 9.42% at an average of about 12 (11.60) deaths per year. The major causes of death were malignancy and septicemia. The significance of health education, aggressive healthcare campaigns, enhancement of healthcare services and wide accessibility of healthcare services to remote areas has been emphasized. Role of structured study and protocols in the management of serious cases is highlighted along with the need for prompt referral and better interdepartmental cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli Isolated from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L; Gill, Verena A; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; LeFebvre, Rance B; Byrne, Barbara A

    2015-06-01

    The Gram positive bacterial coccus Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli is increasingly linked with development of fatal vegetative infective endocarditis and septicemia in humans, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and other animals. However, the pathogenesis of these infections is poorly understood. Using S. infantarius subsp. coli strains isolated from sea otters with infective endocarditis, this study evaluated adherence and invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells, adherence to extracellular matrix components, and macrophage survival. Significant adherence to endothelial-derived cells was observed for 62% of isolates, 24% adhered to epithelial cell lines, and 95% invaded one or both cell types in vitro. The importance of the hyaluronic acid capsule in host cell adherence and invasion was also evaluated. Capsule removal significantly reduced epithelial adherence and invasion for most S. infantarius subsp. coli isolates, suggesting that the capsule facilitates attachment to and invasion of epithelium. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing revealed that all isolates adhered significantly to the extracellular matrix components collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin and hyaluronic acid. Finally, significant bacterial survival following phagocytosis by macrophages was apparent for 81% of isolates at one or more time points. Taken collectively these findings indicate that S. infantarius subsp. coli has multiple pathogenic properties that may be important to host colonization, invasion and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical studies on bone marrow transplantation of acute leukemia and aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Yasuo

    1979-01-01

    Since 1974, we have done bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in six patients of acute leukemia and two of aplastic anemia. Leukemia patients were premedicated by CY+TBI method; cyclophosphamide (CY) 60 mg/kg/day was administered for two successive days and two days later, total body irradiation (TBI) was done in a dose of 800 - 1000 rad at a rate of 20-28 rad/min by linear accerelator. Patients with aplastic anemia were premedicated by CY method; CY 50 mg/kg/day for four successive days. Bone marrow graft was obtained from donor under general anesthesia. The nucleated bone marrow cells, ranged from 0.7 x 10 10 to 1.4 x 10 10 were transfused into the patient intravenously. Any lethal side effects did not develop in all patient during these procedures. Two died on day 10 and 12 with septicemia. The other 6 patients showed engraftment of bone marrow indicated by rising blood counts, return of marrow cellularity and in one case by blood cytogenetic markers. Relapse of leukemia did not occur in five patients treated with CY + TBI method. Three patients with allogeneic BMT developed moderately severe to severe Graft versus Host Disease. Survival time after BMT were 12, 35, 63, 68, 98, 125 days. 15 months in leukemia, and 10 days, 12 + months in aplastic anemia. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions against oral and oropharyngeal reservoirs of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Otto L T; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2012-03-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) are opportunistic pathogens and continue to cause a large number of hospital-acquired infections. AGNB residing in the oral cavity and oropharynx have been linked to nosocomial pneumonia and septicemia. Although AGNB are not considered members of the normal oral and oropharyngeal flora, medically compromised patients have been demonstrated to be susceptible to AGNB colonization. A literature search was conducted to retrieve articles that evaluated the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions in reducing the oral and oropharyngeal carriage of AGNB in medically compromised patients. Few studies have documented the use of mechanical oral hygiene interventions alone against AGNB. Although a number of studies have employed oral hygiene interventions complemented by antiseptic agents such as chlorhexidine and povidone iodine, there appears to be a discrepancy between their in vitro and in vivo effectiveness. With the recognition of the oral cavity and oropharynx as a reservoir of AGNB and the recent emergence of multidrug and pandrug resistance in hospital settings, there is a pressing need for additional high-quality randomized controlled trials to determine which oral hygiene interventions or combination of interventions are most effective in eliminating or reducing AGNB carriage. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koczula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq. In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism. In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments.

  2. GCN2-Dependent Metabolic Stress Is Essential for Endotoxemic Cytokine Induction and Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyun; Huang, Lei; Bradley, Jillian; Liu, Kebin; Bardhan, Kankana; Ron, David; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Activated inflammatory macrophages can express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and thus actively deplete their own tryptophan supply; however, it is not clear how amino acid depletion influences macrophage behavior in inflammatory environments. In this report, we demonstrate that the stress response kinase GCN2 promotes macrophage inflammation and mortality in a mouse model of septicemia. In vitro, enzymatic amino acid consumption enhanced sensitivity of macrophages to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with significantly increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) production. Tryptophan withdrawal induced the stress response proteins ATF4 and CHOP/GADD153; however, LPS stimulation rapidly enhanced expression of both proteins. Moreover, LPS-driven cytokine production under amino acid-deficient conditions was dependent on GCN2, as GCN2 knockout (GCN2KO) macrophages had a significant reduction of cytokine gene expression after LPS stimulation. To test the in vivo relevance of these findings, monocytic-lineage-specific GCN2KO mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.). The GCN2KO mice showed reduced inflammatory responses, with decreased IL-6 and IL-12 expression correlating with significant reduction in animal mortality. Thus, the data show that amino acid depletion stress signals (via GCN2) synergize with proinflammatory signals to potently increase innate immune responsiveness. PMID:24248597

  3. Prospective observational multicenter study to define a diagnostic algorithm for biliary candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Philipp; Eckelskemper, Franziska; Erichsen, Thomas; Lankisch, Tim; Dechêne, Alexander; Lubritz, Gabriele; Lenze, Frank; Beyna, Torsten; Ullerich, Hansjörg; Schmedt, Andre; Domagk, Dirk

    2014-09-14

    To develop an algorithm to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with biliary candidiasis. We performed a prospective study of 127 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for various biliary disorders, at 3 tertiary referral centers in Germany from July 2011 through July 2012 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01109550). Bile, buccal, and stool samples were collected. When indicated, endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsies were performed to clarify the etiology of bile duct strictures and to prove invasive fungal infections. Candida species were detected in 38 of the 127 bile samples (29.9%). By multivariate analysis patients' age and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy were independent risk factors for biliary candidiasis (P 7 d) (P = 0.089) tend to be at risk for biliary candidiasis. One patient was negative in mycological culture of bile fluid but invasive biliary candidiasis was diagnosed histologically. Of Candida subspecies detected, 36.7% were azole-resistant, such as C glabrata. Eight patients received anti-mycotic therapy, based on our algorithm. Of these, 3 had cancer with biliary tract involvement, 2 had secondary sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had retroperitoneal fibrosis, and 5 had septicemia. In all patients contamination was ruled out by smears of the endoscope channel. Gastroenterologists should be aware of frequent candida colonization in patients with cholangitis and biliary disorders. Our suggested algorithm facilitates the further clinical management.

  4. Prevalence and direct costs of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Gargano, J W; Beach, M J

    2017-10-01

    National emergency department (ED) visit prevalence and costs for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water were estimated using large healthcare databases (acute otitis externa, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, Escherichia coli infection, free-living ameba infection, giardiasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Legionnaires' disease, nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and vibriosis or cholera). An estimated 477,000 annual ED visits (95% CI: 459,000-494,000) were documented, with 21% (n = 101,000, 95% CI: 97,000-105,000) resulting in immediate hospital admission. The remaining 376,000 annual treat-and-release ED visits (95% CI: 361,000-390,000) resulted in $194 million in annual direct costs. Most treat-and-release ED visits (97%) and costs ($178 million/year) were associated with acute otitis externa. HAV ($5.5 million), NTM ($2.3 million), and salmonellosis ($2.2 million) were associated with next highest total costs. Cryptosporidiosis ($2,035), campylobacteriosis ($1,783), and NTM ($1,709) had the highest mean costs per treat-and-release ED visit. Overall, the annual hospitalization and treat-and-release ED visit costs associated with the selected diseases totaled $3.8 billion. As most of these diseases are not solely transmitted by water, an attribution process is needed as a next step to determine the proportion of these visits and costs attributable to waterborne transmission.

  5. Assessment of bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice using Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia]. E-mail: simone@farmacia.ufmg.br; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    In obstructive jaundice, the passage of bacteria and endotoxins through the intestine wall to reach the systemic circulation is associated with septicemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this work was to investigate bacterial translocation utilizing {sup 99m} Tc-E.coli in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. The levels of bilirubin in rats that were subjected to ligature of the bile duct were significantly increased when compared to control animals (p < 0.001). The biodistribution results did not show any translocation of {sup 99m} Tc-E.coli to the mesenteric lymphatic nodules, liver, spleen or lungs of the rats that suffered ligature of the bile duct (p > 0.05). The evaluation of the intestinal permeability using 'per os' administration of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA showed 1.61 {+-} 0.57% and 1.39 {+-} 0.72% of radioactivity in the urine of the control and jaundice animals, respectively. The histological analysis of the distal wall of the ileum showed that the covering epithelium and the crypt were morphologically preserved in both groups. The seven-day period after the ligature of the bile duct may not have been long enough to promote modifications in intestinal wall to occur so as to permit the passage of Tc-99m E.coli. (author)

  6. Krill Oil-In-Water Emulsion Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaterra, Gabriel A; Driscoll, David; Schwarzbach, Hans; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2017-03-15

    Parenteral nutrition is often a mandatory therapeutic strategy for cases of septicemia. Likewise, therapeutic application of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, and endotoxin lowering, by removal or inactivation, might be beneficial to ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response during the acute phases of critical illness. Concerning anti-inflammatory properties in this setting, omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin have been frequently described. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and LPS-inactivating properties of krill oil (KO)-in-water emulsion in human macrophages in vitro. Differentiated THP-1 macrophages were activated using specific ultrapure-LPS that binds only on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in order to determine the inhibitory properties of the KO emulsion on the LPS-binding capacity, and the subsequent release of TNF-α. KO emulsion inhibited the macrophage binding of LPS to the TLR4 by 50% (at 12.5 µg/mL) and 75% (at 25 µg/mL), whereas, at 50 µg/mL, completely abolished the LPS binding. Moreover, KO (12.5 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, or 50 µg/mL) also inhibited (30%, 40%, or 75%, respectively) the TNF-α release after activation with 0.01 µg/mL LPS in comparison with LPS treatment alone. KO emulsion influences the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages, possibly due to inactivation of the LPS binding capacity.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  8. [Major sickle cell syndromes and infections associated with this condition in children in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douamba, Sonia; Nagalo, Kisito; Tamini, Laure; Traoré, Ismaël; Kam, Madibèlè; Kouéta, Fla; Yé, Diarra

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate infections in children with major sickle cell syndrome. We conducted a monocentric descriptive retrospective hospital study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, over a ten-year period. All children with major sickle cell syndrome (homozygous SS and double heterozygous SC, SD Punjab , Sβ thalassemic, SO Arab and SE) hospitalized for microbiologically confirmed infections were enrolled in the study. One hundred and thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria. The SS phenotype accounted for 63.2% of cases and SC 36.8%. The frequency of infections was 21.8%. In 45.9% of cases, these affected children aged 0-5 years. The most frequent signs were osteoarticular pain (42.1%), cough (25.7%), abdominal pain (23.3%), pallor (43.6%). The major diagnoses were bronchopneumonia (31.6%), malaria (16.5%), osteomyelitis (12.8%) and septicemia (10.5%). The isolated pathogenic organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (35.5%) and Salmonella spp (33.3%). Third generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. Gros mortality rate was 7.5%. Bacterial infections and malaria dominate the clinical picture of infections in children with major sickle cell syndrome at the at the Pediatrics University Hospital Center Charles De-Gaulle. This study highlights the importance of establishing a national program for the management of sickle-cell anemia, which could help prevent or reduce the occurrence of infections in children with sickle cell syndrome.

  9. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001, bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012, bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005, otitis media (p value = 0.003, and skin diseases (p value = 0.047. Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414, bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705, bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706, meningitis (p value 0.043, and septicemia (p value 0.04. Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  10. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Esquinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n=2; healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n=2; healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n=2; diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n=3. The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide.

  11. Genomics of an emerging clone of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ST313 from Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Friis, Carsten; Zankari, Ea; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Price, Lance B; Rahmani, Maral; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Fashae, Kayode; Vandenberg, Olivier; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-10-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is an invasive and phylogenetically distinct lineage present in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the presence of S. Typhimurium ST313 from patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. Eighteen S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, six of the isolates were characterized by whole genome sequence typing (WGST). The presence of a putative virulence determinant was examined in 177 Salmonella isolates belonging to 57 different serovars. All S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates harbored resistant genes encoded by blaTEM1b, catA1, strA/B, sul1, and dfrA1. Additionally, aac(6')1aa gene was detected. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic relationships among Congolese and Nigerian isolates from both blood and stool. Comparative genomic analyses identified a putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and S. Dublin. We showed in a limited number of isolates that S. Typhimurium ST313 is a prevalent sequence-type causing gastrointestinal diseases and septicemia in patients from Nigeria and DRC. We found three distinct phylogenetic clusters based on the origin of isolation suggesting some spatial evolution. Comparative genomics showed an interesting putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and invasive S. Dublin.

  12. Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization in The Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

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    MR Nazer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Group B Strepococcus(GBS is one of the most important causes of neonatal infections including septicemia and meningitis. It also plays an important role in maternal infections such as chorioamnionitis, pyelonephritis, metritis and post partum infection. The present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS in pregnant women with 28 to 38 weeks gestational age. Methods: In this study, 100 pregnant women referring to the obstetrical clinic of Asalian Hospital in Khorramabad city in the third trimester of pregnancy (after explaining the study, getting informed consent and demographic informations were tested for GBS by taking a vaginal sample. The sample was taken by sterile cotton swab. The swabs were placed in transport media, transported to the central Lab, and were inoculated in blood agar. Then all samples were analyzed for the presence of GBS. Results: In this study, the prevalence of positive vaginal GBS culture in pregnant women was 14% (CI: 7.2-20.8%. No significant correlation were found between this positive culture and maternal age, gestational age, abortion status, diabetes mellitus and pregnancy induced hypertension, while a significant correlation was found between positive cultures and parity. Conclusion: As the colonization rate of GBS in pregnant women of Khorramabad is high, routine culture-based screening is recommended for all pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Melioidosis in acute cholangitis of diabetic patient: a forgotten diagnosis

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    Mohamad N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasir Mohamad,1 Suresh Ponnusamy,2 Sunita Devi,3 Rishya Manikam,4 Ilya Irinaz Idrus,1 Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar51Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia; 2AIMST University, Bedong, Malaysia; 3Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim, Sungai Petani, Malaysia; 4University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Department of Pathology, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, MalaysiaAbstract: Melioidosis presents with a wide range of clinical presentations, which include severe community-acquired pneumonia, septicemia, central nervous system infection, and less severe soft tissue infection. Hence, its diagnosis depends heavily on the clinical microbiology laboratory for culture. In this case report, we describe an atypical presentation of melioidosis in a 52-year-old man who had fever, right upper-abdominal pain, and jaundice for 15 days. Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei was subsequently diagnosed from blood culture. As a primary care physician, high suspicion index is of great importance. High suspicion index of melioidosis in a high-risk group patient, such as the patient with diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot, is crucial in view of atypical presentations of pseudomonas sepsis. A correct combination of antibiotic administration in the early phase of therapy will determine its successful outcome.Keywords: Burkholderia pseudomallei, atypical, high suspicion, primary care

  14. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

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    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  15. Limited Interactions between Streptococcus Suis and Haemophilus Parasuis in In Vitro Co-Infection Studies

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    Annabelle Mathieu-Denoncourt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis and Haemophilus parasuis are normal inhabitants of the porcine upper respiratory tract but are also among the most frequent causes of disease in weaned piglets worldwide, causing inflammatory diseases such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Using an in vitro model of infection with tracheal epithelial cells or primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs, it was possible to determine the interaction between S. suis serotype 2 and H. parasuis strains with different level of virulence. Within H. parasuis strains, the low-virulence F9 strain showed higher adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells and greater association levels to PAMs than the high-virulence Nagasaki strain. Accordingly, the low-virulence F9 strain induced, in general, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than the virulent Nagasaki strain from both cell types. In general, S. suis adhesion levels to respiratory epithelial cells were similar to H. parasuis Nagasaki strain. Yet, S. suis strains induced a significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression from epithelial cells and PAMs than those observed with both H. parasuis strains. Finally, this study has shown that, overall and under the conditions used in the present study, S. suis and H. parasuis have limited in vitro interactions between them and use probably different host receptors, regardless to their level of virulence.

  16. Usefulness of blood irradiation before transfusion to avoid transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD)

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    Takahashi, Koki

    1997-01-01

    We summarize the pathology of the transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) and examine the usefulness of the blood irradiation before transfusion as more widely used prophylaxis. The symptom of TA-GVHD was as follows: after (asymptomatic phase) for 1 to 2 weeks after blood transfusion, pyrexia and erythema appeared. Furthermore, hepatic disorder, diarrhea and bloody stool occurred. In no longer time, pancytopenia by aplastic crisis of the bone marrow appeard, and severe granulocytopenia occurred. Finally, by the complication with severe infectious disease such as septicemia, almost all the patients died with in 3 to 4 weeks after blood transfusion. TA-GVHD was found in some patients without immune deficiency syndrome. The cause of the frequent occurrence of the disease in Japan was shown by the probability of the one-way matching analysis. As the countermeasure of TA-GVHD, we examined the effectiveness of the blood irradiation before transfusion under the consideration of the safety and the emergency. After the responder cells were beforehand irradiated with various doses of radiation (X-ray or g-ray), the proliferative response was investigated through the uptake of 3 H-thymidine, and we obtained 15-50 Gy as the optimum dose of the radiation. We discuss the establishment of the countermeasure for the TA-GVHD and the formation of the nationwide support system for TV-GVHD (K.H.). 33 refs

  17. Evaluation of the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) scoring system in elderly patients with pressure sores undergoing fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction.

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    Mizumoto, Kazuo; Morita, Eishin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict operative morbidity in elderly patients with deep pressure sores by using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) scoring system. Fifteen patients over 70 years old were retrospectively reviewed who had undergone gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction for pressure sores of the sacral region from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2007. Complications were seen in six cases (40%) after operation. Four were wound infection, one was chest infection and another was septicemia. The subjects were divided into two groups by the presence (complicated group) or absence (non-complicated group) of postoperative complications. Each item of physiological scores, physiological score (PS), operative severity score (OS) and predicted morbidity rate (R) were calculated and compared between two groups. As a result, hemoglobin (P = 0.0276), PS (P = 0.0023) and R (P = 0.0078) differed significantly between the two groups. It is noteworthy that the PS were over 25 in all of the complicated group, but in only one of nine in the non-complicated group (P = 0.0014). Our study suggests that, for pressure sores in the sacral region in elderly patients, gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction can be employed in patients whose PS are under 24 in the POSSUM scoring system.

  18. Susceptibility and pathological consequences of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton experimentally infected with Edwardsiella tarda

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    Devi Thongam Bidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the susceptibility and pathological changes of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton infected with Edwardsiella tarda (ET-PG-29. The bacterium was isolated from the kidney of a diseased pangas catfish. To determine the median lethal dose (LD50, C. catla were challenged with this bacterium (108-103 CFU ml-1, and the LD50 was calculated as 105.5 CFU ml-1. Another set of healthy C. catla were injected intraperitoneally with the LD50 dose to induce edwardsiellosis. The clinical signs of the infected C. catla were observed and recorded. Tissues such as kidney, liver, intestine, heart, and gill from the infected fish with clinical signs of edwardsiellosis were used for histopathology. The clinical and gross signs were first visible at 1 d post-injection, and the infected fish showed typical signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The most striking histopathological features were found in the kidney which showed multi-focal necrosis with the formation of granuloma indicating an inflammatory response against the pathogen. The intestine displayed goblet cell hyperplasia, the liver showed hydropic degeneration with hyperemic central veins, and there was inflammation of gill lamellae and cardiac myositis associated with leucocyte infiltration. Collectively, the results confirmed the susceptibility of C. catla to E. tarda infection and that this bacterium is a threat to C. catla in aquaculture practices.

  19. Streptococcus Agalactiae Research on Secretion Vaginal and Anal Pregnant Women of a City of Paulista Northwest

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    Cátia Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae has great medical importance in infections associated with severe neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the tables of septicemia, pneumonia and neonatal meningitis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anal and vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae in pregnant women at different gestational ages. We evaluated the incidence of colonization by S. agalactiae in 129 pregnant women of any age. Two samples of secretion were collected for culture: a perianal swab and a vaginal swab. Each of the two swabs were inoculated in test tubes containing Todd-Hewitt broth and subcultured on blood agar. After a period of 24 to 48 hours, the colonies suggestive of S. agalactiae were submitted to morfotintorial analysis and to biochemical tests for identification. Among 129 women studied, 3 (2.33% have tested positive for Streptococcus agalactiae and 126 (97.67% were negative. The results presented in this work are inferior to the data from other studies, however, the methodology used was compatible with most authors. Even so this rate is considered a relevant value taking into account the importance of Streptococcus agalactiae infections in pregnant women and newborns, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the culture of vaginal and anal secretion for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in surveys of prenatal care.

  20. Cecal perforation with an ascending colon cancer caused by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

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    Hiroyuki Miyatani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Miyatani1, Yukio Yoshida1, Hirokazu Kiyozaki21Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Colonic perforation caused by upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy is extremely rare. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Colonoscopy could be performed only up to the hepatic flexure due to an elongated colon and residual stools. Because her symptoms improved, upper GI endoscopy was performed 11 days later. The patient developed severe abdominal pain two hours after the examination. Abdominal X-ray and computed tomography showed massive free air. Immediate laparotomy was performed for the intestinal perforation. After removal of stool, a perforation site was detected in the cecum with an invasive ascending colon cancer. Therefore, a right hemicolectomy, ileostomy, and transverse colostomy were performed. Although she developed postoperative septicemia, the patient was discharged 38 days after admission. Seven months postoperatively, the patient died of lung, liver, and brain metastases. Even in cases with a lesion that is not completely obstructed, it is important to note that air insufflations during upper GI endoscopy can perforate the intestinal wall in patients with advanced colon cancer.Keywords: colonic perforation, colon cancer, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, fecal peritonitis