WorldWideScience

Sample records for separator characterization studies

  1. Characterization and Separation Studies of a Fine Sedimentary Phosphate Ore Slime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed characterization and recovery of apatite from a sedimentary phosphate ore slime of a gravity plant of Yichang, China, were investigated. The phosphate ore slime consisted mainly of apatite, quartz, dolomite, and clay. To start with, the ore slime was characterized in sufficient detail to reveal that it is extremely fine in distribution with a d50 of 65 μm. Other different characterizations, such as apatite grain size distribution, apatite liberation, particle density distribution, and theoretical grade recovery, were also analyzed by mineral liberation analyser (MLA. Based on the results, a new gravity-flotation process, which was comprised of spiral gravity and reverse flotation, was proposed to process the slime. In the new process, the apatite was firstly recovered by two-stage spiral gravity, avoiding direct flotation. The gravity concentrate was the feed for the reverse flotation. A phosphate concentrate of 30.51% P2O5 with a P2O5 recovery of 89.00% can be produced from the slime analyzing 24.25% P2O5. Compared to the conventional direct-reverse flotation process, it was found that the reagent cost of the new gravity-flotation process was lower a quarter than that of the direct-reverse flotation flowsheet.

  2. Whey protein isolate gel for separation: A formation, characterization, and application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jiunn Yeong

    performance of WPI monolith for continuous bed chromatography. Nonetheless the WPI monolith may be used to separate different protein molecules based on protein-protein interaction between WPI and protein molecules to be separated.

  3. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  4. Electrokinetic characterization of whey protein separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Stougård, Anders; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Cross flow filtration of whey protein has been performed on 3 different membranes. The rejections have been determined by HPLC analysis of the feed and permeate. The pure membranes as well as the fouled membranes have been characterized by measurements of the streaming potential along the membrane...

  5. Separation and characterization of unknown impurities and isomers in flomoxef sodium by LC-IT-TOF MS and study of their negative-ion fragmentation regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Wang, Fan; Li, Jiani; Shan, Weiguang; Zhu, Bingqi; Wang, Jian

    2017-06-05

    Thirteen unknown impurities in flomoxef sodium were separated and characterized by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF MS)with positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization method for further improvement of official monographs in pharmacopoeias. The fragmentation patterns of impurities in flomoxef in the negative ion mode were studied in detail, and new negative-ion fragmentation regularities were discovered. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of (A) ammonium formate aqueous solution (10mM)-methanol (84:16, v/v) and (B) ammonium formate aqueous solution (10mM)-methanol (47:53, v/v). In order to determine the m/z values of the molecular ions and formulas of all detected impurities, full scan LC-MS in both positive and negative ion modes was firstly executed to obtain the m/z value of the molecules. Then LC-MS 2 and LC-MS 3 were carried out on target compounds to obtain as much structural information as possible. Complete fragmentation patterns of impurities were studied and used to obtain information about the structures of these impurities. Structures of thirteen unknown degradation products in flomoxef sodium were deduced based on the high resolution MS n data with both positive and negative modes. The forming mechanisms of degradation products in flomoxef sodium were also studied. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Separation and characterization of asphaltenic subfractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honse, Siller O.; Ferreira, Silas R.; Mansur, Claudia R. E.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Gonzalez, Gaspar, E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br [Centro de Pesquisas da PETROBRAS (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The structure of the various asphaltenic subfractions found in crude oil was evaluated. For this purpose, C5 asphaltenes were extracted from an asphaltic residue using n-pentane as the flocculant solvent. The different subfractions were isolated from the C5 asphaltenes by the difference in solubility in different solvents. These were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence, elementary analysis and mass spectrometry. The results confirmed that the subfractions extracted with higher alkanes had greater aromaticity and molar mass. However, small solubility variations between the subfractions were attributed mainly to the variation in the concentrations of cyclical hydrocarbon compounds and metals (author)

  7. CHARACTERIZATIONS OF FUZZY SOFT PRE SEPARATION AXIOMS

    OpenAIRE

    El-Latif, Alaa Mohamed Abd

    2015-01-01

    − The notions of fuzzy pre open soft sets and fuzzy pre closed soft sets were introducedby Abd El-latif et al. [2]. In this paper, we continue the study on fuzzy soft topological spaces andinvestigate the properties of fuzzy pre open soft sets, fuzzy pre closed soft sets and study variousproperties and notions related to these structures. In particular, we study the relationship betweenfuzzy pre soft interior fuzzy pre soft closure. Moreover, we study the properties of fuzzy soft pre regulars...

  8. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography followed by ...

  9. Mixing quality characterization in separations process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed on distribution of a dilute immiscible organic liquid dispersed in an aqueous phase contained baffled, paddle-agitated vessel, fitted with cooling coils. Acceptable total liquid levels in the vessel and minimum impeller speed were established for plant scale operation. Axial and radial distributions of the dispersed organic phase as functions of total liquid height, impeller speed, and the number of impellers were examined and some recurring trends were identified. Four stages of dispersion of organic phase in predominantly aqueous phase were identified with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s). The stages were: (1) non-dispersion stage in which the organic layer was undisturbed, (2) the organic layer was decreasing with impeller speed until complete but nonuniform dispersion was attained, (3) the non-uniformity of the completely dispersed mixture decreased with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s), and (4) a grossly uniform dispersion in which the local volume fraction of dispersed phase (organic) in mixture was the same throughout the vessel. Scale-up relations were developed for reproducing a defined mixing quality on two geometrically similar scales of operation, for the attainable condition of complete but non-uniform dispersion. The mixing quality was observed to decrease with increasing liquid depth over acceptable range, but variations in the overall concentration of organic liquid appeared to have only slight effect on the mixing quality

  10. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: Characterization and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo Ribeiro; Benevit, Mariana Gonçalves; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Photovoltaic panels have a limited lifespan and estimates show large amounts of solar modules will be discarded as electronic waste in a near future. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reduce production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such devices is important. Initially, this article investigates which silicon photovoltaic module's components are recyclable through their characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Next, different separation methods are tested to favour further recycling processes. The glass was identified as soda-lime glass, the metallic filaments were identified as tin-lead coated copper, the panel cells were made of silicon and had silver filaments attached to it and the modules' frames were identified as aluminium, all of which are recyclable. Moreover, three different components segregation methods have been studied. Mechanical milling followed by sieving was able to separate silver from copper while chemical separation using sulphuric acid was able to detach the semiconductor material. A thermo gravimetric analysis was performed to evaluate the use of a pyrolysis step prior to the component's removal. The analysis showed all polymeric fractions present degrade at 500 °C. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Urban and Rural MSW Stream Characterization for Separate Collection Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ciuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new legislation framework enacted by new member countries of the European Union (EU, the characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW represents an important instrument for local governments and sanitation operators in setting and achieving targets for waste recycling and recovery. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in accordance with the Romanian methodology for domestic wastes characterization ROMECOM, aiming to provide a proper basis for developing clear and realistic forecasts in current municipal waste management, based on MSW composition and generation rate. The analyzed MSW came both from areas where the waste is collected in mixed and separate ways, in urban and rural areas. The MSW composition by fraction is detailed for dense urban areas, urban areas, rural and touristic areas from Romania. Based on these results, the MSW composition was determined for the eight development regions in Romania, and a generation rate of 0.9·kgMSW inhabitant−1·day−1 for the urban region and 0.4·kgMSW inh−1·day−1 for the rural region was established. The calorific values of urban and rural areas were determined as 6801 kJ·kg−1 and 5613 kJ·kg−1, respectively. In the perspective of sustainable development in this technical area, based on the obtained results and on the prognosis made for the following years, two proposals for urban and rural areas were developed for MSW treating options improvement. The two systems are characterized by selective collection (different efficiencies for urban and rural areas with subsequent recovery of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale waste to energy (WTE plant.

  12. Characterization of Glass Fiber Separator Material for Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    Characterization studies were carried out on a glass fiber paper that is currently employed as a separator material for some LiSOCl2 primary cells. The material is of the non-woven type made from microfilaments of E-type glass and contains an ethyl acrylate binder. Results from extraction studies and tensile testing revealed that the binder content and tensile strength of the paper were significantly less than values specified by the manufacturer. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of clusters of impurities many of which were high in iron content. Results of emission spectroscopy revealed high overall levels of iron and leaching, followed by atomic absorption measurements, revealed that essentially all of this iron is soluble in SOCl2.

  13. Magnetic separation as a method to assist mineralogical characterization of rocks by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amanda Luzia da; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes Souza

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) corresponds to one of the main techniques for characterization of structures in crystalline materials widely used in the identification of minerals in samples of geological materials such as rocks. However, the large number of mineral phases present in a rock sample can generate excess peaks in the diffractogram, and it can promote overlapping peaks and induce erroneous identification. The purpose of this study was to perform magnetic separation of minerals from rock samples in order to enable the identification of the minerals by XRD. For this magnetic separation, two samples of rock were selected: a sample of high silica content and a sample with low silica content. The magnetic separation of minerals from each sample was performed using the magnetic separator isodynamic Frantz. Posteriorly, the fractions obtained in magnetic separations were analyzed by XRD. In the sample with high silica content, it was obtained a fraction where was identified the accessory mineral epidote, which had not been identified in the total sample diffractogram. In the sample with low silica content, the magnetic separation into several mineral fractions made possible to obtain diffraction patterns with fewer peaks and peaks with higher relative intensities, which allowed its mineralogical characterization. The results showed that the mineral separation by the magnetic separator Frantz made the identification of accessory minerals by XRD and the characterization of samples which have many mineral phases possible, which proves that magnetic separation by Frantz is a method which can assist analyses by XRD. (author)

  14. Magnetic separation as a method to assist mineralogical characterization of rocks by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda Luzia da; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes Souza, E-mail: amanda@igc.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amanda@igc.ufmg.br, E-mail: lurdesfernandes@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horionte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) corresponds to one of the main techniques for characterization of structures in crystalline materials widely used in the identification of minerals in samples of geological materials such as rocks. However, the large number of mineral phases present in a rock sample can generate excess peaks in the diffractogram, and it can promote overlapping peaks and induce erroneous identification. The purpose of this study was to perform magnetic separation of minerals from rock samples in order to enable the identification of the minerals by XRD. For this magnetic separation, two samples of rock were selected: a sample of high silica content and a sample with low silica content. The magnetic separation of minerals from each sample was performed using the magnetic separator isodynamic Frantz. Posteriorly, the fractions obtained in magnetic separations were analyzed by XRD. In the sample with high silica content, it was obtained a fraction where was identified the accessory mineral epidote, which had not been identified in the total sample diffractogram. In the sample with low silica content, the magnetic separation into several mineral fractions made possible to obtain diffraction patterns with fewer peaks and peaks with higher relative intensities, which allowed its mineralogical characterization. The results showed that the mineral separation by the magnetic separator Frantz made the identification of accessory minerals by XRD and the characterization of samples which have many mineral phases possible, which proves that magnetic separation by Frantz is a method which can assist analyses by XRD. (author)

  15. Laser isotope separation studies in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1986-01-01

    For uranium enrichment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been studying atomic vapor laser isotope separation since 1976, in addition to such separation methods as gas diffusion, chemical exchange and gas-dynamic techniques. Studies carried out to date in JAERI is briefly summarized in the first part of the report. Then, some major separation techniques which have been studied in JAERI are outlined, and typical results obtained are presented. A large part is devoted to the multiple-photon photoionization technique, which is commonly known as the atomic laser isotope separation method for uranium enrichment. It has such advantages as 1) very high spectral selectivity for the relevant isotope and 2) highly improved photoionizing effect by means of two- and three-step resonance photoionization processes. Here, the atomic laser isotope separation method is discussed in detail with respect to the evaporation process, energy levels, photoionization, selectivity, photoionization schemes, ion recovery, separation in macroscopic amounts, and separation of trace amounts of isotopes. Typical observed and claculated results related to these subjects are shown. In addition, the report briefly describes some other separation processes including laser induced chemical reaction, multiple photo-dissociation, multiple-photo excitation and UV dissociation, laser induced thermal diffusion, and laser centrifugation. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Calixarene receptors in the selective separation of alachlor. Characterization of the separated complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides have been necessary in the agriculture since the plagues control have been remedied thanks to them but it has also provoked pollution. Nowadays, there are several methods which help to decrease or remedy such a pollution provoked. Unfortunately, any of them work out the environmental problem totally. Therefore, alternatives have to be found. The organic and tri dimensional characteristics of these macrocycles afford them a high versatility in such a way that these hosts can interact with organic guests selectively. Alachlor is a chlorinated organic herbicide useful in the plagues control of annual grasses and many broad-leave weeds which grow in maize, peanuts and soyabean. The ability of calixarenes to host organic guests with chemical characteristics similar to pesticides let them to be good candidates to compete with others methods which are used presently to separate organic pesticides. In this direction one of the advantages of proposing the use of calixarenes is, its facility of being modified in the lower and/or upper rims, to adapt them to aqueous, organic, gaseous and aqueous-organic media. Once the characteristics of reagents informed in the literature were confirmed and complemented with others found in this work, we studied, in solution, the interaction of the calixarenes with alachlor using 1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -3 M solutions in acetonitrile for calixarenes fitted with phosphinoyl pendant arms in the lower rim, B n bL n , n= 4, 6) and in chloroform for parents calixarenes (H n bL n n = 4, 6, 8). Meticulous studies monitored by UV-Vis and luminescence were carried out, and the best stoichiometry to be used in further studies resulted to be 1(host): 1(alachlor). Therefore, we chose the 1 x 10 -4 M concentration to find how long the host-guest should be interacting in order to guarantee the formation in solution of the calixarene-alachlor species. It was found 168 h for the alachlor-B n bL n interaction while 165 h were necessary with H n bL n

  17. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Paul [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naduvalath, Balakrishnan [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Czerwinski, Ken [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  18. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas - surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  19. Preparation and characterization of novel polyimide/functionalized ZnO bionanocomposite for gas separation and study of their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaielzadeh, Sheida; Ahmadizadegan, Hashem

    2018-04-01

    In the present investigation novel Polyimide/functionalized ZnO (PI/ZnO) bionanocomposites containing amino acid (Methionine) and benzimidazole pendent groups with different amounts of modified ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were successfully prepared through ultrasonic irradiation technique. Due to the high surface energy and tendency for agglomeration, the surface ZnO NPs was modified by a coupling agent as 3- methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS) to form MPS-ZnO nanoparticles. The ultrasonic irradiation effectively changes the rheology and the glass transition temperature and the crystallinity of the composite polymer. PI/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM analysis showed that the modified ZnO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in polymer matrix. The TGA results of PI/ZnO nanocomposites showed that the thermal stability is obviously improved the presence of MPS-ZnO NPs in comparison with the pure PI and that this increase is higher when the NP content increases. The permeabilities of pure H2, CH4, O2, and N2 gases through prepared membranes were determined at room temperature (25 °C) and 20 bar feed pressure. The membranes having 20% ZnO showed higher values of H2 permeability, and H2/CH4 and H2/N2 ideal selectivities (the ratio of pair gas permeabilities) compared with other membranes. The antibacterial activity of bionanocomposite films was tested against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Further, it was observed that antibacterial activity of the resulting hybrid biofilms showed somewhat higher for gram-positive bacteria compared to gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Case Study: A Separation of Powers Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents a case study involving students in the issue of separation of powers as applied to the 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act. Students examine the case of Jagdish Rai Chadha, an immigrant threatened with deportation whose problems resulted in 1983 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring legislative veto provision of Immigration and…

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Membranes Formed by Nonsolvent Induced Phase Separation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Guillen, Gregory R.

    2011-04-06

    The methods and mechanisms of nonsolvent induced phase separation have been studied for more than fifty years. Today, phase inversion membranes are widely used in numerous chemical industries, biotechnology, and environmental separation processes. The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many commonly used membrane polymers. The key factors in membrane preparation discussed include the solvent type, polymer type and concentration, nonsolvent system type and composition, additives to the polymer solution, and film casting conditions. A brief introduction to membrane characterization is also given, which includes membrane porosity and pore size distribution characterization, membrane physical and chemical properties characterization, and thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of the phase inversion process. One aim of this review is to lay out the basics for selecting polymer solvent nonsolvent systems with appropriate film casting conditions to produce membranes with the desired performance, morphology, and stability, and to choose the proper way to characterize these properties of nonsolvent induced phase inversion membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Experimental study of stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingsheng Zhou; Chuntong Ying; Yuguang Nie

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some results of investigation into a gas centrifuge and gas centrifuge cascade. The chemical compounds of osmium - OsO 4 , tungsten - WF 6 and xenon were chosen for centrifugal separation, and the centrifugal technology for the separation of osmium, tungsten and xenon were developed. The separation factors for molar mass differences, γ 0 , were obtained for OsO 4 , Xe, WF 6 in a single gas centrifuge. The separation by gas centrifuge cascade has been done and some results of the investigation are shown. High abundance of 186 W (>90 %), 129 Xe (>65 %) and 192 Os (>99 %) was produced using the short cascade [ru

  3. Fundamental chemistry, characterization, and separation of technetium complexes in Hanford waste. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, K.R.; Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Schroeder, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    'The ultimate goal of this proposal is to separate technetium from Hanford tank waste. The recent work has shown that a large portion of the technetium is not pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) and is not easily oxidized. This has serious repercussions for technetium partitioning schemes because they are designed to separate this chemical form. Rational attempts to oxidize these species to TcO 4 - for processing or to separate the non-pertechnetate species themselves would be facilitated by knowing the identity of these complexes and understanding their fundamental chemistry. Tank characterization work has not yet identified any of the non-pertechnetate species. However, based on the types of ligands available and the redox conditions in the tank, a reasonable speculation can be made about the types of species that may be present. Thus, this proposal will synthesize and characterize the relevant model complexes of Tc(III), Tc(IV), and Tc(V) that may have formed under tank waste conditions. Once synthesized, these complexes will be used as standards for developing and characterizing the non-pertechnetate species in actual waste using instrumental techniques such as capillary electrophoresis electrospray mass spectrometry (CE-MS), x-ray absorbance spectroscopy (EXAFS and XANES), and multi-nuclear NMR (including 99 Tc NMR). The authors study the redox chemistry of the technetium complexes so that more efficient and selective oxidative methods can be used to bring these species to TcO 4 - for processing purposes. They will also study their ligand substitution chemistry which could be used to develop separation methods for non-pertechnetate species. Understanding the fundamental chemistry of these technetium complexes will enable technetium to be efficiently removed from the Hanford tank waste and help DOE to fulfill its remediation mission. This report summarizes the first 8 months of a 3-year project.'

  4. Synthesis and characterization of microporous inorganic membranes for propylene/propane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H 8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H 6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H 6/C3H8 mixture separation. CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous gamma-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H 6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N 2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C 3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores. CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C 3H8 separation

  5. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: characterization and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diasa, P.R.; Benevita, M.G.; Veita, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The search for alternative power generation sources has been intensified in recent years. One of these alternatives is solar energy, since it is a virtually inexhaustible source and generates relatively small environmental impact compared to other traditional generation sources. The collection of solar energy and its conversion into thermal or electrical energy is only possible through the use of photovoltaic panels. These panels have a limited lifespan and will eventually be replaced by new ones. Thus, in the near future, large amounts of solar modules can be discarded as waste electronics. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reducing production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such materials is important. In this paper, photovoltaic module components were characterized through visual inspection, FRX, EDS and AAS. The glass was identified as ordinary glass (soda-lime glass), which allows reuse without any previous treatment and the metallic filaments were identified as tin- lead coated copper. (author)

  6. Isolation, separation, and characterization of epithelial and connective cells from rat palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, Victor Paul [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial and connective tissue cells were isolated from rat palate by sequential collagenase, hyaluronidase and trypsin digestion of the extracellular matrix. Differences between the two populations were noted with respect to total cell protein, total cell water, proline uptake and incorporation, percent collagen synthesized, effects of parathyroid hormone, metabolism of D-valine and cell density. Basal epithelial cells were subsequently separated from the heterogeneous epithelial cell population on shallow linear density gradients by velocity centrifugation. The type of collagen synthesized by the basal epithelial cells was compared to the type of collagen synthesized by the connective tissue cells by means of labeled amino acid incorporation ratios. Cells isolated from the epithelial and connective tissue were compared. From these studies it can be concluded that epithelial and connective tissue cells can be isolated from rat palate as viable and distinct populations with respect to the biochemical parameters examined. Furthermore, subpopulations can be separated and biochemically characterized.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Membranes Formed by Nonsolvent Induced Phase Separation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Guillen, Gregory R.; Pan, Yinjin; Li, Minghua; Hoek, Eric M. V.

    2011-01-01

    . The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many

  8. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 μm with 4 wt.% over 100 μm and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  9. A Novel Strategy for Characterization of Glycosylated Proteins Separated by Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin; Skottrup, Peter; Enghild, Jan J.

    2005-01-01

    . We present a new technique, which allows full characterization of low amounts of glycoproteins separated by gel electrophoresis. The method takes advantage of sequential specific and non-specific enzymatic treatment, followed by selective purification and characterization of the glycopeptides using...

  10. Characterization and separation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cells using on-chip dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan Unni, Harikrishnan; Hartono, Deny; Yue Lanry Yung, Lin; Mah-Lee Ng, Mary; Pueh Lee, Heow; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Lim, Kian-Meng

    2012-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been shown to have significant potential for the characterization of cells and could become an efficient tool for rapid identification and assessment of microorganisms. The present work is focused on the trapping, characterization, and separation of two species of Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. muris) and Giardia lambia (G. lambia) using a microfluidic experimental setup. Cryptosporidium oocysts, which are 2-4 μm in size and nearly spherical in shape, are used for the preliminary stage of prototype development and testing. G. lambia cysts are 8-12 μm in size. In order to facilitate effective trapping, simulations were performed to study the effects of buffer conductivity and applied voltage on the flow and cell transport inside the DEP chip. Microscopic experiments were performed using the fabricated device and the real part of Clausius-Mossotti factor of the cells was estimated from critical voltages for particle trapping at the electrodes under steady fluid flow. The dielectric properties of the cell compartments (cytoplasm and membrane) were calculated based on a single shell model of the cells. The separation of C. muris and G. lambia is achieved successfully at a frequency of 10 MHz and a voltage of 3 Vpp (peak to peak voltage).

  11. Characterization of wide-pore reversed-phase columns for biopolymer separations. I. Single-parametric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bede, A; Rippel, G; Szepesy, L; Claessens, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Nine prepacked wide-pore columns recommended for protein separation were studied. The stationary phases investigated were widely different with respect to the type of ligands. In order to characterize the columns, measurements were made with six different test mixtures containing two different

  12. Characterization of Printed Circuit Boards for Metal and Energy Recovery after Milling and Mechanical Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Bizzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of electrical and electronic waste is currently a concern of researchers and environmental managers not only because of the large volume of such waste generated, but also because of the heavy metals and toxic substances it contains. This study analyzed printed circuit boards (PCBs from discarded computers to determine their metal content and characterized them as solid waste and fuel. The analysis showed that PCBs consist of approximately 26% metal, made up mainly of copper, lead, aluminum, iron and tin, as well as other heavy metals such as cadmium and nickel. Comparison with the results of other studies indicated that the concentration of precious metals (gold and silver has declined over time. Analysis of the leachate revealed high concentrations of cadmium and lead, giving the residue the characteristics of hazardous waste. After milling the PCBs, we found that larger amounts of metal were concentrated in smaller fractions, while the lightest fraction, obtained by density separation, had a gross calorific value of approximately 11 MJ/kg, although with a high ash content. Milling followed by density separation proved potentially useful for recovery of metals and energy-rich fractions.

  13. Separation and characterization of resins and asphaltenes coming from Castilla crude Evaluation of their molecular interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Lina; Alvarez, Mario; Grosso, Jorge Luis; Navarro, Uriel

    2004-01-01

    The study of resins and asphaltenes, the heaviest fractions of oil, has become an area of interest due to the abundance of heavy crude oils in Colombia and Latin America. We studied the chemical composition of the heavy fractions of Castilla crude oil, evaluated some of its molecular parameters and found evidence of the interaction between the resins extracted from the crude with the asphaltenes of the original crude. With this objective, we carried out at the pilot plant level precipitation of the resin-asphaltene (R-A) aggregate by adding and mixing under controlled conditions, a paraffin solvent, from the Apiay refinery, called Apiasol. By extracting Soxhlet with the same solvent, resin 1 of aggregate R-A was separated. Resin ll defined as the soluble fraction that is part of the maltenes, was separated from the deasphalted crude by open column chromatography, using alumina as support, according to the SAR method (Saturated, Aromatics, Resins). The fractions of resins and the asphaltenes obtained, were characterized by: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), FT-lR, DRX, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S), metal content (Ni and V), distribution of molecular weight by GPC, and average molecular weight by VPO. The results obtained show evidence that resin l which is part of the aggregate has less average molecular weight than resin ll which is present in the fraction of maltenes. In addition, some changes were found in the elementary analysis of among the resins. On the one hand, and taking into account the existing theories of molecular interactions among these fractions, it was found that the resins l separated from the R-A aggregate, when added to the crude, they stabilize their asphaltenes. This evaluation was carried out by analyzing the flocculation point of the crude and its mixtures with 1,9% and 3,8% of resin l, when they are titrated with a precipitating agent in an NIR cell that works with high pressure and temperature

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyimide-CNTs hybrid membrane to enhance high performance CO2 separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 separation performance of a hybrid membranes flat sheet based on polyimide incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs particles. CNTs was selected and its loading were a 1 wt% in total solid. The hybrid composite membranes were fabricated in order to increase their separation performance for the gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4. Hybrid Composite  membrane incorporated carbon nanotubes were mannufactured  by the dry-wet phase inversion technique using flat sheet membrane casting machine system,  in which the CNTs were embedded into the polyimide membrane and the resulting membranes were characterized. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The results revealed that the good multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion leads to enhanced gas permeation properties. It is also concluded that addition of carbon nanotubes particles into the matrix of Polyimide polymer has significant effect on the membrane structure and properties.

  15. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  16. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  17. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  18. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Guelis, Artem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  19. preparation, characterization and formulation of nano-ceramic materials to be used for the separation of some heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    the synthesis of asymmetric composite and monolithic ceramic filters, with high performance quality, to be used in heavy metals separation is the aim of this study. asymmetric composite ceramic filter consisted of a macroporous or mesoporous substrate coated with several layers having lower pore size than the substrate usually microporous film. on the other hand, asymmetric monolithic ceramic filter is monolithic system having dual pore size distribution. ceramic filters synthesis was performed using polymeric sol-gel process. the optimization of synthesis parameters as well as the characterization was achieved to obtain ceramic filters with high separative properties. the synthesized ceramic filters were characterized using mercury porosimeter for pore size distribution analysis, BET method for specific surface areas measurements and BJH pore size distribution analysis, XRD analysis for crystalline phase identification and SEM for microstructure and morphology studies

  20. Separation from supported employment: a retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael; Targett, Pamela; Wehman, Paul; Cifu, Gabriella; Davis, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine job separations from supported employment (SE). The aim was to identify the types and nature of separations and precipitating events leading to the separation. A retrospective chart review methodology was utilized. The study was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Southeast United States by a university-based SE program. Participants were 47 SE clients who had been placed into and separated from 67 jobs. Using a coding form, information regarding the type of separation and issues that preceded the separation were recorded. Data were aggregated using descriptive statistics. The largest number of separations was due to termination, followed by resignation and mutual consent of the employer and employee. The mean number of issues leading to the separation was 2.2, ranging from one to five. Only eight positive issues were found (compared to 116 negative and 20 neutral), the most prevalent being entry into an educational or training program. Common negative issues included poor work performance, attendance and punctuality problems, conflicts with the supervisor, and social and behavioral issues. The findings of this study illustrate the need to address job retention issues during the job development process, finding the most appropriate person-job fit and workplace culture for each client. The findings also support the need for vigilant and regular communication between the SE program and employers to intervene quickly when problems arise. Separation from Supported Employment (SE) SE is an evidence-based employment practice that has been shown effective across multiple disability groups. Studying job separations can provide valuable information for improving service. Locating the best person-job fit, as well as frequent contract with employers, can help prevent unnecessary job loss.

  1. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  2. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  3. Studies on separation and properties of lumbrokinase in Pheretima praepinguis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Mei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to separate lumbrokinase in Pheretima praepinguis and examine its enzymatic properties. With P. praepinguis as material, lumbrokinase was separated with the salting out method. Lumbrokinase activity was measured with casein medium plate method. Effect of pH and temperature on lumbrokinase activity was studied. Results of lumbrokinase separated from P. praepinguis was relatively high. Lumbrokinase activity in neutral or slightly alkaline environment was higher. Lumbrokinase had tolerance ability to high temperature, with highly enzymatic activity under 60°C and wide range of temperature adaptation.

  4. Wall shear stress characterization of a 3D bluff-body separated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrié, Grégoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi

    2013-10-01

    Efficient flow control strategies aimed at reducing the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles require a detailed knowledge of the reference flow. In this work, the flow around the rear slanted window of a generic car model was experimentally studied through wall shear stress measurements using an electrochemical method. The mean and fluctuating wall shear stress within the wall impact regions of the recirculation bubble and the main longitudinal vortex structures which develop above the rear window are presented. Correlations allow a more detailed characterization of the recirculation phenomenon within the separation bubble. In the model symmetry plane the recirculation structure compares well with simpler 2D configurations; specific lengths, flapping motion and shedding of large-scale vortices are observed, these similarities diminish when leaving the middle plane due to the strong three-dimensionality of the flow. A specific attention is paid to the convection processes occurring within the recirculation: a downstream convection velocity is observed, in accordance with 2D recirculations from the literature, and an upstream convection is highlighted along the entire bubble length which has not been underlined in some previous canonical configurations.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-69 membranes and separation for CO2/CO mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang

    2010-05-01

    Continuous and c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes were successfully synthesized on porous alpha-alumina substrates by an in situ solvothermal method. The membranes were characterized by XRD, SEM and single-gas permeation tests. The BET measurements on crystals taken from the same mother liquor that was used for membrane synthesis yield a Langmuir surface area of 1138 m(2)/g. The stability of the membrane towards heat and different solvents were studied. Single-gas permeation experiments through ZIF-69 membranes were carried out by a vacuum method at room temperature using H-2, CH4, CO, CO2 and SF6, respectively. The permeances were in the order of H-2 > CO2 > CH4 > CO > SF6. The separation of CO2/CO gas mixture was investigated by gas chromatograph (GC) and the permselectivity of CO2/CO was 3.5 +/- 0.1 with CO2 permeance of 3.6 +/- 0.3 x 10(-8) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa-1 at room temperature. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on the Temperature Separation Phenomenon in a Vortex Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, A Ran; Guang, Zhang; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    A vortex chamber is a simple device that separates compressed gas into a high-temperature stream and a low-temperature stream. It is increasing in popularity as a next-generation heat exchanger, but the flow physics associated with it is not yet well understood. In the present study, both experimental and numerical analyses were performed to investigate the temperature separation phenomenon inside the vortex chamber. Static pressures and temperatures were measured using high-sensitivity pressure transducers and thermocouples, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics was applied to simulate 3D unsteady compressible flows. The simulation results showed that the temperature separation is strongly dependent on the diameter of the vortex chamber and the supply pressure at the inlet ports, where the latter is closely related to the viscous work. The previous concept of a pressure gradient wave may not be a reasoning for temperature separation phenomenon inside the vortex chamber.

  7. A nodalization study of steam separator in real time simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horugshyang, Lein; Luh, R.T.J.; Zen-Yow, Wang

    1999-01-01

    The motive of this paper is to investigate the influence of steam separator nodalization on reactor thermohydraulics in terms of stability and level response. Three different nodalizations of steam separator are studied by using THEATRE and REMARK Code in a BWR simulator. The first nodalization is the traditional one with two nodes for steam separator. In this nodalization, the steam separation is modeled in the outer node, i.e., upper downcomer. Separated steam enters the Steen dome node and the liquid goes to the feedwater node. The second nodalization is similar to the first one with the steam separation modeled in the inner node. There is one additional junction connecting steam dome node and the inner node. The liquid fallback junction connects the inner node and feedwater node. The third nodalization is a combination of the former two with an integrated node for steam separator. Boundary conditions in this study are provided by a simplified feedwater and main steam driver. For comparison purpose, three tests including full power steady state initialisation, recirculation pumps runback and reactor scram are conducted. Major parameters such as reactor pressure, reactor level, void fractions, neutronic power and junction flows are recorded for analysis. Test results clearly show that the first nodalization is stable for steady state initialisation. However it has too responsive level performance in core flow reduction transients. The second nodalization is the closest representation of real plant structure, but not the performance. Test results show that an instability occurs in the separator region for both steady state initialisation and transients. This instability is caused by an unbalanced momentum in the dual loop configuration. The magnitude of the oscillation reduces as the power decreases. No superiority to the other nodalizations is shown in the test results. The third nodalization shows both stability and responsiveness in the tests. (author)

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-11-01

    In this dissertation, the metathesis route of metal chalcogenide aerogel synthesis was expanded by conducting systematic studies between polysulfide building blocks and the 1st-row transition metal linkers. Resulting materials were screened as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated. The effect of the presence of different counter-ion within chalcogel frameworks on the adsorption capacity of the chalcogels was studied on AFe3Zn3S17 (A= K, Na, and Rb) chalcogels. The highest adsorption capacity toward hydrocarbons and gases was observed on Rb based chalcogels. Adopting a new building block [BiTe3]3- with the 1st-row transition metal ions results in the formation of three high BET surface area chalcogels, KCrBiTe3, KZnBiTe3, and KFeBiTe3. The resulting chalcogels showed preferential adsorption of toluene vapor, and remarkable selectivity of CO2, indicating the potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes. The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 are also reported. Rare earth metal ions react with the thiostannate clusters in formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Obtained chalcogels have high BET surface areas, and showed notable adsorption capacity toward CO2 and toluene vapor. These chalcogels have also been engaged in the absorption of different organic molecules. The results reveal the ability of the chalcogels to distinguish among organic molecules on their electronic structures; hence, they could be used as sensors. Furthermore, the synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 and Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2- chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3

  9. Separation and Characterization of DNA Molecules and Intermolecular Interactions in Pressure-Driven Micro Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Sarah; Wang, Tza-Huei

    Pressure-driven flow in micron-sized diameter capillaries can be used to separate DNA molecules by size in a technique called Free Solution Hydrodynamic Separation. By coupling this technique with Cylindrical Illumination Confocal Spectroscopy, we have developed a highly sensitive and quantitative platform capable of separating DNA molecules by length over a large dynamic range (25 bp to 48 kbp) in a single run using only picoliters or femtograms of a DNA sample. The optical detection volume completely spans the capillary cross section, enabling highly efficient single molecule detection for enhanced sensitivity and quantification accuracy via single molecule counting. Because each DNA molecule generates its own fluorescent burst, these burst profiles can be further analyzed to individually characterize each DNA molecule's shape as it passes through the detection region. We exploit these burst profiles to visualize fluctuations in conformation under shear flow in microcapillaries, and utilizing combined mobility shift analysis, explore the complex relationship between molecular properties including length and conformation, hydrodynamic mobility, solution conditions including ion species and concentrations, and separation conditions including flow rate and capillary diameter.

  10. Investigating the Intrinsic Ethanol/Water Separation Capability of ZIF-8: An Adsorption and Diffusion Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke; Lively, Ryan P.; Zhang, Chen; Koros, William J.; Chance, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic ethanol/water separation capability of ZIF-8 is characterized by a detailed study of adsorption and diffusion of ethanol and water vapor in dodecahedral crystals with principle axis dimension of 324, 15.8, and 0.4 μm. ZIF-8 exhibits

  11. Characterization of high level waste for minor actinides by chemical separation and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, M.S.; Bhattacharayya, A.; Kar, A.S.; Tomar, B.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of minor actinides present in of High Level Waste (HLW) solutions originating from the power reactors is important in view of management of radioactive wastes and actinide partitioning. Several methods such as ICP-MS, X-ray fluorescence methods, ICP-AES, alpha spectrometry are used in characterizing such types of wastes. As alpha spectrometry is simple and reliable, this technique has been used for the estimation of minor actinides after devising steps of separation for estimating Np and Pu present in HLW solutions of PHWR origin. Using a wealth of knowledge appropriate to the solution chemistry of actinides, the task of separation, though appears easy, it is challenging job for a radiochemist handling high-dose HLW samples, for obtaining clean alpha peaks for Np and Pu. This paper reports on the successful attempt made to quantify 241 Am, 244 Cm, Pu (239 mainly) and 237 Np present in HLW-PHWR obtained from PREFRE, Tarapur

  12. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  13. Separation and characterization of nanoparticles in complex food and environmental samples by field-flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Frank von der; Legros, Samuel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    The thorough analysis of natural nanoparticles (NPs) and engineered NPs involves the sequence of detection, identification, quantification and, if possible, detailed characterization. In a complex or heterogeneous sample, each step of this sequence is an individual challenge, and, given suitable...... has been applied for separation of various types of NP (e.g., organic macromolecules, and carbonaceous or inorganic NPs) in different types of media (e.g., natural waters, soil extracts or food samples).FFF can be coupled to different types of detectors that offer additional information...... conditions on all types of NP in the sample. A holistic methodological approach is preferable to a technique-focused one....

  14. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan

    2016-11-04

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (P GMA-EDMA ) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized P GMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  15. Parental separation and pediatric cancer: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Bastian, Gro Samsø; Lund, Lasse Wegener; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer. In a nationwide cohort, we compared the risk for ending cohabitation of the parents of 2450 children (aged 0-20 years) given a diagnosis of cancer with the risk of parents of 44 853 randomly selected, gender- and age-matched cancer-free children. We adjusted for socioeconomic position and demographic factors. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for separation were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model. The parents of children with cancer did not have a higher risk for separation than the general population (rate ratio: 1.00 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.10]). Separate analyses according to type of cancer and survival of the child similarly yielded null results. Experiencing cancer in a child does not seem to be a risk factor for separation. Our study will allow clinicians to reassure parents and to support them in facing the trauma of cancer in their child.

  16. Experimental study of liquid carryover in a separator drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhudharwadkar, Deoras M.; More, Rahul Z.; Iyer, Kannan N.

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of carryover, i.e. entrainment of liquid along with separated steam is observed in all the steam separators. Due to the risks, such as turbine blade erosion and radioactivity leakage, associated with it, it is desired to have an estimate of the carryover value. This is all the more important when the separation is only under the influence of gravity as proposed in some of the new generation natural circulation reactors. Experiments were carried out in an air-water facility at atmospheric conditions to characterize the entrainment in drums with ratio of the drum diameter to riser diameter varying from 1 to 6. Various parameters influencing the liquid entrainment were identified. The vapour superficial velocity and the drum diameter to riser diameter ratio were found to be the most influencing parameters. A dimensionless prediction correlation was evolved for the liquid entrainment and it was found to agree with previous works in the literature for drum to riser diameter ratio equal to 1.

  17. Novel nanocomposite Kevlar fabric membranes: Fabrication characterization, and performance in oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimnezhad, Hanieh; Rajabi, Laleh; Salehi, Ehsan; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Azimi, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposite membranes with hydrophilic surface were fabricated for separation of oil (n-hexane) from oil/water emulsion. Three different nanomaterials namely, para-aminobenzoate alumoxane (PAB-A), boehmite-epoxide and polycitrate alumoxane (PC-A) were coated on the Kevlar fabric (support), according to a three-step dip-coating protocol. FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV/vis spectrophotometer, and wettability analyses were used to characterize the composite membranes. The three coating layers interacted chemically with one another and also physically with the Kevlar fabric. Water uptake measurements indicated that the membrane is a hydrophilic one. SEM and TEM analyses showed the smooth surface of the composite membrane and three-dimensional dendrimeric hyper-branched structure of (PC-A), respectively. A dead-end filtration setup was applied to test the membranes performance under natural gravity force. Effect of pH as an important variable affecting separation process was investigated with the neutral pH provided the optimum condition for the separation. Oil rejection and permeate fluxes were also monitored. The optimum flux and rejection obtained, were 7392 (Lm-2 h-1) and 89.06% at pH 7, respectively. Fouling occurred as a gel layer on the membrane surface. The deposited oil droplets on the surface of the membrane were successfully washed away with satisfactory permeate flux recovery (FRR = 88.88% at neutral pH), using hot distilled water and acidic solution as eluents.

  18. Numerical study of microphase separation in gels and random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Nariya

    2004-01-01

    Microphase separation in gels and random media is numerically studied using a Ginzburg-Landau model. A random field destroys long-range orientational (lamellar) order and gives rise to a disordered bicontinuous morphology. The dependence of the correlation length on the field strength is distinct from that of random-field magnets

  19. Study on the Effect of the Separating Unit Optimization on the Economy of Stable Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Kun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic criterion called as yearly net profit of single separating unit (YNPSSU was presented to evaluate the influence of structure optimization on the economy. Using YNPSSU as a criterion, economic analysis was carried out for the structure optimization of separating unit in the case of separating SiF4 to obtain the 28Si and 29Si isotope. YNPSSU was calculated and compared with that before optimization. The results showed that YNPSSU was increased by 12.3% by the structure optimization. Therefore, the structure optimization could increase the economy of the stable isotope separation effectively.

  20. A new method for separation, characterization, and quantification of natural nanoparticles from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Santanu; He, Zhenli; Harris, Willie G.

    2014-02-01

    Properties and distribution dynamics of nanoparticles are pertinent to ecological and human health. Wide variation in particle density confounds their accurate separation for study. The objective of this study was to develop a fine-particle separation protocol requiring no constant density assumption. Six soils with contrasting properties were chosen for study. Size distributions of suspended particles following centrifugation were assessed using dynamic light scattering. Mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction. Particle characteristics were examined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant pooled logarithmic relationship was found between centrifugation speed and particle-size distribution. Nanoparticles (dynamic light scattering in conjunction with a standard centrifuge regimen provides a practical means of collecting colloidal particles within a targeted size range, compensating for natural variations among the soil samples.

  1. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYIMIDE/POLYETHERSULFONE-FUMED SILICA MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANE FOR GAS SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is performed primarily to investigate the feasibility of fumed silica as inorganic material towards gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane. In this study, polyimide/polyethersulfone (PES-fumed silica mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet technique. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that the structure and physical properties of membrane is influenced by inorganic filler. FESEM’s cross-section view indicated good compatibility between polymer and fumed silica for all of range fumed silica used in this study. The gas separation performance of the mixed matrix membranes with fumed silica were relatively higher compared to that of the neat PI/PES membrane. PI/PES-fumed silica 5 wt% yielded significant selectivity enhancement of 7.21 and 40.47 for O2/N2, and CO2/CH4, respectively.

  2. Chromatographic separation and spectro-analytical characterization of a natural African mineral dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Adebayo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic characterization of a natural African mineral dye have been carried out. The chromatographic separation of the dyes made use of column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. Some physicochemical properties of the dye including solubility in polar and non-polar solvents, pH, ash and organic contents were determined. The spectro-analytical techniques used for characterization included energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Optical microscopy, infrared (IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and purple were obtained from the chromatographic separation. All the fractions were found to contain aromatic nucleus based on IR and UV-VIS spectroscopic data. Other functional groups detected are Ar-NH2, -CONH2, C=C, C-C and metal-carbon chelate rings. The presence of aromatic amine in the dye provides strong evidence for its use as hair dye. The dye was found to be soluble in both aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. The pH of the dye's aqueous solution was found to be 8.6, and the ash and organic content of the raw dye were 49 % and 51 % respectively. The XRF revealed that the dye contains twenty elements with concentrations ranging from major to ultra-trace levels. The XRD also showed that the sample contains about forty-six mineral phases which include both inorganic and organic components. The maximum absorption wavelength (λmax in UV-VIS of the aqueous solution was found to be 464 nm. The optical microscopic investigation gave indication that the dyes are likely to be of the marine origin.

  3. Uranium dioxide in Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids with DMSO: Dissolution, separation, and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Aining; Chu, Taiwei, E-mail: twchu@pku.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    UO{sub 2} can be successfully dissolved in imidazolium-based Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids (ILs) with the help of DMSO. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray diffraction show that UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2−} is the principal product. The dissolved uranyl species can be easily separated from the ILs via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction. Moreover, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd, compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. The solvents of acetone and acetonitrile could be used to separate the rare-earth elements from uranium in the IL with the help of imidazolium chloride. Considering the complete process from the dissolution of UO{sub 2} and some rare-earth oxides to the separation of uranium and rare-earth elements in the IL, the facile approach is promising for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. - Graphical abstract: UO{sub 2} can be successfully dissolved in Fe-containing ILs with the help of DMSO to form UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2−}. The rare earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd can be separated from uranium in the IL, and meanwhile, the recovery of dissolved uranyl species and Fe-containing IL can also be achieved. - Highlights: • Dissolution of UO{sub 2} can be successfully achieved in imidazolium-based Fe-containing ILs with the help of DMSO without additional oxidants. • Compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. • The separation of the rare-earth elements from uranium has also been achieved via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction.

  4. Uranium dioxide in Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids with DMSO: Dissolution, separation, and structural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Aining; Chu, Taiwei

    2016-01-01

    UO_2 can be successfully dissolved in imidazolium-based Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids (ILs) with the help of DMSO. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray diffraction show that UO_2Cl_4"2"− is the principal product. The dissolved uranyl species can be easily separated from the ILs via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction. Moreover, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd, compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. The solvents of acetone and acetonitrile could be used to separate the rare-earth elements from uranium in the IL with the help of imidazolium chloride. Considering the complete process from the dissolution of UO_2 and some rare-earth oxides to the separation of uranium and rare-earth elements in the IL, the facile approach is promising for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. - Graphical abstract: UO_2 can be successfully dissolved in Fe-containing ILs with the help of DMSO to form UO_2Cl_4"2"−. The rare earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd can be separated from uranium in the IL, and meanwhile, the recovery of dissolved uranyl species and Fe-containing IL can also be achieved. - Highlights: • Dissolution of UO_2 can be successfully achieved in imidazolium-based Fe-containing ILs with the help of DMSO without additional oxidants. • Compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. • The separation of the rare-earth elements from uranium has also been achieved via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction.

  5. A Weldability Study of Structural Materials for Manufacturing Bearing Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Drizhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyze the possibility for using the 08YUT steel separator tape to manufacture separators, which are to be further applied to the bearing assembly via projection welding.Reliability of rolling bearings is determined by many factors such as surface quality of balls and rings and assembly precision, including the seal strength of hemiseparators.The technology based on the double-pulsed condenser projection welding belongs to one of the most efficient technologies to provide the assembly of bearing, for it allows welding of separator simultaneously in all currents. The paper shows that the required condition to assure high reliability of the bearing is induastial development and implementation of an effective and positive quality control system, which will reduce the probability of damages occurring both when welding and in the course of operation.The work used the static tensile test methods, as well as metallographic analysis.The experimental study used the 08YUT steel hemiseparators. A tape thickness of the hemiseparators was of 1.5mm. The number of simultaneously welded points were 8. The experimental studies of the metal damage of welding joints of the the 08YUT steel separator have shown that with a wide range of the changing welding current and compressed electrode force the quality assurance of welding points at the parent metal level could not be retrieved.The metallographic analysis of the metal damage nature of a welded joint revealed that between the atoms on the surfaces of hemiseparators there are no strong bonds – a bond was formed in the contact zone. This phenomenon leads to reduced tensile seal strength.The study has shown that aluminum and titanium added to the low-carbon steel in order to have a more fine-grained metal structure has a negative effect on the quality of welded joint via projection welding.

  6. Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Jones, V.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements

  7. Bibliographical study on photochemical separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, Roland

    1975-01-01

    The objective of this report is to propose an overview of knowledge and current works on isotopic separation of uranium by means of selective excitation where this excitation is obtained by a light source with a wave length corresponding to a selective or preferential absorption by a molecule or by the atom itself of one of the isotopes. After a brief overview of principles and requirements of isotopic separation by selective excitation, the author reviews compounds which can be used for this process. These compounds are mainly considered in terms of spectroscopy, and the study focuses on the most volatile among them, the uranium hexafluoride, its spectra, and possible processes for extraction. Some much less volatile uranium compounds are also mentioned with, when available, their spectroscopic properties. The uranium vapour excitation process is described, and some orientations for further researches are proposed [fr

  8. Extraction separation studies of uranium(VI) by amine oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, M.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) by two amine oxides, 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine oxide and trioctylamine oxide has been studied. The extraction behavior of these two N-oxides is compared. The dependence of extraction on the type of amine oxide and acid, nature of organic diluent, and amine oxide concentration has been investigated. The influence of the concentration of the metal and salting-out agents is described. The possible mechanism of extraction is discussed in the light of the results of extraction isotherms, loading radiodata, and log-log plots of amine oxide concentration vs distribution ratio. The separation factors for a number of metal ions are reported, and the separation of uranium from some fission elements has also been achieved

  9. Chromatographic separation of Iodine species for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, E.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica]. E-mail: geoedin@vm.uff.br; Bellido, A.V.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: alf@risc2.rmn.uff.br; Bellido, L.F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lbellido@cnen.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    In this work a experimental method was developed to separate iodine species from environmental samples by using adsorption chromatography. The radionuclide {sup 123} I which has a half-life of 13 h and a convenient gamma ray of 159 keV was used to investigate a fast and efficient procedure for the separation of iodide and iodate ions in seawater from mangrove samples. The radio-iodine tracer technique is very useful, particularly in kinetic studies because it is easy to detect without any interference of concentration due to the small amount of tracer that is spiked. It is also possible to add two tracers (I-123 and I-131) in different oxidation states. Three chromatographic methods were studied: paper, thin layer and adsorption chromatography with silica and alumina. It was found that paper chromatography is very useful for checking the valence adjustment of the radioiodine species. Initially, several coefficient distributions of iodine species by adsorption in silica and alumina from NaOH, NaHCO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3} solutions (in the range 05. - 0.0001 m) were determined. The best separation so far was achieved by loading the sample (after adjusting the concentration to 0.1 NNaNO{sub 3}) into a chromatographic column with Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. The iodide passes through the column and after washing the column, the iodate was removed by eluting with 1.0 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution. (author)

  10. Chromatographic separation of Iodine species for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this work a experimental method was developed to separate iodine species from environmental samples by using adsorption chromatography. The radionuclide 123 I which has a half-life of 13 h and a convenient gamma ray of 159 keV was used to investigate a fast and efficient procedure for the separation of iodide and iodate ions in seawater from mangrove samples. The radio-iodine tracer technique is very useful, particularly in kinetic studies because it is easy to detect without any interference of concentration due to the small amount of tracer that is spiked. It is also possible to add two tracers (I-123 and I-131) in different oxidation states. Three chromatographic methods were studied: paper, thin layer and adsorption chromatography with silica and alumina. It was found that paper chromatography is very useful for checking the valence adjustment of the radioiodine species. Initially, several coefficient distributions of iodine species by adsorption in silica and alumina from NaOH, NaHCO 3 and NaNO 3 solutions (in the range 05. - 0.0001 m) were determined. The best separation so far was achieved by loading the sample (after adjusting the concentration to 0.1 NNaNO 3 ) into a chromatographic column with Al 2 O 3 . The iodide passes through the column and after washing the column, the iodate was removed by eluting with 1.0 M NaHCO 3 solution. (author)

  11. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a micro total analytic system based on isotachophoresis for the separation and characterization of lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, L.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate and reproducible characterization of radioactive solutions in isotope composition and concentration is an essential topic for analytical laboratories in the nuclear field. In order to reduce manipulation time in glove box and production of contaminated wastes, it is necessary to propose innovative and efficient solutions for these analyses. Since few years, microchips are a major field of development in analytical chemistry and those devices could provide a solution which fits the needs of nuclear industry. The aim of this work is to design a disposable analytical micro-device devoted to lanthanide separation from spent nuclear fuel before their analysis in mass spectrometry. Designed to be used in place of a separation process by liquid chromatography which is involved in a three step protocol, the new protocol based on isotachophoresis (ITP) keeps compatible with the other two steps. The complete separation of lanthanides by ITP was obtained by the use of only one chelating compound rigorously selected: the 2-hydroxy 2-methyl butyric acid (HMBA). The main parameters involved in solute resolution were defined from the theoretical models of ITP and experimental studies of the influence of these parameters allowed to optimize the geometry of the system and to improve its performances. To suppress cleaning of the system and, consequently, to strongly reduce both liquid waste volume and handling radioactive material, the ITP protocol was transferred in a polymeric (COC) disposable microchip especially developed for this purpose. (author) [fr

  13. Fundamental studies of separation processes. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.B.

    1975-06-01

    Studies using high-precision gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography have produced new types of information on liquid crystals and on behavior of substances in the region of the critical temperature, respectively. In addition, the first successful studies of the effects of pressure on cation exchange have been made using aqueous solutions of alkali metal nitrates. In contrast, progress on separations of isotopic species using gas chromatography has been disappointing. In that area, the chief accomplishment has been a determination of the levels of accuracy and precision with which isotopic abundances can be measured using our quadrupole mass spectrometer. (U.S.)

  14. Structural characterization of hydrogen separating membranes based on lanthanide-tungstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherb, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The global energy supply is currently the most controversial issue discussed in our society. Despite the increasing importance of renewable energies, the largest portion of electrical energy has its origin in fossil fuels. CO 2 , emitted during combustion in power plants is known to be one of the greenhouse gases that contributes significantly to global climate change. The development of technologies for environmentally friendly power generation from coal and gas is an area of significant interest. One possibility is the capture and long-term storage of CO 2 from the exhaust stream of fossil fuel power plants. In the pre-combustion process, CO 2 and H 2 can be separated after gasification of the fossil fuel. For this purpose gas-tight ceramic membranes with mixed electronic-protonic conductivity can be used. However, these materials have high requirements due to the extreme conditions in power plants. Mixed electronic-protonic conducting lanthanide tungstates (Ln 6 WO 12 Ln = lanthanide or yttrium) are promising materials, which are stable in CO 2 -containing harsh environments. This work presents a study on structure-property relationships of Ln 6 WO 12 . The structural analysis was performed by the use of neutron and high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods for three exemplary systems (Ln = La, Nd, Y). Samples were prepared via solid state reaction (SSR), and also via a sol-gel approach (Pechini). For the systems LaWO and NdWO, new structural models were developed by combined Rietveld analysis and Fourier density maps. The latter was applied to determine the electron and nuclear density distribution. LaWO with a La/W ratio from 5.3 to 5.7 crystallizes with the space group F-43m and forms a superstructure due to a partially ordered arrangement of cations. On Wyckoff site 48h, up to 4.6 % W can be substituted by La. The oxygen atoms around tungsten are highly delocalized and 6 out of 24 possible split positions are occupied. Thus, W has an octahedral coordination

  15. Separation and characterization of maternal cardiac and vascular sounds in the third trimester of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riknagel, Diana; Zimmermann, Henrik; Farlie, Richard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the vascular sounds of the uteroplacental blood flow obtained by microphones. METHODS: The present retrospective study took place in an anechoic chamber facility at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 2012, and included pregnant participants aged 18-40 years...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of imprinted sorbent for separation of gramine from bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luliński, Piotr; Klejn, Dorota; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient sorbent for separation of N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole (gramine) from bovine serum albumin. An imprinting technology was involved in the synthesis of polymers from nine different functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The analysis of binding capacities showed that the highest specificity towards gramine was achieved when 4-vinylbenzoic acid was used as the functional monomer in methanol to form the bulk imprinted polymer, MIP1 (imprinting factor equal to 21.3). The Scatchard analysis of MIP1 showed two classes of binding sites with the dissociation constants K_d equal to 0.105 and 6.52 μmol L"−"1. The composition and morphology of polymers were defined by "1"3C CP/MAS NMR, BET and SEM-EDS analyses. The recognition mechanism of MIP1 was tested using the structurally related bioanalytes, and the dominant role of indole moiety and ethylamine side chain was revealed. A new MISPE protocol was optimized for separation of gramine. The total recoveries on MIP1 were equal to 94 ± 12 % from standard solutions and 85 ± 11 % from bovine serum albumin. - Highlights: • Indole alkaloid (gramine) imprinted polymer was synthesized. • Very high specifity of sorbent towards gramine was achieved. • Physico-chemical characteristics of novel material was presented. • Efficient MISPE protocol was proposed for separation of gramine from model sample.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of imprinted sorbent for separation of gramine from bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luliński, Piotr; Klejn, Dorota; Maciejewska, Dorota, E-mail: dmaciejewska@wum.edu.pl

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient sorbent for separation of N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole (gramine) from bovine serum albumin. An imprinting technology was involved in the synthesis of polymers from nine different functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The analysis of binding capacities showed that the highest specificity towards gramine was achieved when 4-vinylbenzoic acid was used as the functional monomer in methanol to form the bulk imprinted polymer, MIP1 (imprinting factor equal to 21.3). The Scatchard analysis of MIP1 showed two classes of binding sites with the dissociation constants K{sub d} equal to 0.105 and 6.52 μmol L{sup −1}. The composition and morphology of polymers were defined by {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR, BET and SEM-EDS analyses. The recognition mechanism of MIP1 was tested using the structurally related bioanalytes, and the dominant role of indole moiety and ethylamine side chain was revealed. A new MISPE protocol was optimized for separation of gramine. The total recoveries on MIP1 were equal to 94 ± 12 % from standard solutions and 85 ± 11 % from bovine serum albumin. - Highlights: • Indole alkaloid (gramine) imprinted polymer was synthesized. • Very high specifity of sorbent towards gramine was achieved. • Physico-chemical characteristics of novel material was presented. • Efficient MISPE protocol was proposed for separation of gramine from model sample.

  18. Thermodynamic Studies to Support Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This milestone report summarizes the data obtained in FY15 on the complexation of HEDTA with Np(V) and U(VI) in a temperature range from 25 to 70°C. The results show the effect of temperature on the chemical speciation of Np(V) and U(VI) in the modified TALSPEAK Process, and help to evaluate the effectiveness of the process when the operation envelope (e.g., temperature) varies. Eventually, the results from this study will help to achieve a better control of the separation process based on the HEDTA/HEH[EHP] combination.

  19. Lanthanide and actinide separation studies using liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Arpita; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Gradient elution procedure for isolation of individual lanthanides was studied extensively at our laboratory using monolith support. A large number of gradients were developed by varying the concentrations of CSA, α-HIBA, mobile phase pH and mobile phase flow rate. In a typical gradient run, the concentration of CSA and mobile phase flow rate were kept constant and only α-HIBA concentration was varied. Based on these studies, a binary gradient elution method was developed for the rapid separation of lanthanides, from La to Lu in about 2.8 min, with a mobile phase CSA, α-HIBA and pH being 0.03M, 0.05 to 0.15M and 3.4-3.8 respectively. The direct injection of dissolver solution from FBTR spent fuel into HPLC was investigated and the results are shown. The lanthanides present in dissolver solution were mutually separated as well as resolved from uranium and plutonium under dynamic ion exchange conditions using the monolithic column. The concentration of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm were determined in the dissolver solution using a calibration plot

  20. Characterization of Passive Flow-Actuated Microflaps Inspired by Shark Skin for Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jackson; Devey, Sean; Lang, Amy; Hubner, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to millions of years of natural selection, sharks have evolved into quick apex predators. Previous research has proven shark skin to reduce flow separation, which would result in lower pressure drag. Mako shark skin is made up of microscopic scales on the order of 0.2 mm in size. These scales are hypothesized to be a flow control mechanism, capable of being passively actuated by reversed flow. We believe shark scales are strategically sized to interact with the lower 5 percent of the boundary layer, where reversed flow occurs near the wall. Previous wind tunnel research has shown that it is possible to passively actuate 2D flaps in the lower regions of the boundary layer. This research aims to identify reverse flow conditions that will cause small 3D flaps to actuate. Several sets of microflaps (about 4 mm in length) geometrically similar to shark scales were 3D printed. These microflaps were tested in a low-speed wind tunnel in various reverse flow conditions. Microflaps were observed to be actuated by the reversing flow and flow conditions were characterized using a hot-wire probe. These microflaps have the potential to mimic the mako shark type of flow control in air, passively actuated by reverse flow conditions. This research was supported by Boeing, the US Army, and the National Science Foundation REU program.

  1. Separation and characterization of metallosupramolecular libraries by ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Casiano-Maldonado, Madalis; Yu, Jing; Carri, Gustavo A; Newkome, George R; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2011-09-01

    The self-assembly of Zn(II) ions and bis(terpyridine) (tpy) ligands carrying 120° or 180° angles between their metal binding sites was utilized to prepare metallosupramolecular libraries with the connectivity. These combinatorial libraries were separated and characterized by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)). The 180°-angle building blocks generate exclusively linear complexes, which were used as standards to determine the architectures of the assemblies resulting from the 120°-angle ligands. The latter ligand geometry promotes the formation of macrocyclic hexamers, but other n-mers with smaller (n = 5) or larger ring sizes (n = 7-9) were identified as minor products, indicating that the angles in the bis(terpyridine) ligand and within the coordinative tpy-Zn(II)-tpy bonds are not as rigid, as previously believed. Macrocyclic and linear isomers were detected in penta- and heptameric assemblies; in the larger octa- and nonameric assemblies, ring-opened conformers with compact and folded geometries were observed in addition to linear extended and cyclic architectures. IM MS(2) experiments provided strong evidence that the macrocycles present in the libraries were already formed in solution, during the self-assembly process, not by dissociation of larger complexes in the gas phase. The IM MS/MS(2) methods provide a means to analyze, based on size and shape (architecture), supramolecular libraries that are not amenable to liquid chromatography, LC-MS, NMR, and/or X-ray techniques.

  2. Studies on cryogenic distillation columns for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro

    1984-08-01

    Cryogenic distillation is applicable to a number of situations. The feed condition, column cascade configuration, input and output specifications vary greatly from situation to situation. In the mainstream fuel circulation system for a fusion reactor, the feed composition may fluctuate greatly during the operation. The radiological standards for tritium lost to the environment are increasingly becoming stricter. Systematic studies are needed to achieve the goal of long-term operation meeting the strict requirements for products even under great fluctuation of the feed condition in all the situations. The present report gives a critical, brief review of the studies which have been made by the author. The subjects treated are development of computer simulation procedures, analysis on an H-T separation column with a feedback stream, dynamics and control, proposal of a new cascade, analysis on helium effects on column behavior, start-up analysis for a cascade, and preliminary experimental study on dependence of HETP on operational conditions. (author)

  3. Experimental study of multi-component separation by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Liang, X.W.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotopes are applied in many areas and most stable isotopes are multi-component, This paper presents experimental results of several stable isotopes separation conducted in Tsinghua University by using ultra-speed gas centrifuges. Xe, WF 6 , TeF 6 , SiHCl 3 , SiF 4 were chosen as the process gases. By adjusting some of the centrifuge's parameters, the suitable centrifuge parameters for different process gas separations were found and the overall unit separation factors γ 0 were obtained by means of single gas centrifuge separation. The experimental results show that with appropriate process gases, stable isotope separation by gas centrifuge was effective. (authors)

  4. A Novel Strategy for Characterization of Glycosylated Proteins Separated by Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin; Skottrup, Peter; Enghild, Jan Johannes

    Protein glycosylation can be vital for changing the function or physiochemical properties of a protein. Abnormal glycosylation can lead to protein malfunction, resulting in severe diseases. Therefore, it is important to develop techniques for characterization of such modifications in proteins...... graphite powder micro-columns in combination with mass spectrometry. The method is faster and more sensitive than previous approaches and would be ideal for proteomics studies and verification of correct glycosylation of recombinant glycoproteins....

  5. Preparation and characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate) and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes for protein separation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthanareeswaran, G.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Raajenthiren, M.

    2009-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (methyl methacrylate)/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) blend membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique in various composition using N,N'-dimethylformamide as solvent. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of pure water flux, water content, porosity and thermal stability. The addition of SPEEK to the casting solution resulted in membranes with high pure water flux, water content, porosity and slightly low thermal stability. The cross sectional views of the blend membranes under electron microscope confirm the porosity and water flux results. The effect of the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA matrix on the extent of bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation was studied. It was found that the permeate flux increased significantly while the rejection of BSA from aqueous solution reduced moderately during ultrafiltration (UF) process. The effect was attributed to the increase in porosity and charge of the membrane due to the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA blend solution

  6. Study of the isotopic contamination with the Grenoble isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boge, Marc

    1970-01-01

    To know the limits of enrichment of the Grenoble electromagnetic isotope separator, we have studied the scattering of ions on the residual gas, and the chromatism. With Neodymium (Nd + ≅ 500 μA, NdO + ≅ 120 μA, Nd 2+ ≅ 70 μA) the second magnet has been used to analyse the ions which passed through the first stage slit. Therefore, we have measured the scattering with and without charge exchange of Nd + and the dissociation of NdO + . The chromatism has been studied by means of an electrostatic analyser, as a third stage. The limits of enrichment are obtained for Argon, Uranium and Neodymium. (author) [fr

  7. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    The major limitation, which hinders the wider application of membrane technology and increases the operating costs of membranes involved in wastewater treatment plants, is membrane fouling induced by organic matter. Extracellular polymeric products (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the two most mentioned major foulants in publications, for which the debate on precise definitions seems to be endless. Therefore, a concept of sludge water, which conceptually covers both EPS and SMP, has been developed in this research. A standard procedure of sludge water separation, which is centrifugation at 4000g for 15 min followed by 1.2μm glass fiber filter filtration, was established based on separation experiments with membrane tank sludge from the KAUST MBR wastewater treatment plant. Afterwards, sludge waters from the KAUST MBR WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and membrane tank as well as sludge waters from the Jeddah WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and secondary effluent were produced through the previously developed standard procedure. The obtained sludge water samples were thereafter characterized with TOC/COD, LC-­‐OCD and F-­‐EEM, which showed that KAUST anoxic/ aerobic /membrane tank sludge waters had similar characteristics for all investigated parameters, yet the influent naturally had a higher DOC and biopolymer concentration. Moreover, lower TOC/COD, negligible biopolymers and low levels of humics were found in KAUST effluent. Compared with the KAUST MBR WWTP, the Jeddah WWTP’s sludge waters generally had higher DOC and biopolymer concentrations. To investigate sludge water fouling potential, the KAUST membrane tank sludge water as well as the Jeddah secondary effluent were filtrated through a membrane array consisting of an ultrafiltration (UF) Millipore RC10kDa at the first step followed by a nanofiltration (NF) KOCH Acid/Base stable NF200 at the second step. It was found that cake layer and standard blocking occurred simultaneously during both

  8. Methodological Study of Cell Separation with Domestic Immunomagnetic Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To establish the method of cell separation with domestic immuomagnetic beads, three methods were investigated. Direct method, SPA method and Biotin-Avidin method were applied to separate cell strain Hut-78 and CD4 positive cells. Separation rate of strain Hut-78 was more than 90 % in direct method. Detachment rate with papain was over 95 %. Cell activity was well retained. SPA method and Biotin-Avidin methods were also effective, but the direct method was superior to the other two techniques. Before separated by the direct method, CD4 positive cells constituted 46.4 %±6.4 % of mononuclear cells (MNC), but in eliminated suspension there was only 6.2 %±2.3 % CD4 positive cells left. In the separated part, 80.6 %±7.2 % of the cells combined with the beads. It is concluded that the direct method in separating cells had high sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  10. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  11. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  12. Study on a particle separator using ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seop; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Seo, Dae Chul; Yun, Dong Jin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the theory, design and evaluation of a smart device for the enhanced separation of particles mixed in fluid. The smart device takes advantage of the ultrasonic standing wave, which was generated by the operation of a piezoceramic PZT patch installed in the smart device. The details of the device design including the electro-acoustical modelling for separation and PZT transducer are described at the first. Based on this design, the separation device was fabricated and evaluated. In the experiments, an optical camera with a zoom lense was used to monitor the position of interested particles within the separation channel layer in the device. The electric impedance of the PZT patch bonded on the separation device was measured. The device shows a strong levitation and separation force against 50m diameter particles mixed with water at the separation channel in the device. Experimental results also showed that the device can work at both heavy and light sand particles mixed with water due to the generated standing wave field in the separation channel.

  13. Preparation and characterization of new zeolite membranes. Application to gaseous separation; Preparation et caracterisation de nouvelles membranes de zeolithe application a la separation gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, M.

    1996-11-25

    Zeolites are interesting for the preparation of inorganic membranes which could be used for the continuous separation of gas and liquids by gas permeation and pervaporation. Zeolites membranes are obtained by hydrothermal synthesis and are characterized by XRD, SEM, TDA, IR, chemical analysis, EPMA, NMR, MAS NMR and gas permeation. After some tests of preparation of zeolite CHA and MFI self supporting membranes, the work is turned towards the preparation of zeolite MFI membranes supported by porous disks or {alpha} alumina, glass and tubes of carbon covered with a thin layer or zirconium dioxide. It is shown that the characteristics of the support (reactivity, pores dimensions, ...) strongly influence the quality of the prepared membrane. Two originals preparation processes are finalized. For the alumina disks, a gel precursor of zeolite is firs formed at the surface of the support by immersing successively that support in two non miscible liquids before the crystallisation. The gel is then converted into the zeolite by contact with water vapor. The zeolite layer obtained is localized at the surface of the support and present not only at the outside but also at the inside of the support. The characteristics of the zeolite layer can be controlled and the method can be adapted to various porous supports. The membrane obtained is interesting for hydrocarbons separations, for example the separation of methane and isobutane. In the case of Vycor glass disks, the reactivity of the support is first enhanced by contact with saturated water vapour. The temperature of the synthesis is then chosen relatively low in order to limit the attack of the support. With that method, a basic solution can be used without degradation of the support.The basicity leads to the formation of little crystals whose assembling is compact and homogeneous. The membrane obtained is interesting for example for the separation of normal butane and isobutane. (author) 71 refs.

  14. Study of supercritical CO2 extraction and nanofiltration membrane separation coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrade, S.

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the coupling of two extraction techniques, nanofiltering and supercritical fluids, designing and building an experimental device that enables both supercritical CO 2 extraction and nanofiltering membrane separation. The purpose is to reach high splitting up levels on small molecule mixtures. The document is divided in four parts : a bibliographic study on these two techniques; a description of the membranes and the products, as well as the experimental device; the characterization and modelization of transfer mechanism in aqueous solutions; a presentation of the results obtained by coupling the two techniques. (TEC). 45 tabs., 70 figs., 98 refs

  15. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and application of Zn(NH 3)(CO3) for selective adsorptive separation of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazeni, Naasser

    This study explores the potential of Zn(NH3)(CO3) for selective CO2 separation. It develops a novel, highly controllable, single-pot synthesis approach based on urea hydrolysis and solvothermal aging to increase the feasibility of synthesizing Zn(NH3)(CO3), determines the structure of Zn(NH3)(CO3) in detail through single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, and performs adsorption analyses for the compound using CO2, N 2, H2, O2, and CH4 as adsorptives. Through adsorptive characterization, a systematic adsorbent selection screening is performed to assess the potential application of Zn(NH3)(CO 3) for adsorptive separation of CO2 from an upstream gas mixture of power generation, hydrogen production, and natural gas industries. Structural analysis shows Zn(NH3)(CO3) to have an inorganic helical framework that consists of a small helix of (ZnOCO) 2 and a large helix of (ZnOCO)4 with two ammines (NH 3) pendant from every other zinc. In terms of adsorption capacity and CO2 selectivity, Zn(NH3)(CO3) adsorbed 0.550 mmole/g CO2 at 293 K and 4500 mmHg, but only 0.047 mmole/g N 2, 0.084 mmole/g H2, 0.207 mmole/g 02, and 0.060 mmole/g CH4 at the same temperature and pressure. This behavior demonstrates considerable equilibrium selectivities - 36, 31, 63, and 11 - for separating CO2 from CH4, CO2 from H 2, CO2 from N2, and CO2 from 02, respectively. During adsorption, the pendant ammines act as the gates of check-valves: applied pressure opens the gates for adsorption; and during desorption, the gates are closed, trapping the adsorbates, until a reduction of pressure to near-atmospheric levels. Therefore, Zn(NH3)(CO3) exhibits low-pressure H3 or H4 hysteresis, indicating that the Zn(NH3)(CO3) framework can achieve gas storage at near-atmospheric pressures. Additionally, the compound proves structurally stable, with an adsorption decrease of 0.8% after 20 adsorption/desorption cycles - a factor that, considered with the other characteristics of Zn

  17. Study of Aging ion exchange membranes used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellakhal, N.; Ghalloussi, R.; Dammak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the most important application of ion exchange membranes (IEM) is the electrodialysis. This technique consists of a membrane separation using a series of anion exchange membranes alternately and cations, often used for the desalination of brackish water. These membranes are confronted with problems of aging. Indeed, the more they are used more physical and chemical properties will change. A comparative study of the behavior of both EMI and new but the same treatment is carried out by measuring a magnitude transfer characteristic: ion permeability. Ionic permeability is a physical quantity can have an idea about the selectivity of the membrane towards the charged species and the p orosity o f the membrane. It is a transport of ions (cations + anions) through the membrane. Thus, determining the ion permeability is to determine the diffusion flux of a strong electrolyte through a membrane separating two compartments (one containing electrolytes and other water initially ultrapure who will gradually electrolyte through the membrane). The measurement technique used is that by conductimetric detection because of the ease of its implementation and its accuracy. Thus, the variation of the concentration of the electrolyte is continuously monitored by measuring the conductivity of the solution diluted with time. The curves s = f (t) MEA and MEC new and used varying concentration of the electrolyte membranes show that let in less waste of strong electrolyte (NaCl and HCl) than new ones. This can be explained by: - The functional sites are combined with polyvalent ions present even in trace amounts in the solution process and become inactive. The membrane loses its hydrophilic character and turns into a film almost hydrophobic. - The chemical attacks and electrodialysis operations have degraded and eliminated much of the fixed sites leading to the same effects on the hydrophilic membrane. - These two assumptions have been reinforced by the extent of exchange

  18. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  19. Calixarene receptors in the selective separation of alachlor. Characterization of the separated complexes; Receptores calixarenicos en la separacion selectiva de alaclor. Caracterizacion de los complejos separados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, M C

    2004-07-01

    Pesticides have been necessary in the agriculture since the plagues control have been remedied thanks to them but it has also provoked pollution. Nowadays, there are several methods which help to decrease or remedy such a pollution provoked. Unfortunately, any of them work out the environmental problem totally. Therefore, alternatives have to be found. The organic and tri dimensional characteristics of these macrocycles afford them a high versatility in such a way that these hosts can interact with organic guests selectively. Alachlor is a chlorinated organic herbicide useful in the plagues control of annual grasses and many broad-leave weeds which grow in maize, peanuts and soyabean. The ability of calixarenes to host organic guests with chemical characteristics similar to pesticides let them to be good candidates to compete with others methods which are used presently to separate organic pesticides. In this direction one of the advantages of proposing the use of calixarenes is, its facility of being modified in the lower and/or upper rims, to adapt them to aqueous, organic, gaseous and aqueous-organic media. Once the characteristics of reagents informed in the literature were confirmed and complemented with others found in this work, we studied, in solution, the interaction of the calixarenes with alachlor using 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} M solutions in acetonitrile for calixarenes fitted with phosphinoyl pendant arms in the lower rim, B{sub n}bL{sup n}, n= 4, 6) and in chloroform for parents calixarenes (H{sub n}bL{sup n} n = 4, 6, 8). Meticulous studies monitored by UV-Vis and luminescence were carried out, and the best stoichiometry to be used in further studies resulted to be 1(host): 1(alachlor). Therefore, we chose the 1 x 10{sup -4} M concentration to find how long the host-guest should be interacting in order to guarantee the formation in solution of the calixarene-alachlor species. It was found 168 h for the alachlor-B{sub n}bL{sup n} interaction

  20. Using a Microscale Approach to Rapidly Separate and Characterize Three Photosynthetic Pigment Species from Fern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayudhya, Theppawut Israsena Na; Posey, Frederick T.; Tyus, Jessica C.; Dingra, Nin N.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid separation of three photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll "a" and "b" and xanthophyll) from fern ("Polystichum acrostichoides") is described using microscale solvent extraction and traditional thin layer chromatography that minimizes use of harmful chemicals and lengthy procedures. The experiment introduces…

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-01-01

    as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Silicone Liquid Core/Polymer Shell Microcapsules via Internal Phase Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata; Ma, Baoguang

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent(methylhydrosiloxane dimethylsil......Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent...

  3. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang; Chen Yingxu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  4. Characterization of gel-separated glycoproteins using two-step proteolytic digestion combined with sequential microcolumns and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    present a new technique that allows characterization of low amounts of glycoproteins separated by gel electrophoresis. The method takes advantage of sequential specific and nonspecific enzymatic treatment followed by selective purification and characterization of the glycopeptides using graphite powder......Protein glycosylation can be vital for changing the function or physiochemical properties of a protein. Abnormal glycosylation can lead to protein malfunction, resulting in severe diseases. Therefore, it is important to develop techniques for characterization of such modifications in proteins...... at a sensitivity level comparable with state-of-the-art proteomics. Whereas techniques exist for characterization of high abundance glycoproteins, no single method is presently capable of providing information on both site occupancy and glycan structure on a single band excised from an electrophoretic gel. We...

  5. Zonotopes and zonoids: studies and applications to separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoudi, O

    1995-10-19

    The geometric modeling of mixture manufacturing management in petrochemical engineering led to consider some particular polytopes called zonotopes. The management criterion used implied the resolution of a constraint nonlinear optimization problem. Data`s problem are constituted of some measured specifications of basic product and hence subject to errors. We study the variation of the optimization problem solution with respect to data. We characterize the confident region of the solution when errors are assumed to be Gaussian and independent. Zonoids are the limit, in Hausdorff metric sense, of a sequence of zonotopes. The geometric modeling of continue manufacturing processes led to consider some particular zonoids called zonoids associated to parametric curves. We give some properties of such convex sets, we present a parametrization of the their boundaries surfaces and we study under some hypothesis the regularity of this parametrization knowing the regularity of the parametric curve. Finally, we tackle the problem of approximation of zonoids by zonotopes in Hausdorff metric sense. A constructive method of zonotope sequences which converge to a given zonoids have been established. For each zonotope, element of such sequences, we evaluate the approximation error. The convergence rates of this sequences is given. (author). 69 refs., 77 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new biopolymeric microcapsules containing DEHPA-TOPO extractants for separation of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outokesh, Mohammad; Tayyebi, Ahmad; Khanchi, Alireza; Grayeli, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Ghodrat

    2011-01-01

    A novel microcapsule adsorbent for separation of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions was developed by immobilizing the di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid-trioctyl phosphine oxide extractants in the polymeric matrix of calcium alginate. Physical characterization of the microcapsules was accomplished by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric techniques. Equilibrium experiments revealed that both ion exchange and solvent extraction mechanisms were involved in the adsorption of [Formula: see text] ions, but the latter prevailed in a wider range of acid concentration. According to the results of kinetics study, at low acidity level, the rate controlling step was slow chemical reaction of [Formula: see text] ions with the microdroplets of extractant, whereas it changed to intraparticle diffusion at higher acid concentration. The study also attempted identification of the diffusion paths of the ions within the microcapsules, and the mechanism of change of mass transfer rate during the uptake process. The prepared microcapsules preserved their entire capacity after three cycles of adsorption, and their breakthrough behaviour was well fitted by a new formula derived from shrinking core model.

  7. Application of directly coupled HPLC MMR to separation and characterization of lipoproteins from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daykin, C. A.; Corcoran, O.; Hansen, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    method for the separation of highdensity lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein from intact serum or plasma. The separation was achieved using a hydroxyapatite column and elution with pH 7.4 phosphate buffer with 100-muL injections of whole plasma. Coelution of HDL...... run time was 90 min with stopped-now 600-MHz NMR spectra of each lipoprotein being collected using 128 scans, in 7 min. The H-1 NMR chemical shifts of lipid signals were identical to conventional NMR spectra of freshly prepared lipoprotein standards, confirming that the lipoproteins were not degraded...

  8. Calixarene receptors in the selective separation of alachlor. Characterization of the separated complexes; Receptores calixarenicos en la separacion selectiva de alaclor. Caracterizacion de los complejos separados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, M.C

    2004-07-01

    Pesticides have been necessary in the agriculture since the plagues control have been remedied thanks to them but it has also provoked pollution. Nowadays, there are several methods which help to decrease or remedy such a pollution provoked. Unfortunately, any of them work out the environmental problem totally. Therefore, alternatives have to be found. The organic and tri dimensional characteristics of these macrocycles afford them a high versatility in such a way that these hosts can interact with organic guests selectively. Alachlor is a chlorinated organic herbicide useful in the plagues control of annual grasses and many broad-leave weeds which grow in maize, peanuts and soyabean. The ability of calixarenes to host organic guests with chemical characteristics similar to pesticides let them to be good candidates to compete with others methods which are used presently to separate organic pesticides. In this direction one of the advantages of proposing the use of calixarenes is, its facility of being modified in the lower and/or upper rims, to adapt them to aqueous, organic, gaseous and aqueous-organic media. Once the characteristics of reagents informed in the literature were confirmed and complemented with others found in this work, we studied, in solution, the interaction of the calixarenes with alachlor using 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} M solutions in acetonitrile for calixarenes fitted with phosphinoyl pendant arms in the lower rim, B{sub n}bL{sup n}, n= 4, 6) and in chloroform for parents calixarenes (H{sub n}bL{sup n} n = 4, 6, 8). Meticulous studies monitored by UV-Vis and luminescence were carried out, and the best stoichiometry to be used in further studies resulted to be 1(host): 1(alachlor). Therefore, we chose the 1 x 10{sup -4} M concentration to find how long the host-guest should be interacting in order to guarantee the formation in solution of the calixarene-alachlor species. It was found 168 h for the alachlor-B{sub n}bL{sup n} interaction

  9. Thin film composite membranes of glossy polymers for gas separation : preparation and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, Katrin

    1995-01-01

    The application of polymeric composite membranes can be very interesting in the field of gas separation. The two main parameters which determine the applicability of membranes are the selectivity and the permeability. Good selectivities can be achieved by developing proper materials, high permeation

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polybenzoxazinone and its prepolymer using gas separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pientka, Zbyněk; Brožová, Libuše; Pulyalina, A. Y.; Goikhman, M. Y.; Podeshvo, I. V.; Gofman, I. V.; Saprykina, N. N.; Polotskaya, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 24 (2013), s. 2867-2874 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1165 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gas separation * polybenzoxazinone * polymer membranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2013

  11. Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles. Triton X-100 based size modification, characterization and application in radiochemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sen, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. [Burdwan Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles (ZTP) of different sizes were synthesized using tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The important peaks of the XRD spectra were analyzed to determine the probable composition of the material. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity was measured for different metal ions with sizes of the ZTP nanoparticles and size-dependent ion exchange property of the material was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size of around 5 nm was employed to separate carrier-free {sup 137m}Ba from {sup 137}Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0 M HNO{sub 3} as eluting agent at pH = 5. (orig.)

  12. Study of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) Using Largely Separated Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    the data were very noisy and there were no three consecutive times with increasing flux, we double the time over which the data were averaged until...can form piston -driven shocks, which is the main mechanism to accelerate SPEs. The importance of source longitude and angular width can be...of proton particles accelerated by the CME piston driven shocks have a tendency to increase with angular width. The angular separation is directly

  13. Characterization of non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the separation of triacylglycerol positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Yuji, Hiromi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Ichioka, Kenji; Kuroda, Ikuma; Noguchi, Noriko; Wada, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of a non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers (TAG-PI) were examined using a recycle HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry system. A pair of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids at least 12 carbons was separated. Except for TAG-PI containing elaidic acid, pairs of TAG-PI containing three unsaturated fatty acids were not separated, even by recycle runs. These results indicate that the resolution of TAG-PI on a non-endcapped polymeric ODS stationary phase is realized by the recognition of the linear structure of the fatty acid and the binding position of the saturated fatty acid in TAG-PI. Chain length was also an important factor for resolution. This method may be a useful and simple for measuring the abundance ratio of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids in natural oils.

  14. Characterization of a subset of oligodendrocytes separated on the basis of selective adherence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuchet, S; Yim, S H

    1984-01-01

    A subset of oligodendrocytes (B3,f) was isolated by taking advantage of selective cell-substratum interaction. B3,f cells were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and immunocytochemically. Oligodendrocytes were isolated from 4-to-6-month-old lamb brains by a modified version of our published procedure [Szuchet et al, J Neurosci Methods 3:7-19, 1980]. Freshly isolated cells from band III were plated on plastic culture plates at a concentration of 2 X 10(6) cells/ml. Approximately 40% of the cells attached to the plate under these conditions. The remaining cells formed small floating clusters. We refer to the latter as B3,f oligodendrocytes. After 4 to 5 days, the supernatant containing B3,f cells was removed and centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in culture medium and replated on polylysine-coated petri dishes. B3,f oligodendrocytes attached to this surface and extended an intricate network of processes. The purity of the cultures, judged by the number of cells staining with a monoclonal antibody against galactocerebroside was 98-99%. This high degree of cell homogeneity was maintained throughout the life of the cultures. B3,f cells appeared to be highly differentiated and remained so in vitro. This is surmised by the expression of oligodendrocytic characteristic functions such as high levels of CNPase activity typically, 5 microM/min/mgP; high incorporation of H2 35SO4 into sulfatides, an overall lipid metabolism that mimics events associated with myelinogenesis [Szuchet et al, PNAS 80:7019-7023, 1983]; the presence, detected immunocytochemically, of myelin-associated glycoprotein and myelin basic proteins. It is concluded that this culture system offers an opportunity for studying the biology of interfascicular oligodendrocytes and their interaction with neurons and/or astrocytes. It also should open up a way of examining the relevance of oligodendrocyte polymorphism.

  15. Separation and characterization of the immunostimulatory components in unpolished rice black vinegar (kurozu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahito; Obara, Kyoko; Ozono, Mami; Furuyashiki, Maiko; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yasuo; Fukase, Koichi; Fujimoto, Yukari; Shigehisa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Unpolished rice black vinegar (kurozu), a traditional Japanese vinegar, is considered to have beneficial health effects. Kurozu is produced via a static fermentation process involving the saccharification of rice by Aspergillus oryzae, alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria such as Acetobacter pasteurianus. Since this process requires about 6 months' fermentation and then over a year of aging, most of these organisms die during the production process and so microbial components, which might stimulate the innate immune system, are expected to be present in the vinegar. In this study, we investigated whether microbial components are present in kurozu, and after confirming this we characterized their immunostimulatory activities. Lyophilized kurozu stimulated murine spleen cells to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, at least in part, via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and the Nod-like receptors NOD1 and 2. The active components associated with TLR2 activation were concentrated by Triton X-114-water phase partitioning and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Octyl Sepharose. TLR4-activating components were also enriched by these methods. The concentrated preparation stimulated murine spleen cells to produce TNF-α and interferon (IFN)-γ. These results indicate that long-term fermented kurozu contains immunostimulatory components and that the TLR2 and TLR4-activating immunostimulatory components of kurozu are hydrophobic. These components might be responsible for the beneficial health effects of kurozu. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chromatographic studies of the lanthanide element separation for the americium/curium large scale separation using ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, Claude.

    1981-06-01

    The Am/Cm large scale separations, operated by chromatography with the use of ion exchange resins, are described by numerous publications. The bibliographic studies allow to retain the followed points: use of sulfonate cationic resins, development by elution with the α-hydroxyisobutyric acid, column loadings between 1 and 30% of the capacity, possibility to use no radioactive lanthanides prior to actinides for trial purposes. The optimisation of such a process is the major part of this thesis. This point is realised by introducing a new definition for the resolution, for non symmetrical elution peaks, and a measure of this dissymmetry by introducing a shape factor F. For the separation itself and for the pressure drop in the column, the influence of the following parameters are studied: composition of the elution solution (concentration and pH), column temperature (20 to 90 0 C), resin size (9 to 27 μm), rate flow of mobile phase (70 ml.cm -2 .mn -1 ), column length and diameter. Symmetrical elution peaks may be obtained, even with a 27% loading. Elution conditions may be modified during the separation process in order to have the best recovery for the two components (1,3 [fr

  17. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  18. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, N.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under DOE`s privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: {approximately}2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, {sup Tc}K{sub d}, between the waste and Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate K{sub d} value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation.

  19. Study notes separability of oil company profitability, efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, the large publicly traded oil companies have been restructuring and downsizing to improve efficiency. Newly developed decision theory forces one to question the widely held singular focus on efficiency because improving efficiency will not necessarily improve profits. This is especially likely in the oil industry, where price volatility is the norm. Because its products are so basic, its price volatility typically ripples widely throughout the economy. In light of this, efficiency and profitability in the oil industry require separate treatment. More specifically, the efficient are not necessarily the most profitable; conversely, the most profitable are not necessarily the most efficient. Such a decoupling of efficiency and profitability requires a totally new look at business strategy. In the face of highly variable prices, firms can no longer depend on the long-accepted duality norm between profits and efficiency

  20. A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

  1. Preparation and characterization of metallic supported thin Pd-Ag membranes for hydrogen separation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Ekain; Medrano, Jose Antonio; Melendez, Jon; Parco, Maria; Viviente, J.L.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto; Pacheco Tanaka, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of thin-film (4-5 µm thick) Pd-Ag metallic supported membranes for high temperature applications. Various thin film membranes have been prepared by depositing a ceramic interdiffusion barrier layer prior to the simultaneous Pd-Ag electroless plating deposition. Two deposition techniques for ceramic layers (made of zirconia and alumina) have been evaluated: atmospheric plasma spraying and dip coating of a powder suspension. Initially, the...

  2. Design study of fuel circulating system using Pd-alloy membrane isotope separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamada, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kasahara, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Asami, N.

    1980-01-01

    Design study on the fuel circulating system (FCS) for a tokamak experimental fusion reactor (JXFR) has been carried out to establish the system concept, to plan the development program, and to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion system. The FCS consists of main vacuum system, fuel gas refiners, isotope separators, fuel feeders, and auxiliary systems. In the system design, Pd-alloy membrane permeation method is adopted for fuel refining and isotope separating. All impurities are effectively removed and hydrogen isotopes are sufficiently separated by Pd-alloy membrane. The isotope separation system consists of 1st (47 separators) and 2nd (46 separators) cascades for removing protium and separating deuterium, respectively. In the FCS, while cryogenic distillation method appears to be practicable, Pd-alloy membrane diffusion method is attractive for isotope separation and refining of fuel gas. The choice will have to be based on reliability, economic, and safety analyses

  3. Isolation of murine postnatal brain microglia for phenotypic characterization using magnetic cell separation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley S; Tansey, Malú G

    2013-01-01

    To shorten the time between brain harvesting and microglia isolation, and characterization, we utilized the MACS(®) neural dissociation kit followed by OctoMACS(®) CD11b magnetic bead isolation technique to positively select for brain microglia expressing the pan-microglial marker CD11b, a key subunit of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This protocol yields a viable and highly pure (>95%) microglial population of approximately 500,000 cells per pup that is amenable for in vitro characterization within hours or days after being harvested from brain tissue. Primary microglia from C57Bl/6 mice were plated for next-day analyses of morphology and cellular markers by immunocytochemistry or for analysis of gene expression under resting or LPS-stimulated conditions. The ease of isolation enables investigators to perform molecular and cellular analyses without having to wait 1-2 weeks to isolate microglia by conventional methods involving mechanical agitation to dislodge these from astrocyte beds.

  4. Characterization of Thermally Cross-Linkable Hollow Fiber Membranes for Natural Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Chien-Chiang

    2013-01-23

    The performance of thermally cross-linkable hollow fiber membranes for CO2/CH4 separation and the membrane stability against CO2 plasticization was investigated. The fiber membranes were thermally cross-linked at various conditions. Cross-linking temperature was found to have a significant effect, while shorter soak time and the presence of trace oxidizer (O2 or N2O) had a negligible effect. The cross-linked fibers were tested using high CO2 content feeds (50-70% CO2) at a variety of feed pressures (up to 1000 psia), temperatures, and permeate pressures (up to 100 psia) to evaluate membrane performance under various realistic operating conditions. The results demonstrated that cross-linking improves membrane selectivity and effectively eliminates swelling-induced hydrocarbon loss at high pressures. Excellent stability under aggressive feeds (with CO2 partial pressure up to 700 psia) suggests that cross-linked hollow fiber membranes have great potential for use in diverse aggressive applications, even beyond the CO2/CH4 example explored in this work. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  6. Electrochemical Characterization of a Polymer Inclusion Membrane Made of Cellulose Triacetate and Aliquat 336 and Its Application to Sulfonamides Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Benavente

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical characterization of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM fabricated with the ionic liquid (IL Aliquat 336 (26% and the polymer cellulose triacetate (CTA (76% is presented. Considering the use of PIMs in separation systems to remove pollutants from water, the characterization was performed with NaCl solutions by measuring membrane potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and salt diffusion and results were compared with those obtained from dry membranes. Results showed a significant reduction in the membrane diffusive permeability and electrical conductivity as well as the transport number of cation Na+ across the PIM when compared with solution values, which could be mainly related to the dense character of the membrane. Membrane application in the separation of different sulfonamides (sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole from water, with 1 M NaCl solution as striping phase, was also considered. These results indicated that the different chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as the compact structure of the PIM, limited the transport of the organic molecules though it.

  7. Hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted titanium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, derivatization, characterization, size separation, and toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongmei; Maruyama, Kyouhei; Amano, Tsukuru; Murakami, Takashi; Komatsu, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    We have been developing surface functionalization of various nanoparticles including nanodiamond and iron oxide nanoparticles in view of biomedical applications. In this context, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) are functionalized with polyglycerol (PG) to provide water-dispersible TiO2-PG, which is further derivatized through multi-step organic transformations. The resulting TiO2-PG and its derivatives are fully characterized by various analyses including solution-phase 1H and 13C NMR. TiO2-PG was size-tuned with centrifugation by changing the acceleration and duration. At last, no cytotoxicity of TiO2 NP, TiO2-PG, and TiO2-PG functionalized with RGD peptide was observed under dark conditions.

  8. Density separation of combustion-derived soot and petrogenic graphitic black carbon: Quantification and isotopic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, M-H; Gelinas, Y; Dickens, A F; Brandes, J

    2009-01-01

    The black carbon continuum is composed of a series of carbon-rich components derived from combustion or metamorphism and characterized by contrasting environmental behavior and susceptibility to oxidation. In this work, we present a micro-scale density fractionation method that allows isolating the small quantities of soot-like and graphitic material usually found in natural samples. Organic carbon and δ 13 C mass balance calculations were used to quantify the relative contributions of the two fractions to thermally-stable organic matter from a series of aquatic sediments. Varying proportions of soot-like and graphitic material were found in these samples, with large variations in δ 13 C signatures suggesting important differences in their origin and/or dynamics in the environment.

  9. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of HDPE/EVA Flat Sheet Membranes by Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shoeyb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of material composition in fabrication of modified polymeric membrane has been considered the most efficient and easiest method. For this purpose blended membranes of high density polyethylene (HDPE–ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA were prepared by thermally induced phase separation method. The impact of EVA in the presence of diluent on the crystalization temperature was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The obtained results showed that EVA has no significant effect on the crystalization temperature of HDPE. The absorption frequencies at 1248 and 1749 cm-1, respectively, due to C-O and C=O streching vibrations of EVA functional groups, confirmed the existence of EVA in HDPE membrane. The pure water permeability of HDPE/EVA blend was measured and compared with that of neat HDPE membrane. The results showed that an EVA content up to 2.5 wt% raised water permeability considerably and the leafy structure of the membranes contracted and the pure water permeation dropped with higher EVA content. The results of porosity measurement and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM analysis also confirmed these findings. Contact angel measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM examinations and static absorption of collagen protein on the membrane surfaces revealed that EVA content up to 5 wt% lowered the hydrophobicity of the membrane. By EVA content above 10 wt%, due to the structural alteration on the membrane surface, the contact angel and the collagen absorption on the surface of membrane increased. The measurement of tensile strength showed that with increasing EVA content the mechanical properties of the membranes improved due to interactions of polar groups in EVA.

  11. Development and characterization of polyethersulfone/TiO2 mixed matrix membranes for CO2/CH4 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaleldin, S.; Mannan, H. A.; Mukhtar, H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, mixed matrix membranes comprised of polyethersulfone as the bulk polymer phase and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as the inorganic discontinuous phase were prepared for CO2/CH4 separation. Membranes were synthesized at filler loading of 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt % via dry phase inversion method. Morphology, chemical bonding and thermal characteristics of membranes were scrutinized utilizing different techniques, namely: Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectra and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Membranes gas separation performance was evaluated for CO2 and CH4 gases at 4 bar feed pressure. The highest separation performance was achieved by mixed matrix membrane (MMM) at 5 % loading of TiO2.

  12. Separation and Species Characterization of Complex Compound of Yttrium-90 and Strontium-90 by Paper Electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman; Adang Hardi G; Noor Anis Kundari

    2007-01-01

    The research for species characterization of 90 Y and 90 Sr complex compound have been conducted using variation of buffer, concentration of HCl, electrophoresis operation voltage, time of electrophoresis, and electrophoresis migration media. From many trials, the conclusions are the applicable buffer are tartrate buffer and citrate buffer. These buffers can make a complex compound of 90 Y and there is migration to the anode. But, 90 Sr can’t make any complex compound and migration to the cathode. The optimum concentration of hydrochloride acid is 8 M with tartrate buffer but for citrate buffer, the concentration HCl is 2 M. The hydrochloric acid is used to dissolved the both elements as the mentioned above, but also for making complex ligand. The optimum electrophoresis operation voltage is 200 Volt for the both buffer solution and the duration of electrophoresis operation is 2.5 hours with using tartrate buffer but for citrate buffer the duration is 2 hours. The media of migration which can be used for replacing paper is silica. (author)

  13. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation; Caracterizacao da granalha de aco recuperada do residuo de rochas ornamentais por separacao magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: eduardojunca@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 {mu}m with 4 wt.% over 100 {mu}m and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  14. Study on Separation of Structural Isomer with Magneto-Archimedes method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Mori, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Mishima, F.; Nishijima, S.

    2017-09-01

    Organic compounds are refined by separating their structural isomers, however each separation method has some problems. For example, distillation consumes large energy. In order to solve these problems, new separation method is needed. Considering organic compounds are diamagnetic, we focused on magneto-Archimedes method. With this method, particle mixture dispersed in a paramagnetic medium can be separated in a magnetic field due to the difference of the density and magnetic susceptibility of the particles. In this study, we succeeded in separating isomers of phthalic acid as an example of structural isomer using MnCl2 solution as the paramagnetic medium. In order to use magneto-Archimedes method for separating materials for food or medicine, we proposed harmless medium using oxygen and fluorocarbon instead of MnCl2 aqueous solution. As a result, the possibility of separating every structural isomer was shown.

  15. Systematic Study of Separators in Air-Breathing Flat-Plate Microbial Fuel Cells—Part 2: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The separator plays a key role on the performance of passive air-breathing flat-plate MFCs (FPMFC as it isolates the anaerobic anode from the air-breathing cathode. The goal of the present work was to study the separator characteristics and its effect on the performance of passive air-breathing FPMFCs. This was performed partially through characterization of structure, properties, and performance correlations of eight separators presented in Part 1. Current work (Part 2 presents a numerical model developed based on the mixed potential theory to investigate the sensitivity of the electrode potentials and the power output to the separator characteristics. According to this numerical model, the decreased peak power results from an increase in the mass transfer coefficients of oxygen and ethanol, but mainly increasing mixed potentials at the anode by oxygen crossover. The model also indicates that the peak power is affected by the proton transport number of the separator, which affects the cathode pH. Anode pH, on the other hand, remains constant due to application of phosphate buffer solution as the electrolyte. Also according to this model, the peak power is not sensitive to the resistivity of the separator because of the overshadowing effect of the oxygen crossover.

  16. Studies on Benzo-DODA encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of Pu from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.K.; Panja, S.; Kumar, M.; Ruhela, R.; Tripathi, S.C.; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.; Bajaj, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel contains a few mg of Pu per litre of waste volume. Therefore, there is a need for selective separation of Pu from above solution as well as other such acidic waste streams. The widely used technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes is liquid-liquid extraction.Though, such technologies play major role in all the bulk separation processes, they have marked limitations involving the losses of extractant in aqueous phase, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. These limitations have necessitated the exploration of advance, more efficient and technically feasible alternatives. In this regard it is thought that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may solve some of the problems. Benzodioxodiamide (BenzoDODA) is a recently reported extractant for the separation of plutonium from radioactive waste, containing nitric acid. BenzoDODA extractant encapsulated polymeric beads were prepared by phase inversion technique and found to be quite stable as no significant structural deformation or leaching out of the extractant was observed in 4.0 M HNO 3 solution, up to studied equilibration time of 8 days. These beads have been characterized by FT-IR, TGA and SEM techniques to gain insight into their structure and morphology. Morphology and porosity of the beads, as studied by the SEM analysis, indicate that the surface of the beads is quite rough, and has enough porosity. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the synthesized composite beads shows a weight loss of ∼74% during the heating from room temperature to 120℃, due to the loss of water present in the swollen beads. Such high water content also confirms that the beads have enough porosity for efficient exchange of metal ions.The synthesized beads were evaluated, for their ability to absorb Pu from acidic solution. The kinetics measurement showed that about 45 min of

  17. Criticality study of PWR fuel elements separated by concrete shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemot, M.; Colomb, G.; Maubert, L.

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear energy involved a need of neutronic shield studies to reduce the size and the cost of nuclear liquid storage units, of storage pools, and of transport casks. A concrete has been developed of the laboratory of concretes and coatings of Saclay; the validation of calculation codes including this material, as also the presence of free water and linked water necessitated an experimental confirmation of which program is presented here [fr

  18. Study on computer-aided simulation procedure for multicomponent separating cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro

    1982-11-01

    The present report reviews the author's study on the computer-aided simulation procedure for a multicomponent separating cascade. As a conclusion, two very powerful simulation procedures have been developed for cascades composed of separating elements whose separation factors are very large. They are applicable in cases where interstage flow rates are input variables for the calculation and stage separation factors are given either as constants or as functions of compositions of the up and down streams. As an application of the new procedure, a computer-aided simulation study has been performed for hydrogen isotope separating cascades by porous membrane method. A cascade system configuration is developed and pertinent design specifications are determined in an example case of the feed conditions and separation requirements. (author)

  19. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  20. A study of liberation and separation process of metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs) scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorliyana, H.A.; Zaheruddin, K.; Mohd Fazlul Bari; M. Sri Asliza; Nurhidayah, A.Z.; Kamarudin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Since the metallic elements are covered with or encapsulated by various plastic or ceramic materials on printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment process allowing their liberation and separation is first needed in order to facilitate their efficient extraction with hydrometallurgy route. Even though many studies have been performed on the mechanical pre-treatment processing for the liberation and separation of the metallic components of printed circuit boards scrap, further studies are required to pave the way for efficient recycling of waste printed circuit boards through a combination of mechanical pre-treatment and hydrometallurgical technology. In this work, a fundamental study has been carried out on the mechanical pre-treatment that is necessary to recover metallic concentrates from printed circuit boards scraps. The most important problem is to separate or release particles from the associated gangue minerals at the possible liberation particle size. The distribution of metallic elements has been also investigated in relation to the particle size of the milled printed circuit boards. The samples of printed circuit boards were separated into the magnetic and non-magnetic fractions by Rare-earth Roll Magnetic separator. Thereafter, the magnetic and non-magnetic fractions were separated to heavy fraction (metallic elements) and light fraction (plastic) by Mozley Laboratory Table Separator. The recovery ratios and the evaluation of the metallic concentrates recovered by each separation process were also investigated. This study is expected to provide useful data for the efficient mechanical separation of metallic components from printed circuit boards scraps. (author)

  1. Study of ion separation through solid-supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Do; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    1990-01-01

    The membranes used in this study consist of a microporous polymeric support with the solvent contraining alamine 336, Tri-N-Octyl phosphine oxide, Tri-N-butyl phosphate, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as a carrier within the pores by the capillary forces. When this liquid membrane is interposed between aqueous feed and product solutions, the carrier serving as a complexing agent, can pick up the uranium ions on the feed side of the membrane and carry them across the membrane by diffusion. In this study, the uranium flux through the solid-supported liquid membrane was analyzed as a function of carrier concentration and acidity of the feed solution for the carrier species. Also, the Gel-liquid extraction of uranium ions from aqueous solution was performed. The adsorbents were prepared by casting the polymer solution composed of polyvinyl chloride, TOPO, and additions. The extraction of uranyl nitrate ions has been investigated as a function of TOPO/PVC ratio, evaporation time, and the stability. The results show that is maybe possible to develop an alternative uranium purification process. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-69 membranes and separation for CO2/CO mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang; Hu, Enping; Khan, Easir A.; Lai, Zhiping

    2010-01-01

    on crystals taken from the same mother liquor that was used for membrane synthesis yield a Langmuir surface area of 1138 m(2)/g. The stability of the membrane towards heat and different solvents were studied. Single-gas permeation experiments through ZIF-69

  3. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    micrographs, and simulations and analytical models of bead trajectories, capture efficiencies, and capture distributions. We show that the efficiencies of both systems compare favorably to those in the literature. For the studied geometries, the mixer is demonstrated to increase the bead capture...

  4. Characterization of Metal-Doped Methylated Microporous Silica for Molecular Separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Feky, Hany Hassan; Briceno, Kelly; Szalata, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    Novel silica xerogels are prepared and developed by sol-gel method in the present study. The preparation involves cobalt-doping within the organic templated silica matrices, where methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), which contains methyl groups as a covalently bonded organic template is used. The synth...

  5. Parents' experience of child contact within entrenched conflict families following separation and divorce: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Target, M.; Hertzmann, L.; Midgley, N.; Casey, P.; Lassri, D.

    2017-01-01

    Child contact arrangements with parents following separation and divorce are strongly endorsed for children in both public policy and law where safe, but can be difficult to sustain. Entrenched high-conflict post-separation relationships between parents can cause substantial emotional risks to children as well as impacting severely on parents’ mental health. This paper describes a qualitative study, aimed at examining parents’ experiences of contact arrangements post-separation, undertaken wi...

  6. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  7. Separation of zircon from the beach sand deposit of Srikurmam area, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.S.U.; Sharma, A.K.; Seshadrinath, S.T.; Fahmi, Sohail; William Prasad, Ch.; Nagabhushanam, B.

    2011-01-01

    Beach sand placer deposits occur along the eastern and western coasts of India, which contain heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, garnet, monazite, zircon and sillimanite. Among these, zircon is used in zircaloys (nuclear industry), ceramics, refractories, abrasives, etc. Separation and chemical characterization of pure zircon is a prelude for understanding the different elements and impurities present and its industrial application. In recent times, several methods are developed for beneficiation and separation of individual heavy minerals from beach sands. In this paper, separation of zircon from beach sand of Srikurmam area, Andhra Pradesh was taken up as a case study. The process flow sheet adopted for separation and isolation of pure zircon from beach sand sample consists of desliming of beach sand, wet tabling of sand fraction, removal of magnetite by low intensity magnetic separation from table concentrate, perm roll magnetic separation and induced roll magnetic separation of table concentrate. The concentrates were further subjected to iso-dynamic magnetic separator after observing impurity present in the sample under binocular stereomicroscope. In the present process, about 95% pure zircon was obtained. Further concentration of zircon was carried out under the binocular stereomicroscope by hand picking of impurity to obtain 99.5% pure zircon concentrate. The pure zircon concentrate was analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by chemical method for characterization of zircon and cross validation of physical processes through which the zircon concentrate was obtained. Chemical analysis of the pure zircon concentrate indicated 63.15 to 64.79% ZrO 2 and 32.2 to 32.8% SiO 2 . These values are nearer to that of pure zircon, which stoichiometrically contains 67.2% ZrO 2 and 32.8 % SiO 2 with little iron. In the present study, ZrO 2 +HfO 2 content varies from 65.27 to 66.17% and hafnium from 1.25 to 1.46% HfO 2 in the zircon concentrate. The variation

  8. The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John Thomas

    Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized

  9. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  10. [Study on essential oil separation from Forsythia suspensa oil-bearing water body based on vapor permeation membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Pan, Yong-Lan; Li, Bo; Fu, Ting-Ming; Yao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of vapor permeation membrane technology in separating essential oil from oil-water extract by taking the Forsythia suspensa as an example. The polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride (PDMS/PVDF) composite flat membrane and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat membrane was collected as the membrane material respectively. Two kinds of membrane osmotic liquids were collected by self-made vapor permeation device. The yield of essential oil separated and enriched from two kinds of membrane materials was calculated, and the microscopic changes of membrane materials were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare and analyze the differences in chemical compositions of essential oil between traditional steam distillation, PVDF membrane enriched method and PDMS/PVDF membrane enriched method. The results showed that the yield of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane was significantly higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane, and the GC-MS spectrum showed that the content of main compositions was higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane; The GC-MS spectra showed that the components of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane were basically the same as those obtained by traditional steam distillation. The above results showed that vapor permeation membrane separation technology shall be feasible for the separation of Forsythia essential oil-bearing water body, and PVDF membrane was more suitable for separation and enrichment of Forsythia essential oil than PDMS/PVDF membrane. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. The study of multicomponent separation of Xe isotope by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinyan Wu; Fu Zhuge

    1996-01-01

    The element Xe has nine isotopes in nature, the separation performance of each component mutually affects the others, so the binary separation theory can't be employed to study the multicomponent separation. Especially, when the molecular wight of a certain component is in the middle of its isotope components, the effect of the others on this component must be considered. In this paper, first, the multicomponent separation of Xe isotopes in a gas centrifuge is studied, with the consideration of the effect of the concentration on the diffusion coefficient and average molecular weight. The multicomponent diffusion equations are solved by the finite difference method. Second, the enrichment of Xe isotopes in a cascade is studied. On the basis of the study of a gas centrifuge, the simplified separation equations of a gas centrifuge for cascade calculation are obtained. Furthermore, the complete equations of the cascade separation are established according to the conservation of mass of each component and solved by a numerical method. The study of this paper can be extended for other isotope separation calculations. (author)

  12. Performance Characterization of Gas-Solid Cyclone for Separation of Particle from Syngas Produced from Food Waste Gasifier Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osezua O. Ibhadode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel from any biodegradable formation process such as a food waste bio-digester plant is a mixture of several gases such as methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, ammonia (NH3 and impurities like water and dust particles. The results are reported of a parametric study of the process of separation of methane, which is the most important gas in the mixture and usable as a biofuel, from particles and H2S. A cyclone, which is a conventional, economic and simple device for gas-solid separation, is considered based on the modification of three Texas A&M cyclone designs (1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D by the inclusion of an air inlet tube. A parametric sizing is performed of the cyclone for biogas purification, accounting for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and dust particles from the biofuel. The stochiometric oxidation of H2S to form elemental sulphur is considered a useful cyclone design criterion. The proposed design includes geometric parameters and several criteria for quantifying the performance of cyclone separators such as the Lapple Model for minimum particle diameter collected, collection efficiency and pressure drop. For biogas volumetric flow rates between 0 and 1 m/s and inlet flow velocities of 12 m/s, 15 m/s and 18 m/s for the 1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D cyclones, respectively, it is observed that the 2D2D configuration is most economic in terms of sizing (total height and diameter of cyclone. The 1D2D configuration experiences the lowest pressure drop. A design algorithm coupled with a user-friendly graphics interface is developed on the MATLAB platform, providing a tool for sizing and designing suitable cyclones.

  13. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  14. Selective separation, detection of zotepine and mass spectral characterization of degradants by LC–MS/MS/QTOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.N. Kumar Talluri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, accurate stability-indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP–HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of zotepine (ZTP in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its degradation products (DPs. The method was developed using Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents, A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, pH=3.0 and B (acetonitrile. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254 nm; the run time was within 20.0 min, in which ZTP and its DPs were well separated, with a resolution of >1.5. The stress testing of ZTP was carried out under acidic, alkaline, neutral hydrolysis, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. ZTP was found to degrade significantly in acidic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative stress conditions and remain stable in basic and neutral conditions. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness as per ICH guidelines. This method was also suitable for the assay determination of ZTP in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The DPs were characterized by LC–MS/MS and their fragmentation pathways were proposed. Keywords: Zotepine, Stability-indicating RP–HPLC method, Characterization, ESI-Q-TOF-MS, Bulk drugs and formulations

  15. Studies on the radiochemical separation of Ga(III) from Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirayil, Viju; Vimalnath, K.V.; Jagadeesan, K.C.; Thakare, S.V.; Dhami, P.S.; Jagesia, Poonam; Dakshinamoorthy, A.

    2007-01-01

    The 67 Ga, produced in cyclotron from zinc target is widely used in tumor imaging in the form of gallium citrate. A method to separate gallium from zinc is developed using cation exchange chromatography. Reactor produced 65 Zn and 72 Ga were used to study the separation characteristics for further applicability in cyclotron production of 67 Ga. Zinc forms a stable cationic complex with NH 3 , whereas, Gallium forms anionic gallate (Ga(OH) 4 )- at pH 9.3. Zinc is quantitatively taken up by the cation exchange resin (Tulsion T-42) in NH 4 + form, thus effecting a simple rapid one step separation between Zn and Ga. (author)

  16. Parameter study on Japanese proposal of ITER hydrogen isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Tanaka, Shigeru; Ohokawa, Yoshinao; Ohara, Atsushi; Nagakura, Masaaki; Naito, Taisei; Nagashima, Kazuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Japanese design contribution in the ITER activity, conceptual design of an entire ITER tritium system and their safety analysis have been carried out through the three-year period since 1988. The tritium system includes the following subsystems; - Fuelling (gas puffing and pellet injection) subsystem, - Torus vacuum pumping subsystem, - Plasma exhaust gas purification subsystem, - Hydrogen isotope separation subsystem, - NBI gas processing subsystem, - Blanket tritium recovery subsystem, - Tritiated water processing subsystem, - Tritium safety subsystem. Hydrogen isotope separation system is a key subsystem in the ITER tritium system because it is connected to all above subsystems. This report describes an analytical study on the Japanese concept of hydrogen isotope separation system. (author)

  17. Stage separation study of Nike-Black Brant V Sounding Rocket System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new Sounding Rocket System has been developed. It consists of a Nike Booster and a Black Brant V Sustainer with slanted fins which extend beyond its nozzle exit plane. A cursory look was taken at different factors which must be considered when studying a passive separation system. That is, one separation system without mechanical constraints in the axial direction and which will allow separation due to drag differential accelerations between the Booster and the Sustainer. The equations of motion were derived for rigid body motions and exact solutions were obtained. The analysis developed could be applied to any other staging problem of a Sounding Rocket System.

  18. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Susumu, E-mail: igarashi@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The method for the soil decontamination by the superconducting magnet is proposed. • Magnetic separation of clay minerals was performed by HGMS. • Soil separation ratio was evaluated by quantitative analysis using XRD. • It is expected that HGMS can be applied to the actual soil decontamination. - Abstract: The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  19. Model of Chinese Household Kitchen Waste Separation Behavior: A Case Study in Beijing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High participation rates by the public in authority projects are key in increasing resident recycling levels. Understanding waste separation behavior is crucial to achieving sustainable waste management within such household-based schemes. To identify the driving forces behind the seldom-discussed kitchen garbage separation behavior, five psychological factors, namely, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, moral norms, and responsibility denial, are established. Our data originate from a social study of Beijing citizens conducted in July 2013 (n = 362. Through structural equation modeling, we find that moral norms are consistently the most important predictor of household kitchen waste (KW separation behavior. Subjective norms have a larger effect on such behavior than responsibility denial. Data analysis shows that perceived behavior control contributes significantly and independently to the explanation of such behavior. By contrast, attitude towards KW separation is found to be significantly negatively correlated with separation behavior. In conclusion, the model with direct and indirect effects of psychological factors explains 50.3% of the variance in household KW source separation behavior. Implications of the results for the promotion of household KW separation programs are discussed.

  20. Study on atmospheric hydrogen enrichment by cryopump method and isotope separation by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniyama, Yuki; Momoshima, Noriyuki

    2001-01-01

    To obtain the information of source of atmospheric hydrogen tritium an analysis of tritium isotopes is thought to be effective. So an atmospheric hydrogen enrichment apparatus and a cryogenic gas chromatographic column were made. Experiments were carried out to study the performance of cryopump to enrich atmospheric hydrogen and the column to separate hydrogen isotopes that obtained by cryopump method. The cryopump was able to process about 1000 1 atmosphere and the column was able to separate hydrogen isotopes with good resolution. (author)

  1. Feasibility studies on macroscopic separation of carbon isotopes by IR laser chemistry - a technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathi, P.; Nayak, A.K.; Parthasarathy, V.; Abhinandan, L.; Sarkar, S.K.

    2007-11-01

    This report describes the feasibility studies for macroscopic separation of carbon isotopes (∼ 50% enrichment level) by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of Freon - 22 (CF 2 HCl) using a 10Hz pulsed carbon dioxide laser in a large volume (∼ 300 litre) photochemical reactor (PCR). After a general introduction to the objective, the importance of characterization studies with a 10 Hz CO 2 laser is brought out before large scale operation in the PCR is carried out. The laboratory scale results obtained in a small cell with a lower average power (0.5 W) CO 2 laser is verified with a higher power (10 W) laser under optimal conditions. Such an exercise helps in understanding of any anomalies of the results and for applying the appropriate corrective measures while scaling up. The report deals with the design details, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the major components of the setup namely laser system, photochemical reactor, low temperature distillation unit and preparative gas chromatograph for realizing the targeted task. It further describes the standardization methodology of a sensitive analytical technique using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) to ascertain the C 2 F 4 product quality (i.e. enrichment). A pre- concentration method for separating C 2 F 4 from CF 2 HCl using gas chromatography has been developed for very low-level mass spectral analysis. During this exercise, an indigenous QMS developed in VPID (erstwhile MS and ES) has also been benchmarked by comparing its performance with a commercial QMS unit. The report gives in details the operational experience of carrying out the large scale enrichment task in a batch process. The modular PCR employing a multi-pass refocusing Herriott optics for efficient photon utilization and gas blower arrangement for gas circulation during laser photolysis has given a typical production rate of about 10 mg/hr for total carbon with a 13 C isotopic purity of ∼ 40%. It further indicates the scope

  2. Experimental Study of Unsteady Flow Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    Flow separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, is a major problem in many applications. Reversing flow near the wall is the first sign of incipient separation and can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An investigation of how this backflow forms and how it interacts with shark skin is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a bioinspired means of initiating flow control. A water tunnel experiment aims to study unsteady separation with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a flat plate laminar boundary layer (Re on order of 105) as an increasing adverse pressure gradient is induced by a rotating cylinder. Unsteady reversing flow development is documented using DPIV. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (EEC 1659710) and the Army Research Office.

  3. Contribution to the study of rare earth separation by ion exchange, using ammonium lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratot, I.

    1958-01-01

    Using the technique of chromatography on a column of Dowex 50 resin, heated to 87 deg. C, we have studied the separation of rare earths (from holmium to praseodymium) which may be produced with the cyclotron by heavy ions, α or protons. From an ammonium lactate solution M at pH 5, separations are carried out by varying the dilution as a function of the quantity of the target rare earth and of its position during elution. When weighable quantities of the rare earth (more than 5 mg) appear towards the end of the elution, the separation is little affected this case approaches that of a tracer mixture of rare earths; if on the other hand weighable quantities of the rare earth are washed through at the beginning of the chromatogram, the dilution must be adjusted in order to obtain a good separation. (author) [fr

  4. Parametric study of separation and transition characteristics over an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Yarusevych, Serhiy [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Time-resolved surface pressure measurements are used to experimentally investigate characteristics of separation and transition over a NACA 0018 airfoil for the relatively wide range of chord Reynolds numbers from 50,000 to 250,000 and angles of attack from 0 to 21 . The results provide a comprehensive data set of characteristic parameters for separated shear layer development and reveal important dependencies of these quantities on flow conditions. Mean surface pressure measurements are used to explore the variation in separation bubble position, edge velocity in the separated shear layer, and lift coefficients with angle of attack and Reynolds number. Consistent with previous studies, the separation bubble is found to move upstream and decrease in length as the Reynolds number and angle of attack increase. Above a certain angle of attack, the proximity of the separation bubble to the location of the suction peak results in a reduced lift slope compared to that observed at lower angles. Simultaneous measurements of the time-varying component of surface pressure at various spatial locations on the model are used to estimate the frequency of shear layer instability, maximum root-mean-square (RMS) surface pressure, spatial amplification rates of RMS surface pressure, and convection speeds of the pressure fluctuations in the separation bubble. A power-law correlation between the shear layer instability frequency and Reynolds number is shown to provide an order of magnitude estimate of the central frequency of disturbance amplification for various airfoil geometries at low Reynolds numbers. Maximum RMS surface pressures are found to agree with values measured in separation bubbles over geometries other than airfoils, when normalized by the dynamic pressure based on edge velocity. Spatial amplification rates in the separation bubble increase with both Reynolds number and angle of attack, causing the accompanying decrease in separation bubble length. Values of the

  5. Numerical study of corner separation in a linear compressor cascade using various turbulence models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yangwei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional corner separation is a common phenomenon that significantly affects compressor performance. Turbulence model is still a weakness for RANS method on predicting corner separation flow accurately. In the present study, numerical study of corner separation in a linear highly loaded prescribed velocity distribution (PVD compressor cascade has been investigated using seven frequently used turbulence models. The seven turbulence models include Spalart–Allmaras model, standard k–ɛ model, realizable k–ɛ model, standard k–ω model, shear stress transport k–ω model, v2–f model and Reynolds stress model. The results of these turbulence models have been compared and analyzed in detail with available experimental data. It is found the standard k–ɛ model, realizable k–ɛ model, v2–f model and Reynolds stress model can provide reasonable results for predicting three dimensional corner separation in the compressor cascade. The Spalart–Allmaras model, standard k–ω model and shear stress transport k–ω model overestimate corner separation region at incidence of 0°. The turbulence characteristics are discussed and turbulence anisotropy is observed to be stronger in the corner separating region.

  6. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime

  7. Non-ionic, thermo-responsive DEA/DMA nanogels: synthesis, characterization, and use for DNA separations by microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xihua; Sun, Mingyun; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-05-15

    Thermo-responsive polymer "nanogels" (crosslinked hydrogel particles with sub-100 nm diameters) are intriguing for many potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. There have been relatively few reports of electrostatically neutral, thermosensitive nanogels comprising a high fraction of hydrophilic co-monomer. Here we demonstrate the syntheses and characterization of novel, non-ionic nanogels based on random N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEA)/N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) copolymers, made by free-radical, surfactant-free dispersion polymerization. The volume-phase transition temperatures of these DEA/DMA nanogels are strongly affected by co-monomer composition, providing a way to "tune" the phase transition temperature of these non-ionic nanogels. While DEA nanogels (comprising no DMA) can be obtained at 70 °C by standard emulsion precipitation, DEA/DMA random co-polymer nanogels can be obtained only in a particular range of temperatures, above the initial phase transition temperature and below the critical precipitation temperature of the DEA/DMA copolymer, controlled by co-monomer composition. Increasing percentages of DMA in the nanogels raises the phase transition temperature, and attenuates and broadens it as well. We find that concentrated DEA/DMA nanogel dispersions are optically clear at room temperature. This good optical clarity was exploited for their use in a novel DNA sieving matrix for microfluidic chip electrophoresis. An ultrafast, high-efficiency dsDNA separation was achieved in less than 120 s for dsDNA ranging from 75 bp to 15,000 bp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the Intrinsic Ethanol/Water Separation Capability of ZIF-8: An Adsorption and Diffusion Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-04-11

    Intrinsic ethanol/water separation capability of ZIF-8 is characterized by a detailed study of adsorption and diffusion of ethanol and water vapor in dodecahedral crystals with principle axis dimension of 324, 15.8, and 0.4 μm. ZIF-8 exhibits extremely low water uptakes. At 35 C and a relative pressure (P/Po) of 0.95, the water uptakes for 324, 15.8, and 0.4 μm ZIF-8 are 0.184, 0.197, and 0.503 mmol/g, respectively, all of which are less than 1 wt % increase relative to original sorbent mass (0.33, 0.35, 0.91 wt %). For ethanol adsorption, ZIF-8 exhibits an S-shape isotherm with low ethanol uptakes at P/Po up to 0.08 and the cage filling phenomenon occurs at P/P o higher than 0.08. The ethanol saturation uptake in ZIF-8 is as high as 30% of the sorbent weight. Because of the existence of the hydrophilic -N-H functionality introduced by the terminating imidazolate (Im) linker and the overall hydrophobicity of the inner network, the effect of outer surface area of ZIF-8 crystals is proved to be non-negligible as ZIF-8 crystals becomes smaller despite the extremely large inner surface area and pore volume, especially for water sorption. The variation of isosteric heats of adsorption for water reveals the existence of structural defect of ZIF-8 framework. Transport diffusivity and corrected diffusivity for water and ethanol in ZIF-8 are determined within the entire P/Po range. The ethanol/water separation performance in ZIF-8 is evaluated in terms of vapor-phase sorption selectivity and permselectivity. While ZIF-8 exhibits ample ethanol/water sorption selectivity, it is not effective for ethanol extraction as a membrane material from dilute ethanol aqueous solutions due to the unfavorable diffusion selectivity and the competitive water uptakes in the adsorbed ethanol phase. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Studies of (p, γ) reactions with the Daresbury Recoil Separator at ORNL'S HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Abbotoy, E.; Bardayan, D.W.; Blackmon, J.C.; Champagne, A.E.; Chen, A.A.; Greife, U.; Hill, D.W.; James, A.N.; Kozub, R.L.; Lewis, T.A.; Livesay, R.; Ma, Z.; Mahan, S.L.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Moazen, B.H.; Parker, P.D.; Pierce, D.E.; Roettger, M.E.; Sahin, L.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M.S.; Strieder, F.; Swartz, K.B.; Thomas, J.S.; Visser, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The fusion of protons with radioactive nuclei is important in stellar explosions such as novae and X-ray bursts and for the production of neutrinos in the sun. The Daresbury Recoil Separator and a windowless gas target system have been installed at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for measurements of proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The performance of the system has been characterized with a number of experiments using stable ion beams. We report on results from these commissioning measurements and plans for measurements of the 1 H( 17 F, 18 Ne) and 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B) reactions

  10. Impaired neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus is associated with pattern separation deficits: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    The separation of input patterns received from the entorhinal cortex (EC) by the dentate gyrus (DG) is a well-known critical step of information processing in the hippocampus. Although the role of interneurons in separation pattern efficiency of the DG has been theoretically known, the balance of neurogenesis of excitatory neurons and interneurons as well as its potential role in information processing in the DG is not fully understood. In this work, we study separation efficiency of the DG for different rates of neurogenesis of interneurons and excitatory neurons using a novel computational model in which we assume an increase in the synaptic efficacy between excitatory neurons and interneurons and then its decay over time. Information processing in the EC and DG was simulated as information flow in a two layer feed-forward neural network. The neurogenesis rate was modeled as the percentage of new born neurons added to the neuronal population in each time bin. The results show an important role of an optimal neurogenesis rate of interneurons and excitatory neurons in the DG in efficient separation of inputs from the EC in pattern separation tasks. The model predicts that any deviation of the optimal values of neurogenesis rates leads to different decreased levels of the separation deficits of the DG which influences its function to encode memory.

  11. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Buisman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1 centralized; (2 centralized with source-separation of urine; (3 source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4 source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.

  12. A Study on the Performance of the Saffron Separator for Different Air Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghanizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, is extremely appreciated for its extraordinary color, taste and aroma. At the present time, nearly all the saffron harvest and post harvest processes are carried out manually. To increase the quality and development of economic role of saffron, it is essential to go beyond the traditional method of harvest of saffron. Considering that saffron components terminal velocities are different, a separator is planned and constructed to separate stigma from other parts of saffron flower. This separator is designed on the basis of aerodynamic and physical properties of saffron flower. The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance of a saffron separator for different air flows to increase the level of automation and efficiency of post-harvest operations. The results show that the maximum stigma separation happens when the air flow speed in outlet B is 3 m/s. finally, this data will be applied to find the optimum areas of outlet B and D, as two main parameters which have significant effect on the efficiency of saffron separator.

  13. Feasibility studies on electrochemical separation and recovery of uranium by using domestic low grade uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Yu Ri; Lee, Joong Moung

    2005-12-01

    The up-to-date electrochemical uranium separation technology has been developed for uranium sludge waste treatment funded by a long term national nuclear technology development program. The objective of the studies is to examine applicability of the uranium separation technology to making use of the low grade uranium resources in the country. State of the arts of uranium separation and recovery from the low grade national uranium resources. - The amount of the high grade uranium resources(0.1 % U 3 O 8 contents) in the world is 1,750,000MTU and that of the low grade uranium resources(0.04 % U 3 O 8 contents) in the country is 340,000MTU. - The world uranium price will be increase to more than 30$/l0b in 10 years, so that the low grade uranium in the country become worth while to recover. - The conventional uranium recovery technologies are based on both acidic - The ACF electrochemical uranium separation technology is the state of the art technology in the world and the adsorption capability of 690 mgU/g is several ten times higher than that of a conventional zeolite and the uranium stripping efficiency by desorption is more than 99%. So, this technology is expected to replace the existing solvent extraction technology. Feasibility of the ACF electrochemical uranium separation technology as an uranium recovery method. Lab scale demonstration of uranium separation and recovery technologies have been carried out by using an ACF electrochemical method

  14. Parental separation in childhood and self-reported psychological health: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2016-12-30

    The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and self-reported psychological health, adjusting for social capital, social support, civil status and economic stress in childhood. A cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in the autumn of 2012 in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and self-reported psychological health (GHQ12) were investigated using logistic regressions. A 16.1% proportion of all men 22.4% of all women reported poor psychological health. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18 years, the corresponding prevalence among women was 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with poor self-rated psychological health among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4, and among women with this experience at ages 0-4, 10-14 and 15-18. These significant associations remained throughout the multiple analyses. The results support the notion that the experience of parental separation/divorce in childhood may influence psychological health in adulthood, particularly if it is experienced in the age interval 0-4 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Site characterization studies in the NWTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.; Evans, G.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to identify sites and construct and operate facilities for the storage or isolation of spent fuel and/or reprocessing radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been initiated by the DOE to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of burial and isolation of high level radioactive waste in deep geologic formations. The NTWS Program plan which sets forth the criteria, procedures, and other considerations required to characterize and select a site in a comprehensive stepwise manner is discussed. The plan is not specific to any given geologic medium but serves as a guide for site selection in any geohydrologic system deemed appropriate for consideration for a deep geologic repository. The plan will be used by all NWTS Project Offices in the conduct of their site characterization program. The plan will be updated, as warranted, to reflect technology development, National policies, rulemakings by regulatory agencies, and other changing political, social, and institutional considerations. Site characterization begins with the identification of regions believed to have suitable geologic, hydrologic, and environmental characteristics for repository siting. This is followed by an iterative process of data collection and analysis to identify areas and locations which appear most suitable for further investigations. In addition, screening studies of the DOE's nuclear complexes has led to the selection of the Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site for further characterization studies. The site characterization process results in a number of candidate sites from which a site will be selected and proposed to the NRC for licensing

  17. Depressive symptoms postpartum among parents are associated with marital separation: a Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstis, Birgitta; Berglund, Anders; Engström, Gabriella; Edlund, Birgitta; Sylvén, Sara; Aarts, Clara

    2014-11-01

    To study whether there is an association between dyadic consensus, depressive symptoms, and parental stress during early parenthood and marital separation 6-8 years after childbirth, among couples in Sweden. At baseline, 393 couples were included. The couples answered three questionnaires, including: Dyadic consensus at 1 week post-partum, depressive symptoms at 3 months post-partum and parental stress at 18 months post-partum. The parents' addresses were followed up after 6-8 years, to study the marital separation rate. We found, 6-8 years after childbirth, that 20% of study couples were separated. Separation was associated with less dyadic consensus (mothers p parental stress (mothers p = 0.002; fathers p = 0.040). The hazard ratio (HR) for marital separation was related to dyadic consensus for fathers (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92), depressive symptoms for mothers (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.01-2.84) and fathers (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.28), and the mother's parental stress (HR 2.16; 95% CI 1.14-4.07). Understanding how dyadic consensus, depressive symptoms and parental stress are associated with marital separation is important for health professionals it could be useful in developing interventions to provide parents with adequate support during pregnancy and early parenthood this knowledge is also important for the public parents should get support in pregnancy and while bringing up children, which may help prevent marital separation and optimize conditions for the children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Design study of fuel circulating system using Pd alloy membrane isotope separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamada, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kasahara, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is expected that the method of permeating through Pd-alloy membrances is effective for isotope separation and the refining of fuel gas. In this paper, the design study of the Fuel Circulating System (FCS) using Pb-alloy membranes is described. The study is mainly focused on the main vacuum, fuel gas refining, isotope separating, and tritium containment systems. In the fuel gas refining system, impurities are effectively removed by using Pd-alloy membranes. For the isotope separation system, the diffusion method through Pd-alloy membranes was adopted. From the standpoint of the safety and economy, a three-stage tritium containment system was adopted to control tritium release to the environment as low as possible. The principal conclusion drawn from the design study was as follows. In the FCS, while cryogenic distillation method appears to be practicable, Pd-alloy membrane method is attractive for isotope separation and the refining of fuel gas. For a large amount of tritium inventory, handling and control technologies should be completed by the experimental evaluation and development of the components and materials used for the FCS. A three-stage containment system was adopted to control tritium release to environment as low as possible. Consideration to prevent tritium escape will be necessary for fuel gas refiners and isotope separators. (Kato, T.)

  19. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  20. Studies on Three Liquid Phase Extraction (TLPE) system for separation of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Three-liquid-phase extraction (TLPE) is relatively a new separation technique, which takes the advantage of the differences in physicochemical properties of three coexisted phases to achieve multi-phase liquid separation of two or more components in one-step extraction. TLPE system consists of three liquid layers namely an organic solvent phase (organophosphorous type) and two aqueous phases one rich in polymer phase (poly alkylene glycol) and other a salt solution. To study the feasibility of using such system for separation of rare earths, it is important to optimize the preparatory conditions by selective suitable polymer and salt solutions at an appropriate pH to obtain a stable three phase layers to effect the separation. D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) is a well- established extractant in the rare earth industry and has been chosen in the present work to form a TLPE with polymer and salt solution. In the present investigation after preparing the stable three phase, the feasibility of using TLPE has been examined to separate rare earths from a multicomponent solutions. This study has demonstrated the ability of TLPE having D2EHPA as organic phase to separate rare earths from a multicomponent system. Effect of pH, concentration and types of polymer, complexing agent and D2EHPA concentration has been studied. Variation in pH study indicated that 4.0 leads to extraction of rare earths in the polymer phase. PEG 600 was found to be best amongst the polymer investigated. Presence of DTPA as complexing agent in the salt solution having pH >4.0 resulted in enhanced extraction of rare earths in PEG phase

  1. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations; Litteraturstudie angaaende brandskydd i kaernkraftverk. Del I: Brandteknisk separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, S [Swedish Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs.

  2. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-09

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New index based on the physical separation of motion into three categories for characterizing the effect of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hiroto; Nakatomi, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Chihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Hanai, Kazumitsu

    2013-09-21

    Characterization of open-field behavior and locomotor activity is widely used to assess the influence of a drug on mouse or rat behavior. In this study, we developed an index for characterizing the behavior of cocaine-administered mice (C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c). Because a three-exponential-model exhibited the best fit to the obtained data among the different probability density functions, we divided each walking episode into three categories according to the duration of movement. We found a significant difference in decay variation of mean speed with time in the case of long walking duration. To clarify this difference quantitatively, we developed an index for the changes in locomotion control, based on a heuristic argument regarding the ratio of the coefficients of the drag term obtained by the biphasic motion-equation model. The index had a significant dose-related effect in each strain and a significant strain effect in high-concentration drug. Therefore, it would thus be useful for examining the effect of the drug on locomotor activity in mice. Moreover, evaluating other characters suggested previously, the proposed index had good advantage to differentiate the dose-related response in the three species of inbred mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  5. Characterization of diesel fuel by chemical separation combined with capillary gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D; Jarman, Kristin H; Moran, James J; Sorensen, Christina M; Wright, Bob W

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of diesel fuels to evaluate whether the technique could distinguish diesel samples from different sources/locations. The ability to differentiate or correlate diesel samples could be valuable for discovering fuel tax evasion schemes or for environmental forensic studies. Two urea adduction-based techniques were used to isolate the n-alkanes from the fuel. Both carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) and hydrogen isotope ratio (δD) values for the n-alkanes were then determined by CSIA in each sample. The samples investigated had δ(13)C values that ranged from -30.1‰ to -26.8‰, whereas δD values ranged from -83‰ to -156‰. Plots of δD versus δ(13)C with sample n-alkane points connected in order of increasing carbon number gave well-separated clusters with characteristic shapes for each sample. Principal components analysis (PCA) with δ(13)C, δD, or combined δ(13)C and δD data was applied to extract the maximum information content. PCA scores plots could clearly differentiate the samples, thereby demonstrating the potential of this approach for distinguishing (e.g., fingerprinting) fuel samples using δ(13)C and δD values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental study of separator effect and shift angle on crossflow wind turbine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrudin, Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Santoso, Budi

    2018-02-01

    This paper present experimental test results of separator and shift angle influence on Crossflow vertical axis wind turbine. Modification by using a separator and shift angle is expected to improve the thrust on the blade so as to improve the efficiency. The design of the wind turbine is tested at different wind speeds. There are 2 variations of crossflow turbine design which will be analyzed using an experimental test scheme that is, 3 stage crossflow and 2 stage crossflow with the shift angle. Maximum power coefficient obtained as Cpmax = 0.13 at wind speed 4.05 m/s for 1 separator and Cpmax = 0.12 for 12° shear angle of wind speed 4.05 m/s. In this study, power characteristics of the crossflow rotor with separator and shift angle have been tested. The experimental data was collected by variation of 2 separator and shift angle 0°, 6°, 12° and wind speed 3.01 - 4.85 m/s.

  7. The study on optimization issues for magnetic separation by magnetic chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Iwamoto, R.; Kataoka, K.; Noguchi, S.; Okada, H.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic chromatography is a very useful system for an ion and/or fine magnetic particle separation because it has strong magnetic field gradients even in a very narrow flow channel. We have not only developed the magnetic chromatography system to separate the fine particles and ions, but also the numerical analysis code based on the fluid dynamics and electromagnetism to investigate the separating characteristics and to optimize design of magnetic column. In this study, the simple experiments using a superconducting magnet with a large room-temperature-bore and a micro-scale magnetic column consisting of ferromagnetic wires were carried out to understand the ions separation. The cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) and the nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 ) were used as ions, and the magnetic field and length of magnetic column were used as a parameter in an experiment and an analysis. It can be expected that the ion mobility of a single and complex are quite different, and the ability of the separation will be improved by increasing the column length without external magnetic field.

  8. Polyoxyethylene/styrene - a model system for studying reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, D.; Stanford, J.L.; Ryan, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Reaction-induced, phase-separation has been studied in polymer blends. A model crystalline-amorphous system consisted of semi-crystalline polyoxyethylene (POE) dissolved in the monomer styrene, which was employed as a reactive solvent to ease processing. When the styrene was polymerised to polystyrene (PS) in the mould, phase-separation and phase-inversion are induced, and a polymer blend was formed. POE was selected with a molar mass, Mn = 8578 g mol -1 and a polydispersity of 1.19 as determined using GPC. The polymerisation of styrene was initiated using 1 wt-% benzoin methyl ether (BME) and 0.2 wt-% 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) under ultra-violet (UV) light. The polymerisation kinetics were determined by monitoring the reduction in the intensity of the C=C stretching vibration band at 1631 cm -1 in the Raman spectrum of styrene. The onset times for the liquid-solid (L-S) phase-separation and crystallisation of POE from styrene/PS were observed using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Onset times for L-S phase-separation determined from the SAXS data were combined with the styrene polymerisation kinetics to plot the L-S phase-separation data onto a ternary phase diagram for the reactive system POE/styrene/PS at 45 and 50 deg C

  9. Characterization and risk assessment of seasonal and weather dynamics in organic pollutant mixtures from discharge of a separate sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Liza-Marie; Busch, Wibke; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner

    2018-05-15

    Sites of wastewater discharge are hotspots for pollution of freshwaters with organic micropollutants and are often associated with adverse effects to aquatic organisms. The assessment, monitoring and managment of these hotspots is challenged by variations in the pollutant mixture composition due to season, weather conditions and random spills. In this study, we unraveled temporal exposure patterns in organic micropollutant mixtures from wastewater discharge and analyzed respective acute and sublethal risks for aquatic organisms. Samples were taken from two components of a separate sewer system i) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and ii) a rain sewer of a medium size town as well as from the receiving river in different seasons. Rain sewer samples were separately collected for rain and dry - weather conditions. We analyzed 149 compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By considering the pollution dynamics in the point sources, we reduced the complexity of pollutant mixtures by k-means clustering to a few emission groups representing temporal and weather-related pollution patterns. From these groups, we derived biological quality element (BQE) - specific risk patterns. In most cases, one main risk driving emission group and a few individual risk driving compounds were identified for each BQE. While acute risk for fish was quite low, algae were exposed to seasonally emitted herbicides (terbuthylazine, spiroxamine) and crustaceans to randomly spilled insecticides (diazinon, dimethoate). Sublethal risks for all BQE were strongly influenced by constantly emitted pollutants, above all, pharmaceuticals. Variability of risks in the river was mainly driven by water discharge of the river rather than by season or peak events. Overall, the studied WWTP represented the major pollution source with a specific emission of agricultural compounds. However, the investigated rain sewer showed to be a constant pollution source due to illicit connections

  10. A Theoretical Study of the Separation Principle in Size Exclusion Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Teraoka, Iwao; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2010-01-01

    as a function of the retention volume, results for both linear and branched polyethylene molecules lie nearly on the master curve determined by linear polystyrene standards. Our findings support the equilibrium thermodynamic separation principle in SEC. Since the mean span dimension is a purely geometric size......The principle of polymer separation in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is studied based on a classical equilibrium partitioning theory. The task is to examine the correlation between the mean span dimension of polymer chains and their equilibrium partition coefficients with confining pores...

  11. A qualitative study of incarcerated mothers' perceptions of the impact of separation on their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Jerry Jo M

    2012-01-01

    Many incarcerated women are mothers, and their children exhibit various responses to the separation that incarceration commands. This exploratory qualitative study examines incarcerated women's perceptions of the consequences of their illegal activity, confinement, and separation from their children on their offspring. The results indicate that although mothers are concerned about their children, they are typically unable to recognize the negative consequences of their actions on their children and their relationship with their children until beginning intensive treatment. Effective treatment must focus on the woman's personal issues along with their parenting abilities and skills to repair these relationships and promote healthy family functioning.

  12. Extraction and separation studies of uranium(VI) with tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaramurthi, N.M.; Desai, G.S.; Shinde, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A solvent extraction method is proposed for the extraction and separation of uranium from salicylate media using tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate dissolved in xylene as an extractant. The optimum conditions were evaluated from a critical study of pH, salicylate concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and diluent. The method permits the separation of uranium from thorium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, copper, vanadium and chromium from binary mixtures and is applicable to the analysis of uranium in synthetic samples. The method is precise, accurate, fast and selective. (author) 5 refs.; 2 tabs

  13. A phase-field and electron microscopy study of phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, Peter, E-mail: pheds@kth.se [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Baghsheikhi, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Liu, Ping [Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden); Odqvist, Joakim [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental characterization and Phase-field modeling of phase separation in Fe-Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition from particle-like to spinodal-like structure observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural evolution generates increased hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in agreement with recent thermodynamic description. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative kinetic modeling must include thermal noise and improved kinetic data. - Abstract: Phase separation in the binary Fe-Cr system, the basis for the entire stainless steel family, is considered responsible for the low temperature embrittlement in ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steels. These steels are often used in load-bearing applications with considerable service time at elevated temperature. Thus, understanding the effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and predicting dynamics of phase separation are key issues. In the present work, experimental evaluation of structure and mechanical properties in binary Fe-Cr alloys as well as phase-field modeling, using a new thermodynamic description of Fe-Cr, is conducted. A significant hardening evolution with time is found for alloys aged between 400 and 550 Degree-Sign C, and it can be attributed to phase separation. The decomposed structure changed with increasing Cr content at 500 Degree-Sign C, with a more particle-like structure at 25 wt% Cr and a more spinodal-like structure at 30 wt% Cr. The observed transition of structure agrees with the thermodynamically predicted spinodal, although the transition is expected to be gradual. The phase-field simulations qualitatively agree with experiments. However, to enable accurate quantitative predictions, the diffusional mobilities must be evaluated further and thermal fluctuations as well as 3D diffusion fields must be properly accounted for.

  14. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of the phase separation mechanisms of transition-metal phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazali, Italo Odone; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Gimenez, Iara de Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Glass-ceramics are prepared by controlled separation of crystal phases in glasses, leading to uniform and dense grain structures. On the other hand, chemical leaching of soluble crystal phases yields porous glass-ceramics with important applications. Here, glass/ceramic interfaces of niobo-, vanado- and titano-phosphate glasses were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, whose spatial resolution revealed the multiphase structures. Phase-separation mechanisms were also determined by this technique, revealing that interface composition remained unchanged as the crystallization front advanced for niobo- and vanadophosphate glasses (interface-controlled crystallization). For titanophosphate glasses, phase composition changed continuously with time up to the equilibrium composition, indicating a spinodal-type phase separation. (author)

  15. XRD and SEM study on the phase separation and crystallization behavior for an amorphous Cu+ conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuan; Hou Jianguo; Yu Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was carried out for an amorphous Cu + conductor 0.4 CuI-0.3 Cu 2 O-0.3 P 2 O 5 with the simultaneous conductivity measurement in the isothermal heat treament process. The results indicated that the initial amorphous material was phase-separated. In the course of time the separated amorphous phase disappeared, the crystalline γ-CuI and Cu 2 P 2 O 7 formed in sequence and grew up gradually. The correlation of the phase separation and crystallization behavior with the conductivity anomaly confirmed again the interface effect between different phases in amorphous fast ionic conductors and its universality

  16. Separating civil and military nuclear programmes in the UK and France; a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable concern shown by the general public and the trade unions over the connection between the civil and military nuclear programmes. This paper is the result of research to determine the feasibility of separating the two in the UK and France. The result of the study is that it is technically and economically feasible to adopt a policy of separation. The costs are not overwhelming, rather the difficulty lies in assessing the intangible benefits of such a programme, and in overcoming any political impediments to its adoption. The major political fear is that adopting a separation programme would put that nation at a disadvantage with respect to other nuclear weapon states. (author)

  17. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-ε Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  18. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies; Separacao isotopica de litio: estudos preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-07-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  19. Removal of Separable Organic From Tank 241-C-103 Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-05-16

    This study is based on previous evaluations/proposals for removing the floating organic layer in C-103. A practical method is described with assumptions, cost and schedule estimates, and risks. Proposed operational steps include bulk organic removal, phase separation, organic washing and offsite disposal, followed by an in-situ polishing process.

  20. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  1. Removal of Separable Organic From Tank 241-C-103 Scoping Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study is based on previous evaluations/proposals for removing the floating organic layer in C-103. A practical method is described with assumptions, cost and schedule estimates, and risks. Proposed operational steps include bulk organic removal, phase separation, organic washing and offsite disposal, followed by an in-situ polishing process

  2. Study of position resolution and electron-hadron separation of electromagnetic calorimeter with a silicon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodnichev, V.B.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Rykali, V.V.; Solovianov, V.L.; Ukhalov, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum shower silicon strip detectors embedded in a module of sandwich-type electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested. The position resolution at different depths of the silicon structure has been measured. The results on electron-hadron separation obtained as a byproduct in this study are presented, and possibility of their improvement is discussed. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  3. Experimental study of canvas characterization for paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The work described here fits in the context of a larger project on the objective and relevant characterization of paintings and painting canvas through the analysis of multimodal digital images. We captured, amongst others, X-ray images of different canvas types, characterized by a variety of textures and weave patterns (fine and rougher texture; single thread and multiple threads per weave), including raw canvas as well as canvas processed with different primers. In this paper, we study how to characterize the canvas by extracting global features such as average thread width, average distance between successive threads (i.e. thread density) and the spatial distribution of primers. These features are then used to construct a generic model of the canvas structure. Secondly, we investigate whether we can identify different pieces of canvas coming from the same bolt. This is an important element for dating, authentication and identification of restorations. Both the global characteristics mentioned earlier and some local properties (such as deviations from the average pattern model) are used to compare the "fingerprint" of different pieces of cloth coming from the same or different bolts.

  4. Sorption separation of Eu and As from single-component systems by Fe-modified biochar. Kinetic and equilibrium study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fristak, Vladimir; Soja, Gerhard; Michalekova-Richveisova, Barbora; Pipiska, Martin; Viglasova, Eva; Galambos, Michal; Duriska, Libor; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of carbonaceous materials in separation processes of radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids represents a burning issue in environmental and waste management. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of chemical modification of corncob-derived biochar by Fe-impregnations on sorption efficiency of Eu and As as a model compounds of cationic lanthanides and anionic metalloids. The biochar sample produced in slow pyrolysis process at 500 C before (BC) and after (IBC) impregnation process was characterized by elemental, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis to confirm the effectiveness of Fe-impregnation process. The basic physico-chemical properties showed differences in surface area and pH values of BC- and IBC-derived sorbents. Sorption processes of Eu and As by BC and IBC were characterized as a time- and initial concentration of sorbate-dependent processes. The sorption equilibrium was reached for both sorbates in 24 h of contact time. Batch equilibrium experiments revealed the increased maximum sorption capacities (Q max ) of IBC for As about more than 20 times (Q max BC 0.11 and Q max IBC 2.26 mg g -1 ). Our study confirmed negligible effect of Fe-impregnation on sorption capacity of biochar for Eu (Q max BC 0.89 and Q max IBC 0.98 mg g -1 ). The iron-impregnation of biochar-derived sorbents can be utilized as a valuable treatment method to produce stable and more effective sorption materials for various xenobiotics separation from liquid wastes and aqueous solutions.

  5. Sorption separation of Eu and As from single-component systems by Fe-modified biochar. Kinetic and equilibrium study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fristak, Vladimir; Soja, Gerhard [Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Tulln (Austria). Energy Dept. Environmental Resources and Technologies; Michalekova-Richveisova, Barbora; Pipiska, Martin [Trnava Univ. (Slovakia). Dept. of Chemistry; Viglasova, Eva; Galambos, Michal [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Duriska, Libor [Slovak Univ. of Technology in Bratislava, Trnava (Slovakia). Faculty of Materials Science and Technology; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Agricola y Bromatologia

    2017-03-15

    The utilization of carbonaceous materials in separation processes of radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids represents a burning issue in environmental and waste management. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of chemical modification of corncob-derived biochar by Fe-impregnations on sorption efficiency of Eu and As as a model compounds of cationic lanthanides and anionic metalloids. The biochar sample produced in slow pyrolysis process at 500 C before (BC) and after (IBC) impregnation process was characterized by elemental, FTIR, SEM-EDX analysis to confirm the effectiveness of Fe-impregnation process. The basic physico-chemical properties showed differences in surface area and pH values of BC- and IBC-derived sorbents. Sorption processes of Eu and As by BC and IBC were characterized as a time- and initial concentration of sorbate-dependent processes. The sorption equilibrium was reached for both sorbates in 24 h of contact time. Batch equilibrium experiments revealed the increased maximum sorption capacities (Q{sub max}) of IBC for As about more than 20 times (Q{sub max} BC 0.11 and Q{sub max} IBC 2.26 mg g{sup -1}). Our study confirmed negligible effect of Fe-impregnation on sorption capacity of biochar for Eu (Q{sub max} BC 0.89 and Q{sub max} IBC 0.98 mg g{sup -1}). The iron-impregnation of biochar-derived sorbents can be utilized as a valuable treatment method to produce stable and more effective sorption materials for various xenobiotics separation from liquid wastes and aqueous solutions.

  6. chemical studies on the reactivity of some organic extractants for extraction and separation of certain elements from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanide elements such as lanthanum and neodymium are important elements in photo-electronic and metallurgical industries as well as in nuclear technology. The main constituents of the spent nuclear fuel are actinides like uranium, thorium and various fission products including lanthanides. The co-ordination compounds of the trivalent lanthanum and neodymium continues to be an active research area, which includes the specific spectroscopic and magnetic properties of rare earth ions and their applications as super molecular device, contrast-enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging, optical signal amplifiers and electroluminescent (EL) devices. Hence, the separation and purification of these elements is of great concern. Solvent extraction technique is employed to separate and purify rare earth elements in an industrial scale, but the separation of lanthanum and neodymium is a difficult task, as lanthanide ions exhibit similar chemical and physical properties. They have generally common and stable +3 oxidation state that requires synthesis of certain extractants which are able to extract them from different aqueous solutions. During the last twenty years, different publications have pointed out the remarkable properties of alkyl amide in the field of separation chemistry. These extractants are able to form stable co-ordination compounds with different metallic ions. In this concern, this thesis deals with the synthesis of different amide extractants namely N, N diethylacetoamide (DEAA), N, N Teteraphenyl malonamide (TPMA), N, N diphenylbenzamide (DPBA), N, N' diphenylacetoamide (DPAA), and N, N' Teteraethyl malonamide (TEMA), which were synthesized, characterized and compared with Aliquat-336 in kerosene for extraction and separation of La (III) and Nd (III). The effect of the different parameters affecting the extraction of these metals from aqueous nitric acid medium in the different systems has been studied in terms of shaking time, nitric acid, hydrogen

  7. Feasibility study of micro-filtration for algae separation in an innovative nuclear effluents decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvion Saint Cyr, D. de; Wisniewski, C.; Schrive, L.; Farhi, E.; Rivasseau, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-remediation technologies often offer efficiency, cost and environmental impact benefits against physico-chemical technologies. Concerning the remediation of radionuclide-containing water, a few bio-based technologies have been proposed but none is currently operational in highly radioactive environments. A new radio-tolerant micro-alga, isolated from a nuclear facility, possesses properties that offer new decontamination prospects for the nuclear industry or for the clean-up of environmental water. A pilot-scale treatment unit based on this alga is currently under development for the decontamination of radioactive water. It includes separation and/or concentration steps relying on membrane filtration. This work aims at verifying the feasibility of micro-filtration as separation step for the targeted algae separation. Recommendations about the choice of operating conditions limiting and/or controlling the membrane fouling are provided with the objective to enhance the separation efficiency. Lab-scale dead-end filtration tests were implemented and the key factors involved in the separation performances were investigated. Membrane characteristics, biomass composition, and hydrodynamic conditions were considered. Organic membranes provided adequate filtration performance. Membrane fouling was essentially induced by a rapid reversible algae deposit and to a lesser extent by irreversible pore blockage caused by smaller particles and dissolved organic matter. To cancel the reversible fouling, hydrodynamic actions such as stirring and back-flush efficiently prevented algae deposit, allowing higher filtration productivity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of membrane separation for micro-algae harvesting at laboratory-scale and specifies the suitable working conditions. (authors)

  8. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  9. Adsorptive separation of ethylene/ethane mixtures using carbon nanotubes: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Xingling; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Zhigang; Yang, Zaixing; Xiu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene/ethane separation is a very important process in the chemical industry. Traditionally, this process is achieved by cryodistillation, which is extremely energy-intensive. The adsorptive separation is an energy-saving and environmentally benign alternative. In this study, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the competitive adsorption of an equimolar mixture of gaseous ethane and ethylene inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) of different diameters at room temperature. We find that for narrow SWNTs, i.e. the (6, 6) and (7, 7) SWNTs, the selectivities towards ethane, f selec , can reach values of 3.1 and 3.7, respectively. Such high selectivities are contrary to the opinion of many researchers that the adsorptive separation of an ethylene/ethane mixture by means of dispersion interaction is difficult due to the same carbon number of ethane and ethylene. The key for our observation is that the role of dispersion interaction of ethane's additional two hydrogen atoms with the SWNT becomes significant under extreme confinement. Interestingly, the (8, 8) SWNT prefers ethylene to ethane with f selec = 0.6. For wider SWNTs, f selec converges to ∼1. The mechanisms behind these observations, as well as the kinetics of single-file nanopore filling and kinetics of confined gas molecules are discussed. Our findings suggest that efficient ethane/ethylene separation can be achieved by using bundles/membranes of SWNTs with appropriate diameters. (paper)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of the [Te(SCN2H4)4] (SO4)2 complex. Application to the separation of 99Mo from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1988-10-01

    Thiourea reacts with tellurium-IV ions, in sulfuric medium, to form cationic complex which is strongly retained on cationic ion exchanger. The method was applied to separate 99 Mo from 132 Te obtained in the fission of 235 U since molybdenum does not form such complex and passes throught the cationic exchanger column in the molibdate form. In this paper, the procedure of the tellurium-thiourea complex preparation and its characterization are described. Elemental analysis, ultraviolet and infra-red absorption spectrophotometry as well as thermogravimetry were used to characterize the complex. (author) [pt

  11. Molecular modeling study of lithium isotopic separation by crown-ethers in ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehez, F.

    2002-01-01

    The isotopic separation of lithium ion isotopes is studied at the CEA in Pierrelatte using a liquid chromatography technique. Exchange systems are composed by crown-ethers grafted on silica (12C4, 15C5, B15C5, DB15C5, 18C6, B18C6). Lithium is introduced as a salt melted in ethanol. This work concerns the theoretical study of lithium isotopic exchange reactions with those systems. After a brief presentation of isotope separation techniques and isotopic effects (Chap.I), we describe the methods of theoretical chemistry used in this work (Chap. II). In chapter III, we test AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical methods for the treatment of Li + /crown-ether species. Then, we calculate isotopic separation factors via ab initio and semi-empirical calculations for the exchange reactions in vacuum. The different crown-ethers are considered with and without graftings arms. Studies of exchange reactions in ethanol are presented in chapter IV. First, each species of the reaction are solvated by a few ethanol molecules. Isotopic separation factors calculated show a large effect of the solvent on the exchange reaction. The effect of the grafting arm has been investigated using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics for species with the 12C4. Trajectories have been generated successively with 7 Li and 6 Li. Atomic velocity autocorrelation functions have allowed the access to vibrational frequencies necessary to calculate isotopic separation factors. The last chapter is devoted to methodological developments made during this Ph.D. We propose an approach to treat long range electrostatic interactions in hybrid QM/MM method, relying on a lattice summation technique. (author) [fr

  12. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  13. Severe congenital malformations, family functioning and parents' separation/divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M; Côté, S M; Boivin, M; Tremblay, R E

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the association of a severe congenital malformation (SCM) with postnatal family functioning and parents' separation/divorce and to examine if this association might be moderated by birth order of the child and parental level of education. SCM refers to malformations that, without medical intervention, cause handicap or death. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, an ongoing population-based birth cohort study initiated in 1998, we compared 1675 families of children with and without a SCM to identify if having a child with a SCM was associated with maternal perception of family functioning. We examined if an SCM was associated with parents' separation and examined parents' education level and birth order of the children to evaluate whether these factors had any moderating effect on the results. There were no significant differences in family functioning between families with and without a SCM child at 5 and 17 months. At 5 months, family functioning was significantly better (P = 0.03) for families with a SCM firstborn child than for families with a SCM child that is not firstborn. For parental separation, no significant differences were observed at 5 and 29 months and 4 years. No significant moderating effects were observed for birth order and parental education on parental separation. Families of children with a SCM do not appear to be at higher risk of family dysfunction within the first 17 months after birth nor of parental separation within the first 4 years after birth. Family functioning tends to be worst in families where the child with SCM is the second or subsequent child born. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Semi-industrial experimental study on bauxite separation using a cell-column integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Zhou, Chang-chun; Cong, Long-fei; Cao, Wen-long; Zhou, You

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column (FCSMC) is a highly efficient mineral processing equipment. In this study, a cell-column (FCSMC) integration process was investigated for the separation of bauxite and its feasibility was analyzed on a theoretical basis. The properties of low-grade bauxite ore from Henan Province, China were analyzed. Parameters such as reagent dosage, scraping bubble time, and pressure of the circulating pump during the sorting process were investigated and optimized to improve the flotation efficiency. On the basis of these parameters, continuous separation experiments were conducted. Bauxite concentrate with an aluminum-to-silicon (A/S) mass ratio of 6.37 and a 77.63wt% recovery rate were achieved via a flow sheet consisting of "fast flotation using a flotation cell, one roughing flotation and one cleaning flotation using flotation columns". Compared with the full-flotation-cells process, the cell-column integration process resulted in an increase of the A/S ratio by 0.41 and the recovery rate by 17.58wt%. Cell-column integration separation technology represents a new approach for the separation of middle-to-low-grade bauxite ore.

  15. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0g/cm(3) and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0g/cm(3). However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0g/cm(3), whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0g/cm(3). The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7wt.% and 3.0wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0 g/cm 3 and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0 g/cm 3 . However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0 g/cm 3 , whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0 g/cm 3 . The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10 wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9 wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76 wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75 wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7 wt.% and 3.0 wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films.

  17. Study on methane separation from steam reforming product gas with polyimide membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiso, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro.

    1997-10-01

    In the HTTR hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas (main component: CH 4 ), CH 4 conversion rate is limited to approximately 65% due to high pressure and low temperature conditions (4.5 MPa, 800degC). The one of the measures to improve CH 4 conversion is recycling of residual CH 4 extracted from steam reforming product gas with a gas separator. Experimental and analytical studies on CH 4 separation from gas mixture composed of CH 4 , H 2 , CO 2 and CO were carried out to investigate gas separation characteristics of a polyimide membrane gas separator. Measured permeability of each gas in gas mixture was reduced from 1/3 to 1/14 of that obtained with a single gas (catalog value). The polyimide membrane could extracted CH 4 of approximately 80% from gas mixture, then, H 2 and CO 2 more than 98% were removed. It was confirmed that the polyimide membrane could be available to residual CH 4 recycling. The analytical results by a difference method gave good prospects of experimental results such as permeated flow rate, mol-fraction profiles and so on. Therefore, it can be said the analysis method was established. (author)

  18. Producing bio-filter for absorbing and separating stable nickel and feasibility study to separate radioactive nickel by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Rabbani, M.; Naseri, Y.; Sadeghi, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this research work, bio absorption of nickel has been investigated by new 16 various bacterial strains isolated from Ramsar warm springs. As the obtained results show a strain of gram negative cocobacilluse bacteria is highly capable to take up nickel in optimum pH about 6. The effect of nickel solution concentrations in 20-200 ppm have been studied. Uptake capacity of bacterial biomass regarding to concentrations below 150 ppm is most highly and nearly constant, but it will be decreased over 150 ppm, and in 200 ppm absorption of nickel reaches to near zero. No nickel was taken up by bacterial biomass. Further studies showed that after 60 minutes of contact time, Nickel uptake reaches maximum by 53%. Considering the uptake mechanism revealed that bio sorption was very limited and the uptake mainly occurs through a accumulation dependent on metabolic activities. Also the results show that the presence of the other cations such as Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ is ineffective to biological uptake of nickel. Nickel taken up by biomass can be easily recovered by HNO 3 with the concentration of 0.1 M

  19. Study of a dense metal membrane reactor for hydrogen separation from hydroiodic acid decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosti, Silvano; Borelli, Rodolfo; Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Dipartimento FPN, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati, Roma I-00044 (Italy); Favuzza, Paolo; Tarquini, Pietro [ENEA, Dipartimento TER, C.R. ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma (Italy); Rizzello, Claudio [Tesi Sas, Via Bolzano 28, Roma (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    A membrane reactor has been studied for separating the hydrogen produced by the dissociation of hydroiodic acid in the thermochemical-sulfur iodine process. A dense metal membrane tube of wall thickness 0.250 mm has been considered in this analysis for hosting a fixed-bed catalyst: the selective separation of hydrogen from an azeotropic H{sub 2}O-HI mixture has been studied in the temperature range of 700-800 K. The materials being considered for the construction of the membrane tube are niobium and tantalum; as a matter of fact, the most commonly used Pd-Ag membranes cannot withstand the corrosive environment generated by the hydroiodic acid. The Damkohler-Peclet analysis has been used for designing the membrane reactor, while a finite element method has simulated its behaviour: the effect of the temperature and pressure on the HI conversion and hydrogen yield has been evaluated. (author)

  20. Fusion-evaporation studies with the Super Separator spectrometer (S3 at Spiral2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déchery F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Super Separator Spectrometer S3 is a device designed for experiments with the very high intensity stable ion beam of the superconducting linear accelerator of the SPIRAL2 facility. Its Physics goals cover the study of radioactive ions produced by fusion-evaporation reactions, like superheavy elements or neutron deficient nuclei close to the proton drip line, but also neutron rich nuclei produced by multi-nucleon transfer reactions as well as ion-ion atomic interactions. It is composed of a two-step separator, with a momentum achromat followed by a mass spectrometer. Superconducting multipole triplets, combining quadruple, sextuple and octupole fields, allow a combination of high transmission and mass resolution. A specific open multipole has been designed to stop the high beam power at the first momentum dispersive plane. A decay spectroscopy detection set-up or a low energy branch can be coupled to S3 for a wide range of studies.

  1. A study of an ion-exchange process for separation of strontium and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarek, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine optimum conditions for the separation of strontium and yttrium by ion-exchange. The parameters of interest for such separation such as the dimensions of the ion-exchange columns, flow rates through the columns and pH values of the solutions, which affect the overall yield in the process, have been investigated. Application of this method for routine quantitative determinations of Sr-90 in environmental samples, particularly the wet-ashed biological materials has also been studied. The method, although a rapid and convenient one has not been found to yield consistent results probably due to the requirement of stringent analytical controls during the process. (author)

  2. Membrane Separated Flow Cell for Parallelized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy to Characterize Electro-Active Microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stöckl, Markus; Schlegel, Christin; Sydow, Anne; Holtmann, Dirk; Ulber, Roland; Mangold, Klaus-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a membrane separated electrochemical flow cell. • Simultaneous combination of EIS and CLSM. • Monitoring of bacterial cell attachment to anode of MFC. • Cell attachment of Shewanella oneidensis is shown. - Abstract: Understanding the attachment of electro-active bacteria to electrode surfaces and their subsequent biofilm formation is one of the major challenges for the establishment of bacterial bioelectrochemial systems (BES). For a constant observation of biofilm growth, providing information on different stages of biofilm formation, continuous monitoring methods are required. In this paper a combination of two powerful analytical methods, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), for biofilm monitoring is presented. A custom-built flow cell with a transparent indium tin oxide working electrode (WE) was constructed allowing monitoring of cell attachment to a working electrode simultaneously by EIS and CLSM. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and EIS of an iron (II)/iron (III) redox couple indicate that the flow cell is suitable for electrochemical experiments. An engineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (ATCC700550) producing eGFP was used as electro-active model organism to demonstrate the practical application of the flow cell as BES to monitor cell attachment simultaneously with EIS and CLSM. Applying the flow cell as MFC (transparent working electrode poised as anode) produced a typical current curve for such a system. From the equivalent circuit used to interpret EIS data the charge transfer resistance R CT is sensitive to attachment of microorganisms. Fitted R CT was increased initially after cell inoculation and then lowered constantly with progressing experimental time. In parallel taken CLSM images show that bacteria already adhered to the WE 5 min after inoculation. A mono- respectively bilayer of electro-active cells was observed after 17 h on the WE surface. With the presented

  3. A Systematic Study of Separators in Air-Breathing Flat-Plate Microbial Fuel Cells—Part 1: Structure, Properties, and Performance Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive air-breathing microbial fuel cells (MFCs are a promising technology for energy recovery from wastewater and their performance is highly dependent on characteristics of the separator that isolates the anaerobic anode from the air-breathing cathode. The goal of the present work is to systematically study the separator characteristics and its effect on the performance of passive air-breathing flat-plate MFCs (FPMFCs. This was performed through characterization of structure, properties, and performance correlations of eight separators in Part 1 of this work. Eight commercial separators were characterized, in non-inoculated and inoculated setups, and were examined in passive air-breathing FPMFCs with different electrode spacing. The results showed a decrease in the peak power density as the oxygen and ethanol mass transfer coefficients in the separators increased, due to the increase of mixed potentials especially at smaller electrode spacing. Increasing the electrode spacing was therefore desirable for the application of diaphragms. The highest peak power density was measured using Nafion®117 with minimal electrode spacing, whereas using Nafion®117 or Celgard® with larger electrode spacing resulted in similar peak powers. Part 2 of this work focuses on numerical modelling of the FPMFCs based on mixed potential theory, implementing the experimental data from Part 1.

  4. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  5. A Study on separation of accounts for introducing operation division system in KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Han [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The power industry has faced deregulation and opening market which have been a global trend. As a prerequisite for introducing such competitions, forming the basis of fair competition has been a great interest. For establishing the basis of fair competition, the need of reviewing accounting system of power industry and defining and improving the problems of existing accounting system are rising as an institutional preparation. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for unified accounting system of power industry and a scheme for introducing a separation of accounts in order to assure fair competition. The separation of accounts in power industry is an essential system of fair competition since this is a process of distributing cost by sector and function under the reasonable standards by preventing internal support. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Picosecond absorption studies of photoinduced charge separation in polyelectrolyte bound aromatic chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, M. A.; Rodgers, M. A. J.; Webber, S. E.

    1991-02-01

    Picosecond absorption studies of photoinduced electron transfer between aromatic chromophores bound to polymethacrylic acid (P) and methylviologen (MV 2+ have been carried out in aqueous solution. The diphenylanthracene copolymer/viologen system at pH 2.8 shows the corresponding redox products DPA + rad and MV + rad arising from the singlet state of DPA with a forward rate constant of electron transfer of 2.6 × 10 9 s -1. At pH 9.0 the quenching of the S 1 state of DPA occurs with no charge separated products being observed. The pyrene copolymer shows no evidence of charge separated products at any pH in the range 2.8-9.0. It is proposed that the differences in the radical pair kinetics arise from differences in the degree of binding of the ground state complexes formed by the donor and acceptor species.

  7. On the atomistic mechanisms of alkane (methane-pentane) separation by distillation: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2007-11-01

    Insights into the liquid-vapor transformation of methane-pentane mixtures were obtained from transition path sampling molecular dynamics simulations. This case study of the boiling of non-azeotropic mixtures demonstrates an unprejudiced identification of the atomistic mechanisms of phase separation in the course of vaporization which form the basis of distillation processes. From our simulations we observe spontaneous segregation events in the liquid mixture to trigger vapor nucleation. The formation of vapor domains stabilizes and further promotes the separation process by preferential evaporation of methane molecules. While this discrimination holds for all mixtures of different composition studied, a full account of the boiling process requires a more complex picture. At low methane concentration the nucleation of the vapor domains includes both methane and pentane molecules. The pentane molecules, however, tend to form small aggregates and undergo rapid re-condensation within picoseconds to nanoseconds scales. Accordingly, two aspects of selectivity accounting for methane-pentane separation in the course of liquid-vapor transformations were made accessible to molecular dynamics simulations: spontaneous segregation in the liquid phase leading to selective vapor nucleation and growth favoring methane vaporization and selective re-condensation of pentane molecules.

  8. Development of Multiscale Materials in Microfluidic Devices: Case Study for Viral Separation from Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada

    Separation and concentration of nanoscale species play an important role in various fields such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and environmental science. Inevitably, the separation efficiency strongly affects the quality of downstream detections or productions. Innovations in materials science that can separate bionanoparticles efficiently and do not require complex setups, reagents or external fields are highly demanded. This work focuses on developing new materials for the affinity separation of bio-nanoparticles such as viruses or macromolecules from a complex mixture, such as whole blood. To enhance the interaction between target nanoparticles and the capture bed, methods to produce porous matrices with a uniform pore size matching the dimension of targets are studied. Furthermore, regarding viral separation from whole blood, macroporous materials are further patterned into microarrays to allow multiscale separation. Considering the needs in resource-limited settings, these materials are integrated with microfluidic technologies to reduce the volume of samples and reagents, simplify operating processes, and enable the use of inexpensive and portable components. Beyond the application of viral separation as demonstrated in the work, the fundamental study of macroporous material formation and transport in these materials also shed light to the separation of many other nanospecies in multiscale materials. Specifically, two macroporous materials, based on template synthesis, are created in this work. The first type employs porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films as the template to create hexagonal arrays of nanoposts. However, pore sizes and interpore distances (cell size) of ordered porous AAO films are limited by the conventional fabrication process. Moreover, the process usually yields defective pore morphologies and large pore and cell size distributions. To overcome these limitations, a patterning method using nanobead indentation on aluminum substrate

  9. Xafs studies on actinide-pyridine-diamide complexes for development of an innovative separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideaki, Shiwaku; Tsuyoshi, Yaita; Tohru, Kobayashi; Masahiko, Numakura; Tsuyoshi, Yaita; Shinichi, Suzuki; Yoshihiro, Okamoto

    2007-01-01

    We have been studying the bond properties and the structures of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) complexes in detail using several kinds of X-ray analyses by synchrotron radiation in order to elucidate the ionic recognition mechanism of organic ligands. Generally, an oxygen donor type ligand separates both An and Ln from solutions of spent fuel or high level radioactive waste. Separation ability of this type of ligand for An and Ln follows the order of the surface charge density of an ion, i.e., An 4+ > AnO 2 2+ > An 3+ = Ln 3+ > AnO 2+ and/or a few structural factors. Therefore, this type of ligand is ineffective for the separation of An 3+ and Ln 3+ due to their similar chemical properties. Recently, new extractants like aromatic N-donor ligands have been developed using the preference of soft-donors to achieve the An 3+ /Ln 3+ separation. However, aromatic N-donor ligands often show a few problems such as protonation. In this developing process, we synthesized a new type of ligand, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-diphenyl-pyridine-2,6-carboxy-amide (DMDPh-PDA). The PDA is hybrid type ligand having oxygen and nitrogen as donor atoms and follows a unique separation order, i.e., An 4+ > An 3+ > AnO 2 2+ > Ln 3+ > AnO 2 + , probably arising from the combined effects of covalent bonding and steric hindrance. Hence, clarification of any ionic recognition mechanism of the PDA is very interesting from the view point of structural analysis. In this presentation, we will show XAFS results of An and Ln complexes with PDA in solution and discuss separation mechanism of An and Ln by PDA. Various kinds of complexes between Ln/An and PDA were prepared for XAFS analysis. The Ln complexes were measured in transmission mode at the K absorption edge on the BL11XU at SPring-8. On the other hand, the U complexes were measured in fluorescence mode at the L III absorption edge on the BL-27B at Photon Factory, High-energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). (authors)

  10. Preliminary study on gas separation performance of flat sheet mixed matrix (PVDF/Zeolite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sunarti Abd; Abdalla Suliman Haron, Gamal; Krishna Roshan Kanasan, Raj; Hasbullah, Hasrinah

    2018-04-01

    Membrane separation has attracted a lot of attention over the last years mainly due to its separation ability, operational capability and economical viability. Mixed matrix membrane (MMM) combines the superior transport and selectivity properties of inorganic membrane materials and the excellent fabrication properties of organic polymers. This emerging technology can be utilized to purify biogas which can be used in a variety of applications. In this study, flat sheet mixed matrix membranes were synthesized with different percentages of N-Mehtyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent, Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as the polymer matrix and zeolite 4A as the dispersed fine particles, membrane A (80: 20: 0), membrane B (80: 18: 2), membrane C (80: 15: 5), and membrane D (75: 15: 10) respectively. The membranes were fabricated using dry/wet phase inversion method. The membrane’s performance in terms of permeability and selectivity was examined using the single gas permeation device. The general trend was that, the permeability of the two gases (CO2/CH4) decreased with the increase of the pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5) bar. Membrane D was found to be suitable to separate the pair gas (CO2/CH4) as the permeability was 65623.412, Barrer and 15587.508, Barrer respectively, and its selectivity for was 4.21 at 0.5 bar.

  11. A study on the separation method of total rare earth oxides in Xenotime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sang Kwon; Park, Hea Kyung; Kim, Kyung Lim

    1990-01-01

    This study is concerned with the separation method of total rare earth oxides in Xenotime by acid digest method. Thioacetamide was used as a carrier, tartaric acid was used as a masking agent and oxalic acid was used as a precipitant. So the effects of three acid digest methods, pH of the solution, digesting time,tartaric acid, oxalic acid and aging time were oberved. The results showed that the best acid digest method was sulfuric acid leaching and mixed acid digest method, and that pH of the solution was 2, digesting time was 4 hours, tartaric acid was 100 ml of 2% solution, oxalic acid was 8 gr. and aging time was 1 hour. Through this experiment, it was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer that the separated total rare earth oxides consisted of the Yttrium and the other rare earth elements : Gadolinium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Ytterbium and trace rare earth elements. The pure rare earth oxides being separated by this method were dried and ignited at 900 deg C (Author)

  12. Parental separation anxiety and diabetes self-management of older adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shannon; Dashiff, Carol; Abdullatif, Hussein; Moreland, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Parents of high school seniors with type 1 diabetes mellitus are faced with many concerns and fears as their adolescent prepares to assume primary disease management responsibility and leave the parental residence. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parental separation anxiety and adolescent self-management and glycemic control. A second aim was to assess the relationship between adolescent self-management and glycemic control. Twenty-three families who had adolescents 16 to 18 years of age in or entering in their senior year of high school were recruited. Adolescents from higher income families reported better self-management skills than those from poorer families (r = 0.410, p = 0.05). Length of time since diabetes diagnosis was inversely related to glycemic control (r = 0.448, p = 0.02), indicating that adolescents who had the disease longer had poorer control. Parental separation anxiety was not related to adolescent self-management. Adolescent self-management was negatively related to glycemic control (r = -0.370, p = 0.08), suggesting that adolescents who demonstrated better self-management skills had improved glycemic control in comparison to adolescents who did not demonstrate effective self-management skills. Paternal, not maternal, separation anxiety demonstrated a significant relationship with glycemic control (r = 0.639, p < 0.001).

  13. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students’ writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys. PMID:22736933

  14. A Toxicology and Characterization Study of Microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy; Sullivan, Kelley; n/a Collaboration

    Plastic is everywhere. Microplastic particles are found in our toothpaste and soap, and are also created when larger plastics degrade under natural forces and sunlight. Studies have shown that filter feeders in aquatic systems eat microplastics, which transports plastic up the food chain. We used fluorescence microscopy to characterize the size, shape, and types of plastic found in several personal care products in order to create a clear picture of a significant source of microplastics found in our local Cayuga Lake ecosystem in Upstate New York. We also studied toxin absorption and emission of these plastics using environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA. For Neutrogena face scrub, the microplastics were polyethylene and roughly pill shaped. The majority of these microplastics are either smaller than 0.1 mm2, or were distributed in a bell-shaped curve about 0.5 mm2. The concentration of a solution of environmentally relevant BPA that microplastics were immersed in decreased by 13% over a 12-hour period. These results indicate that these microplastics pose a threat to organisms in the environment - they are small enough and shaped appropriately to be mistaken as prey, and they absorb toxins quickly. As the number of microplastics exponentially build up in the environment, the food chain will be negatively affected. Ithaca College DANA Student Internship program.

  15. Separation and sampling of ice nucleation chamber generated ice particles by means of the counterflow virtual impactor technique for the characterization of ambient ice nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, the German research foundation (DFG) research group called Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT (FOR 1525, project STR 453/7-1) was established with the objective to achieve a better understanding concerning heterogeneous ice formation. The presented work is part of INUIT and aims for a better microphysical and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles that have the potential to act as ice nuclei (IN). For this purpose a counterflow virtual impactor (Kulkarni et al., 2011) system (IN-PCVI) was developed and characterized in order to separate and collect ice particles generated in the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH; Bundke et al., 2008) and to release their IN for further analysis. Here the IN-PCVI was used for the inertial separation of the IN counter produced ice particles from smaller drops and interstitial particles. This is realized by a counterflow that matches the FINCH output flow inside the IN-PCVI. The choice of these flows determines the aerodynamic cut-off diameter. The collected ice particles are transferred into the IN-PCVI sample flow where they are completely evaporated in a particle-free and dry carrier air. In this way, the aerosol particles detected as IN by the IN counter can be extracted and distributed to several particle sensors. This coupled setup FINCH, IN-PCVI and aerosol instrumentation was deployed during the INUIT-JFJ joint measurement field campaign at the research station Jungfraujoch (3580m asl). Downstream of the IN-PCVI, the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA; Brands et al., 2011) was attached for the chemical analysis of the atmospheric IN. Also, number concentration and size distribution of IN were measured online (TROPOS) and IN impactor samples for electron microscopy (TU Darmstadt) were taken. Therefore the IN-PCVI was operated with different flow settings than known from literature (Kulkarni et al., 2011), which required a further characterisation of its cut

  16. The implantation of separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinguo; Shi Haibin; Yang Zhengqiang; Li Chao; Liu Sheng; Zu Qingquan; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to assess the technical feasibility of implanting separating stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta and to study its biocompatibility. Methods: Twelve adult dogs were randomly and equally divided into three groups. The right femoral artery was cut open, through which the separating stent-graft was inserted and deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, with the proximal end of the graft being quite close to the origin of the left subclavian artery. the technical feasibility of the deployment process was assessed. Angiography was performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement to evaluate the position and patency of the stent-graft. Then the dogs were sacrificed and the specimens were collected for pathologic study. Both gross and microscopic examinations were made to evaluate the fixation of the stent-graft with the vessel wall, the endothelialization of stent-graft surface and the pathologic changes of the vascular wall. Results: A total of ten separating stent-grafts were successfully deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, no migration or deformation occurred. One dog died of massive bleeding due to the rupture of the right femoral artery which occurred when the delivery system containing the inner bare stent was inserted through the right femoral artery. Death occurred in another dog as a result of the ascending aorta rupture caused by the migration of outer-layer stent-graft. Angiography was conducted at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement. No migration, deformation, rupture or stenosis of the implanted stent-grafts were observed. The formation of intima on the inner surface of the bare stent appeared at 4 weeks, which became more and more obvious with the time passing, and at 12 weeks complete endothelialization of stent-graft surface was observed. Conclusion: Technically, it is feasible to deploy the separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta. Moreover, the separating aortic stent-graft carries excellent

  17. Synthesis, characterization and gas separation properties of novel polyimides containing cardo and tert-butyl-m-terphenyl moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bermejo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of aromatic polyimides has been obtained by the reaction of two dianhydrides, the commercial 2,2′-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA and another having a 5′-tert-butyl-m-terphenyl moiety (BTPDA, with several diamines, including two that have a cardo structure (derived from 9H-fluorene, one of them bearing methyl groups ortho to the amino functionalities (TMeCardo. The solubility, and also the thermal, mechanical, and gas separation properties of the corresponding polyimide membranes were evaluated and compared in order to explore the effect of the different groups in the polyimide backbone. The novel polyimides, which were derived from BTPDA and the cardo diamines, showed high thermal stability, excellent solubility in organic solvents and good gas separation properties, especially the polyimide that bore the ortho methyl substituents. The behavior was especially good for the pair O2/N2, where the TMeCardo polymer overpassed the Robeson upper bound.

  18. Separation of 248Cm (III) from 252Cf (III) and its use in time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic (TRFS) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, M.S.; Nair, A.G.C.; Gujar, R.B.; Jain, A.; Tomar, B.S.; Godbole, S.V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The present report gives a description of the methodology for the separation of 248 Cm(III) from decayed 252 Cf (III) waste solution. The waste solution was first assayed for 252 Cf content by neutron counting using a neutron well coincidence counter. The sample was subjected to the chemical separation of 248 Cm (III) from 252 Cf (III) following anion and cation exchange chromatography. The alpha spectrum of the separated curium fraction showed peaks due to 246 Cm and 248 Cm while the corresponding alpha spectrum of californium fraction showed 249,250,251,252 Cf. The gamma ray abundances of 249 Cf were determined with respect to its gamma rays of 387 keV and the data agreed well with that in literature. Separated Cm(III) was further characterized by recording its time resolved fluorescence spectrum (TRFS) in aqueous medium. (author)

  19. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial study of silver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the characterization and antimicrobial activity test were very successful and could lead to significant economic viability, as well as being environmentally friendly for treatment of some infectious diseases. Keywords: Syzygium guineenses, Green Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Optoelectronics, Biomedical Sensors ...

  20. Studies on unsteady pressure fields in the region of separating and reattaching flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govinda Ram, H. S.; Arakeri, V. H.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental studies on the measurement of pressure fields in the region of separating and reattaching flows behind several two-dimensional fore-bodies and one axisymmetric body are reported. In particular, extensive measurements of mean pressure, surface pressure fluctuation, and pressure fluctuation within the flow were made for a series of two-dimensional fore-body shapes consisting of triangular nose with varying included angle. The measurements from different bodies are compared and one of the important findings is that the maximum values of rms pressure fluctuation levels in the shear layer approaching reattachment are almost equal to the maximum value of the surface fluctuation levels.

  1. Study of the coefficient of separation for some processes which are applied to lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, L.; Rozand, L.; Saito, E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental separation factors of some processes are investigated: the distillation of metallic lithium, counter current electromigration in fused salts (particularly in lithium nitrate) electrolysis in aqueous solution and ion exchange. The chemical transfer between a lithium amalgam and lithium salts in a dimethylformamide solution (a solvent which is not attacked by the amalgam) is also studied. Finally a description is given of isotopic analyses carried out either by scintillation counting or by mass spectrography using apparatus specially designed for this particular task. (author) [fr

  2. Experimental and Model Studies on Continuous Separation of 2-Phenylpropionic Acid Enantiomers by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kewen; Zhang, Pangliang; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Multistage enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as extractant was studied experimentally in a counter-current cascade of centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs). Performance of the process was evaluated by purity (enantiomeric excess, ee) and yield (Y). A multistage equilibrium model was established on the basis of single-stage model for chiral extraction of 2-PPA enantiomers and the law of mass conservation. A series of experiments on the extract phase/washing phase ratio (W/O ratio), extractant concentration, the pH value of aqueous phase, and the number of stages was conducted to verify the multistage equilibrium model. It was found that model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was applied to predict and optimize the symmetrical separation of 2-PPA enantiomers. The optimal conditions for symmetric separation involves a W/O ratio of 0.6, pH of 2.5, and HP-β-CD concentration of 0.1 mol L(-1) at a temperature of 278 K, where eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach up to 37% and Yeq (equal yield) to 69%. By simulation and optimization, the minimum number of stages was evaluated at 98 and 106 for eeeq > 95% and eeeq > 97%. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preparation and characterization of zirconium phosphate ion exchanger samples with respect to the separation of highly active actinoid elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treplan, J.

    1972-01-01

    Inorganic ion exchangers are of growing interest in connection with separation processes of α-radiators of high specific activity, or with high gamma doses, because they have a considerably higher radiation resistance at their disposal compared to the commonly used organic ion exchangers. In opposition to their use, however, are the worse properties regarding capacity, chemical resistivity, exchange rate and reproducibility of the ion exchange bed. In the present work, an attempt has been made to influence the properties of a typical representative of this group, zirconium phosphate (ZP), by systematic changing of the preparation parameters in such a manner that a sufficient capacity is obtained regarding tri-valent ions. In addition, information is to be gathered in order to clarify the connection between exchanger property and structure of the ZP. (orig./LH) [de

  4. Characterization of sodium stibogluconate by online liquid separation cell technology monitored by ICPMS and ESMS and computational chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rusz; Hansen, Claus; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and computational chemistry has been applied to resolve the composition and structure of the Sb species present in dilutions of Pentostam, a first-line treatment drug against Leishmania parasites. Using HPLC-inductively coupled......(V)-glyconate complexes of various stoichiometry (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:2, 2:3, 2:4, 3:3, 3:4). The 1:1 complex became the most abundant low molecular mass Sb(V) complex with dilution time. A novel mixed-mode chromatographic system was applied in order to separate complexes of various stoichiometry and isomers. Density...

  5. Fabrication and characterization of chromium-doped nanophase separated yttria-alumina-silica glass-based optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Debjit; Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Paul, Mukul C. [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Kir' yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bysakh, Sandip [Electron Microscopic Section, Material Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-08-15

    The basic material and optical properties of chromium-doped nanophase-separated yttria-alumina-silica (YAS) glass based optical preforms and fibers, fabricated through the modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with solution doping technique under suitable thermal annealing conditions are reported. The size of the phase-separated particles within the core of the annealed preform is around 20-30 nm which is significantly reduced to around 5.0 nm in the drawn fiber. The absorption spectra of fibers drawn from the annealed and non-annealed preform samples revealed the presence of Cr{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 6+} specie. Numerically, extinction of absorption drops ∝3-3.5 times for the annealed sample as a result of nano-phase restructuration during annealing process. Intense broadband emission (within 500-800 nm) in case of the annealed preform sample is observed as compared to the non-annealed one and is associated with the presence of Cr{sup 3+} ions in nanostructured environment inside the YAS core glass. The final fibers show broadband emission ranging from 900 to 1400 nm under pumping at 1064 nm which is attributed mainly to the presence of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 4+} ions. The fabricated fibers seem to be a potential candidate for the development of fiber laser sources for the visible and near-infra ranges and for effective Q-switching units for ∝1-1.1 μm all-fiber ytterbium lasers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Characterization and mechanical separation of metals from computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) based on mineral processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvar, Mojtaba; Salarirad, Mohammad Mehdi; Shabani, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel mechanical process is proposed for enriching metal content of computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The PCBs are crushed and divided into three different size fractions namely: -0.59, +0.59 to 1.68 and +1.68 mm. Wet jigging and froth flotation methods are selected for metal enrichment. The coarse size fraction (+1.68 mm) is processed by jigging. The plastic free product is grinded and screened. The oversized product is separated as the first concentrate. It was rich of metal because the grinding process was selective. The undersized product is processed by froth flotation. Based on the obtained results, the middle size fraction (+0.59 to 1.68 mm) and the small size fraction (-0.59 mm) are processed by wet jigging and froth flotation respectively. The wet jigging process is optimized by investigating the effect of pulsation frequency and water flow rate. The results of examining the effect of particle size, solid to liquid ratio, conditioning time and using apolar collector showed that collectorless flotation is a promising method for separating nonmetals of PCBs. 95.6%, 97.5% and 85% of metal content of coarse size, middle size and small size fraction are recovered. The grades of obtained concentrates were 63.3%, 92.5% and 75% respectively. The total recovery is calculated as 95.64% and the grade of the final concentrate was 71.26%. Determining the grade of copper and gold in the final product reveals that 4.95% of copper and 24.46% of gold are lost during the concentration. The major part of the lost gold is accumulated in froth flotation tail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lithium-sodium separation by ion-exchange. Particular study of a pulsed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvert, H.

    1966-02-01

    A study is made of the operational conditions and constraints in the case of a moving-bed ion-exchange column subjected to pulses. The example chosen to illustrate its application concerns the lithium-sodium separation in a hydroxide medium (LiOH, NaOH). In the first part, the physico-chemical characteristics of the exchange and the kinetic characteristics of the exchange-reaction are considered. In the second part, the operation of the pulsed column is studied. Using the results obtained in the first part, the conditions required for study state operation are determined. When this is obtained, it is possible to calculate the height equivalent of the theoretical plate (HETP) of the installation. A study is also made of 'sliding', a phenomenon peculiar to pulsed columns. The results obtained show that it is possible, using laboratory tests, to determine the characteristics and the operational condition of a moving-bed ion-exchange column. (author) [fr

  8. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, J S

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests.

  9. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  10. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  11. Convective-stratiform rainfall separation of Typhoon Fitow (2013: A 3D WRF modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface precipitation budget equation in a three-dimensional (3D WRF model framework is derived. By applying the convective-stratiform partition method to the surface precipitation budget equation in the 3D model, this study separated convective and stratiform rainfall of typhoon Fitow (2013. The separations are further verified by examining statistics of vertical velocity, surface precipitation budget, and cloud microphysical budget. Results show that water vapor convergence moistens local atmosphere and offsets hydrometeor divergence, and producing convective rainfall, while hydrometeor convergence primarily supports stratiform rainfall, since water vapor divergence and local atmospheric drying generally cancelled out. Mean ascending motions are prevailing in the entire troposphere in the convective region, whereas mean descending motions occur below 5 km and mean ascending motions occur above in the stratiform region. The frequency distribution of vertical velocity shows vertical velocity has wide distribution with the maximum values up to 13 m s-1 in the convective regions, whereas it has narrow distribution with absolute values confined within 7 m s-1 in the stratiform region. Liquid cloud microphysics is dominant in convective regions and ice cloud microphysics is dominant in stratiform regions. These indicate that the statistics results are generally consistent with the corresponding physical characteristics of the convective-stratiform rainfall structures generalized by previous studies.

  12. Studies on the separation of hydrogen isotopes and spin isomers by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushpa, K.K.; Annaji Rao, K.

    2000-08-01

    Separation and analysis of mixture of hydrogen isotopes has gained considerable importance because of various applications needing different isotopes in lasers, nuclear reactions and tracer or labelled compounds. In the literature gas chromatographic methods are reported using columns packed with partly dehydrated or thoroughly dehydrated alumina/molecular sieve stationary phase at 77 deg K with helium, neon and even hydrogen or deuterium as carrier gas. In the present study an attempt is made to compare the chromatographic behaviour of these two stationary phases using virgin and Fe doped form in partly dehydrated and thoroughly dehydrated state, using helium, neon, hydrogen and deuterium as carrier gas. The results of this study show that helium or neon carrier gas behave similarly broad peaks with some tailing. Sharp symmetric peaks are obtained with hydrogen or deuterium carrier gas. This is attributed to large hold up capacity for H 2 or D 2 at 77 deg K in these materials as compared to helium or neon. Spin isomers of H 2 or D 2 are separated on Fe free stationary phases, though ortho H 2 and HD are not resolved. Using a combination of Fe doped short column and plain alumina column, both maintained in dehydrated form, the effect of Fe doping on thermal equilibrium of ortho/para forms at 77 deg K is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  13. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  14. Study on the process variables in the anion exchange plutonium separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, D T

    1957-11-15

    This report discusses the study of the process variables in the Anion Exchange Process Pilot Plant for the separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium. Variables associated with the feed, wash and elution cycles were studied with the aim of improving the quality of the final plutonium product, reduce cycling time and reagent requirements, and also to obtain data for prediction of resin column behaviour under various feed conditions. A cation resin column and a silica gel column were installed in the system and these were studied for plutonium recovery and product quality. The product obtained from the plant was acceptable in all the impurities except the associated gamma activity which was too high for easy product handling. (author)

  15. Luminescence of MnS in glasses: spectroscopic probe for the study of thermal phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menassa, P E

    1984-01-01

    A new approach for studying thermal phase separation in sodium borosilicate glasses using MnS as a luminescent probe is investigated. Seventy-one samples of glasses activated by MnS inside and around the Na2O.B2O3.SiO2 miscibility gaps were prepared. These samples were then phase separated by dry thermal treatment. It is shown that on addition of MnO, the ternary Na2O.B2O3.SiO2 system behaved like other quaternary systems of the type X2O.MO.B2O3.SiO2 (X = Na, K; M = Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis demonstrated that manganese concentrates preferentially in the boron-rich phase. This, analysis, in conjuction with a comparison of MnS emission spectra of upheated and heat treated glasses shows that the glasses are submicroscopically phase separated when prepared. The decay-time analysis of MnS luminescence indicates that the low energy emission band arises from MnS in the boron-rich phase while the high energy emission is due to MnS in the silica-rich phase. The difference in the crystal field parameters obtained from the excitation spectra of the two emission bands shows that the high energy emission band is from MnS in tetrahedral sites while the low energy emission band is from MnS in an octahedral environment.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of the metacercaria of Paragonimus caliensis, as a separate species from P. mexicanus in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chea, Roderico; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia; Castro, Ruth; Blair, David; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The trematode Paragonimus mexicanus is the etiological agent of paragonimiasis, a food-borne zoonotic disease in Latin America. This species, as well as Paragonimus caliensis, have been reported from Costa Rica, but it is not known if the two are synonymous. Two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from freshwater pseudothelphusid crabs from several localities in Costa Rica were recognized by light microscopy. Morphologically, these corresponded to descriptions of P. mexicanus and P. caliensis. Metacercariae of the former species lacked a membrane or cyst and their bodies were yellow in color. Those of P. caliensis were contained in a transparent thin cyst and were pink in color. Morphotypes of metacercariae were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the number and distribution of papillae in the ventral sucker, three morphotypes were found for P. mexicanus and two for P. caliensis. Analysis of DNA sequences (nuclear ribosomal 28S and ITS2 genes, and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene) confirmed the presence of P. mexicanus and provided the first molecular data for P. caliensis. The two species are phylogenetically distinct from each other and distant from the Asian species. The confirmation of P. caliensis as a separate species from P. mexicanus raises several questions about the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of the genus Paragonimus in Costa Rica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Impregnation of Some Ionic Liquids on Polymer Membrane for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Its Mixture with Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. L. Bui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Some 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids were synthesized, characterized, and immobilized on membranes to form supported ionic liquid membranes. The supported ionic liquid membranes were characterized by SEM. The initial transmembrane pressures were investigated for each type of impregnated membrane. The CO2/CH4 single gas and mixed gas permeability (CO2 and CH4 have been investigated. The results showed that the CO2/CH4 ideal selectivities and mixed gas selectivities reached 15.45 – 23.9 and 13.91 – 22.82, respectively (equivalent to separation yields of 93.3 – 95.98 %.mThe 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate impregnated membrane leads to a slightly lowermCO2/CH4 selectivity, however, this ionic liquid is stable, free of halogen and has a low price. The impregnated membranes prepared from polyvinylidene fluoride are more stablemthan those from polyethersulfone support, and have a higher affinity for CO2 compared to other gas. The obtained high CO2/CH4 selectivities indicate that immobilized membranes can be used for CO2 separation processes.

  18. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: characterization and separation; Paineis solares fotovoltaicos de silicio cristalino: caracterizacao e separacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diasa, P.R.; Benevita, M.G.; Veita, H.M., E-mail: pablo.dias@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACOR/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Corrosao, Protecao e Reciclagem de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The search for alternative power generation sources has been intensified in recent years. One of these alternatives is solar energy, since it is a virtually inexhaustible source and generates relatively small environmental impact compared to other traditional generation sources. The collection of solar energy and its conversion into thermal or electrical energy is only possible through the use of photovoltaic panels. These panels have a limited lifespan and will eventually be replaced by new ones. Thus, in the near future, large amounts of solar modules can be discarded as waste electronics. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reducing production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such materials is important. In this paper, photovoltaic module components were characterized through visual inspection, FRX, EDS and AAS. The glass was identified as ordinary glass (soda-lime glass), which allows reuse without any previous treatment and the metallic filaments were identified as tin- lead coated copper. (author)

  19. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Separation and Online Characterization of Intact Monoclonal Antibody Charge Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Lamp, Jared; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yingru

    2018-02-06

    We report a new online capillary isoelectric focusing-mass spectrometry (CIEF-MS) method for monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variant analysis using an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray ion source and a time-of-flight MS with pressure-assisted chemical mobilization. To develop a successful, reliable CIEF-MS method for mAb, we have selected and optimized many critical, interrelating reagents and parameters that include (1) MS-friendly anolyte and catholyte; (2) a glycerol enhanced sample mixture that reduced non-CIEF electrophoretic mobility and band broadening; (3) ampholyte selected for balancing resolution and MS sensitivity; (4) sheath liquid composition optimized for efficient focusing, mobilization, and electrospray ionization; (5) judiciously selected CIEF running parameters including injection amount, field strength, and applied pressure. The fundamental premise of CIEF was well maintained as verified by the linear correlation (R 2 = 0.99) between pI values and migration time using a mixture of pI markers. In addition, the charge variant profiles of trastuzumab, bevacizumab, infliximab, and cetuximab, obtained using this CIEF-MS method, were corroborated by imaged CIEF-UV (iCIEF-UV) analyses. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of absolute migration time of pI markers were all less than 5% (n = 4). Triplicate analyses of bevacizumab showed RSD less than 1% for relative migration time to an internal standard and RSD of 7% for absolute MS peak area. Moreover, the antibody charge variants were characterized using the online intact MS data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that direct online MS detection and characterization were achieved for mAb charge variants resolved by CIEF as indicated by a well-established linear pH gradient and correlated CIEF-UV charge variant profiles.

  20. Acetonitrile as a buffer additive for free zone capillary electrophoresis separation and characterization of maize (Zeamays L. ) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, S R; Lookhart, G L; Bietz, J A

    2000-02-01

    An improved method for separating and characterizing maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) storage proteins by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) was developed. Previous electrophoretic methods for analyzing these proteins required high concentrations of urea to maintain protein solubility during separation. To overcome disadvantages of urea, we developed a FZCE method that mimicked reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in that it used high levels of acetonitrile (ACN) at low pH. The optimized FZCE buffer system consisted of 80 mM phosphate-glycine buffer, nominal pH 2.5, containing 60% ACN and a cellulose derivative to dynamically coat capillary walls. Resolution was similar to or higher than that previously achieved by FZCE buffers utilizing 8 M urea as a buffer additive. ACN concentrations of at least 50% were necessary to achieve acceptable separations; this ACN concentration is approximately that necessary to extract these storage proteins. ACN was equally effective as traditional ethanol solvents and 8 M urea for solubilizing maize and sorghum proteins. The ACN-based FZCE buffer system gave high repeatability (buffers. This FZCE method may be applicable for the analysis of other hydrophobic proteins without the use of urea.

  1. Environmental niche separation between native and non-native benthic invertebrate species: Case study of the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Holger; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge and understanding of geographic distributions of species is crucial for many aspects in ecology, conservation, policy making and management. In order to reach such an understanding, it is important to know abiotic variables that impact and drive distributions of native and non-native species. We used an existing long-term macrobenthos database for species presence-absence information and biomass estimates at different environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea. Region specific abiotic variables (e.g. salinity, depth) were derived from previously constructed bathymetric and hydrodynamic models. Multidimensional ordination techniques were then applied to investigate potential niche space separation between all native and non-native invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea. Such an approach allowed to obtain data rich and robust estimates of the current native and non-native species distributions and outline important abiotic parameters influencing the observed pattern. The results showed clear niche space separation between native and non-native species. Non-native species were situated in an environmental space characterized by reduced salinity, high temperatures, high proportion of soft seabed and decreased depth and wave exposure whereas native species displayed an opposite pattern. Different placement of native and non-native species along the studied environmental niche space is likely to be explained by the differences in their evolutionary history, human mediated activities and geological youth of the Baltic Sea. The results of this study can provide early warnings and effectively outline coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea that are prone to further range expansion of non-native species as climate change is expected to significantly reduce salinity and increase temperature in wide coastal areas, both supporting the disappearance of native and appearance of non-native species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the actinide-lanthanide separation from nuclear waste by a new pyrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical extraction and separation of platinoids, actinides and lanthanides is allowed by thermodynamic using two adapted reducing agents: zinc and magnesium. Thereby, a pyrochemical method for the nuclear waste processing has been devised. The high temperature handling of the elements in fluoride forms and their processing by a reactive metallic phase required special precautions. The study of the behavior of matter in exploratory systems allowed the development of an experimental technology for the treatment and contacting of phases. The thermodynamical analysis of the experimental results shows the feasibility of the process. A model was developed to predict the distribution coefficients of zirconium, uranium and lanthanum as a function of the system composition. An estimation method was proposed in order to evaluate the distribution coefficients in diluted solution of all the actinides and lanthanides existing in the fission products between LiF CaF 2 and Zn-Mg at 720 deg C. Coupled with the experimental results, the estimates results may be extrapolated to concentrated solutions allowing predictions of the separation of all actinides and lanthanides. The rapidity of element transfer is induced by a thermal effect caused by the high exothermicity of the reduction by magnesium. The kinetic coefficients have been linked with the reduction enthalpy of each element. Moreover, the kinetics seem limited by chemical reaction and not by mass transfer. (author)

  3. Separating Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Respiration in Streams and the Importance for Carbon Cycling: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, M.; Raymond, P.

    2005-05-01

    Autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms confer different effects on nutrient cycling, especially on carbon (C). In stream ecosystems, net ecosystem production determines the amount and form of C exported; however any transformation due to different respiratory (R) mechanisms are not separated. These mechanisms highly influence the form and lability of the C transported. To understand the current state of knowledge and estimate the importance of autotrophic versus heterotrophic R, we obtained a range of respiratory rates from the literature and modeled effects of different balances of rates on bulk dissolved inorganic and organic C chemistry. Preliminary results show that a wide range of estimates of autotrophic R exist and that these can effect bulk properties of exported C. While specific effects are highly dependent upon physical structure of the study watershed, we offer that separating R mechanisms provides further insight into ecosystem C cycling. We also propose a method to measure autotrophic and heterotrophic R at the ecosystem scale and obtain watershed-level estimates of the importance of these processes on C cycling.

  4. Study of the cold charge transfer state separation at the TQ1/PC71 BM interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-05-30

    Charge transfer (CT) state separation is one of the most critical processes in the functioning of an organic solar cell. In this article, we study a bilayer of TQ1 and PC 71 BM molecules presenting disorder at the interface, obtained by means of Molecular Dynamics. The study of the CT state splitting can be first analyzed through the CT state splitting diagram, introduced in a previous work. Through this analysis, we identify the possibility of CT state splitting within Marcus Theory in function of the electric field. Once the right range of electric fields has been identified, we perform Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to estimate percentages and times for the CT state splitting and the free charge carriers collection. Statistical information extracted from these simulations allows us to highlight the importance of polarization and to test the limits of the predictions given by the CT state splitting diagram. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Study on the Correlation between Humidity and Material Strains in Separable Micro Humidity Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidents of injuries caused by tiles falling from building exterior walls are frequently reported in Taiwan. Humidity is an influential factor in tile deterioration but it is more difficult to measure the humidity inside a building structure than the humidity in an indoor environment. Therefore, a separable microsensor was developed in this study to measure the humidity of the cement mortar layer with a thickness of 1.5–2 cm inside the external wall of a building. 3D printing technology is used to produce an encapsulation box that can protect the sensor from damage caused by the concrete and cement mortar. The sensor is proven in this study to be capable of measuring temperature and humidity simultaneously and the measurement results are then used to analyze the influence of humidity on external wall tile deterioration.

  6. Development and characterization of a metallic substrat for nanostructured membranes in the separation of gas mixtures; Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines metallischen Substrats fuer nanostrukturierte Gastrennmembranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, Katharina

    2010-07-01

    In order to minimize the further increase of CO{sub 2}-content in the atmosphere, efforts are made to separate and store CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases of fossil power plants. Beside well-established separation techniques like chemical scrubber, the application of membrane technology is intensively investigated. One focus of this thesis is the development of metal supported substrates for microporous ceramic gas separation membranes, which are expected to have a higher mechanical stability than ceramic supported substrates. Starting with commercial porous steel substrates, interlayers are applied by wet powder spraying. For the interlayers the materials 1.4404-stainless steel and TiO{sub 2} or 1.4845-stainless steel and yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) are chosen. The interlayers have to be defect-free, as minimal defects can deteriorate the membrane performance. By a subsequent mechanical treatment and an adjustment of the viscosity of the 8YSZ-suspension, the surface quality is considerably increased. At the same time the limits of the wet powder spraying process become obvious, as sporadic agglomerates, which are formed during the spraying process, cannot be totally avoided. The metal supported substrates are characterized regarding to the interaction between steel and ceramic, the roughness of the layers compared to polished ceramic substrates, the mechanical properties and the flow through the substrates. Furthermore microporous ceramic gas separation membranes are deposited on wet powder sprayed and dip coated substrates. The selectivity of these membranes is above Knudsen selectivity. The other focus of the thesis is the exposure of substrates and membranes to real flue gas conditions. Beside microporous ceramic membranes polymer membranes are analysed as a reference, which show a higher state of development compared to microporous ceramic membranes. For this purpose a test bed is built up in the EnBW ''Rheinhafendampfkraftwerk RDK 7&apos

  7. Separation and study of nuclides far from beta stability and search for new regimes of nuclear stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarestad, M.

    1977-01-01

    In radiochemical separations progress has been made in developing both discontinuous and continuous separation techniques. Outstanding examples of fast, discontinuous separations have been reported from the University of Mainz where chemical separations are performed on a subsecond time scale. However, when experiments have to be performed repeatedly, a continuous separation process delivering a steady source of short-lived species is more appropriate. Such separations are accomplished in the on-line operating solvent extraction system SISAK. The combination of this separation technique with a Gas Jet Recoil Transport (GJRT) system makes it possible to adapt the separation system to different irradiation facilities. The performance of SISAK has been illustrated through the study of short-lived rare-earth isotopes, using conventional gamma-ray spectroscopy. Following some initial test experiments at a 14 MeV neutron generator in Gothenburg the SISAK system was installed at a Philips PW 5320 neutron generator situated in the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Univ. of Oslo in 1972. In the following two years the main effort was devoted to the development of the experimental separation technique although some physics results were obtained in this period. In 1974 the SISAK system was combined with a GJRT arrangement and installed at the Mainz TRIGA reactor. (JIW)

  8. Catechol functionalized aminopropyl silica gel: synthesis, characterization and preconcentrative separation of uranium(VI) from thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metilda, P.; Mary Gladis, J.; Prasada Rao, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    A novel solid phase extractant is prepared by chemically immobilizing catechol with diazotized aminopropyl silica gel. The resulting catechol functionalized silica gel (CASG) was characterized by FTIR, and microanalysis and was used for selective enrichment of uranium(VI) from other inorganic ions. The optimum pH range for maximum sorption of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) was found to be in the range 3.5-6.0. The above actinides were eluted with 10 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 HCl and determined by using an Arsenazo III spectrophotometric procedure. The calibration graph was rectilinear over the uranium(VI) concentration in the range 2-100 μg dm -3 with a relative standard deviation of 2.15% (for 25 μg of uranium(VI) present in 1.0 dm 3 of sample). The validation of the developed preconcentration procedure was carried out by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3, NRC, Canada) and soil (IAEA soil-7, Austria) reference materials. The developed preconcentration method enables a simple instruments like a spectrophotometer gave comparable values of uranium(VI) to that of standard inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric values during the analysis of real soil and sediment samples. (orig.)

  9. Catechol functionalized aminopropyl silica gel: synthesis, characterization and preconcentrative separation of uranium(VI) from thorium(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metilda, P.; Mary Gladis, J.; Prasada Rao, T.P. [Regional Research Lab. (CSIR), Trivandrum (India)

    2005-07-01

    A novel solid phase extractant is prepared by chemically immobilizing catechol with diazotized aminopropyl silica gel. The resulting catechol functionalized silica gel (CASG) was characterized by FTIR, and microanalysis and was used for selective enrichment of uranium(VI) from other inorganic ions. The optimum pH range for maximum sorption of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) was found to be in the range 3.5-6.0. The above actinides were eluted with 10 cm{sup 3} of 1.0 mol dm{sup -3} HCl and determined by using an Arsenazo III spectrophotometric procedure. The calibration graph was rectilinear over the uranium(VI) concentration in the range 2-100 {mu}g dm{sup -3} with a relative standard deviation of 2.15% (for 25 {mu}g of uranium(VI) present in 1.0 dm{sup 3} of sample). The validation of the developed preconcentration procedure was carried out by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3, NRC, Canada) and soil (IAEA soil-7, Austria) reference materials. The developed preconcentration method enables a simple instruments like a spectrophotometer gave comparable values of uranium(VI) to that of standard inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric values during the analysis of real soil and sediment samples. (orig.)

  10. Studies on separation of lithium isotopes by solvent extraction: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yaohuan; Yan Jinying; Wu Fubing

    1987-01-01

    The separation effects of lithium isotopes on the extraction with Sudan I(1-phenylazo-2-naphthol)-neutral ligand synergetic extraction systems are reported in this paper. Different separation effects are observed when different kinds of neutral ligands are used. Among them, the separation coefficient (α) of Sudan I-TOPO-xylene/LiCl-LiOH is found to be 1.009 ± 0.001. The heavy isotope 7 Li is enriched in the organic phase. The contributions of different structural chelating agents, synergetic agents and diluents to the separation effect are discussed. It is shown that the chelating agent played an important role in the separation effect, and the synergetic agent also exhibited obvious effect, while the shift of diluent didn't affect the separation coefficient significantly. The rates of extraction and isotope exchange equilibrium are high and these systems are shown to be diffusion-controlled ones

  11. Separation of azeotropic mixtures : tools for analysis and studies on batch distillation operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmen, Eva-Katrine

    2000-01-01

    Separation of azeotropic mixtures is a topic of great practical and industrial interest. Most liquid mixtures of organic components form nonideal systems. The presence of some specific groups, particularly polar groups (oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and fluorine), often results in the formation of azeotropes. Azeotropic mixtures may often be effectively separated by distillation by adding a liquid material (entrainer) to the system. For the development of separation processes for azeotropic ...

  12. Phase separation process in FeCr alloys studied by neutron small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusaka, Michihiro; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Sadae; Fujino, Yutaka.

    1986-01-01

    The very early stage as well as late stage of phase separation process in FeCr alloys (Fe-20, 30, 40, 60 at%Cr) have been studied by pulsed cold neutron small angle scattering instrument (SAN). At the early stage, scattering intensity I(q) obeys q -2 dependence at the high q side of the scattering function. The results are in accord with the theory of Langer et al. which takes into account nonlinear and thermal fluctuations effects. At the late stage where I(q) shows q -4 dependence, a dynamical scaling law holds, while it is not the case for the earlier stage. Phase diagram of FeCr system is also determined by critical scattering measurements. (author)

  13. Event-shape-engineering study of charge separation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fufang; Bryon, Jacob; Wen, Liwen; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Recent measurements of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions have indicated charge-separation signals perpendicular to the reaction plane, and have been related to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). However, the correlation signal is contaminated with the background caused by the collective motion (flow) of the collision system, and an effective approach is needed to remove the flow background from the correlation. We present a method study with simplified Monte Carlo simulations and a multi-phase transport model, and develop a scheme to reveal the true CME signal via event-shape engineering with the flow vector of the particles of interest. Supported by a grant (DE-FG02-88ER40424) from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics

  14. Rectification effect about vacuum separating carbon nanotube bundle predicted by first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Y., E-mail: minshiyi@gmail.com [School of Science, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, 226007 (China); Fang, J.H.; Zhong, C.G. [School of Science, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, 226007 (China); Yao, K.L. [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2012-05-07

    For the molecular spintronics transport systems, we propose that the spin current rectifier can be constructed using the nonmagnetic lead. The proposal is confirmed according to the first-principles study of the transport characteristics of a vacuum separating (15,0) carbon nanotube bundle where only one zigzag edge is hydrogenated. The strong rectification effect for spin (charge) current is obtained in the case of the magnetic parallel (anti-parallel) configuration of two zigzag edges. Our investigations indicate that such device can be used as the spin filter and the counterpart of the p–n junction in the field of molecular electronics. -- Highlights: ► We propose that nonmagnetic leads can construct spin current rectifier. ► We propose a spin diode and a filter using CNT. ► The spin and charge current all have the rectification effect in the one-dimensional spin diode.

  15. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  16. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment

  17. Preparation and Characterization of a Cross-linked Matrimid/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Membrane for H2/N2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Esmaeilipur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A double layer composite membrane was fabricated by matrimid 5218 as a selective layer on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF, a porous asymmetric membrane, as a sublayer. The effect of chemical cross-linking of Matrimid 5218 by ethylenediamine (EDA was investigated on gas transport properties of the corresponding membrane. The permeability levels of hydrogen (H2 and nitrogen (N2 were measured through the fabricated composite membranes at 25°C under pressure range of 2-8 bar. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for morphological observations of the composite membranes. The Matrimid membranes before and after cross-linking modification were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and density measurement. The FTIR results showed the conversion of imide functional groups into amide through the crosslinking reaction in Matrimid. The XRD results demonstrated a reduction in d-spacing between the polymer chains through cross-linking reaction. Measuring the density of each membrane's partial selective layer and calculating the corresponding fractional free volume revealed an increase in the density and reduced free volumes in Matrimid through the cross-linking reaction. Moreover, by increasing the EDA concentration, the gas permeability in each membrane decreased significantly for nitrogen compared to hydrogen which could be related to lower gas diffusivity through chain packing due to cross-linking of the polymer. The H2/N2 selectivity at 2 bar increased through the cross-linking modification from 56.5 for the pure Matrimid to 79.4 for the composite membrane containing 12 wt% EDA. The effect of pressure on gas permeability through the composite membranes was investigated and the results found to be in agreement with the behavior of less soluble gases in the glassy polymers. Moreover, the H2/N2 selectivity decreased first at low EDA content (0-4 wt%, before reaching a constant value at 8 wt% EDA and

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane-Polydimethylsiloxane/Polyamide12-b-Polytetramethylene Glycol Blend Membranes for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blend membranes of synthesized polyurethane based on toluene diisocyanate (TDI, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG with polyamide12-b-PTMG were prepared by solution casting technique. The synthesized polyurethane-polydimethylsiloxane and PU-PDMS/polyamide12-b-PTMG blend membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In the FTIR spectrum of the synthesized PU-PDMS, the disappearance of NCO stretching vibration at 2270 cm−1 was used to confirm the completion of the reaction. According to our DSC results, the use of higher polyamide12-b-PTMG content in PU-PDMS/polyamide12-b-PTMG blends led to greater compatibility between the two phases. The SEM images showed that the blends with polyamide12-b-PTMG (20 wt% were significantly more homogeneous in the micrometric scale compared to other samples. Gas transport properties have been determined for N2, CO2 and He gases and the obtained permeability values were correlated with the properties of the blends. The comparison of the results with that of the pure PU-PDMS membrane showed that the blend membranes had a higher permeability toward CO2 and lower toward N2 gas. The blend membrane with 20 wt% polyamide12-b-PTMG showed higher CO2 permeability (≈105 Barrer compared to PU-PDMS membrane. By introduction of polyamide12-b-PTMG into PU-PDMS matrix a perceptible rise in helium ideal selectivity of the blend membranes was observed. In blend membranes with 5-20 wt% polyamide12-b-PTMG contents, an enhancement of CO2/N2 (244%, He/N2 (20% and CO2/He (103% selectivity factor was observed. The experimental permeability values of the blend membranes were compared with the calculated permeability based on a modified additive logarithmic model.

  19. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.

  20. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number k z is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the k z spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B 0 , and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44 Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Parental separation in childhood, social capital, and suicide thoughts and suicide attempts: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-09-30

    Studies of the association between parental separation in childhood and suicide thoughts and attempts are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and ever having had suicide thoughts and ever having made suicide attempt, adjusting for social capital and other covariates. In 2012 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and ever having considered suicide or having made suicide attempt were analysed by logistic regression. Overall, 12.1% of the men and 15.5% of the women had experienced suicide thoughts, and 3.2% of the men and 5.3% of the women had ever tried committing suicide. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18, and among women 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was with few exceptions significantly associated with ever having had suicide thoughts with the highest odds ratios for those who had experienced parental separation during ages 0-4 years. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with suicide attempts among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4 and 15-18, and among women at any age 0-18. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the coefficient of separation for some processes which are applied to lithium isotopes; Etude du coefficient de separation de quelques processus concernant les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, L.; Rozand, L.; Saito, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The fundamental separation factors of some processes are investigated: the distillation of metallic lithium, counter current electromigration in fused salts (particularly in lithium nitrate) electrolysis in aqueous solution and ion exchange. The chemical transfer between a lithium amalgam and lithium salts in a dimethylformamide solution (a solvent which is not attacked by the amalgam) is also studied. Finally a description is given of isotopic analyses carried out either by scintillation counting or by mass spectrography using apparatus specially designed for this particular task. (author) [French] Les facteurs de separation elementaires de quelques processus connus sont etudies: distillation du lithium metallique, electromigration a contre-courant en sels fondus (en particulier le nitrate), electrolyse en solution aqueuse et echange d'ions. L'echange chimique entre l'amalgame de lithium et les sels de lithium en solution dans la dimethylformamide - solvant non attaque par l'amalgame - est egalement etudie. Enfin, on decrit les methodes d 'analyse isotopique, soit par comptage par scintillation, soit par spectrometrie de masse au moyen d'un appareil specialement concu pour cet usage particulier. (auteur)

  3. Study of the coefficient of separation for some processes which are applied to lithium isotopes; Etude du coefficient de separation de quelques processus concernant les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, L; Rozand, L; Saito, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The fundamental separation factors of some processes are investigated: the distillation of metallic lithium, counter current electromigration in fused salts (particularly in lithium nitrate) electrolysis in aqueous solution and ion exchange. The chemical transfer between a lithium amalgam and lithium salts in a dimethylformamide solution (a solvent which is not attacked by the amalgam) is also studied. Finally a description is given of isotopic analyses carried out either by scintillation counting or by mass spectrography using apparatus specially designed for this particular task. (author) [French] Les facteurs de separation elementaires de quelques processus connus sont etudies: distillation du lithium metallique, electromigration a contre-courant en sels fondus (en particulier le nitrate), electrolyse en solution aqueuse et echange d'ions. L'echange chimique entre l'amalgame de lithium et les sels de lithium en solution dans la dimethylformamide - solvant non attaque par l'amalgame - est egalement etudie. Enfin, on decrit les methodes d 'analyse isotopique, soit par comptage par scintillation, soit par spectrometrie de masse au moyen d'un appareil specialement concu pour cet usage particulier. (auteur)

  4. Novel studies of molecular orientation in synthetic polymeric membranes for gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to produce a super-selective asymmetric membrane for gas separation. To achieve this, molecular orientation induced by rheological conditions during membrane fabrication was investigated and related to the gas separation performance of flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes. Infrared dichroism, a spectroscopic technique, was developed in the first phase of the research to directly measure molecular orientation in flat sheet membranes. The degree of molecular orientation was found to increase with increasing shear during fabrication which enhanced both pressure-normalised flux and selectivity of the coated membranes. The rheology of polymer solutions and the mechanism of molecular orientation have been treated in detail for membrane production. This is a novel approach since previous fundamental work has focused on the phase inversion process. The current study showed that rheological conditions during membrane fabrication have the utmost importance in enhancing membrane selectivity. The effects of molecular orientation at greater shear, as experienced by hollow fiber membranes during extrusion through the spinneret channel, were investigated in the second phase of this research. In order to produce a good quality fiber, a unique tube-in-orifice spinneret and a modified hollow fiber spinning rig were designed and fabricated. Thus the combined effects of reduced water activity in the bore coagulant during hollow fiber spinning and rheologically induced molecular orientation were investigated. The selectivity of the coated high shear hollow fiber membranes was heightened and even surpassed the recognised intrinsic selectivity of the polymer. Pressure-normalised flux also increased with increasing shear rate. In the third phase of this research phase inversion conditions were further optimised to give a superior skin layer and thus provide an even better platform for the advantageous effects of molecular orientation. These

  5. Experimental studies and tests on An(III)/Ln(III) separation using the TODGA extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, Xavier; Sorel, Christian; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Cames, Beatrice; Hill, Clement; Bisel, Isabelle; Espinoux, Denis; Viallesoubranne, Carole; Baron, Pascal; Lorrain, Brigitte [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2009-06-15

    Minor actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is worldwide considered as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to make nuclear energy more sustainable. One of the different options investigated at the CEA Marcoule and within the ACSEPT project (a European collaborative project partly funded by the 7. EURATOM Framework Program) to separate trivalent minor actinide (Am(III)-Cf(III)) from the fission and activation products contained in PUREX raffinates is the TODGA process, which consists in: 1. Co-extracting trivalent 4f and 5f elements from highly acidic PUREX raffinates by a mixture of TODGA (tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) and TBP (tributyl-phosphate), dissolved in HTP (hydrogenated tetra-propene). 2. Selectively stripping the trivalent minor actinides by a hydrophilic poly-aminocarboxylic acid used as a complexing agent in a buffered aqueous solution, while the trivalent lanthanides are kept in the organic solvent thanks to a sodium nitrate salting-out effect. 3. Stripping the lanthanides in a diluted nitric acid solution. The major difficulty of this TODGA separation process is to tune the pH in a very narrow range of operating conditions in the second step, because of the high sensitivity of the performances of the flow-sheet vs pH. This difficulty was however overcome. This paper describes the development of the TODGA process from experimental studies to hot test implementation in shielded cells of the ATALANTE facility, including (i) the optimization of the extraction system (both the formulation of the organic solvent and those of the aqueous scrubbing and stripping solutions), (ii) the implementation of a cold test in small scale mixer-settlers in the G1 facility (MARCEL loop), using a surrogate feed composed of major fission products, (iii) the validation of some steps of the process, using a surrogate feed, spiked with Am-241 and Eu-152, and similar laboratory contactors (medium activity

  6. Tritium in reprocessing plants: a study of the inventory, behavior, and the possibilities of separation of the tritium isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnez, H.; Laser, M.; Merz, E.

    The path followed by tritium in reprocessing plants is described in quantitative terms based on the Purex and Thorex processes. Flowsheets are given for the Purex process which are on the one hand based on the present state of technology, but make provision at the same time for a recycling of the aqueous phase and a tritium separation. As an alternative approach the technical and economic aspects have been examined of a prior separation of the tritium after reduction of the fuel elements, followed by separation from the aqueous phase. The ultimate storage and transport of the separated tritium were included in the cost determination. The conclusion is reached as a result of the study that tritium separation is possible on scientific and technical grounds. The estimates made show the financial outlay to be less than 10 DM/GWh, but may on occasion be substantially higher, since no practical or industrial experience of the process is yet available

  7. Atomic force microscopy studies of lateral phase separation in mixed monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Jacqueline; Badia, Antonella

    2003-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy imaging of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) monolayers deposited onto alkanethiol modified-gold surfaces by the Langmuir-Schaefer technique was used to investigate domain formation in a binary system where phase separation arises from a difference in the alkyl chain lengths of the lipids. We have established how the condensed domain structure (shape and size) in DPPC/DLPC monolayers depends on the surface pressure and lipid composition. The mixed monolayers exhibit a positive deviation from an ideal mixing behavior at surface pressures of {<=}32 mN/m. Lateral compression to pressures greater than the liquid-expanded-to-liquid-condensed (LE-to-LC) phase transition pressure of the mixed monolayer ({approx}8-16 mN/m) induces extensive separation into condensed DPPC-rich domains and a fluid DLPC matrix. The condensed structures observed at a few milliNeutons per meter above the LE-to-LC transition pressure resemble those reported for pure DPPC monolayers in the LE/LC co-existence region. At a bilayer equivalence pressure of 32 mN/m and 20 deg. C, condensed domains exist between x{sub DPPC} {approx}0.25 and {approx}0.80, analogous to aqueous DPPC/DLPC dispersions. Compression from 32 to 40 mN/m results in either a striking distortion of the DPPC domain shape or a break-up of the microscopic DPPC domains into a network of nanoscopic islands (at higher DPPC mol fractions), possibly reflecting a critical mixing behavior. The results of this study provide a fundamental framework for understanding and controlling the formation of lateral domain structures in mixed phospholipid monolayers.

  8. THE STUDY OF BRAKE EFFECTIVENESS HOPPER SYSTEM WITH SEPARATE BRAKING TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Je. Nishhenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of tests of the hopper brake systems for the pellets having typical system and separate braking per each bogie are presented. It is shown that the brake system with separate braking has several advantages as compared to the typical one.

  9. The Separation-Individuation Process and Culture: A Study on Taiwan's College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    The separation-individuation process of individuals is mediated by cultural factors of the society to which the individuals belong. Since the Chinese culture emphasizes collectivism rather than the individualism of Western culture, it is believed that there are differences in the separation-individuation process of individuals between the two…

  10. Child Temperament Moderates the Impact of Parental Separation on Adolescent Mental Health : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    The potential effect of parental separation during early adolescence on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems was investigated in a longitudinal sample of adolescents (n = 1274; mean age = 16.27; 52.3% girls). Pre-separation mental health problems were controlled for. Building on a

  11. Studies on the Effect of Radio Frequency Field in a Cusp-Type Charge Separation Device for Direct Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    HAMABE, Masaki; IZAWA, Hiroaki; TAKENO, Hiromasa; NAKAMOTO, Satoshi; ICHIMURA, Kazuya; NAKASHIMA, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    In D-3He fusion power generation, an application of direct energy conversion is expected in which separation of charged particles is necessary. A cusp-type direct energy converter (CuspDEC) was proposed as a charge separation device, but its performance was degraded for a high density plasma. The goal of the present study is to establish an additional method to assist charge separation by using a nonlinear effect of a radio frequency (rf) electric field. Following to the previous study, we ex...

  12. Study of talcum charging status in parallel plate electrostatic separator based on particle trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxiao, CAO; Zhiqiang, WANG; Jinjun, WANG; Guofeng, LI

    2018-05-01

    Electrostatic separation has been extensively used in mineral processing, and has the potential to separate gangue minerals from raw talcum ore. As for electrostatic separation, the particle charging status is one of important influence factors. To describe the talcum particle charging status in a parallel plate electrostatic separator accurately, this paper proposes a modern images processing method. Based on the actual trajectories obtained from sequence images of particle movement and the analysis of physical forces applied on a charged particle, a numerical model is built, which could calculate the charge-to-mass ratios represented as the charging status of particle and simulate the particle trajectories. The simulated trajectories agree well with the experimental results obtained by images processing. In addition, chemical composition analysis is employed to reveal the relationship between ferrum gangue mineral content and charge-to-mass ratios. Research results show that the proposed method is effective for describing the particle charging status in electrostatic separation.

  13. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Residents' Behavior of Separating Household Wastes at Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ying; Zhu Qinghua; Murray Haight

    2007-01-01

    Source separation is the basic premise for making effective use of household wastes. In eight cities of China, however, several pilot projects of source separation finally failed because of the poor participation rate of residents. In order to solve this problem, identifying those factors that influence residents' behavior of source separation becomes crucial. By means of questionnaire survey, we conducted descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The results show that trouble-feeling, moral notion, environment protection, public education, environment value and knowledge deficiency are the main factors that play an important role for residents in deciding to separate their household wastes. Also, according to the contribution percentage of the six main factors to the total behavior of source separation, their influencing power is analyzed, which will provide suggestions on household waste management for policy makers and decision makers in China.

  14. Scheme study of separation and concentration of heavy minerals from the black sand in Aguas dulces beach - Rocha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujica, H.; Marotta, L.

    1968-12-01

    This work is about a study of separation and concentration of heavy minerals from the black sand in Aguas dulces beach - Rocha. The beneficial minerals in that prospected zone are: ilmenite, zircon, rutile and monazite, associated with gangue minerals

  15. Separate disciplines: The study of behavior and the study of the psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    1986-01-01

    The study of behavior differs fundamentally from the study of the psyche and logically cannot share the same discipline. However, while disciplines might be defined through technical exercises, they function through exercises of political power. The evolution of a discipline, though based on field and laboratory data interpreted within a specific paradigm and justified publicity by its utility to solve personal and social problems, follows a course of development in the political arenas of the academies and the professions. We happen to have a discipline, roughly connoted by the label “behavior analysis,” without an academic home (the present ones haphazardly tolerate our activities), without a professional organization (the present one lobbies only “for behavior analysis”), and without a true professional name (the present one implies an approach not a discipline). No scientific community lasts long without a supporting professional infrastructure. In explicitly asserting ourselves as a discipline, we confront a number of difficult issues such as continuing to work in departments antithetical to behaviorism and a number of problems such as what we call ourselves to identify our professional and scientific concerns. (For example, we need a term descriptive of our science in its broad sense. That term is not psychology. Too many people persist in maintaining its commitment to cognitivism. On whatever term we agree, “behavior” should constitute its stem, for our efforts focus there, not in the putative underlying psyche or its current cognitive update.) The focus of our concerns and the solutions of our problems rest on one issue: Will our discipline prosper most as a branch of psychology or as an independent discipline? Slowly, but surely, our actions demonstrate that the latter is the preferred option, but these actions, though fortuitous, occur almost by accident. By specifically programming to achieve an independent professional status we increase the

  16. Structural and conformational variants of human beta2-microglobulin characterized by capillary electrophoresis and complementary separation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Rovatti, Luca; Nissen, Mogens H

    2003-01-01

    The small (Mr = 11729) serum protein beta2-microglobulin is prone to precipitate as amyloid in a protein conformational disorder (PCD) that occurs in a significant number of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Analyses by capillary electrophoresis (CE) were undertaken to study beta2-microglobulin...

  17. A design study of hydrogen isotope separation system for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-03-01

    Preliminary design study of the hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS) for the fuel cycle of the ITER-FEAT, a fusion experimental reactor, was carried out based on the substantial reduction of hydrogen flow to the ISS resulting from the design study for scale reduction of the formerly-designed ITER. Three feed streams (plasma exhaust gas stream, streams from the water detritiation system and that from the neutral beam injectors) are fed to the ISS, and three product streams (high purity tritium gas, high purity deuterium gas and hydrogen gas) are made in it by the method of cryogenic distillation. In this study, an original four-column cascade was proposed to the ISS cryogenic distillation column system considering simplification and the operation scenario of the ITER-FEAT. Substantial reduction of tritium inventory in the ISS was found to be possible in the progress of investigation concerning of the corresponding flow rate of tritium product stream (T>90 %) for pellet injector which depends upon the operation condition. And it was found that tritium concentration in the released hydrogen stream into environment from the ISS could easily fluctuate with current design of column arrangement due to the small disturbance in mass flow balance in the ISS. To solve this problem, two-column system for treatment of this flow was proposed. (author)

  18. Can the waiting-point nucleus 78Ni be studied at an on-line mass-separator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, A.; Andreyev, A.; Bijnens, N.; Breitenbach, J.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Y. A.; Piechaczek, A.; Raabe, R. R.; Reusen, I.; Vermeeren, L.; Van Duppen, P.

    1997-02-01

    Short-lived nickel isotopes have been studied using a chemically selective Ion Guide Laser Ion Source (IGLIS) based on resonance ionisation of atoms at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) separator. The decay properties of different Ni isotopes have been studied using β-γ-coincidences. Experimental production rates of proton induced fission of 238U are obtained for 69,71Ni. These numbers are in a strong disagreement with Silberg-Tsao calculations.

  19. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Odebunmi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC. The GC fractions were identified by comparing the retention time of peaks in the unknown samples with those of components of calibration standard mixtures. The importance of the physico-chemical properties and the significance of the fractional distillation and chromatographic separation methods to industrial process operations have been discussed.

  20. [Effects of herb cake-separated moxibustion on spleen in immunosuppressive rabbits:a morphology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuefeng; Wu, Aihua; Wang, Jun; Shan, Zengtian

    2016-10-12

    To observe the influence of different methods of moxibustion on spleen morphology in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive rabbits. A total of 50 rabbits were randomly assigned into a blank group, a model group, a herbal cake-separated moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and a sham cake-separated moxibustion group, 10 rabbits in each group. Except the blank group, the rabbits in each group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg), once a day, for 7 consecutive days to establish immunosuppressive model. After the model establishment, the rabbits in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with herbal cake-separated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8), "Guanyuan" (CV 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Pishu" (BL 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23); the moxa cone was placed on the herbal cake which was made of Liuwei Dihuang decoction, three cones for each acupoint. The rabbits in the moxibustion group were treated with moxa stick moxibustion which contained equal moxa of three moxa cones. The rabbits in the sham cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with cake which was made of flour. The acupoint selection in the above three groups was identical, and the intervention was given once every other day for totally 10 times. The rabbits in the blank group and model group were immobilized for identical time without any intervention. After treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed to collect the spleen. With routine HE staining, the morphology changes of spleen were observed under microscope. In addition, the white pulp, splenic corpuscle and the counts of lymphatic cells of lymphatic sheath around the arteries were observed. Compared with the blank group, the average size of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were reduced (both P 0.05). Compared with the model group, the averagesize of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were significantly increased in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group and moxibustion

  1. NMR study of Albemoschus esculentus characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathista, A.L.B.S; Silva, E.O.; Nogueira, Jose de S.; Tavares, M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of the main compounds presented in the Albemoschus esculentus has been carried out employing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), using solution and solid state NMR when it one was necessary. The evaluation of NMR data allowed us to characterize the main type of components presented in this kind of sample. It was necessary to use a total information from solid state NMR and also the solution response. From these information we could get that four main components were presented in this sample. One in the shell, that is cellulose, another one between the shell and seeds that is a polysaccharide and in the seed two components were found one is a starch and the second one is an oil, a triacylglycerol. These components are responsible by its physical chemistry properties. (author)

  2. Characterization of Thai Amulets A PIXE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-In, K.; Suksawang, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Thongleurm, Chom; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Thai amulets that created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and believed to bless every life in this world for good karma. Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulet is the top of the five most famous Thai amulets. There are many molds with various compositions. In this work, it was the first time that X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; scanning electron microscope cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were carried out to analyze their compositions. Two samples were collected from different molds. Results revealed C, Ca and Si were main composition. The differences in their compositions have been used to identify and characterize for each molds

  3. Synthesis and Characterization Studies of MIL-101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kaya EKİNCİ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MIL-101 is a kind of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs, which have attracted much attention in the past decade due to its promising application in chemical industries. MIL-101 is also known as “Porous Chromium Terephthalate”. It has very high surface area and pore volume. MIL-101 exhibits exceptional stability against moisture and other chemicals and is composed of coordinately unsaturated Cr- sites with high concentration available for catalysis and adsorption. MIL-101 was synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption and desorption analyses and SEM. XRD patterns show the presence of MIL-101’s crystal structure with high surface area (~2400 m2/g. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyzes showed that the material exhibited mesoporous material behavior.

  4. Study of electrochemical processes for separation of the actinides and lanthanides in molten fluoride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvejskova, R.; Chuchvalcova Bimova, K.; Lisy, F.; Soucek, P.

    2005-01-01

    The technology of the Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) is developed for two possible applications: For one thing as the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor (MSTR) incinerating plutonium and minor actinides within reprocessing of spent fuel from PWR or FBR and for another thing as electricity generating MSR working under thorium uranium fuel cycle. Electrochemical separation processes are one of promising pyrochemical techniques that should enable the on-line reprocessing of circulating fuel salt in MSR (fuel cycle back-end). The former application represents the Czech P and T concept, in which framework the electrolytic separation can be applied both in the front-end and back-end of the MSTR fuel cycle. Within the front-end electro separation should follow the Fluoride Volatility Method (FVM), which should separate 95 % of uranium from the spent fuel in the form of volatile uranium hexafluoride. The residual uranium and fission products (FP) are supposed to be separated among others also by electrochemical methods. The presented work comprises the results reached within development of electrochemical separation of the actinides and fission products from each other by electrolytic deposition method on solid cathode in molten fluoride media, that represent he carrier salts of MSR technology. The knowledge of electrochemical properties (red-ox potentials, mainly of deposition potentials) is necessary for determination of separation possibilities of individual components by electrolysis. (authors)

  5. Study on the separation effect of high-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Sui, He; Zhang, Deyuan; Jiang, Xinggang

    2018-07-01

    High-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting (HUVC) has been proven to be significantly effective when turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy in recent researches. Despite of breaking through the cutting speed restriction of the ultrasonic vibration cutting (UVC) method, HUVC can also achieve the reduction of cutting force and the improvements in surface quality and cutting efficiency in the high-speed machining field. These benefits all result from the separation effect that occurs during the HUVC process. Despite the fact that the influences of vibration and cutting parameters have been discussed in previous researches, the separation analysis of HUVC should be conducted in detail in real cutting situations, and the tool geometry parameters should also be considered. In this paper, three situations are investigated in details: (1) cutting without negative transient clearance angle and without tool wear, (2) cutting with negative transient clearance angle and without tool wear, and (3) cutting with tool wear. And then, complete separation state, partial separation state and continuous cutting state are deduced according to real cutting processes. All the analysis about the above situations demonstrate that the tool-workpiece separation will take place only if appropriate cutting parameters, vibration parameters, and tool geometry parameters are set up. The best separation effect was obtained with a low feedrate and a phase shift approaching 180 degrees. Moreover, flank face interference resulted from the negative transient clearance angle and tool wear contributes to an improved separation effect that makes the workpiece and tool separate even at zero phase shift. Finally, axial and radial transient cutting force are firstly obtained to verify the separation effect of HUVC, and the cutting chips are collected to weigh the influence of flank face interference. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on separation of methanol-butyl methylether-1-chlorobutane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Cao Tianhong

    2006-01-01

    The separation of mixture plays an important role in chemical, petrochemical, medical biochemical industries and environmental protection engineering. Liquid mixture with azeotropic phenomenon cannot be separated by conventional distillation as well as extractive distillation. But the combination of extraction and distillation can be effective for them. This paper includes many experiments with the ternary mixture of methanol butyl methyl ether and 1-chlorobytane, which shows that the system is not ternary azeotrope and can be separated by the combination of extraction and rectification using water as extractive solvent. (authors)

  7. Experimental study of lactose hydrolysis and separation in cstr-uf membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Namvar-Mahboub

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of processing conditions on the performance of continuous stirred tank -ultrafiltration (CSTR-UF in dead - end mode was investigated. An UF membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 3 kDa made of regenerated cellulose material was used to separate enzyme from products. The effect of operating pressure ranging between 2 and 5 bar and time on the performance of the CSTR-UF system was studied. The experiments were performed with a 0.139 molar aqueous solution of lactose as feed. According to the experimental data, the lactose concentration in the permeate decreased with time due to concentration polarization and hydrolysis. It was found that the rejection factor of lactose increases from 33 to 77% with time from 5 to 85 min. Permeation flux of the membrane was evaluated in terms of pure water flux (PWF and lactose aqueous solution. Results showed that a high operating pressure led to a high permeation flux for both mentioned cases. Also, adding lactose and enzyme to pure water caused a reduction of the permeation flux due to concentration polarization.

  8. Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Vengadesan, S.

    2017-11-01

    The flow separation appears in a wide range of heat transfer applications and causes poor heat transfer performance. It motivates the study of heat transfer enhancement in laminar as well as turbulent flows over a backward facing step by means of an adiabatic fin mounted on the top wall. Recently, we have studied steady, 2-D numerical simulations in laminar flow and investigated the effect of fin length, location, and orientation. It revealed that the addition of fin causes enhancement of heat transfer and it is very effective to control the flow and thermal behavior. The fin is most effective and sensitive when it is placed exactly above the step. A slight displacement of the fin in upstream of the step causes the complete change of flow and thermal behavior. Based on the obtained 2-D results it is interesting to investigate the side wall effect in three-dimensional simulations. The comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the available experimental results will be presented. Special attention has to be given to capture unsteadiness in the flow and thermal field.

  9. The Use of Isotope Techniques to Separate of Hydrography Components. Case Study: Ankara-Guvenc Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekeli, Y.I.; Sorman, A.U.; Sayin, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this research, a stable environmental isotope study was carried out from analysis of water samples collected from rainfall, runoff (total discharge), springs (subsurface flows), and wells (ground waters)in Ankara-Guevenc basin having a drainage area of about 16.125 km 2 between 1996-2000. The aim of the study was to investigate the rainfall-runoff relationship for the basin. Recorded total ten discharge hydrographs are separated to their components using stable isotopes (Oxygen-18, Deuterium) contents. Among these samples, unit hydrographs from two one-peak storm hydrographs were derived using both isotope and graphical methods, and the derived unit hydrographs values including peaks were compared. Peak values of 10 and 20 minutes unit hydrographs of the basin derived by using isotope method (Q p = 1322 1/s and Q p = 1327 l/s) are compared with those of graphical method (Q p = 1656 1/s, and Q p = 1250 1/s) using Barnes semi-log approach. It was found out that, the contribution of subsurface flow which is component of total discharge hydrograph and originating from various sub layers are important in the total flow of basin using isotope method of approach

  10. Study of the separate exposure method for bootstrap sensitometry on X-ray cine film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Sanada, Taizo; Hitomi, Go; Kakuba, Koki; Kangai, Yoshiharu; Ishii, Koushi

    1997-01-01

    We developed a new method for bootstrap sensitometry that obtained the characteristic curve from a wide range, with a smaller number of aluminum steps than the conventional bootstrap method. In this method, the density-density curve was obtained from standard and multiplied exposures to the aluminum step wedge and used for bootstrap manipulation. The curve was acquired from two regions separated and added together, e.g., lower and higher photographic density regions. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a new cinefluorography method in comparison with N.D. filter sensitometry. The shape of the characteristic curve and the gradient curve obtained with the new method were highly similar to that obtained with N.D. filter sensitometry. Also, the average gradient obtained with the new bootstrap sensitometry method was not significantly different from that obtained by the N.D. filter method. The study revealed that the reliability of the characteristic curve was improved by increasing the measured value used to calculate the density-density curve. This new method was useful for obtaining a characteristic curve with a sufficient density range, and the results suggested that this new method could be applied to specific systems to which the conventional bootstrap method is not applicable. (author)

  11. Radiochemical studies on the separation of iodine-131 and radioiodination of some organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    its retardation factor (R f ). The second technique is the purification of the labeled compounds by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). On the reverse phase RP-18, column eluted with an appropriate solvent where each compound is identified by its retention time (R t ).Chapter III :It deals with the idea of separation of iodine-131 from tellurium targets using the dry distillation method. The factors affecting the production and separation of 131 I were studied such as the oven temperature; the distillation time and the sodium hydroxide concentration, the following flow sheet summarizes the production process. The quality control tests were carried out on the final product (Na 131 I). They were 99.9%, 98.7% for radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity, respectively and the chemical purity of Te in the final radioiodine was 0.8μg/ml.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Microporous Dihydroxyl-Functionalized Triptycene-Diamine-Based Polyimide for Natural Gas Membrane Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaslai, Nasser; Ma, Xiaohua; Ghanem, Bader; Wang, Yingge; Alghunaimi, Fahd; Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-09-01

    An intrinsically microporous polyimide is synthesized in m-cresol by a one-pot high-temperature condensation reaction of 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and newly designed 2,6 (7)-dihydroxy-3,7(6)-diaminotriptycene (DAT1-OH). The 6FDA-DAT1-OH polyimide is thermally stable up to 440 °C, shows excellent solubility in polar solvents, and has moderately high Brunauer-Teller-Emmett (BET) surface area of 160 m 2 g -1 , as determined by nitrogen adsorption at -196 °C. Hydroxyl functionalization applied to the rigid 3D triptycene-based diamine building block results in a polyimide that exhibits moderate pure-gas CO 2 permeability of 70 Barrer combined with high CO 2 /CH 4 selectivity of 50. Mixed-gas permeation studies demonstrate excellent plasticization resistance of 6FDA-DAT1-OH with impressive performance as potential membrane material for natural gas sweetening with a CO 2 permeability of 50 Barrer and CO 2 /CH 4 selectivity of 40 at a typical natural gas well partial pressure of 10 atm. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Microporous Dihydroxyl-Functionalized Triptycene-Diamine-Based Polyimide for Natural Gas Membrane Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2017-07-10

    An intrinsically microporous polyimide is synthesized in m-cresol by a one-pot high-temperature condensation reaction of 4,4\\'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and newly designed 2,6 (7)-dihydroxy-3,7(6)-diaminotriptycene (DAT1-OH). The 6FDA-DAT1-OH polyimide is thermally stable up to 440 °C, shows excellent solubility in polar solvents, and has moderately high Brunauer-Teller-Emmett (BET) surface area of 160 m2 g-1 , as determined by nitrogen adsorption at -196 °C. Hydroxyl functionalization applied to the rigid 3D triptycene-based diamine building block results in a polyimide that exhibits moderate pure-gas CO2 permeability of 70 Barrer combined with high CO2 /CH4 selectivity of 50. Mixed-gas permeation studies demonstrate excellent plasticization resistance of 6FDA-DAT1-OH with impressive performance as potential membrane material for natural gas sweetening with a CO2 permeability of 50 Barrer and CO2 /CH4 selectivity of 40 at a typical natural gas well partial pressure of 10 atm.

  14. Studies on entrained DNPPA separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous solutions generated during uranium recovery from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2010-01-01

    During the separation of metal ions by solvent extraction technique in hydrometallurgical operations, organic solvents either get entrained or dissolved in various types of aqueous streams, which need to be separated out to prevent environmental pollution and solvent loss. Generally entrained solvents are separated on plant scale by parallel plate separators or by froth floatation cells, while the dissolved solvents are recovered either by organic diluent wash or by charcoal adsorption. A novel process has been developed to recover uranium from merchant grade phosphoric acid (MGA) employing synergistic mixture of DNPPA (di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid ) and TOPO (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) dissolved in petrofin. After recovery of uranium, MGA has to be returned to the host company for the production of fertilizer. This MGA has to be free from any contamination due to DNPPA and TOPO. Separation of DNPPA and TOPO from MGA by diluent wash method has been reported. There is no information available in literature for the separation of DNPPA and TOPO from such aqueous streams by carbon adsorption. The present investigation describes the methodology based on charcoal adsorption study (batch and continuous column operation) to separate DNPPA from MGA. Three different types of charcoal namely coconut shell based, coal based and pelletized charcoal were evaluated for DNPPA separation from MGA containing 100 mg/L DNPPA. It was found that the % DNPPA adsorptions in single contact (0.5g C/50 ml) were 57, 34 and 10 in coconut shell, coal based and pelletised charcoal respectively. Based on the results, the coconut shell based charcoal was selected for further study. Adsorption of DNPPA by coconut shell based charcoal was investigated by carrying out the experiments with 50 ml MGA containing 770 mg/L DNPPA by adding 1 to 7 g charcoal respectively in separate beakers

  15. Computational Study of Separation Control Using ZNMF Devices: Flow Physics and Scaling Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittal, Rajat

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to gain a fundamental understanding of strategies, mechanisms, and scaling laws for successful control of separation using zern-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators...

  16. Efficacy of a separate informed consent for anesthesia services: A prospective study from the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi Rampersad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: A separate written consent for anesthesia improved the efficacy of the informed consent process with respect to better information about the nature and purpose of anesthesia, common side effects, and rare but serious complications.

  17. Theoretical study on separation of H2/HD by multi-column interlinking cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiulong

    2010-01-01

    Multi-column interlinking is an effective separation method adopted for enrichment of trace deuterium and tritium. Conceptual design and proper operating mode were proposed for separation of H2/HD by cryogenic distillation with three interlinking columns,and separation performance were obtained.Enrichment of 20 x 10 x 10 achieved with proper operating mode indicating multi-column interlinking is specially suitable for trace composition enrichment. Pressure and reflux ratio' effect on separation performance were also investigated. As pressure increased from 0.6 atm to 1.5 atm, deuterium stripping efficiency dropped from 99.79% to 99.44%; As reflux ratio increased from 3 to 5, deuterium stripping efficiency increased from 99.67% to 99.81%. (authors)

  18. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  19. The study on separation of Krypton and Xenon from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nannan; Wang Baisong; Wan Junsheng

    2003-01-01

    In the gas fission product of 235 U contains some noble gases such as Kr and Xe. They have many uses in many aspects. But the separation of both is of some difficulties because of their similar physical and chemical characters. The present feasible processing methods make use of the strong adsorption property of activated charcoal, molecular sieve and other material at low temperature and have gained better recovery. In this papers we discussed the separation and purification of them. (author)

  20. Study on rare earths complexes separation by means of different type of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicka, H.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of different types of ion exchangers for purification and separation of rare earths complexes has been examined. The experimental work has been carried out on 14 chelating ion exchangers. The investigation results proved the great usefulness chelating ion exchangers especially of amino acid and phosphorus-type. Application of that type ion exchangers in column chromatographic process gave the excellent rare earths separation as well as enabled to obtain their preparates of high purity. 218 refs, 21 figs, 27 tabs

  1. Studies on the effect of radio frequency field in a cusp-type charge separation device for direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabe, Masaki; Izawa, Hiroaki; Takeno, Hiromasa; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    In D- 3 He fusion power generation, an application of direct energy conversion is expected in which separation of charged particles is necessary. A cusp-type direct energy converter (CuspDEC) was proposed as a charge separation device, but its performance was degraded for a high density plasma. The goal of the present study is to establish an additional method to assist charge separation by using a nonlinear effect of a radio frequency (rf) electric field. Following to the previous study, we experimentally examine the effect of an rf field to electron motion in a CuspDEC device. Two ring electrodes were newly installed in a CuspDEC simulator and the current flowing into the electron collector located in the line cusp region was measured on an rf field application. The significant variation in the current was found, and an improvement of the charge separation can be expected by using the phenomenon appropriately. (author)

  2. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  3. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  4. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed

  5. Study on magnetic separation system using high Tc superconducting bulk magnets for water purification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T; Kanayama, H; Tanaka, K; Fukui, S; Ogawa, J; Sato, T; Ooizumi, M; Yamaguchi, M; Yokoyama, K; Noto, K

    2009-01-01

    The application of superconducting bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques has been investigated for the Mn-bearing waste water drained from the university laboratories. The research has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates including Mn element in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with ferromagnetic iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without them. As the magnetic force acting on the particles is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field, and a superconducting bulk magnet shows a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface, the performances of the bulk magnet system were almost equivalent to those of the superconducting solenoid magnet with wide bore with respect to the magnetic separation ratios. The separation ratios for Mn have reached over 80 % for HGMS and 10 % for OGMS under the flow rates less than 3 liter/min.

  6. Percutaneous dual-switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a separable clustered electrode: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To prospectively evaluate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to retrospectively compare the results with those of single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in a historical control group. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, with informed consent obtained from all patients. Fifty-two HCC patients who underwent DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode and dual-generators were prospectively enrolled. Technical parameters, complications, technical success, technical effectiveness, and local tumor progression (LTP) rates were evaluated by means of post-procedural and follow-up imaging. Thereafter, the outcome of DSM-RFA was compared with those of 249 retrospectively included HCC patients treated with SSM-RFA.There were two major complications (3.8%, 2/52) including pleural and pericardial effusion in the DSM-RFA group. The DSM-RFA yielded a 100% technical success rate, a 98.1% technical effectiveness rate, and a 4.3% 2-year LTP rate. In a retrospective comparison between the two groups, DSM-RFA created significantly larger ablation volume (4.20 ± 2.07 cm{sup 3}/min vs. 3.03 ± 1.99 cm{sup 3}/min, p < 0.01), and delivered higher energy (1.43 ± 0.37 kcal/min vs. 1.25 ± 0.50 kcal/min, p < 0.01) per given time, than SSM-RFA. There was no significant difference in major procedure-related complications (3.8% vs. 4.4%) and technical effectiveness rate (98.1% vs. 96.4%) between the two groups (p = 1.00). In addition, the 2-year LTP rate of DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 4.3% and 10.1%, respectively (p = 0.15). DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode is safe and provides high local tumor control and good preliminary clinical outcome for small HCCs, which are at least comparable to those of SSM-RFA.

  7. Percutaneous dual-switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a separable clustered electrode: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to retrospectively compare the results with those of single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in a historical control group. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, with informed consent obtained from all patients. Fifty-two HCC patients who underwent DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode and dual-generators were prospectively enrolled. Technical parameters, complications, technical success, technical effectiveness, and local tumor progression (LTP) rates were evaluated by means of post-procedural and follow-up imaging. Thereafter, the outcome of DSM-RFA was compared with those of 249 retrospectively included HCC patients treated with SSM-RFA.There were two major complications (3.8%, 2/52) including pleural and pericardial effusion in the DSM-RFA group. The DSM-RFA yielded a 100% technical success rate, a 98.1% technical effectiveness rate, and a 4.3% 2-year LTP rate. In a retrospective comparison between the two groups, DSM-RFA created significantly larger ablation volume (4.20 ± 2.07 cm"3/min vs. 3.03 ± 1.99 cm"3/min, p < 0.01), and delivered higher energy (1.43 ± 0.37 kcal/min vs. 1.25 ± 0.50 kcal/min, p < 0.01) per given time, than SSM-RFA. There was no significant difference in major procedure-related complications (3.8% vs. 4.4%) and technical effectiveness rate (98.1% vs. 96.4%) between the two groups (p = 1.00). In addition, the 2-year LTP rate of DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 4.3% and 10.1%, respectively (p = 0.15). DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode is safe and provides high local tumor control and good preliminary clinical outcome for small HCCs, which are at least comparable to those of SSM-RFA

  8. Study of extraction chromatography methods of separation of neptunium and its radiometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.

    2009-04-01

    In presented dissertation thesis the separation procedure for determination of neptunium in model solutions and also in soil samples was designed. 1. The sorbent was prepared on basis of hydrophobised silica gel with silica oil for hydrophobisation - Lukooil H. Extraction agent was anchored on this modified surface -quarternary ammonium salt Aliquat 336. In experiments was proved, that sorbent prepared like this is resist enough to the elution solutions using in separation procedures. It was found out that maximal concentration of deposited Aliquat 336 in benzene on hydrophobised silica gel selected granulate size is 40%. Sorbent prepared with silica gel lower granulate size and also with higher concentration of Aliquat 336 in benzene became sticky and unsuitable for using in separation columns. 2. The prepared sorbent is similar to commercial produced TEVA resin made by company Eichrom and for purpose of this project it was cheaper but the same effective alternative in comparing to mentioned commercial resin. 3. The separation procedure for isolation of 237 Np from radionuclides interfering during its radiometric determination with alpha spectrometry was designed -in scientific publications hasn't been described yet. The procedure consists of using formic acid for reduction of radionuclides interfering by alpha spectrometric determination of 237 Np and subsequent purification of neptunium on the next column by using ferrous sulphamate as reduction agent. This procedure was applied to the model solutions and also to the soil samples. The model solutions and soil samples for these experiments were contaminated with known amounts of 237 Np, 238 pU, 232 Th and mixture of 234 U/ 238 U. The effective separation of neptunium from described radionuclides was achieved with application of the described separation procedure. 4. The separation procedure for separation of 239 Np from its mother radionuclide 241 Am was designed with prepared sorbent. Different washing and

  9. STUDY OF GAS SEPARATION PROCESS BY DYNAMIC ADSORPTION IN FIXED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Solomon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of mass transfer at gas separation by dynamic adsorption in fixed bed of impregnated silica gel is presented in this work. By means of a mathematical model based on constants and coefficient easy to evaluate, the distributions of adsorbate concentration in gas and solid phases were determined as a function of time and throughout the height of the fixed bed, under isothermal conditions.With this aim, water vapors from air were adsorbed in a fixed bed of impregnated silica gel. The values of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, Kv, were determined experimentally at several values of air superficial velocity, an air relative humidity of 69�20at 38 °C. The influence of the gas flow velocity and initial water concentration in adsorbent on the distribution of water concentration in both phases was established as a function of time and throughout the height of the fixed bed. The results obtained allow one to determination of the local adsorption rate.

  10. Working memory as separable subsystems: a study with Portuguese primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isabel S; Almeida, Leandro S; Ferreira, Aristides I; Martinez, Luis F

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has been done to study the working memory structure in children in their first school years, the relation of cognitive constructs involved in this process remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether working memory is a domain general construct that coordinates separate codes of verbal and visuospatial storage or whether it is a domain-specific construct with distinct resources of verbal and visuospatial information. This paper investigates the structure of working memory, by using the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) and by doing confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) on a sample of Portuguese children (n = 103) between 8 and 9 years of age. The results of the confirmatory factor analyses that provide the best fit of the data correspond to the model that includes Central Executive and Visuospatial Sketchpad in the same factor, co-varying with a Phonological Loop factor. Moreover, the traditional working memory tripartite structure--based on the Baddeley and Hitch Model--revealed good fit to the data.

  11. Studies on microphase-separated structures of block copolymers by neutron reflectivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Naoya; Noda, Ichiro; Matsushita, Yushu; Karim, A.; Satija, S.K.; Han, C.C.; Ebisawa, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    Segmental distributions of block copolymer chains in lamellar microphase-separated structure and those of homopolymers in block copolymer/homopolymer blends also with lamellar structures were studied by neutron reflectivity measurements. It was revealed that polystyrene and poly(2-vinylpyridine) lamellae were alternately stacked within the thin films of pure block copolymers spin-coated on silicon wafers, and they were preferentially oriented along the direction parallel to film surface. Polystyrene lamella appeared at air surfaces of the films, while poly(2-vinylpyridine) lamella did on silicon surfaces. Segment distribution at lamellar interface was well described by an error function, and the width of the lamellar interface, defined by a full-width half-maximum value of interfacial profile, was estimated to be about 4.5 nm. Segments of block chains adjacent to the chemical junction points connecting different block chains were strongly localized near the lamellar interfaces, while those on the free ends of block chains were distributed all over the lamellar microdomains with their distribution maxima at the centers of lamellae. On the other hand, it was clarified that homopolymers dissolved in the corresponding lamellar microdomains of block copolymers were also distributed throughout the microdomains with their concentration maxima at the centers of the lamellae. (author)

  12. Cyclotron production, radiochemical separation and quality control of platinum radiotracers for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.; Birattari, C.; Groppi, F.; Arginelli, D.; Gini, L.; Gallorini, M.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing concentration of Pt, Pd and Rh in the environment is mainly due to the release of these elements from the catalytic converters of the motorvehicles. This situation makes it necessary to carry out metallotoxicological experiments on both cell cultures and laboratory animals, in order to assess their impact on living organisms after a Long Term and Low Level Exposure (LLE). Both nuclear reactions nat Ir(p,xn) and nat Os(α,xn) were investigated in the energy range up to 45 MeV for protons and 38 MeV for alpha-particles, in order to optimize the irradiation parameters for the production of 188,189,191 Pt. Several sets of thin- and thick-target excitation functions were determined experimentally by cyclotron irradiation at both Milano and Ispra cyclotrons. This paper reports the irradiation parameters studied and adopted and two radiochemical procedures for the separation of radio-Pt from an Os target, as well as from ruthenium, iridium and gold impurities. These procedures were used to obtain very high specific activity Pt radionuclides in No Carrier Added (NCA) form. Radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity measurements were carried out by the use of several techniques like γ-spectrometry, ion-exchange radio-chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. (author)

  13. Studies on the separation and purification of uranium from thoria irradiated in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedari, C.S.; Sinalkar, N.; Dhami, P.S.; Achuthan, P.V.; Vijayan, K.; Moorthy, A.D.; Jambunathan, U.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.

    2005-10-01

    About 5 g of thoria pellet extracted from the thoria bundle irradiated to 508 full power days in PHWR at KAPS and cooled for about 4.5 years was dissolved in 25 mL of 13 M HNO 3 containing 0.03 M HF and 0.1 M Al(NO 3 ) 3 under reflux condition in a shielded glove box. Thorium concentration and acidity of the dissolved solution was adjusted to ∼97 g/L and 4M HNO 3 , suitable for solvent extraction studies. The feed solution had a uranium concentration of 1.36 g/L and gross gamma activity of ∼6 Ci/L. Liquid-liquid extraction experiments were carried out in batch with this feed using 3% TBP in n-dodecane as extractant. The uranium product solution obtained from the solvent extraction was further purified by ion-exchange method using cation exchange resin Dowex 50 x 4. Fission product activity and the isotopic composition of the final recovered product were measured. The uranium product had an overall decontamination factor of 10 4 and 2 x 10 4 with respect to thorium and fission product activity respectively. A part of the solution was monitored for dose build-up due to the growth of the decay products of 232 U which is a vital input for designing the shielding of a 233 U separation facility. (author)

  14. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  15. Effect of Non Submerged Vanes on Separation Zone at Strongly-curved Channel Bends, a Laboratory Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Akhtari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bends along open channels always pose difficulties for water transfer systems. One undesirable effect of bends in such channels, i.e. separation of water from inner banks, was studied. For the purposes of this study, the literature on the subject was first reviewed, and a strongly-curved open channel was designed and constructed on the laboratory scale. Several tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the lab model, data homogeneity, and systematic errors. The model was then calibrated and the influence of curvature on flow pattern past the curve was investigated. Also, for the first time, the influence of separation walls on flow pattern was investigated. Experimental results on three strongly-curved open channels with a curvature radius to channel width ratio of 1.5 and curvature angles of 30°, 60°, and 90° showed that, in all the cases studied, the effect of flow separation could be observed immediately after the curve. In addition, the greatest effect of flow separation was seen at a distance equal to channel width from the bend end. In the presence of middle walls and flow separation, the effect of water separation reduced at the bend, especially for a curvature of 90°.

  16. Characterization study of industrial waste glass as starting material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, an industrial waste glass was characterized and the potential to assess as starting material in development of bioactive materials was investigated. A waste glass collected from the two different glass industry was grounded to fine powder. The samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ...

  17. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  18. Traffic Feasibility Study for a Grade Separator at a Busy Intersection in Vellore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    One of the byproduct of urbanization is traffic congestion and before suggesting any solutions to reduce congestion, understanding the present context becomes very important. Study of traffic volumes at busy intersections to find the percentage composition of different vehicle types, directional distribution and peak hour traffic volume is a first step towards understanding the present context of traffic. Hence in the present study, one of the busy intersections in Vellore, namely, Gandhi nagar intersection in Vellore-Katpadi road was selected and traffic flow data was collected using video surveys. It was found that at the selected intersection, the two wheelers and three wheelers alone share 80% of the total traffic when compared to other vehicle types. Nearly 700 trucks and multi axle trailers were observed to pass through the intersection during the analysis period of five hours. That is, on an average 2 trucks/multi axle trailers were passing through the intersection in each minute. As like in other major cities, entry of trucks and other heavy vehicles such as multi axle trailers into the city needs to be banned during peak hours for smooth flow of traffic within city limits. A highest hourly volume of 6939 PCU’s was observed between 4 and 5 pm at the selected intersection. By assuming a 10% uniform traffic growth every year, it was found that after about 4 years, i.e., in 2019, the traffic volume at the intersection may reach 10,000 PCU’s and may warrant for a grade separator or interchange at the intersection.

  19. Studies of the analytical and preparatory separation of the lanthanide series by means of high-pressure-liquid-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weuster, W.

    1980-01-01

    With the Elution-system di-iso-propylether/tetrahydrofurane/di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate/nitric acid all lanthanide series elements can be separated. To optimize the separation, these reactions are studied as a function of sorbent, composition, velocity and temperature of eluting agents. The rare earth elements are detected by observation of the extinguishing fluorescence, excited at a wavelength of 240 nm, with a detection limit of 2.5 μg rare earth material per ml of eluate. The method has been used for the determination of rare earth concentrations in minerals and technical products, for chemical separation of rare earths (i.e. Eu/Gd in mg quantities with a 1:10 quantity ratio) and for the separation of rare earth elements from uranium and fission products. In addition the possibility of isotope enrichment has been demonstrated in the case of 144 Sm/ 154 Sm. (DG) [de

  20. Performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models in Predicting Separated Flows: Study of the Hump Flow Model Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2012-01-01

    Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.

  1. The on-line graph processing study on phase separation of two-phase flow in T-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yong; Xu Jijun; Yang Zhilin; Chen Yifen

    1997-01-01

    The on-line graph processing measure system is equipped with and experimental study of phase separation of air-water bubbly flow in the horizontal T-junction is carried out. For the first time, the author have found and defined the new type of complete phase separation, by the visual experiment, which shows that under certain conditions, the air flow entering the T junction will flow into the run outlet completely, which had never been reported in the literature Also, the pressure wave feed back effect and the branch bubble flow reorganization effect were found and analyzed. The complexity of this phase separation phenomenon in the T junction has been further revealed via the on-line graph processing technology. Meanwhile the influences of the inlet mass flow rate W1, the inlet mass quality X1, and the mass extraction rate G3/G1 on phase separation were analyzed

  2. Life cycle assessment of a household solid waste source separation programme: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The environmental impact of an extended property close source-separation system for solid household waste (i.e., a systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties) is investigated in a residential area in southern Sweden. Since 2001, households have been able to source-separate waste into six fractions of dry recyclables and food waste sorting. The current system was evaluated using the EASEWASTE life cycle assessment tool. Current status is compared with an ideal scenario in which households display perfect source-separation behaviour and a scenario without any material recycling. Results show that current recycling provides substantial environmental benefits compared to a non-recycling alternative. The environmental benefit varies greatly between recyclable fractions, and the recyclables currently most frequently source-separated by households are often not the most beneficial from an environmental perspective. With optimal source-separation of all recyclables, the current net contribution to global warming could be changed to a net-avoidance while current avoidance of nutrient enrichment, acidification and photochemical ozone formation could be doubled. Sensitivity analyses show that the type of energy substituted by incineration of non-recycled waste, as well as energy used in recycling processes and in the production of materials substituted by waste recycling, is of high relevance for the attained results.

  3. Adsorption and separation of n/iso-pentane on zeolites: A GCMC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui; Qin, Hansong; Wang, Yajun; Liu, Yibin; Yang, Chaohe; Shan, Honghong

    2018-03-01

    Separation of branched chain hydrocarbons and straight chain hydrocarbons is very important in the isomerization process. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the adsorption and separation of iso-pentane and n-pentane in four types of zeolites: MWW, BOG, MFI, and LTA. The computation of the pure components indicates that the adsorption capacity is affected by physical properties of zeolite, like pore size and structures, and isosteric heat. In BOG, MFI and LTA, the amount of adsorption of n-pentane is higher than iso-pentane, while the phenomenon is contrary in MWW. For a given zeolite, a stronger adsorption heat corresponds to a higher loading. In the binary mixture simulations, the separation capacity of n-and iso-pentane increases with the elevated pressure and the increasing iso-pentane composition. The adsorption mechanism and competition process have been examined. Preferential adsorption contributions prevail at low pressure, however, the size effect becomes important with the increasing pressure, and the relatively smaller n-pentane gradually competes successfully in binary adsorption. Among these zeolites, MFI has the best separation performance due to its high shape selectivity. This work helps to better understand the adsorption and separation performance of n- and iso-pentane in different zeolites and explain the relationship between zeolite structures and adsorption performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on hydrogen separation membrane for IS process. Membrane preparation with porous α-alumina tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated the preparation technique of hydrogen separation membrane to enhance the decomposition ratio of hydrogen iodide in the thermochemical IS process. Hydrogen separation membranes based on porous α-alumina tubes having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source. In the hydrogen separation membrane, its pore was closed by the deposited silica and then the permeation of gas was affected by the hindrance diffusion. At 600degC, the selectivity ratios (H 2 /N 2 ) were 5.2 and 160 for the membranes based on porous α-alumina tube having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. (author)

  5. Studies on separation of lithium isotopes by solvent extraction: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yaohuan; Yan Jinying; Li Yongkun

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the struture of chelating agent and synergetic agent on the extraction separation of lithium isotopes by Sudan I-neutral ligand synergetic extraction systems were discussed in this paper. In order to obtain higher isotopic effect, the chelating agent must possess weaker acidity (pK a > 11), stronger intramolecular hydrogen bonding and a greater tendency to form a six-membered chelating ring. In the synergetic agent, there must be a functional group possessing strong coordination ability without steric hindrance. The separation effect (α) increased with the increase in the basicity of the coordinating group. The increase of the number of chelating rings in the extractable complex was of benefit to the enhancement of α. Further discussions are also made on the enrichment direction of extraction systems and the prospects of different systems to be used for isotope separation

  6. The study of radiochemical separation methods on gaseous Fission product krypton-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Zhang Shengdong; Yang Lei; Ding Youqian; Sun Hongqing; Ma Peng

    2012-01-01

    Half-life of krypton-88 is 2.84 hours, high fission yields and a relatively large gamma branching ratio is had. The gas is short-lived fission products in burnup measurements. Only New fission products can extract from extraction in gas of fissile irradiation target. But krypton-88 with krypton-85, krypton-87, xenon -135, and xenon-138 is coexisted together, thus radiochemical separation must quickly taken. selected the irradiation time is 1-2 hours and cooling time is best 2 hours for sample preparation, krypton and xenon were separated using activated carbon adsorption, the ratio of krypton and xenon were measured by gamma spectroscopy. Then according to the ratio of krypton-85 and xenon-125 count rate coefficient around separation were calculated yield of krypton and decontamination factor of xenon and the final the yield of krypton-85 is calculated. (authors)

  7. Magnetically separable Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chunhua [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: xiaoling9119@whu.edu.cn [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Chunhua [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Cao, Qihua [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel magnetically-separable Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} photocatalyst was in situ prepared. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs had rough and porous chitosan surface layer embedded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs showed large surface areas and special dimodal pore structure. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs showed superparamagnetism and could be easily magnetic separated. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs exhibited good visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: A novel magnetically-separable visible-light-induced photocatalyst, Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite (Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NC), was prepared via a facile one-step precipitation–reduction process by using magnetic chitosan chelating copper ions as precursor. The structure and properties of Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, BET, VSM, XPS and UV–vis/DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs was evaluated by decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) under visible light irradiation. The characterization results indicated that Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs exhibited relatively large specific surface areas and special dimodal pore structure because Cu{sub 2}O was wrapped in chitosan matrix embedded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The tight combination of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and semiconductor Cu{sub 2}O through chitosan made the nanocomposites show good superparamagnetism and photocatalytic activity. It was found that X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. The decolorization of X-3B was ascribed to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and adsorption. Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs could be easily separated from the solution by an external magnet, and the decolorization rates of X-3B

  8. Evaluation and Characterization of Membranes for HI/H2O/I2 Water Separation for the S-I Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick F. Stewart

    2005-09-01

    In the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle, iodine is added to the product of the Bunsen reaction to facilitate the separation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from hydriodic acid (HI). The amount of iodine can be as high as 83% of the overall mass load of the Bunsen product stream, which potentially introduces a large burden on the cycle’s efficiency. Removal of water from the HI and I2 mixture would substantially reduce the amount of required additional iodine. In this work, Nafion® membranes have been studied for their use as de-watering membranes. Specifically, two thicknesses of Nafion membranes have been found to be effective in this application. The thicker membrane, Nafion-117®, produces moderate fluxes of water with very high separation factors. On the other hand, the thinner membrane, Nafion-112®, yielded very large fluxes of water, however with smaller separation factors. All membranes were found to be durable and did not degrade in contact with the feed stream over periods of time up to three months.

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction and separation studies of uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langade, A.D.; Shinde, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separation of uranium(VI) from iron(III), molybdenum(VI), vanadium(V), bismuth(III), zirconium(IV) and thorium(IV) is achieved by liquid-liquid extraction with 4-methyl-3-pentene-2-one (mesityl oxide; MeO) from sodium salicylate media (0.1M, pH 6.0). The extracted species is UO 2 (HO.C 6 H 4 COO) 2 .2MeO. A procedure for separating 50 μg of uranium from mg amounts of the other metals is described. (author)

  10. Study of mechanism of hydrogen diffusion in separation devices. Progress report for 1980-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion in separation devices e.g. transition-metal membranes, we have developed a microscopic dynamic model appropriate for describing the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of hydrogen-in-a-metal. Using this model we have carried out a detailed analysis to obtain the autocorrelation function of density fluctuations in the model. Our model is built on the physical idea that, at low temperatures, spin clusters are the basic units or aggregates of transport. Our work can explain the reversed isotope effect in diffusion. We have also obtained an expression for the relative diffusivity, verifiable by experiments with tritium in metals. Our notion of spin clusters is novel. There is some evidence of their existence. The interstitial spin clusters are comparable to atomic and nuclear spin clusters, the only other natural spin clusters. Our demonstration of a long-time tail in the autocorrelation function is also novel. Diffusion can be anomalous if long time tails exist, a current topic in nonlinear behavior of fluids and solids. Our progress has been made possible by our development in the mathematical method of solving the generalized Langevin equation. This method is applicable to any time-dependent quantum many-body model. The underlying basis of this method is our discovery of a new orthogonalization process in Hilbert space, first since Gram and Schmidt over 100 years ago. Our process is simpler if Hilbert space is realized as is for all physical problems. To demonstrate the power and utility of our method we considered a well established model of metals, thereby discovering the existence of a low-frequency electronic mobility. This kind of intrinsic conductivity should exist in ensembles of all light particles, hence also relevant to hydrogen and its isotopes in metals

  11. Study of the separation of metallic compounds by means of an anion exchanger resin and of complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis de Trobriand, Anne

    1971-01-01

    In order to define better separation conditions of molybdenum and aluminium from uranium alloys, this research thesis first reports the study of the fixation of each of these elements on a Dowex resin in a carbonate medium. Results obtained by other studies in a hydrogen carbonate medium has leaded to the use of mixing of CO 3 2- and HCO 3 - . In a last part, the author reports the analysis of two samples (uranium-molybdenum and uranium-aluminium): after an attack of these alloys in a melt carbonate medium, components are separated by elution in one of the studied media

  12. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  13. Separation from family and its impact on the mental health of Sudanese refugees in Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Moore, Vivienne

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the impact of separation from family members on the mental health and wellbeing of Sudanese refugees in Australia, and the coping strategies used. In-depth interviews were conducted with Sudanese community representatives and health workers, primary and mental health care practitioners, health service managers and policy makers. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Separation was perceived as having a negative impact on the mental health of Sudanese refugees in Australia, and manifested in concern about the safety of relatives abroad and in changing roles. The pressure to send money home emerged as a high priority for Sudanese refugees, often superseding local concerns. Several strategies were used to bridge the separation gap, including maintaining contact through the use of information communication technologies, and family-reunification. Separation from family can be an ongoing source of stress and sadness among refugees in countries such as Australia. While resettling refugees are actively taking steps to cope with the impact of separation, awareness of the issue in mainstream services appears to be low. Separation from family continues to affect refugees' lives in countries of resettlement. While it may be difficult to alter the course of the monumental circumstances that cause forced migration, service providers can support refugees' coping abilities by understanding these global-local intersections. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of bio silica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... Cynodon dactylon; green approach; silica nanoparticles; characterization; antimicrobial studies. 1. .... The obtained powder was well-ground with a mortar and ..... Inhalation of SiCl4 fumes irritates nose, throat and lungs.

  15. Interference effects from coexisting fatty acids on elaidic acid separation by fractionating crystallization: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Bjerring, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage temperature-programmed fractionating crystallization process was carried out to examine the effects of the presence of stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA) on the separation of elaidic acid (EA). The results showed that the efficiency of fractionating...

  16. Plastic tube hadron calorimeter: study of operation properties and particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopdzhanov, G.A.; Belousov, V.I.; Blik, A.M.; Romanovski, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The DELPHI hadron calorimeter prototype plastic tubes were tested to show a long-term stability of the prototype operating with the gas mixture carbon dioxide isobutane. The operating properties of the prototype are investigated and presented as well as the results on particles separation. 5 refs.; 11 figs.; 9 tabs

  17. Theoretical studies on membrane-based gas separation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.R.; Marjani, A.; Davallo, M.; Moradi, S.; Shirazian, S.

    2011-01-01

    A 2D mass transfer model was developed to study carbon dioxide removal by absorption in membrane contactors. The model predicts the steady state absorbent and carbon dioxide concentrations in the membrane by solving the conservation equations. The continuity equations for three sub domains of the membrane contactor involving the tube; membrane and shell were obtained and solved by finite element method (FEM). The model was based on 'non-wetted mode' in which the gas phase filled the membrane pores. Laminar parabolic velocity profile was used for the liquid flow in the tube side; whereas, the gas flow in the shell side was characterized by Happel's free surface model. Axial and radial diffusion transport inside the shell, through the membrane, and within the tube side of the contactor was considered in the mass transfer model. The predictions of percent CO/sub 2/ removal obtained by modeling were compared with the experimental values obtained from literature. They were the experimental results for CO/sub 2/ removal from CO/sub 2//N/sub 2/ gas mixture with amines aqueous solutions as the liquid solvent using polypropylene membrane contactor. The modeling predictions were in good agreement with the experimental values for different values of gas and liquid flow rates. (author)

  18. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  19. Exposure to parental separation in childhood and later parenting quality as an adult: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Myron D; John Horwood, L; Fergusson, David M; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that exposure to parental separation/divorce during childhood can be associated with long-term consequences into adulthood. This study sought to extend this literature by examining associations between childhood exposure to parental separation/divorce and later parenting behavior as an adult in a New Zealand birth cohort. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Information about exposure to parental separation and divorce was gathered annually from birth to 15 years. At the 30-year follow-up, all cohort members who had become parents (biological or nonbiological) were assessed on several parenting dimensions (sensitivity, warmth, overreactivity, inconsistency, quality of child management, and physical punishment). The analyses showed that exposure to more frequent parental separation in childhood and adolescence was associated with lower levels of parental sensitivity and warmth, greater overreactivity, and an increased use of physical punishment as a parent, after controlling for a wide range of family socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and individual child characteristics. The findings suggest that as exposure to parental separation increases, so does the likelihood of experiencing multiple developmental challenges in childhood and adolescence. As an adult, these life-course experiences can have small but significant associations with the quality of parenting behavior. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  1. An extensive characterization study of different Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study between sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and DNA hybridization was performed on 25 chosen different strains of B. ... The crystal proteins were quantified and then separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis (SDS-PAGE).

  2. ["Nervous breakdown": a diagnostic characterization study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmán, E; Carrasco, J L; Liebowitz, M; Díaz Marsá, M; Prieto, R; Jusino, C; Cárdenas, D; Klein, D

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the influence of different psychiatric co-morbidities on the symptoms of the disorder popularly known as "ataque de nervios" (nervous breakdown) among the US Hispanic population. Using a self-completed instrument designed specially for both traditional nervous breakdown and for panic symptoms, and structured or semi-structured psychiatric interviews for Axis I disorders, and evaluation was made of Hispanic subjects who sought treatment for anxiety in a clinic (n = 156). This study centered on 102 subjects who presented symptoms of "nervous breakdown" and comorbidity with panic disorder, other anxiety disorders, or affective disorder. Variations in co-morbidity with "nervous breakdown" enabled the identification of different patterns of "nervous breakdown" presenting symptoms. Individuals with "nervous breakdown" and panic disorder characteristically expressed a greater sense of asphyxiation, fear of dying, and growing fear (panic-like) during their breakdowns. Subjects with "nervous breakdown" and affective disorder had a greater sensation of anger and more tendency toward screaming and aggressive behavior such as breaking things during the breakdown (emotional anger). Finally, subjects with "nervous breakdown" and co-morbidity with another anxiety disorder had fewer "paniclike" or "emotional anger" symptoms. These findings suggest that: a) the widely used term "nervous breakdown" is a popular label for different patterns of loss of emotional control; b) the type of loss of emotional control is influenced by the associated psychiatric disorder; and c) the symptoms characteristics of the "nervous breakdown" can be useful clinical markers for associated psychiatric disorders. Future research is needed to determine whether the known Hispanic entity "ataque de nervios" is simply a popular description for different aspects of well-known psychiatric disorders, or if it reflects specific demographic, environmental, personality and/or clinical

  3. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  4. Magnetically separable CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composite photocatalysts: Preparation, characterization, photocatalytic activity and photocatalytic mechanism under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yalei; Lin, Cuiping; Bi, Huijie; Liu, Yonggang; Yan, Qishe, E-mail: Qisheyanzzu@163.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method. • Visible-light response and high photocatalytic performance. • Excellent magnetic properties. • Different reactive species had different effects on degradation different pollutants. - Abstract: The CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites with different CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} contents were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method, respectively. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis DRS). Their magnetic properties, photocatalytic degradation activities on methyl orange (MO) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) solution and photocatalytic mechanism were investigated in detail. The results revealed that the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AgBr composites exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the matched band structure of two components and more effective charge transportation and separations. In addition, the quenching investigation of different scavengers demonstrated that h{sup +}, ·OH, ·O{sub 2}{sup −} reactive species played different roles in the decolorization of MO and degradation of TC.

  5. Development and Characterization of Defect-Free Matrimid® Mixed-Matrix Membranes Containing Activated Carbon Particles for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fynn Weigelt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs for gas separation in the form of thick films were prepared via the combination of the polymer Matrimid® 5218 and activated carbons (AC. The AC particles had a mean particle size of 1.5 μm and a mean pore diameter of 1.9 nm. The films were prepared by slow solvent evaporation from casting solutions in chloroform, which had a varying polymer–AC ratio. It was possible to produce stable films with up to a content of 50 vol % of AC. Thorough characterization experiments were accomplished via differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the morphology of the MMMs was also investigated via scanning electron microscopy. The gas transport properties were revealed by employing time-lag measurements for different pure gases as well as sorption balance experiments for the filler particles. It was found that defect free Matrimid® MMMs with AC were prepared and the increase of the filler content led to a higher effective permeability for different gases. The single gas selectivity αij of different gas pairs maintained stable values with the increase of AC content, regardless of the steep increase in the effective permeability of the pure gases. Estimation of the solubilities and the diffusivities of the Matrimid®, AC, and MMMs allowed for the explanation of the increasing permeabilities of the MMMs, with the increase of AC content by modelling.

  6. Computational Studies of CO 2 Sorption and Separation in an Ultramicroporous Metal–Organic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.

    2013-08-29

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of CO2 sorption and separation were performed in [Zn(pyz)2SiF6], a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of a square grid of Zn2+ ions coordinated to pyrazine (pyz) linkers and pillars of SiF6 2- ions. This MOM was recently shown to have an unprecedented selectivity for CO2 over N2, CH4, and H 2 under industrially relevant conditions. The simulated CO 2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the experimental data for all the state points considered. CO2 saturation in [Zn(pyz) 2SiF6] was achieved at near-ambient temperatures and pressures lower than 1.0 atm. Moreover, the sorbed CO2 molecules were representative of a liquid/fluid under such conditions as confirmed through calculating the isothermal compressibility, βT, values. The simulated CO2 uptakes within CO2/N2 (10:90), CO2/CH4 (50:50), and CO2/H2 (30:70) mixture compositions, characteristic of flue gas, biogas, and syngas, respectively, were comparable to those that were produced in the single-component CO2 sorption simulations. The modeled structure at saturation revealed a loading of 1 CO2 molecule per unit cell. The favored CO2 sorption site was identified as the attraction of the carbon atoms of CO2 molecules to four equatorial fluorine atoms of SiF6 2- anions simultaneously, resulting in CO2 molecules localized at the center of the channel. Furthermore, experimental studies have shown that [Zn(pyz)2SiF6] sorbed minimal amounts of CO2 and N2 at their respective liquid temperatures. Analysis of the crystal structure at 100 K revealed that the unit cell undergoes a slight contraction in all dimensions and contains pyrazine rings that are mildly slanted with an angle of 13.9. Additionally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed that the sorbate molecules are anchored to the framework at low temperatures, which inhibits diffusion. Thus, it is hypothesized that the sorbed molecules

  7. Radiochemical studies in chemical separation and spectrographic determination of rare earths in thorium oxide matrix (Preprint No. RA.06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeshwari, B.; Bangia, T.R.; Sastry, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A chemical separation procedure was standardised for the separation of traces of rare earths from ThO 2 matrix using HDEHP (Di 2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The studies were carried out using both nitric acid and hydrochloric acid medium in different concentrations. The extraction studies were also carried out using radioactive isotopes of rare earths viz. 141 Ce, 152-154 Eu, 153 Gd, 170 Tm etc. The extraction was effective in both media. In 0.1 M HDEHP/xylene and 3 M HNO 3 , Ce was partially extracted into organic phase. So HCl/xylene medium was chosen for extraction purposes. The recovery was confirmed by both gamma counting and emission spectropgraphic method. It was found to be quantitative within experimental error. The separation procedure development here was used for determination of rare earths in thorium oxide matrix by emission spectrographic method. (author)

  8. Studies on rapid ion-exchange separation of the transplutonium elements with mineral acid-methanol mixed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1989-03-01

    In order to study properties of short-lived transplutonium nuclides synthesized by heavy-ion bombardment, three methods for rapid separation of tri-valent transplutonium elements by ion-exchange chromatography with mineral acid-methanol mixed media at elevated temperature were investigated. The first separation method was anion-exchange chromatography with nitric acid-methanol mixed media. The second method was anion-exchange choromatography with dilute hydrochloric acid-methanol mixed media. The third method was improved cation-exchange chromatography with single-column operation using the mixed media of hydrochloric acid and methanol. The separation methods developed were found applicable to studies on synthesis of the trans-plutonium nuclides, 250 Fm (T 1/2 :30 min), 244,245,246 Cf (T 1/2 :20 min, 46 min and 35.7 h, respectively) from the 16 O + 238 U and 12 C + 242 Pu reactions, and on the decay property of 245 Cf. Attempts to search for new actinide nuclides, such as 240 U and neutron deficient nuclides of Am, Cm and Bk, were made by a quick purification. The separation system was also applied to the rapid and effective separation of Nd, Am and Cm from spent nuclear fuel samples, for burn-up determination. (J.P.N.) 242 refs

  9. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  10. Basic studies of a gas-jet-coupled ion source for on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Novick, V.J.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A hollow-cathode ion source was used in a gas-jet-coupled configuration to produce ion beams of fission products transported to it from a 252 Cf fission source. Solid aerosols of NaCl and Ag were used effectively as activity carriers in the gas-jet system. Flat-plate skimmers provided an effective coupling of the ion source to the gas jet. Ge(Li) spectrometric measurements of the activity deposited on an ion-beam collector relative to that deposited on a pre-skimmer collector were used to obtain separation efficiencies ranging from 0.1% to > 1% for Sr, Y, Tc, Te, Cs, Ba, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. The use of CCl 4 as a support gas resulted in a significant enhancement of the alkaline-earth and rare-earth separation efficiencies

  11. Study of the short-lived fission products. Separation of iodine and xenon fission radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Villar, M. A.

    1965-01-01

    The separation by distillation in a sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid-hydrogen peroxide medium of the iodine isotopes (8 day iodine-131, 2,3 hour iodine-132 21 hour iodine-133, 53 minute iodine-134 and 6,7 hour iodine-135) present in a uranium sample after different irradiation and cooling times is here described. It is also reported the use of active charcoal columns for the retention of xenon isotopes (5,27 days xenon-133 and 9,2 hours xenon-135) either released during the dissolution of the uranium irradiated samples or generated along the fission isobaric chains in the solutions of distillated iodine. In both cases the radiochemical purity of the separated products is established by gamma spectrometry. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Subsurface migration of petroleum hydrocarbons: A case study of immiscible migration and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The subsurface distribution of a leaked crude oil illustrates the combined influence of both the chemical and physical properties of soil and free product on the migration of petroleum hydrocarbons. Immiscible phase behavior was observed, as well as chromatographic-like separation of the lighter constituents of the crude oil from the heavier constituents. After downward migration through approximately 50 ft of unsaturated, heterogeneous alluvial sediments, the crude oil formed a horizontal plume on top of a perched, saturated zone. Immiscible phase trapping is evident from the occurrence of very high concentration of hydrocarbons in both the vertical and horizontal plumes. Samples taken from the vertical zone of contamination indicate a transition from heavier hydrocarbons near the surface to lighter hydrocarbons at depth. This phenomenon is attributed to chromatographic-like separation of the heavier hydrocarbons by the soil, possibly due to preferential solubility of the lighter hydrocarbons in percolating ran water

  13. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  14. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  15. Information derived from French studies and achievements in the field of uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C; Galley, R.

    1964-01-01

    The work carried out in the field of uranium isotope separation, by gaseous diffusion and by ultracentrifugation, is reviewed. An economic estimate of the various parameters involved in the cost is given, and it is shown that only very large gaseous diffusion plants, corresponding to a programme of enriched uranium reactors of at least 4000 MWe to be installed yearly, can give an economically acceptable enriched uranium production. (authors) [fr

  16. Column study on electrochemical separation of cesium ions from wastewater using copper hexacyanoferrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongzhi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Asai, Miyuki; Fukushima, Chikako; Kawamoto, Tohru; Kurihara, Masato; Ishizaki, Manabu; Arisaka, Makoto; Nankawa, Takuya; Watanabe, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We coated the copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) on the gold electrodes, and then performed the Cs removal by electrochemical separation (ES). The prepared CuHCF nanoparticles can be simply and uniformly coated on electrodes by wet process like conventional printing methods, so any sizes or patterns are feasible at low cost, which indicated the potential as a promising sorption electrode of large size in the columns for sequential removal and recycle of Cs from wastewater. (author)

  17. Numerical Study Of Flue Gas Flow In A Multi Cyclone Separator

    OpenAIRE

    Ganga Reddy C; Umesh Kuppuraj

    2015-01-01

    The removal of harmful particulate matter from power plant flue gas is of critical importance to the environment and its inhabitants. The present work illustrates the use of multi-cyclone separators to remove the particulate matter from the bulk of the gas exhausted to the atmosphere. The method has potential to replace conventional systems like electrostatic precipitator due to inherent low power requirement and low maintenance. A parametric model may be employed to design the sy...

  18. Droplet activation, separation, and compositional analysis: laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Kohn, M.; Pekour, M. S.; Nelson, D. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2011-10-01

    Droplets produced in a cloud condensation nuclei chamber (CCNC) as a function of supersaturation have been separated from unactivated aerosol particles using counterflow virtual impaction. Residual material after droplets were evaporated was chemically analyzed with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Experiments were initially conducted to verify activation conditions for monodisperse ammonium sulfate particles and to determine the resulting droplet size distribution as a function of supersaturation. Based on the observed droplet size, the counterflow virtual impactor cut-size was set to differentiate droplets from unactivated interstitial particles. Validation experiments were then performed to verify that only droplets with sufficient size passed through the counterflow virtual impactor for subsequent analysis. A two-component external mixture of monodisperse particles was also exposed to a supersaturation which would activate one of the types (hygroscopic salts) but not the other (polystyrene latex spheres or adipic acid). The mass spectrum observed after separation indicated only the former, validating separation of droplets from unactivated particles. Results from ambient measurements using this technique and AMS analysis were inconclusive, showing little chemical differentiation between ambient aerosol and activated droplet residuals, largely due to low signal levels. When employing as single particle mass spectrometer for compositional analysis, however, we observed enhancement of sulfate in droplet residuals.

  19. Integral equation theory study on the phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Yi-Gui; Zhong, Chongli

    2007-10-21

    The polymer reference interaction site model theory is used to investigate phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts. Two kinds of spinodal curves were obtained: classic fluid phase boundary for relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength and network phase boundary for relatively high nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The network phase boundaries are much more sensitive with nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength than the fluid phase boundaries. The interference among the arm number, arm length, and nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength was systematically investigated. When the arm lengths are short, the network phase boundary shows a marked shift toward less miscibility with increasing arm number. When the arm lengths are long enough, the network phase boundaries show opposite trends. There exists a crossover arm number value for star polymer nanocomposite melts, below which the network phase separation is consistent with that of chain polymer nanocomposite melts. However, the network phase separation shows qualitatively different behaviors when the arm number is larger than this value.

  20. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Experimental Studies of Flow Separation of the NACA 2412 Airfoil at Low Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on an NACA 2412 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 12.4 degrees, 14.4 degrees, and 16.4 degrees. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two layer angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.

  2. An investigation of problematic solids in oil sands processing : separation and characterization of organic matter strongly bound to oil sands solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, T.; Woods, J.R.; Kung, J.; Fu, D.; Kingston, D.; Kotlyar, L.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology; Sparks, B.D. [V. Bede Technical Associates, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Some of the solid fractions in Athabasca oilsands are associated with strongly bound organic matter that is insoluble in toluene, a solvent commonly used to extract bitumen. The presence of toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM) increases oil wettability of solids which may adversely affect the release of bitumen from the oilsands. Some of the solid material from the coking operation may be carried over to downstream operations where it can cause fouling. This study used supercritical fluid extraction with methanol to remove TIOM from oilsands after extraction of bitumen by toluene. The methanol extract (ME) is soluble in toluene and was analyzed. Results were compared with corresponding bitumen fractions prepared using a modified HPLC SARA separation technique. Number average molecular weights for the ME were similar to those for resins separated from bitumen. The study also showed that the number of alkyl substituents on aromatic ring systems and the lengths of paraffinic straight chains for resins and ME samples were similar, with only minor differences in terms of H/C atomic ratios and aromaticities. The ME was more polar than the resin and asphaltene fractions, which may explain the selective adsorption of this fraction. tabs., figs.

  3. The study on the magnetic filter using the rotation of permanent magnets for separation of radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.C.; Lee, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the insoluble radioactive corrosion products have the characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetism. Along with the new development and production of permanent magnets which generate much stronger magnetic field than conventional permanent magnets, new type of magnetic filter that can separate radioactive corrosion products efficiently and eventually reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel at a nuclear power plant is suggested. This new type of separator with novel geometry consists of an inner and an outer magnet assembly, a coolant channel and a container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The particulates are separated from the coolant by the alternating magnetic fields that are generated by shift arrangement of permanent magnets. This study describes of experimental results performed with the different flow rates, rotation velocities of magnet assemblies, particle size and various materials. The efficiency of magnetic filter tends to increase as the flow rate is lower, and particle size is bigger. The rotating velocity of magnet assembly has also some influences on the separation efficiency. This new magnetic filter shows good performance results in filtering magnetite, cobalt ferrite and nickel ferrite except hematite, which is a kind of anti-ferromagnetic material, from aqueous coolant simulation. At the above 5 μm of particle size, the separation efficiencies are over than 90%. (author)

  4. Attachment Anxiety, Verbal Immediacy, and Blood Pressure: Results from a Laboratory-Analogue Study Following Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lauren A.; Sbarra, David A.; Mason, Ashley E.; Law, Rita W.

    2011-01-01

    Marital separation and divorce increase risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality. Using a laboratory analogue paradigm, the present study examined attachment anxiety, language use, and blood pressure (BP) reactivity among 119 (n = 43 men, 76 women) recently separated adults who were asked to mentally reflect on their relationship history and separation experience. We created a language use composite of verbal immediacy from participants’ stream-of-consciousness recordings about their separation experience as a behavioral index of attachment-related hyperactivation. Verbal immediacy moderated the association between attachment anxiety and BP at the beginning of a divorce-specific activation task. Participants reporting high attachment anxiety who discussed their separation in a first-person, present-oriented and highly engaged manner evidenced the highest levels of BP at the start of the divorce-specific task. Results provide a deeper understanding of the association between marital dissolution and health and suggest that verbal immediacy may be a useful behavioral index of hyperactivating coping strategies. PMID:21647240

  5. Attachment Anxiety, Verbal Immediacy, and Blood Pressure: Results from a Laboratory-Analogue Study Following Marital Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lauren A; Sbarra, David A; Mason, Ashley E; Law, Rita W

    2011-06-01

    Marital separation and divorce increase risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality. Using a laboratory analogue paradigm, the present study examined attachment anxiety, language use, and blood pressure (BP) reactivity among 119 (n = 43 men, 76 women) recently separated adults who were asked to mentally reflect on their relationship history and separation experience. We created a language use composite of verbal immediacy from participants' stream-of-consciousness recordings about their separation experience as a behavioral index of attachment-related hyperactivation. Verbal immediacy moderated the association between attachment anxiety and BP at the beginning of a divorce-specific activation task. Participants reporting high attachment anxiety who discussed their separation in a first-person, present-oriented and highly engaged manner evidenced the highest levels of BP at the start of the divorce-specific task. Results provide a deeper understanding of the association between marital dissolution and health and suggest that verbal immediacy may be a useful behavioral index of hyperactivating coping strategies.

  6. Study of an automatic dosing of neptunium in the industrial process of separation neptunium 237-plutonium 238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, Pierre

    1973-01-01

    The objective is to study and to adapt a method of automatic dosing of neptunium to the industrial process of separation and purification of plutonium 238, while taking the information quality and economic aspects into account. After a recall of some generalities on the production of plutonium 238, and the process of separation plutonium-neptunium, the author addresses the dosing of neptunium. The adopted measurement technique is spectrophotometry (of neptunium, of neptunium peroxide) which is the most flexible and economic to adapt to automatic control. The author proposes a project of chemical automatic machine, and discusses the complex (stoichiometry, form) and some aspects of neptunium dosing (redox reactions, process control) [fr

  7. A multilevel reuse system with source separation process for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Jin, Xin; Wang, Ziyuan; Gu, Wantao; Wei, Zhechao; Huang, Yuanjie; Qiu, Zhuang; Jin, Pengkang

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new system of multilevel reuse with source separation in printing and dyeing wastewater (PDWW) treatment in order to dramatically improve the water reuse rate to 35%. By analysing the characteristics of the sources and concentrations of pollutants produced in different printing and dyeing processes, special, highly, and less contaminated wastewaters (SCW, HCW, and LCW, respectively) were collected and treated separately. Specially, a large quantity of LCW was sequentially reused at multiple levels to meet the water quality requirements for different production processes. Based on this concept, a multilevel reuse system with a source separation process was established in a typical printing and dyeing enterprise. The water reuse rate increased dramatically to 62%, and the reclaimed water was reused in different printing and dyeing processes based on the water quality. This study provides promising leads in water management for wastewater reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Renormalization-group study of superfluidity and phase separation of helium mixtures immersed in a disordered porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatnikova, A.; Berker, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Superfluidity and phase separation in 3 He- 4 He mixtures immersed in aerogel are studied by renormalization-group theory. The quenched disorder imposed by aerogel, both at the atomic level and at the geometric level, is included. The calculation is conducted via the coupled renormalization-group mappings, near and away from aerogel, of the quenched probability distributions of random interactions. Random-bond effects on the onset of superfluidity and random-field effects on superfluid-superfluid phase separation are seen. The quenched randomness causes the λ line of second-order phase transitions of superfluidity onset to reach zero temperature, in agreement with general predictions and experiments. The effects of the atomic and geometric randomness of aerogel are investigated separately and jointly. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Physico-Chemical Study of the Separation of Calcium Isotopes by Chemical Exchange Between Amalgam and Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duie, P.; Dirian, G.

    1962-01-01

    In a preliminary study of the isotopic exchange between Ca amalgam and aqueous or organic solutions of Ca salts, the main parameters governing the feasibility of a separation process based on these systems such as separation factor, exchange kinetics, rate of decomposition of the amalgam were investigated. The separation factor between 40 Ca and 46 Ca was found to be of the order of 1.02. The rate of the exchange reaction is rather low for aqueous solutions, extremely low for organic solutions. The amalgam seems not to be attacked by dimethyl-formamide solutions; but it is rapidly decomposed by aqueous solutions of Ca halides. This decomposition is slow in the case of aqueous solutions of calcium formate and still slower for Ca(OH) 2 ; however, except in particular conditions, the observed rate is often much higher, owing to interfering reactions between amalgam and water vapor contained in H 2 bubbles. (authors) [fr

  10. Synthesis of Actinide Materials for the Study of Basic Actinide Science and Rapid Separation of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorhout, Jacquelyn Marie [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-11-28

    This dissertation covers several distinct projects relating to the fields of nuclear forensics and basic actinide science. Post-detonation nuclear forensics, in particular, the study of fission products resulting from a nuclear device to determine device attributes and information, often depends on the comparison of fission products to a library of known ratios. The expansion of this library is imperative as technology advances. Rapid separation of fission products from a target material, without the need to dissolve the target, is an important technique to develop to improve the library and provide a means to develop samples and standards for testing separations. Several materials were studied as a proof-of-concept that fission products can be extracted from a solid target, including microparticulate (< 10 μm diameter) dUO2, porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesized from depleted uranium (dU), and other organicbased frameworks containing dU. The targets were irradiated with fast neutrons from one of two different neutron sources, contacted with dilute acids to facilitate the separation of fission products, and analyzed via gamma spectroscopy for separation yields. The results indicate that smaller particle sizes of dUO2 in contact with the secondary matrix KBr yield higher separation yields than particles without a secondary matrix. It was also discovered that using 0.1 M HNO3 as a contact acid leads to the dissolution of the target material. Lower concentrations of acid were used for future experiments. In the case of the MOFs, a larger pore size in the framework leads to higher separation yields when contacted with 0.01 M HNO3. Different types of frameworks also yield different results.

  11. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  12. Report of the Energy Research Advisory Board study group on advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Panel reviewed Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) technology and Advanced Gas Centrifuge (AGC) programs in the context of potential needs and costs for uranium enrichment. The benefit of a successful AIS or AGC program would be a substantial reduction in enrichment costs below those of current centrifuge plants or below the power cost alone for gaseous diffusion plants. This report attempts to provide firm guidance for the next 2 to 3 years, at which time a further evaluation should guide decisions in regard to enrichment supply and development choices. On the basis of our perception of the long-term economic benefits of a successful AIS development, we support the continued pursuit of this option. In the interim, major requirements for enrichment must be satisfied. We assume that DOE will develop a firm funding plan for gaseous diffusion operations and power contracting to assure that the necessary supply of power will be available to meet the separative work commitments of the US enrichment enterprise. We recommend that the AIS program office further identify the key technical uncertainties of the various programs, thereby establishing the basis for near-term R and D leading to a decision whether and when to proceed with full-scale development. We believe that a stronger atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) program would result from a consolidation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Jersey Nuclear Avco Isotopes (JNAI) teams, leading to a more competitive AVLIS process. Hence, we recommend that DOE attempt to negotiate with JNAI to form a single, integrated, government-funded AVLIS program with appropriate elements of LLNL, JNAI and UCC-ND. We further recommend that JNAI be designated as lead laboratory in this program. We recommend that the DOE: continue with the first 2.2 million SWU increment of the gas centrifuge program, and continue the Advanced Gas Centrifuge development program, with high priority

  13. [Clinical study of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion for senile osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuqing; Bi, Dingyan; Yi, Zhan; Lu, Jianwei; Zhong, Fuhua; Jiang, Binfeng

    2017-05-12

    To explore the clinical efficacy and partial mechanism of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion for senile osteoporosis. Sixty cases of senile osteoporosis were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group according to the random digits table, 30 cases in each one. The two groups were both treated with basic treatment of western medicine. The acupoints included four groups:① Dazhui (GV 14), Dazhu (BL 11) and Ganshu (BL 18); ② Zhongwan (CV 12), Danzhong (CV 17) and Zusanli (ST 36); ③ Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Mingmen (GV 4); ④ Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4). Each group of acupoints was selected for one treatment. The observation group was treated with medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion, and the medicinal cake was consisted of fructus psoraleae (30 g), prepared rehmannia root (30 g), atractylodes (30 g), codonopsis pilosula (30 g), epimedium herb (20 g), rhizoma curculiginis (20 g), syzygium aromaticum (5 g) and cinnamon (5 g). The control group was treated with wheat-flour-cake moxibustion. Each acupoint was treated with 5 moxa cones in the two groups. The treatment was given once every other day for six months. The symptom score, lumbar and hip bone mineral density (BMD), serum type Ⅰ procollagen amino-terminal propeptide (PINP) and serum β-type Ⅰ collagen carboxy-terminal peptide (β-CTX) were observed before and after treatment. After treatment, the symptom score and serum β-CTX were significantly lowered (all P cake-separated moxibustion has significant efficacy for senile osteoporosis, which is superior to wheat-cake-se-parated moxibustion.

  14. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  16. Studies of separation and purification of fungi for uranium-leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongdong; Li Guangyue; Shi Wenge; Hu Nan; Pan Wenjun; Zhou Zhixiang; Deng Qinwen; Ding Dexin

    2010-01-01

    To obtain purified fungi for uranium-leaching, fungi in uranium ores were separated using Dox(-), SDA, PDA and Dox(+) medium, then spores were picked from the plates for fungi purification. Four strains of fungi were acquired and one of them is aspergillus niger,others are Penicillium. The results demonstrate that a large number of fungi species exist in uranium ores, and some of them have the ability of producing organic acid, in addition,they have high growing velocity with the potential of being applied to uranium leaching. (authors)

  17. Study on steam separation in steam generators of a NPP with the WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, A.I.; Kolzov, Yu.V.; Titov, V.F.; Dubrovin, A.V.; Ilyushin, V.F.; Volkov, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    The separation characteristics as well as the actual level position in steam generators with and without a submerged holy sheet have been determined at a WWER-440 reactor nuclear power plant. It has been shown, that without changing the design of steam generators their load at the WWER-440 reactor nuclear power plant can be increased by about 10%. In this case the vapour humidity does not exceed the permissible value equal to 0.25%. The submerged holy sheet considerably decreases load irregularity and swelling of the water-steam mixture layer

  18. Structural characterization of hydrogen separating membranes based on lanthanide-tungstates; Strukturelle Charakterisierung von Wasserstoff trennenden Gasseparationsmembranen auf Lanthanoid-Wolframat-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherb, Tobias

    2011-08-26

    The global energy supply is currently the most controversial issue discussed in our society. Despite the increasing importance of renewable energies, the largest portion of electrical energy has its origin in fossil fuels. CO{sub 2}, emitted during combustion in power plants is known to be one of the greenhouse gases that contributes significantly to global climate change. The development of technologies for environmentally friendly power generation from coal and gas is an area of significant interest. One possibility is the capture and long-term storage of CO{sub 2} from the exhaust stream of fossil fuel power plants. In the pre-combustion process, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} can be separated after gasification of the fossil fuel. For this purpose gas-tight ceramic membranes with mixed electronic-protonic conductivity can be used. However, these materials have high requirements due to the extreme conditions in power plants. Mixed electronic-protonic conducting lanthanide tungstates (Ln{sub 6}WO{sub 12} Ln = lanthanide or yttrium) are promising materials, which are stable in CO{sub 2}-containing harsh environments. This work presents a study on structure-property relationships of Ln{sub 6}WO{sub 12}. The structural analysis was performed by the use of neutron and high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods for three exemplary systems (Ln = La, Nd, Y). Samples were prepared via solid state reaction (SSR), and also via a sol-gel approach (Pechini). For the systems LaWO and NdWO, new structural models were developed by combined Rietveld analysis and Fourier density maps. The latter was applied to determine the electron and nuclear density distribution. LaWO with a La/W ratio from 5.3 to 5.7 crystallizes with the space group F-43m and forms a superstructure due to a partially ordered arrangement of cations. On Wyckoff site 48h, up to 4.6 % W can be substituted by La. The oxygen atoms around tungsten are highly delocalized and 6 out of 24 possible split positions are occupied

  19. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  1. Phase separation and magnetic ordering studied by high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, E.N.; Melamud, M.; Pinto, H.; Shaked, H.; Chmaissem, O.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Short, S.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In a previous work on the (U 1-x Nd x )Co 2 Ge 2 system, two magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependencies of the magnetic susceptibility and in the intensity of the magnetic reflections in neutron diffraction [1]. Because of insufficient resolution, it was not clear whether this is due to clustering or phase separation. In both cases the U-rich regions are expected to order magnetically at higher temperature than the U-poor ones, resulting in two magnetic transitions. In order to resolve this question a temperature dependent TOF neutron diffraction of the x = 0.25 compound has been performed on the SEPD at Argonne's IPNS [2]. The temperature dependent diffractograms were refined by the Rietveld method. It was found that the compound separates into two phases: x = 0.4 (55 wt%) and x = 0.1 (45 wt%). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment was obtained for each phase, with the transition temperatures: T N (x=0.4) = 130 K, and T N (x=0.1) = 165 K. (author) [1] E. Caspi et al., Phys. Rev. B, 57 (198) 449.; [2] J.D. Jorgensen et al., J. Appl. Cryst. 22 (1989) 321

  2. Heterogeneously catalyzed deuterium separation processes: Hydrogen-water exchange studies at elevated temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, J.D.; Rolston, J.H.; Au, J.C.; Den Hartog, J.; Tremblay, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    New processes for the separation of hydrogen isotopes are required to produce heavy water for CANDU nuclear reactors and to extract tritium formed in the moderator during reactor operation. Wetproofed platinum catalysts capable of promoting rapid exchange of isotopes between countercurrent flows of hydrogen and liquid water in packed columns have been developed at CRNL over the past 15 years. These catalysts provide a catalystic surface for the gas phase exchange reaction H/sub 2/O/sub (v)/ + HD/sub (g)/ ↔ HDO/sub (v)/ + H/sub 2(g)/ as well as a large liquid surface for the liquid phase isotope transfer reaction HDO/sub (v)/ + H/sub 2/O/sub (iota)/↔HDO/sub (iota)/+H/sub 2/O/sub (v)/. Any economic stand-alone heavy water separation process, based on bithermal hydrogen-water exchange over wetproofed platinum catalysts, requires rapid overall exchange of isotopes between two phases at two temperatures. Catalysts developed for cold tower operation at 25-60 0 C are now being tested in a laboratory scale stainless steel trickle bed reactor for performance and stability at simulated hot tower conditions, 150 0 C and 2.0 MPa pressure. Catalytically active layers containing platinum supported on carbon or crystalline silica and wetproofed with Teflon have been prepared on ceramic spheres and stainless steel screening and tested in both random and ordered bed columns

  3. Conceptual study of the cryocascade for pumping, separation and recycling of ITER torus exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.; Perinic, D.

    1994-01-01

    For pumping, separation and recycling of the ITER plasma exhaust, a pumping system working reliably under ambient and operating conditions of the ITER reactor is required. The pump is exposed to a magnetic field of about 3 T and has to be resistant to radioactive irradiation of 10 9 rad. In the burn and dwell phase, a gas mixture consisting of hydrogen isotopes, helium ash and impurities has to be pumped at the pressure range of 10 -2 - 10 -1 mbar. Within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme, the concept of a primary cryopump for use in ITER is being prepared at KfK. The cryocascade concept is planned to include three pump stages. These pump stages, which are connected in series, consist of individual chambers that may be separated from each other by means of cold valves. In the first stage, the impurities of the reactor exhaust gas are frozen out at 20-30 K. Settling of the hydrogen isotopes H/D/T on the 5 K cryosurfaces takes place in the second stage. This stage is made up of two parallel chambers, which can be switched from the pumping to the regeneration mode or vice versa. The helium fraction is bound in the downstream 5 K adsorption stage

  4. [Study on extracting and separating curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome using ultrasound strengthen by microemulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chun-Hua; Zheng, Li-Tao; Guo, Qi-Ming; Li, Kun-Ping

    2014-05-01

    To establish a new method for the extraction and separation of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome by cloud-point preconcentration using microemulsions as solvent. The spectrophotometry was used to detect the solubility of curcumin in different oil phase, emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifier, and the microemulsion prescription was used for false three-phase figure optimization. The extraction process was optimized by uniform experiment design. The curcuminoids were separated from microemulsion extract by cloud-point preconcentration. Oil phase was oleic acid ethyl ester; Emulsifier was OP emulsifier; Auxiliary emulsifier was polyethylene glycol(peg) 400; The quantity of emulsifier to auxiliary emulsifier was the ratio of 5: 1; Microemulsion prescription was water-oleic acid ethyl ester-mixed emulsifier (0.45:0.1:0.45). The optimum extraction process was: time for 12.5 min, temperature of 52 degrees C, power of 360 W, frequency of 400 kHz, and the liquid-solid ratio of 40:1. The extraction rate of curcuminoids was 92.17% and 86.85% in microemulsion and oil phase, respectively. Curcuminoids is soluble in this microemulsion prescription with good extraction rate. This method is simple and suitable for curcuminoids extraction from Curcuma longa rhizome.

  5. Study of the isotopic exchange associated with ionic exchange for the radiochemical separation of 233-Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic ion exchange procedure is applied in order to establish an analytical method for the determination of thorium by means of the 233 Th activity, when the presence of interfering elements does not allow a direct non-destructive activation analysis. The separation is based on the retention of 233 Th by a thorium saturated resin, due to the isotopic exchange effect, and subsequent elution of the interfering radioisotopes with a solution of thorium in diluted hydrochloric acid. The interfering elements were those which either present a great affinity for the resin or emit gamma rays with energies close to that of 233 Th (86.6 KeV), when a NaI(Tl) detector is used to obtain the gama-ray spectra of the irradiated samples. The equilibrium time for the thorium isotopic ion exchange and the distribution coefficients for the interfering elements were determined by using Bio-Rad AG 50W resins (100-200 mesh), with 4% to 8% of divinylbenzene. The best separation conditions were established in terms of the thorium and hydrochloric acid concentrations in the solution, the resin cross-linking degree, and the solution flow through the resin. The analytical method was applied to the determination of thorium in samples of ammonium diuranate as well in standard rock samples from the United States Geological Survey. The sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the method are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  7. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Model Nuclear Waste Glasses: A Solid-State Double-Resonance NMR Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Ch.; Michaelis, V.K.; Kroeker, S. [Univ Manitoba, Dept Chem, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Schuller, S. [CEA Valrho Marcoule, LDMC, SECM, DTCD, DEN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Double-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in addition to single-resonance NMR experiments to probe the degree of mixing between network-forming cations Si and B, along with the modifier cations Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} in two molybdenum-bearing model nuclear waste glasses. The double-resonance experiments involving {sup 29}Si in natural abundance are made possible by the implementation of a CPMG pulse-train during the acquisition period of the usual REDOR experiments. For the glass with lower Mo content, the NMR results show a high degree of Si-B mixing, as well as an homogeneous distribution of the cations within the borosilicate network, characteristic of a non-phase-separated glass. For the higher-Mo glass, a decrease of B-Si(Q{sup 4}) mixing is observed, indicating phase separation. {sup 23}Na and {sup 133}Cs NMR results show that although the Cs{sup +} cations, which do not seem to be influenced by the molybdenum content, are spread within the borate network, there is a clustering of the Na{sup +} cations, very likely around the molybdate units. The segregation of a Mo-rich region with Na{sup +} cations appears to shift the bulk borosilicate glass composition toward the metastable liquid liquid immiscibility region and induce additional phase separation. Although no crystallization is observed in the present case, this liquid liquid phase separation is likely to be the first stage of crystallization that can occur at higher Mo loadings or be driven by heat treatment. From this study emerges a consistent picture of the nature and extent of such phase separation phenomena in Mo-bearing glasses, and demonstrates the potential of double-resonance NMR methods for the investigation of phase separation in amorphous materials. (authors)

  8. Separation and characterization of chemical constituents in Ginkgo biloba extract by off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuai; He, Dan-Dan; Wang, Tian-Yun; Han, Jie; Li, Zheng; Du, Yan; Zou, Jia-Hui; Guo, Meng-Zhe; Tang, Dao-Quan

    2017-11-30

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines worldwide. Due to high structural diversity and low abundance of chemical constituents in GBE, conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography has limited power to meet the needs of its quality control. In this study, an off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography (HILIC×RP 2D-LC) system coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was established to comprehensively analyze the chemical constituents of GBE. After optimizing the chromatographic columns and mobile phase of 2D-LC, a Waters XBridge Amide column using acetonitrile/water/formic acid as the mobile phase was selected as the first dimension to fractionate GBE, and the obtained fractions were further separated on an Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column with methanol/water/formic acid as the mobile phase. As a result, a total of 125 compounds were detected in GBE. The orthogonality of the 2D-LC system was 69.5%, and the practical peak capacity was 3864 and 2994, respectively, calculated by two different methods. The structures of 104 compounds were tentatively characterized by qTOF-MS analysis, and 21 of them were further confirmed by comparing with reference standards. This established HILIC×RP 2D-LC-qTOF/MS system can greatly improve the separation and characterization of natural products in GBE or other complicated herbal extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the separation of fluoroquinolones using HPLC: Application to the study of their degradation by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reverse phase was developed for the separation of a mixture of five fluoroquinolones (lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, enoxacin and enrofloxacin). The optimum operating conditions are: the wavelength of detection is fixed at 282nm DAD detector, the stationary phase consists of silica type X scratched Terra RP-18 (250mm x 4, 6 mm, 5μm) and the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (0.02 M) (20: 80 v: v), pH equal to flow rate of 1ml/M/Xin 3etde. This optimized method was applied to analyze the solutions of different concentrations of each fluoroquinolone (100 and 20 ppm) after irradiation with doses of gamma radiation (5 and 25 kGry). The study of the effect of such radiation on fluoroquinolones shows that with a dose of 5 kGry these radiations allow complete degradation of these active ingredients at a concentration of 20 ppm and the appearance of other degradation products. But a dose of 5 kGry is insufficient to degrade the active ingredients (100ppm).

  10. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  11. Study of the separation of strontium from solutions which imitate natural waters of increased mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.M.; Voitko, I.N.; Glushchenko, L.V.; Mitrofanova, O.G.; Zyryanova, N.P.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown by experiments on synthetically prepared solutions that it is possible to separate strontium and calcium by carbonate precipitation from the larger part of the magnesium accompanying them in natural high mineral waters. In this way the residual content of strontium is reduced to a value of 40-50 mg/liter and, under conditions of removing CO 2 from the solution, to 5-10 mg/liter. The high ionic strength of the solution prevented a more complete precipitation of strontium. Magnesium may be isolated from the filtrate after precipitation of the calcium-strontium mixture. The possibility has been shown of isolating strontium from the mixture of carbonates by means of pyrolysis at 1100-1200 0 and the selective solution of SrO in hot water

  12. Bench scale studies on separation of rare earths by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroonrung-Areeya, A.

    1976-01-01

    The method of ion exchange was applied to the separation of mixtures of rare earth oxides into the pure components. The method consists of eluting a band of mixed rare earths adsorbed on a cation-exchange resin through a second cation-exchange bed in the copper II state. The eluent consists of an ammonia buffered solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. The mixed rare earth oxide used as testing material was obtained from the digestion of Thai monazite. The amounts varied from 1, 5 to 50 grams. The purity of the rare earth fractions were analyzed either by neutron activation of X-ray fluorescence. The Cu.EDTA was recovered by the addition of lime. It was found that gram quantities of pure rare earths could be obtained by this method

  13. Application of physical separation techniques for waste utilization and management - case studies from Indian uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand Rao, K.; Sreenivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of physical beneficiation techniques in metallurgical industry showed gradual decline due to decreasing ore grades and very-fine size dissemination of valuable minerals in the host matrix. However, this technology regained prominence in recent past due to their utility in resource recycle, waste utilization, waste treatment and environmental remediation. Hybrid processes combined with physical, chemical and biological technology is now developing such that the idea of sustainable development is implemented. The uranium ore processing industry has always been under intense public scanner for some of the apprehensions, chiefly radioactivity, inspite of its immense energy delivering potential. Besides this, the chemical compounds formed due to gangue mineral reactivity and their carry-over to tailings pond added further owes. However, conscious scientific efforts are being made to contain these hazards to permissible levels by application of various remedial methods of which the physical separation techniques too are quite prominent

  14. An extended study of the phase separation between phospholipids and grafted polymers on a bilayer biomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, M; Joudar, I; Kaidi, H; Elhasnaoui, K; Ridouane, H; Qamar, H, E-mail: benhamou.mabrouk@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Polymeres et Phenomenes Critiques, Faculte des Sciences, Ben M' sik, PO Box 7955, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-06-01

    We re-examine here the phase separation between phospholipids and adsorbed polymer chains on a fluid membrane with a change in some suitable parameter (temperature). Our purpose is to quantify the significant effects of the solvent quality and of the polydispersity of adsorbed loops formed by grafted polymer chains on the segregation phenomenon. To this end, we elaborate on a theoretical model that allows us to derive the expression for the mixing free energy. From this, we extract the phase diagram shape in the composition-temperature plane. Our main conclusion is that the polymer chain condensation is very sensitive to the solvent quality and to the polydispersity of loops of adsorbed chains.

  15. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children: III. Parent-Child Communication and Child Adjustment, and Regression Analysis of Findings from Overall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    This is the third of a series of reports on the findings from a study directed at further understanding the impact of marital separation/divorce on children during the 12-month period following the parental separation. This paper reports on parent-child communication regarding cognitive preparation of children for the parental separation. (Author)

  16. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  17. Utility of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography for on-line yield determination of radiochemical separations: Studies with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article indicates the potentials of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a radiochemical technique for multielement separation of neutron irradiated samples. The focus lies on the convenience to use the detector signal of the eluted components to indicate the chemical yield of the analyte, which has often proved to be a crucial step in radiochemical separations. Two signals have been utilized. The UV signal of the metal-ligand complexes separated by reversed phase HPLC and the radioactive response as a result of sample irradiation of carrier-tracer addition. Change in ratio is discussed between the two signals, if any, for a specific sample. Losses of metal as much as 65% were simulated and corrected using the individual UV response. The method promises improved accuracy for elemental analysis despite losses suffered during the various chemical steps. The procedure omits the necessity of additional analytical steps for yield determination. The present article aims at the chromatographic part of the study. Cobalt as cobalt diethyldithiocarbamate has been used to demonstrate the viability of the concept. The separation was developed on c C18 reverse phase analytical column and optimized on a semi preparative one

  18. Study on the performance improvement of the high temperature superconducting coil with several separated coils at the edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguri, S.; Oka, T.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.

    2008-01-01

    In designing high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils, it is important to secure large magnetic fields and stored energy using shorter tape length. Thus, it is necessary to improve the transport current performance of the coils. The critical current and n-value of an HTS tape depend on magnetic fields and flux angles under constant temperature. Considering these dependencies, we established a model to analyze coil critical current. This model clarifies that relatively large electric fields are generated at the coil edges. This adversely affects the transport current performance. In this study, the coil edge is separated into several coils, keeping the total tape length constant. This increases the coil critical current, stored energy, central magnetic field, and also the coil volume, which contains vacancies created by the separation. To estimate coil performance, we calculated the stored energy density, whose denominator is the increased coil volume. This stored energy density reaches its maximum value when the number of the separated coils is eight. At this optimum separation, the central magnetic field increases by 13%, and the stored energy improves by 43%, compared to a rectangular coil wound with the same tape length

  19. [Study on the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhadze, A D; Vachnadze, V Iu; Dzhokhadze, M S; Berashvili, D T; Bakuridze, A Dzh

    2013-04-01

    In present article was studied the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia. Alkaloids were extracted from medicinal herbal material and separated by liquid extraction, diluents gas and a microfiltration through membrane equipment. The obtained A1, A2, A3 fractions were analyzed by GC/MS method; in all cases separation proceeds by the principle of extraction of the target alkaloids. It was concluded that the A1 is enriched with α and β cryptopins, and protopin, but homochelidonine and chelidonine are in low contents. As accompanying alkaloid is identified dihydrosanguinarine as an artifact; the A2 is enriched with the maximum contents of stylopine and protopin, but the poor contents of chelidonine and homochelidonine; the A3 is enriched with α and β cryptopins and maximum content of chelidonine. Extraction of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. proceeds selectively, but depending on a way of separation of the total alkaloids allows varying qualitative and quantitative consistence of the final product.

  20. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  1. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  2. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  3. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  4. Human neuroimaging studies on the hippocampal CA3 region – integrating evidence for pattern separation and completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eDeuker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies have long investigated the hippocampus without differentiating between its subfields, even though theoretical models and rodent studies suggest that subfields support different and potentially even opposite functions. The CA3 region of the hippocampus has been ascribed a pivotal role both in initially forming associations during encoding and in reconstructing a memory representation based on partial cues during retrieval. These functions have been related to pattern separation and pattern completion, respectively. In recent years, studies using high-resolution fMRI in humans have begun to separate different hippocampal subregions and identify the role of the CA3 subregion relative to the other subregions. However, some of these findings have been inconsistent with theoretical models and findings from electrophysiology. In this review, we describe selected recent studies and highlight how their results might help to define different processes and functions that are presumably carried out by the CA3 region, in particular regarding the seemingly opposing functions of pattern separation and pattern completion. We also describe how these subfield-specific processes are related to behavioral, functional and structural alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude with discussing limitations of functional imaging and briefly outline possible future developments of the field.

  5. Effects of Family Structure and the Experience of Parental Separation: A Study on Adolescents’ Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Walper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of studies, mostly from the U.S., have addressed the effects of parental separation and divorce, pointing to disadvantages of children and adolescents growing up in separated families. However, evidence on this topic varies across countries and is limited for Germany. Using longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3 of the German Family Panel pairfam, we investigated differences in adolescents’ well-being by comparing stable nuclear families (n = 1968, single mother families (n = 360, and stepfather families (n = 214, as well as an additional smaller group of adolescents whose parents separated between waves 1 and 3 (“prospective separators”; n = 76. Adolescents’ satisfaction with different domains of life (family, education/work, and their general life satisfaction as well as their self-esteem were used as indicators of well-being. A series of multiple regression analyses tested the effects of family structure on well-being at T1 and changes in well-being over time, controlling for various background factors. Furthermore, likely mediation effects of infrequent contact to the non-resident father and economic strain were tested. The findings show (relatively minor effects of parental separation, namely lower well-being among youth1 in single mother families compared to nuclear families. Disadvantages of youth in single mother families could only be partly explained by the higher financial strain generally experienced in these families. Youth in stepfather families reported a similar overall well-being as adolescents in nuclear families, but indicated a greater decrease in family satisfaction over time. Pre-separation disadvantages among prospective separators were limited to greater dissatisfaction with school. Infrequent contact with the non-resident father did not affect adolescents’ well-being. Effects of family structure did not differ between boys and girls, but maternal education moderated the effects of family structure

  6. AWARENESS LEVEL STUDY FOR IMPLEMENTING SEPARATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PROGRAM IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARANDAS, JALISCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Santiago-Olivares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arandas municipality government in Jalisco, has been looking for solutions to the problem of its municipal solid waste (MSW disposal for some years. Nowadays there is a “dumping site" where these residues are deposited without any established control, promoting the generation of vermin and rodents such as: flies, cockroaches, rats, mouses, etc.; adding up to the air, soil and water pollution. The solution starts with the separation of municipal solid waste from the generation sites, but it does not make any sense to separate the waste if there is not a subsequent treatment system established. The population awareness for garbage separation at home is quite necessary, because if it is not carried out correctly, it won’t be able to give an effective further treatment to the municipal solid waste MSW generated. In countries and municipalities where garbage separation is already practiced, it was because the community is forced to do so, whether their garbage is not collected if it is not properly separated, or by the implementation of economic fines. With the support of the H. Ayuntamiento de Arandas and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas, was carried out a study to determine the level of awareness that the population of Arandas has about the necessity to separate garbage at home. For this purpose, a survey was designed and applied to parents or guardians of students from educational institutions: CONALEP Arandas, UDG Regional High School, CBTIS and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas. The research carried out was quantitative and descriptive type, where the selection of the sample was “for convenience” (to optimize time and costs in the application of the survey. According to the results obtained in the survey analysis, it was observed that Arandas population was concerned about the preservation of environment and they are willing to do garbage

  7. Parents and nurses balancing parent-infant closeness and separation: a qualitative study of NICU nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Nancy; Genest, Christine; Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Charbonneau, Lyne; Axelin, Anna

    2016-08-20

    When a newborn requires neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization, parent and infant experience an unusual often prolonged separation. This critical care environment poses challenges to parent-infant closeness. Parents desire physical contact and holding and touching are particularly important. Evidence shows that visitation, holding, talking, and skin to skin contact are associated with better outcomes for infants and parents during hospitalization and beyond. Thus, it would be important to understand closeness in this context. The purpose of this study was to explore from nurses' perspective, what do parents and nurses do to promote parent-infant closeness or provoke separation. Qualitative methods were utilized to attain an understanding of closeness and separation. Following ethics approval, purposive sampling was used to recruit nurses with varying experience working different shifts in NICUs in two countries. Nurses were loaned a smartphone over one work shift to record their thoughts and perceptions of events that occurred or experiences they had that they considered to be closeness or separation between parents and their hospitalized infant. Sample size was determined by saturation (18 Canada, 19 Finland). Audio recordings were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Team meetings were held to discuss emerging codes, refine categories, and confirm these reflected data from both sites. One overarching theme was elaborated. Balancing closeness and separation was the major theme. Both parents and nurses engaged in actions to optimize closeness. They sought closeness by acting autonomously in infant caregiving, assuming decision-making for their infant, seeking information or skills, and establishing a connection in the face of separation. Parents balanced their desire for closeness with other competing demands, such as their own needs. Nurses balanced infant care needs and ability to handle stimulation with the need for closeness with parents

  8. Antenna coupling study for ICWC plasma characterization in TEXTOR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 1. Antenna coupling study for ICWC plasma characterization in ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  9. Switching Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation Using a Separable Cluster Electrode in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of multi-channel switching RFA using a separable cluster electrode in patients with HCC.From November 2011 to July 2013, 79 patients with 98 HCCs < 5 cm were enrolled and treated with RFA using a multi-channel switching radiofrequency system and a separable cluster electrode under the guidance of a real-time fusion imaging system. The primary and secondary endpoints were the 3-year local tumor progression (LTP rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS rate, respectively. For post hoc analyses, LTP, RFS, and major complication rates were retrospectively compared with a historical control group treated with RFA using the same radiofrequency system but with multiple internally-cooled electrodes.The technique success rate of the 98 tumors was 100%. Cumulative 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year LTP rates were 3.4%, 6.9%, and 12.4%, respectively. For patient-level data, cumulative 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year RFS rates were 83.9%, 68.6%, and 45.4%, respectively. On post hoc analyses, none of the baseline characteristics showed a significant difference between the separable cluster electrode and multiple internally-cooled electrodes group. Cumulative LTP and RFS rates of the two groups also showed no significant difference (p = 0.401 and p = 0.881, respectively. Finally, major complication rates of the separable cluster electrode group (5.0%, 4/79 and multiple internally-cooled electrodes group (5.9%, 4/74 were also comparable (p = 1.000.Switching monopolar RFA using a separable cluster electrode is a feasible and efficient technique for the treatment of HCCs smaller than 5 cm, providing comparable local tumor control to multiple internally-cooled electrodes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02745483.

  10. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  11. The non-separability of ''dielectric'' and ''mechanical'' friction in molecular systems: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. V.; Maroncelli, M.

    2000-01-01

    Simulations of the time-dependent friction controlling rotational, translational, and vibrational motions of dipolar diatomic solutes in acetonitrile and methanol have been used to examine the nature of ''dielectric'' friction. The way in which electrical interactions increase the friction beyond that present in nonpolar systems is found to be rather different than what is anticipated by most theories of dielectric friction. Long-range electrostatic forces do not simply add an independent contribution to the friction due to short-ranged or ''mechanical'' sources (modeled here in terms of Lennard-Jones forces). Rather, the electrical and Lennard-Jones contributions are found to be strongly anticorrelated and not separable in any useful way. For some purposes, the mechanism by which electrical interactions increase friction is better viewed as a static electrostriction effect: electrical forces cause a subtle increase in atomic density in the solute's first solvation shell, which increases the amplitude of the force fluctuations derived from the Lennard-Jones interactions, i.e., the mechanical friction. However, electrical interactions also modify the dynamics of the friction, typically adding a long-time tail, which significantly increases the integral friction. Both of these effects must be included in a correct description of friction in the presence of polar interactions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Study on CO2/ N2 separation: the effect of rubbery polymer coating on PVDF membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuwairi, M. Z.; Rahman, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    The emission of harmful gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) via gas processing plant and daily human activities gave negative impacts to the environment and global inhabitant. Flat sheet asymmetric membranes were produced from homogenous solution of Poly(vinylideneflouride) (PVDF) via phase inversion method using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as the solvent. While the poly ether b-amide (PEBAX) was dissolve by using of (70 ethanol and 30 water) as a solvent and and lithium chloride as a additives. The morphology and cross section of the produced membranes were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Then, the membranes were tested for chemical analysis to define the presence of PEBAX in the membrane by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The permeation performances of the membranes were evaluated in terms of permeability and selectivity of the membranes by using gas permeation test. Increasing the PEBAX content significantly increased the selectivity of the PVDF membrane to separate the CO2/N2 gases but decreased the amount of the gases that passed through the membrane.

  13. Studies on the remediation of environment contaminated with radioactive pollutants using the chemical separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurotaki, Katsumi; Yonehara, Hidenori; Sahoo, S.K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ishii, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    Remediation of soil and drinking water contaminated with radioactive nuclides is important for the mitigation of radiation exposure. Then we attempted to construct the remediation system including the dose estimation system using the chemical separation technique to remove pollutants from the environment. The information on air dose rate is important for assessment of risk from the radiation exposure. Then we measured the air dose rate and analysed the relationship between air dose rate and the contamination of soil at the area in Russia (Bryansk district) contaminated by Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Moreover, we analysed the soil of Bryansk district on the concentration of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium and on the isotope ratio of strontium. On the other hand, we tried to develop the rapid measurement method of radioactivity of Sr-90 which is one of the dangerous radionuclides, because the method of radioactivity measurement in the literature is too time-consuming. It was reported recently that the molecules containing SH group form the covalent bond with gold atoms at the surface of gold plate and that crown ether compounds have strong affinity to strontium. Then we attempted to synthesize the crown ether containing SH group. In addition, we search the inorganic elements accumulated to special organisms of fishes and other animals in sea in order to find out new reagent for trace elements. Transition metal such as Co, Fe, Ni, Ti, V and Zn were detected from the intracellular granules in the bronchial heart of octopus. (author)

  14. Study on improvement of laser system performance for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the cost of Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), I developed the following laser technologies. (1) I developed a solid-state pulse power supply, of which output power was the almost highest value achieved for a copper vapor laser in 1989, using a GTO as a switching device and a magnetic pulse compression circuit. (2) I developed a new technique of tuning the laser wavelength to an atomic absorption band using high-speed wavelength shift of a laser diode by direct modulation. (3) I developed a new technique of stabilizing the laser wavelength at an absorption band of a target atom, by locking the sideband generated by phase modulation of a laser beam to a Fabry-Perot interferometer. (4) I proposed the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser system as an all solid-state laser system for the AVLIS. I obtained the slope efficiency of 25%, which was the highest value achieved in the case of pulse operation of the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser in 1995, using the forsterite with high Cr 4+ -ion concentration. (author)

  15. Fundamental Study on the Separation of Methane Isotopomer by Cryogenic Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K.M.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    For the purpose of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} production from LNG, the state art of the application of C-13 and the marketing research were investigated. The theoretical number of stages and the number of distillation column required for the separation of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} from {sup 12}CH{sub 4}/{sup 13}CH{sub 4} mixture containing 1%-{sup 13}CH{sub 4} are calculated. Assuming the ideal liquid mixture of {sup 12}CH{sub 4} and {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, the theoretical number of stages are calculated the minimum theorical number of stages are calculated by Smoker equation and FUG method. Using the correlation between the minimum theoretical number of stages and the optimum theoretical number of stages, the number of distillation groups is obtained. From the simulation, we postulate that 6 groups of distillation tower having 600 stages per one column are needed for the production of 90%-{sup 13}CH{sub 4}. (author). 18 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Study on Water Quality of Surface Runoff and Groundwater Runoff on the Basis of Separation by a Numerical Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Kawara, Osami; Fukumoto, Kohji

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the water quality of surface runoff and groundwater runoff from the basins of the Yodo River and the Asahi River based on that separated by a numerical filter. The water quality of the surface runoff is greatly different from the groundwater runoff. The tendency of concentration change in accordance with river discharges is different from each other. The water qtiality of groundwater runoff changes with river discharges clockwise in many cases. The differences of...

  17. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  18. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  19. Study of Separation and Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Membranes during Model Hydrolysate Solution Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye; Rahni, Mohamed; Marinova, Mariya; Chadjaa, Hassan; Savadogo, Oumarou

    2017-12-15

    Prehydrolysate, a dilute solution consisting mainly of pentoses, hexoses, and lesser quantities of organic acids, furfural and phenolics, is generated in the Kraft dissolving pulp process. An obstacle facing the valorization of the solution in hemicellulose biorefineries, by conversion of the sugars into bioproducts such as furfural, is the low sugar concentration. Membrane filtration is typically proposed in several hemicellulose based biorefineries for concentrating the solution, although they are usually generated using different wood species, pretreatment methods, and operating conditions. However, the chemical composition of the solutions is generally not considered. Also, the combined effect of composition and operating conditions is rarely investigated for biorefinery applications. The purpose of this work was to determine the impact of the prehydrolysate composition and operating parameters on the component separation and permeate flux during membrane filtration. Using model prehydrolysate solutions, two commercial reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were screened, and one was selected for use, based on its higher sugar and acetic acid retention. A Taguchi L18 experimental design array was then applied to determine the dominant parameters and limiting factors. Results showed that the feed pressure and temperature have the highest impact on permeate flux, but the least effect on sugar retention. Further experiments to quantify flux decline, due to fouling and osmotic pressure, showed that furfural has the highest membrane fouling tendency, and can limit the lifetime of the membrane. Regeneration of the membrane by cleaning with a sodium hydroxide solution is also effective for reversing fouling. It has been demonstrated that RO can efficiently and sustainably concentrate wood prehydrolysate.

  20. Study of Separation and Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Membranes during Model Hydrolysate Solution Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumoye Ajao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehydrolysate, a dilute solution consisting mainly of pentoses, hexoses, and lesser quantities of organic acids, furfural and phenolics, is generated in the Kraft dissolving pulp process. An obstacle facing the valorization of the solution in hemicellulose biorefineries, by conversion of the sugars into bioproducts such as furfural, is the low sugar concentration. Membrane filtration is typically proposed in several hemicellulose based biorefineries for concentrating the solution, although they are usually generated using different wood species, pretreatment methods, and operating conditions. However, the chemical composition of the solutions is generally not considered. Also, the combined effect of composition and operating conditions is rarely investigated for biorefinery applications. The purpose of this work was to determine the impact of the prehydrolysate composition and operating parameters on the component separation and permeate flux during membrane filtration. Using model prehydrolysate solutions, two commercial reverse osmosis (RO membranes were screened, and one was selected for use, based on its higher sugar and acetic acid retention. A Taguchi L18 experimental design array was then applied to determine the dominant parameters and limiting factors. Results showed that the feed pressure and temperature have the highest impact on permeate flux, but the least effect on sugar retention. Further experiments to quantify flux decline, due to fouling and osmotic pressure, showed that furfural has the highest membrane fouling tendency, and can limit the lifetime of the membrane. Regeneration of the membrane by cleaning with a sodium hydroxide solution is also effective for reversing fouling. It has been demonstrated that RO can efficiently and sustainably concentrate wood prehydrolysate.

  1. Characterization and evaluation studies on some JAERI dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, T.; Sunaga, H.; Tachibana, H.; Takizawa, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation studies were carried out on some JAERI dosimetry systems, mainly alanine-ESR, in terms of the influence on the dose response of parameters such as orientation at ESR analysis, and the temperature during irradiation and analysis. Feasibility study for application of these dosimetry systems to electrons with energies lower than 4 MeV and bremsstrahlung (X rays) was also performed parallel to their reliability check through international dose intercomparison. (author)

  2. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the separation and purification of strontium from the highly radioactive waste flow of fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerker, A.

    1989-10-01

    The quantity of spent fuel elements is increasing due to the extended peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of the numerous fission products, strontium has an interesting application potential as a radiation or energy source for utilization in various industrial fields. A necessary condition for its use is its isolation in high radiochemical purity from the highly radioactive waste flow of the Purex process. In the present study, precipitation and coprecipitation reactions, and in particular ion exchange reactions, were chosen from among the various possible chemical and physical separation methods and examined with respect to their suitability for a selective separation of strontium from the other fission products. In selecting separation materials, particularly with respect to radiation resistance, thermal stability and selectivity, polyantimonic acid proved to be the best absorbent (even in a very acid medium) for strontium. Furthermore, the behaviour of the most important radionuclides was studied with respect to the denitration reaction from a 5 molar nitric acid solution. On the basis of the high demands made on the purity of the product, a method was developed by combining lead sulphate carrier precipitation with an ion exchange reaction on polyantimonic acid and is shown in a flow chart. (orig.) [de

  4. Preparation and characterization of PVDF separators for lithium ion cells using hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene grafted methoxyl polyethylene glycol (HTPB-g-MPEG) as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Niu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Hui; Chao, Chun-Ying; Wu, Li-Jun; Han, Pei-Lin

    2018-05-01

    Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene grafted methoxyl polyethylene glycol (HTPB-g-MPEG) with different arm length were synthesized by grafting methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)s (MPEGs, Mn = 350, 750, 1900 and 5000, respectively) to the hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) molecule using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as the coupling agent, and blended with PVDF to fabricate porous separators via phase inversion process. By measuring the composition, morphology and ion conductivity etc., the influence of HTPB-g-MPEG on structure and property of blend separators were discussed. Compared with pure PVDF separator with comparable porous structure, the adoption of HTPB-g-MPEG could not only decrease the crystallinity, but also enhance the stability of entrapped liquid electrolyte and corresponding ion conductivity. The cells assembled with such separators showed good initial discharge capacity and cyclic stability.

  5. Contribution to the study of rare earth separation by ion exchange, using ammonium lactate; Contribution a l'etude de la separation des terres rares par echange d'ions a l'aide de lactate d'ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratot, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Using the technique of chromatography on a column of Dowex 50 resin, heated to 87 deg. C, we have studied the separation of rare earths (from holmium to praseodymium) which may be produced with the cyclotron by heavy ions, {alpha} or protons. From an ammonium lactate solution M at pH 5, separations are carried out by varying the dilution as a function of the quantity of the target rare earth and of its position during elution. When weighable quantities of the rare earth (more than 5 mg) appear towards the end of the elution, the separation is little affected this case approaches that of a tracer mixture of rare earths; if on the other hand weighable quantities of the rare earth are washed through at the beginning of the chromatogram, the dilution must be adjusted in order to obtain a good separation. (author) [French] Par chromatographie sur colonne de resine Dowex 50, chauffee a 87 deg. C, nous avons examine la separation des terres rares (de l'holmium au praseodyme) susceptibles d'etre produites au cyclotron par ions lourds, {alpha} ou protons. A partir d'une solution de lactate d'ammonium M a pH 5, nous effectuons les separations en agissant sur la dilution en fonction de la quantite de terre rare cible et de sa position au cours de l'elution. Lorsque la terre rare en quantite ponderale (superieure a 5 mg) passe en fin d'elution, la separation est peu affectee; nous sommes ramenes au cas d'un melange de terres rares traceur; par contre, si la terre rare en quantite ponderale s'elue en tete du chromatogramme, nous devons agir sur la dilution pour obtenir une bonne separation. (auteur)

  6. Facile preparation and electrochemical characterization of poly (4-methoxytriphenylamine)-modified separator as a self-activated potential switch for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Lu, Shigang; Ai, Xinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A potential-sensitive separator is prepared by incorporating an electroactive poly (4-methoxytriphenylamine) (PMOTPA) into the micropores of a commercial porous polyolefin film. • This separator can be used as an internal and self-actuating voltage control device to provide overcharge protection for LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 lithium ion batteries. • This type of the separators works reversibly and has no any discernable impact on the battery performances. -- Abstract: A potential-sensitive separator is prepared by incorporating an electroactive poly (4-methoxytriphenylamine) (PMOTPA) into the micropores of a commercial porous polyolefin film and tested as an internal voltage control device for overcharge protection of LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 lithium ion batteries. The experimental results demonstrate that the PMOTPA polymer embedded in the separator can be electrochemically p-doped at overcharged voltages into an electrically conductive state, producing an internal conducting bypass for shunting the charge current to maintain the charge voltage of LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells at a safety value less than 2.6 V, thus protecting the cell from voltage runaway. Since this type of the separators works reversibly and has no any discernable impact on the battery performances, it may offer a self-protection mechanism for development of safer lithium ion batteries

  7. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Separation Behavior at the Interface between PVDF Binder and Copper Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Li-ion batteries, the mechanical strengths at the interfaces of binder/particle and binder/current collector play an important role in maintaining the mechanical integrity of the composite electrode. In this work, the separation behaviors between polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF binders and copper current collectors are studied in the opening and sliding modes using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The simulation shows that the separation occurs inside the PVDF rather than at the interface due to the strong adhesion between PVDF and copper. This fracture behavior is different from the behavior of the PVDF/graphite basal plane that shows a clear separation at the interface. The results suggest that the adhesion strength of the PVDF/copper is stronger than that of the PVDF/graphite basal plane. The methodology used in MD simulation can directly evaluate the adhesion strength at the interfaces of various materials between binders, substrates, and particles at the atomic scales. The proposed method can therefore provide a guideline for the design of the electrode in order to enhance the mechanical integrity for better battery performance.

  9. Separate tools or tool kits: an exploratory study of engineers' preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegen, Ingrid; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study of aspects that should be taken into consideration when optimizing tool kits, i.e. cases containing sets of tools that are used by service engineers for corrective maintenance. The study was carried out among service engineers of an Original Equipment

  10. Separation and purification of carrier-free cobalt-58 from neutron irradiated nickel foil for electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cobalt-58 will be used for tracer studies of the behaviour of cobalt radionuclides in no- carrier-added form during electrochemical deposition on metal backing. The 58 Co can be produced by using 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co nuclear reaction in nuclear reactor. 58 Co (T 1/2 =71 days) decays by positron emitting (15%) and electron capture (85%) with simultaneous γ -irradiation. In this study, we have developed the simple method for separation and purification of 58 Co in no- carrier-added form from neutron irradiated nickel foil. Previously, we have studied the dissolution of nickel foil in various media to find best conditions for rapid dissolution of nickel target. It was found that nickel foil dissolved completely without heating in 6.3 M hydrobromic acid with addition a few drops of hydrogen peroxide. After dissolution of the target material, the cobalt-58 is separated from nickel, copper, iron and other elements by extraction chromatography. The solution in 6.3 M hydrobromic acid is passed through a column containing suspension of polytetrafluoroethylene powder with 0.5 M trioctylamine in xylene, equilibrated with the same acid. Nickel is not extracted and passed through column. Cobalt is retained and finally eluted with 3 M HBr in the one free column volume. The cobalt fraction is percolated through a column filled with suspension of pure polytetrafluoroethylene powder to purify from the admixture of extractant. The obtained solution is evaporated to dryness and the dry residue is treated by evaporation with aqua regia. After treatment the damp residue is dissolved in electrolyte and the obtained solution is used to study of 58 Co electrochemical deposition procedure. The yield of cobalt-58 was higher than 93% and the radiochemical purity was more than 99%. This method will be used for separation and purification of cobalt-57 to make of sealed sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis

  11. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % 235 U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % 235 U, and the grams of 235 U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities

  12. Studies on synthesis of some composites and their uses for cesium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someda, H.H.; El-Zahhar, A.A.; Shehata, M.K.K.; El-Naggar, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study some composite sorbents were prepared by supporting hexacyanoferrate complexes of some transition metals like Co, Ni, Fe and Zn on some different solid supports e.g. cellulose and other natural materials as wood powder. These composites were used for cesium sorption and showed that the highest sorption capacity is for zinc composite and the lowest is for cobalt composite. Also the factors affecting the sorption capacity like acid concentration, competing ions and cesium ion concentration were studied. The release of the sorbed cesium from the composite materials was also studied under different concentrations of different solutions like sodium nitrate, silver nitrate, ammonium nitrate and a mixture of ammonium nitrate and silver nitrate solutions

  13. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  14. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  15. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a surface-grafted Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer for selective separation of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Feng, Changgen, E-mail: cgfeng@cast.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Gan, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Haiyan [Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) is prepared. • Cd(II)-IIP shows high stability, good selectivity and reusability. • Cd(II)-IIP can be used as a sorbent for selective removal of Cd(II) ion. - Abstract: A novel Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) was prepared with surface imprinting technology by using cadmium chloride as a template and allyl thiourea (ATU) as a functional monomer for on-line solid-phase extraction of trace Cd(II) ion and selective separation Cd(II) ion in water samples. The Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good chemical performance and thermal stability. Kinetics studies showed that the equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 8.0 min and the adsorption process can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Compared to the Cd(II) non-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-NIP), the Cd(II)-IIP had a higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Cd(II) ion. The maximum adsorption capacities of the Cd(II)-IIP and Cd(II)-NIP for Cd(II) were 38.30 and 13.21 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficients of the adsorbent for Cd(II) in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} were 2.86, 6.42, 11.50, 9.46 and 3.73, respectively. In addition, the Cd(II) ion adsorbed was easy to remove from sorbent and the Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good stability and reusability. The adsorption capacity had no obvious decrease after being used six times. The accuracy of this method was verified by the standard reference material, it was then applied for cadmium ion determination in different types of water samples.

  17. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  18. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen

    2016-01-01

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold...... CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface. The results show that the inclusion of polarization in our model increases CT state...... dissociation and charge collection. The effect of the electric field on CT state splitting and free charge carrier conduction is analyzed in detail with and without polarization. Also, depending on the relative orientation of the anthracene and C60 molecules at the interface, CT state splitting shows different...

  19. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies on regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography where the hydroxyl form of an anion exchange resin is equilibrated with boric acid solution containing mannitol as a complexing reagent. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. (author)

  20. Experimental and numerical study of smoke propagation through a vent separating two mechanically ventilated rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, Laurent; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental and numerical study about smoke propagation through a horizontal opening between two superposed compartments, as can be encountered in nuclear installations, in case of a fire taking place in the lower room. The experimental configuration proposed in this study consists in two rooms mechanically ventilated and connected each other by a horizontal opening. The fire source is simulated by a propane burner located in the lower room. The inlet ventilation duct is located in the lower room and the exhaust ventilation duct is located in the upper room. For such experimental configuration, several flow regimes at the horizontal opening connecting the two rooms can be encountered depending on the fire power, the opening size (diameter, depth) and the ventilation set-up (location of inlet/outlet ducts, flow rate). Indeed, flow at the opening is governed by buoyant forces due to the hot gases produced by the fire, the inertia effect due to the forced ventilation and the momentum effect due to smoke flow nearby the horizontal opening (for instance, ceiling jet or thermal plume from fire). Consequently, such complex mixed (natural/ forced) convective flows are still a challenge for CFD fire codes to make properly calculations of these experimental scenarios. The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of ISIS code (CFD) to simulate the behaviour of smoke propagation inside these two superposed compartments. Results of this study are presented with details (especially, thermal stratification and flow rates through the horizontal vent) and are discussed thoroughly.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of smoke propagation through a vent separating two mechanically ventilated rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, Laurent; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents an experimental and numerical study about smoke propagation through a horizontal opening between two superposed compartments, as can be encountered in nuclear installations, in case of a fire taking place in the lower room. The experimental configuration proposed in this study consists in two rooms mechanically ventilated and connected each other by a horizontal opening. The fire source is simulated by a propane burner located in the lower room. The inlet ventilation duct is located in the lower room and the exhaust ventilation duct is located in the upper room. For such experimental configuration, several flow regimes at the horizontal opening connecting the two rooms can be encountered depending on the fire power, the opening size (diameter, depth) and the ventilation set-up (location of inlet/outlet ducts, flow rate). Indeed, flow at the opening is governed by buoyant forces due to the hot gases produced by the fire, the inertia effect due to the forced ventilation and the momentum effect due to smoke flow nearby the horizontal opening (for instance, ceiling jet or thermal plume from fire). Consequently, such complex mixed (natural/ forced) convective flows are still a challenge for CFD fire codes to make properly calculations of these experimental scenarios. The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of ISIS code (CFD) to simulate the behaviour of smoke propagation inside these two superposed compartments. Results of this study are presented with details (especially, thermal stratification and flow rates through the horizontal vent) and are discussed thoroughly.

  2. Generation and collection of restaurant waste: Characterization and evaluation at a case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Caramiello, Cristina; Paolini, Tonino; Tripolone, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Because restaurants (as a division of the hospitality sector) contribute to the generation of commercial and institutional waste, thus representing both a challenge and an opportunity, the objective of the present study was to deepen the knowledge of restaurant waste in terms of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste generation and the performance achievable by the implementation of a separate collection scheme. In this study, the generated waste was characterized and the implemented separate collection was evaluated at a relevant case study restaurant in a coastal tourist area of Central Italy (Marche Region, Adriatic Sea side). The qualitative (compositional) characterization of the generated total restaurant waste showed considerable incidences of, in decreasing order, food (28.2%), glass (22.6%), paper/cardboard (19.1%), and plastic (17.1%). The quantitative (parametric) characterization of the generated restaurant waste determined the unit generation values of total waste and individual fractions based on the traditional employee and area parameters and the peculiar meal parameter. In particular, the obtained representative values per meal were: 0.72kgmeal -1 for total waste, and ranging, for individual fractions, from 0.20 (for food) to 0.008kgmeal -1 (for textile). Based on the critical evaluation of some of the resulting unit waste generation values, possible influences of restaurant practices, conditions, or characteristics were pointed out. In particular, food waste generation per meal can likely be limited by: promoting and using local, fresh, and quality food; standardizing and limiting daily menu items; basing food recipes on consolidated cooking knowledge and experience; and limiting plate sizes. The evaluation of the monthly variation of the monitored separate collection, ranging from an higher level of 52.7% to a lower level of 41.4%, indicated the following: a reduction in the separate collection level can be expected at times of

  3. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  4. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  5. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  6. What separates outstanding from average leaders? A study identifies leadership competencies and implications for professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, D J; Ukeritis, M D

    1992-11-01

    As the healthcare crisis mounts, healthcare organizations must be managed by especially competent leaders. It is important for executives to assess and develop the competencies necessary to become "outstanding" leaders. In our study of leadership competencies among leaders of religious orders, we found that outstanding and average leaders appear to share characteristics such as the ability to articulate their group's mission, the ability to act efficiently, and the tendency to avoid impulsive behavior or excessive emotional expression. Outstanding leaders, however, differed from average leaders in seemingly small but significant ways. For instance, nearly three times as often as average leaders, outstanding leaders expressed a desire to perform tasks well--or better than they had been performed in the past. The study also assessed how members of religious orders perceived their leaders. In general, they tended to rate leaders of their religious institutes as transformational leaders--leaders who welcomed doing things in a new way and inspiring their own staffs to search out new ways to provide services.

  7. Comparative study of coal and biomass co-combustion with coal burning separately through emissions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Asadullah, A.; Khan, G.; Soomro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methos to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal and coal biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emission of CO, CO/sub 2/, NOx and SO/sub 2/ as compared to 100% coal, Maximum amount of CO emission were 1510.5 ppm for bannana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30) of 684.667 leaves (90:10) and minimum amount of SO/sub 2/ present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20). The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm). The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution. (author)

  8. In gas laser ionization and spectroscopy experiments at the Superconducting Separator Spectrometer (S3): Conceptual studies and preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Bastin, B.; Boilley, D.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Liénard, E.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Lecesne, N.; Lu, H.; Lutton, F.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Pauwels, D.; Piot, J.; Radulov, D.; Rens, L.; Savajols, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A setup to perform In-Gas Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy experiments at the Super Separator Spectrometer is presented. • The reported studies address important aspects necessary to applied the IGLIS technique to short-lived isotopes. • An R and D phase required to reach an enhanced spectral resolution will be carried out at KU Leuven. • High-sensitivity and enhanced-resolution laser spectroscopy studies will be possible with the IGLIS setup at S 3 . -- Abstract: The results of preparatory experiments and the preliminary designs of a new in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy setup, to be coupled to the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 of SPIRAL2-GANIL, are reported. Special attention is given to the development and tests to carry out a full implementation of the in-gas jet laser spectroscopy technique. Application of this novel technique to radioactive species will allow high-sensitivity and enhanced-resolution laser spectroscopy studies of ground- and excited-state properties of exotic nuclei

  9. Molecular Modeling Study of Chiral Separation and Recognition Mechanism of β-Adrenergic Antagonists by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Chai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral separations of five β-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and bisoprolol were studied by capillary electrophoresis using six cyclodextrins (CDs as the chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD exhibited a higher enantioselectivity power compared to the other tested CDs. The influences of the concentration of CM-β-CD, buffer pH, buffer concentration, temperature, and applied voltage were investigated. The good chiral separation of five β-adrenergic antagonists was achieved using 50 mM Tris buffer at pH 4.0 containing 8 mM CM-β-CD with an applied voltage of 24 kV at 20 °C. In order to understand possible chiral recognition mechanisms of these racemates with CM-β-CD, host-guest binding procedures of CM-β-CD and these racemates were studied using the molecular docking software Autodock. The binding free energy was calculated using the Autodock semi-empirical binding free energy function. The results showed that the phenyl or naphthyl ring inserted in the hydrophobic cavity of CM-β-CD and the side chain was found to point out of the cyclodextrin rim. Hydrogen bonding between CM-β-CD and these racemates played an important role in the process of enantionseparation and a model of the hydrogen bonding interaction positions was constructed. The difference in hydrogen bonding formed with the –OH next to the chiral center of the analytes may help to increase chiral discrimination and gave rise to a bigger separation factor. In addition, the longer side chain in the hydrophobic phenyl ring of the enantiomer was not beneficial for enantioseparation and the chiral selectivity factor was found to correspond to the difference in binding free energy.

  10. Study of phase separation and crystallization phenomena in soda-lime borosilicate glass enriched in MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, M.

    2009-09-01

    Molybdenum oxide immobilization (MoO 3 , as fission product) is one of the major challenges in the nuclear glass formulation issues for high level waste solutions conditioning since many years, these solutions arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Phase separation and crystallisation processes may arise in molten glass when the MoO 3 content is higher than its solubility limit that may depend on glass composition. Molybdenum combined with other elements such as alkali and alkaline-earth may form crystalline molybdates, known as 'yellow phases' in nuclear glasses which may decrease the glass durability. In order to confine high level wastes (HLW) such as the fission product solutions arising from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX-type nuclear spent fuels, a new glass composition (HLW glass) is being optimized. This work is devoted to the study of the origin and the mechanism of phase separation and crystallization phenomena induced by molybdenum oxide incorporation in the HLW glass. From microstructural and structural point of view, the molybdenum oxide behavior was studied in glass compositions belonging to the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O-CaO simplified system which constituted basis for the HLW glass formulation. The structural role of molybdenum oxide in borosilicate network explaining the phase separation and crystallization tendency was studied through the coupling of structural ( 95 Mo, 29 Si, 11 B, 23 Na MAS NMR, XRD) and microstructural (SEM, HRTEM) analysis techniques. The determination of phase separation (critical temperature) and crystallization (liquidus temperature) appearance temperatures by in situ viscosimetry and Raman spectroscopy experiments allowed us to propose a transformation scenario during melt cooling. These processes and the nature of the crystalline phases formed (CaMoO 4 , Na 2 MoO 4 ) that depend on the evolution of MoO 3 , CaO and B 2 O 3 contents were correlated with changes of sodium and calcium cations proportions in the

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nano-pore thallium (III) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for separation and preconcentration of thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossien; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Zohuri, Golamhossien; Darroudi, Abolfazl

    2011-01-15

    Thallium (III) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles were synthesized by preparing the ternary complex of thallium (III) ions with 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) and 4-vinylpyridine (VP). Thermal copolymerization with methyl methacrylate (functional monomer, MMA) and ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (cross-linking monomer, EGDMA) was then performed in the presence of acetonitrile (porogen) and 2,2- azobisisobutyronitrile(initiator, AIBN). The imprinted ion was removed from polymer by stirring of the above particles with 5M HNO(3) to obtain the leached IIP particles. Moreover, control polymer (CP) particles were similarly prepared without the thallium (III) ions. The unleached and leached IIP particles were characterized by surface area analysis (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preconcentration of thallium (III) from aqueous solution was studied during rebinding with the leached IIP particles as a function of pH, the weight of the polymer material, the uptake and desorption times, the aqueous phase and the desorption volumes. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was employed for determination of thallium in aqueous solution. The limit of detection for the method was 0.02 ng mL(-1), while the relative standard deviation for five replicates was 2.6%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Size-separated particle fractions of stainless steel welding fume particles - A multi-analytical characterization focusing on surface oxide speciation and release of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Belleville, L; Cha, Y; Olofsson, U; Odnevall Wallinder, I; Persson, K-A; Hedberg, Y S

    2018-01-15

    Welding fume of stainless steels is potentially health hazardous. The aim of this study was to investigate the manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) speciation of welding fume particles and their extent of metal release relevant for an inhalation scenario, as a function of particle size, welding method (manual metal arc welding, metal arc welding using an active shielding gas), different electrodes (solid wires and flux-cored wires) and shielding gases, and base alloy (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex stainless steel LDX2101). Metal release investigations were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.3, 37°, 24h. The particles were characterized by means of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electroanalytical methods. Cr was predominantly released from particles of the welding fume when exposed in PBS [3-96% of the total amount of Cr, of which up to 70% as Cr(VI)], followed by Mn, nickel, and iron. Duplex stainless steel welded with a flux-cored wire generated a welding fume that released most Cr(VI). Nano-sized particles released a significantly higher amount of nickel compared with micron-sized particle fractions. The welding fume did not contain any solitary known chromate compounds, but multi-elemental highly oxidized oxide(s) (iron, Cr, and Mn, possibly bismuth and silicon). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monte Carlo Studies of Phase Separation in Compressible 2-dim Ising Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S. J.; Landau, D. P.

    2006-03-01

    Using high resolution Monte Carlo simulations, we study time-dependent domain growth in compressible 2-dim ferromagnetic (s=1/2) Ising models with continuous spin positions and spin-exchange moves [1]. Spins interact with slightly modified Lennard-Jones potentials, and we consider a model with no lattice mismatch and one with 4% mismatch. For comparison, we repeat calculations for the rigid Ising model [2]. For all models, large systems (512^2) and long times (10^ 6 MCS) are examined over multiple runs, and the growth exponent is measured in the asymptotic scaling regime. For the rigid model and the compressible model with no lattice mismatch, the growth exponent is consistent with the theoretically expected value of 1/3 [1] for Model B type growth. However, we find that non-zero lattice mismatch has a significant and unexpected effect on the growth behavior.Supported by the NSF.[1] D.P. Landau and K. Binder, A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, second ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005).[2] J. Amar, F. Sullivan, and R.D. Mountain, Phys. Rev. B 37, 196 (1988).

  14. Interim report on modeling studies of two-photon isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.C.; Badcock, C.C.; Kamada, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    The two-photon or two-step dissociation method of laser induced isotope enrichment is being modeled for the HBrNO photochemical system. In the model, H 79 Br is selectively excited by resonance IR laser radiation and then dissociated by uv radiation. Selectively dissociated Br atoms are scavenged to form isotopically enriched BrNO and Br 2 . This model includes all kinetic and absorption processes found to be significant and the time-varying concentrations of any species involved in a significant process. Among these processes are vibrational energy transfer reactions (including isotopic exchange) involving HBr v = 0 - 3, rotational and translational (velocity) relaxation processes, dissociation of HBr in the v = 0 - 3 levels, and secondary chemical reactions of the dissociation products. The absorption and kinetic processes that are most important to 79 Br enrichment have been identified and the study of the effects on enrichment upon variation of external parameters (such as reactant pressure, ir or uv source intensity, and temperature) is in progress. Some preliminary results are: (1) intensity of the ir source is usually more important than the uv intensity; (2) chemical reactions are the dominant kinetic processes at lower pressures while energy transfer reactions dominate at higher pressures; (3) kinetic processes usually have greater effect on the absolute amount of enriched products; (4) isotopic abundance of 79 Br in the products can range from 0.55 to 0.80 for the conditions used in the model

  15. A Preliminary Study of Two Different Clays for Separation of Some Artificial Radionuclides in Stimulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheen, Y.F.; Seliman, A.F.; Shehata, F.A.; Youssef, M.A.; Abo-Aly, M.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of long lived radionuclides, such as 134 Cs(I), 133 Ba(II), 90 Sr(II) and 152 Eu(III) by bentonite (W-Bent) and kaolin (S-Kaol) was studied as a function of different parameters using a batch technique. The results showed that the optimum ph was selected to be 6. Kinetically in case of W-Bent, the adsorption is heterogeneous for 134 Cs, 133 Ba and homogenous for 90 Sr and 152 Eu. The distribution coefficient values follow the order of 1 '5 2 Eu> 134 Cs> 90 Sr> 133 Ba. Langmuir, Freundlish, Dubinin-Raduskevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherm models were applied. According to the D-R model, W-Bent showed a high affinity to 152 Eu with a maximum capacity (q m = 0.43 mol/Kg) in comparison with S-Kaol (q m =0.023 mol/Kg). Also according to D-R model the adsorption energy (E> 8.0 KJ mol -1 ) that means the adsorption reaction is expected to be chemisorption. Finally both clays are cost-effective sorbent materials with an excellent adsorption capacity, but some surface modification for S-Kaol is recommended to be more effective than its natural form

  16. Enantiomeric separation and simulation studies of pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine, and brinzolamide chiral drugs on amylose-based columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alam, Syed Dilshad; Farooqi, Javed A

    2014-03-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE)-chiral separation of the important drugs pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine, and brinzolamide was achieved on the C18 cartridge and AmyCoat (150 x 46 mm) and Chiralpak AD (25 cm x 0.46 cm id) chiral columns in human plasma. Pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine, and brinzolamide were resolved using n-hexane-2-PrOH-DEA (85:15:0.1, v/v), n-hexane-2-PrOH-DEA (80:20:0.1, v/v), n-hexane-2-PrOH-DEA (70:30:0.2, v/v), and n-hexane-2-propanol (90:10, v/v) as mobile phases. The separation was carried out at 25 ± 1 ºC temperature with detection at 225 nm for cetirizine and oxybutynin and 220 nm for pheniramine and brinzolamide. The flow rates of the mobile phases were 0.5 mL min(-1). The retention factors of pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine and brinzolamide were 3.25 and 4.34, 4.76 and 5.64, 6.10 and 6.60, and 1.64 and 2.01, respectively. The separation factors of these drugs were 1.33, 1.18, 1.09 and 1.20 while their resolutions factors were 1.09, 1.45, 1.63 and 1.25, and 1.15, respectively. The absolute configurations of the eluted enantiomers of the reported drugs were determined by simulation studies. It was observed that the order of enantiomers elution of the reported drugs was S-pheniramine > R-pheniramine; R-oxybutynin > S-oxybutynin; S-cetirizine > R-cetirizine; and S-brinzolamide > R-brinzolamide. The mechanism of separation was also determined at the supramolecular level by considering interactions and modeling results. The reported SPE-chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods are suitable for the enantiomeric analyses of these drugs in any biological sample. In addition, simulation studies may be used to determine the absolute configuration of the first and second eluted enantiomers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Application of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for separation and characterization of impurities and isomers in cefpiramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Yu; Wen, Chunmei; Wang, Zhijian

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry had been routinely used for structure identification of impurity. However, all LC-MS methods were based on a volatile mobile phase, and a non-volatile system is used in the official analytical method of United States Pharmacopoeia for cefpiramide which limited the use of mass spectrometry for structure characterization of the impurities. Here we presented the utilization of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D LC-IT-TOF MS) with positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization for characterization of eight impurities in cefpiramide. Trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography and online desalting technique made it possible to characterize the impurity in cefpiramide in the condition of official standard, and the TIC chromatogram of LC-MS was in conformity with the LC chromatogram of the official analytical method in the peak sequence of impurities, which could further improve the method of official monographs in pharmacopoeias. Each peak separated by the non-volatile mobile phase was trapped by a 20 μL quantitative loop then transferred into a system with a volatile mobile phase connected to a MS detector. In the first dimension, the column was Kromasil C 8 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a non-volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 . In the second dimension, the column was Shimadzu Shim-pack GISS C 18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) with a volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.3 mL min -1 . Through the multiple heart-cutting 2D-LC approach and online desalting technique, the problem of incompatibility between non-volatile salt mobile phase and mass spectrometry was solved completely. The fragmentation behavior of cefpiramide and its eight impurities were studied. The structures of eight impurities in cefpiramide drug substance were deduced based on the HPLC-MS n data, in

  18. Feasibility Studies for Production of Pellet Grade Concentrate from Sub Grade Iron Ore Using Multi Gravity Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gottumukkala Venkateswara; Markandeya, R.; Kumar, Rajan

    2018-04-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise Sub Grade Iron Ore by producing pellet grade concentrate from Deposit 5, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, Chhattisgarh, India. The `as received' Run of Mine (ROM) sample assayed 40.80% Fe, 40.90% SiO2. Mineralogical studies indicated that the main ore mineral is Hematite and lone gangue mineral is Quartz. Mineral liberation studies indicated that, the ore mineral Hematite and gangue mineral Quartz are getting liberated below 100 microns. The stage crushed and ground sample was subjected to concentration by using a Multi Gravity Separator (MGS). Rougher Multi Gravity Separation (MGS) experimental results were optimised to recover highest possible iron values. A concentrate of 55.80% Fe with a yield of 61.73% by weight with a recovery of 84.42% Iron values was obtained in rougher MGS concentrate. Further experiments were carried out with rougher MGS concentrate to produce a concentrate suitable for commercial grade pellet concentrate. It was proved that a concentrate assaying 66.67% Fe, 3.12% SiO2 with an yield of 45.08% by weight and with a recovery of 73.67% iron values in the concentrate.

  19. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  20. Studies on separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiuqing; Zhi, Xuran; Sheng, Ning; Zhang, Lantong

    2013-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the separation and determination of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. Samples were pretreated by a single-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. After m-nisoldipine racemic administration to beagle dogs, samples of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma were separated and determined on a ULTRON ES-OVM column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 20°C with a mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (pH 7.0; 2mM) (15:15:70, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Chromatograms were monitored at 237 nm, and the API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode using ElectroSpray ionization (ESI) source. The good linearity (rs=0.9958 and rr=0.9983) were found in the range 0.25-20 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) obtained was 0.25 ng/mL (n=6). All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, intra-day and inter-day repeatability, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. The result of statistics analysis shows that there are no significant differences between R-(-)-m-nisoldipine and S-(+)-m-nisoldipine (p>0.05). The study provides necessary evidences for the research and new drug development of m-nisoldipine enantiomers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Site characterization and impact study prototype for secondary schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davin, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary Education tends to be departmentalized to a degree that science disciplines are taught as separate entities with concepts and programs that are fragmented from the aggregate base of scientific knowledge. There is a need to synthesize these disciplines into one curricula that will provide a holistic approach rather than a narrow focus. Isolated disciplines foster isolated and disjointed strategies in environmental problem solving. Real world solutions to environmental challenges require an interdisciplinary team of specialists if goals are to be realized. This prototype incorporates various aspects of an impact study, including air and water quality, wildlife resources, agriculture and forest land, geologic data, socioeconomic impacts, historic and cultural preservation, politics and aesthetics into one curriculum to demonstrate the interconnectedness of these subjects

  2. Characterization of adhesive from oysters: A structural and compositional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Erik

    The inability for man-made adhesives to set in wet or humid environments is an ongoing challenging the design of biomedical and marine adhesive materials. However, we see that nature has already overcome this challenge. Mussels, barnacles, oysters and sandcastle worms all have unique mechanisms by which they attach themselves to surfaces. By understanding what evolution has already spent millions of years perfecting, we can design novel adhesive materials inspired by nature's elegant designs. The well-studied mussel is currently the standard for design of marine inspired biomimetic polymers. In the work presented here, we aim to provide new insights into the adhesive produced by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Unlike the mussel, which produces thread-like plaques comprised of DOPA containing-protein, the oyster secretes an organic-inorganic hybrid adhesive as it settles and grows onto a surface. This form of adhesion renders the oyster to be permanently fixed in place. Over time, hundreds of thousands of oyster grow and agglomerate to form extensive reef structures. These reefs are not only essential to survival of the oyster, but are also vital to intertidal ecosystems. While the shell of the oyster has been extensively studied, curiously, only a few conflicting insights have been made into the nature of the adhesive and contact zone between shell and substrate, and even lesfs information has been ascertained on organic and inorganic composition. In this work, we provide microscopy and histochemical studies to characterize the structure and composition of the adhesive, using oyster in the adult and juvenile stages of life. Preliminary work on extracting and characterizing organic components through collaborative help with solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and proteomics are also detailed here. We aim to provide a full, comprehensive characterization of oyster adhesive so that in the future, we may apply what we learn to the design of new materials.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin Containing Copolymers: Reactivity Ratio Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups – dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM – were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST and butyl acrylate (BA were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (≤15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis in classical and carrier ampholytes-based background electrolytes applied to separation and characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Poitevin, M.; Koval, Dušan; Busnel, J. M.; Peltre, G.; Kašička, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1267, SI (2012), s. 231-238 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : CABCE * isoelectric background electrolytes * peptide hormones Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  5. Preparation and characterization of thermo- and pH dual-responsive 3D cellulose-based aerogel for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linyan; Li, Lian; Wang, Yixi; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-01-01

    Oily wastewater caused by industrial production and crude oil leakage has attracted worldwide attention. Here, a thermo- and pH dual-responsive biodegradable cellulose-based aerogel for oil-water separation was designed and prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of non-fluorine-containing 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The cellulose-based aerogel exhibit switchable superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of 0° and hydrophobicity (WCA 130°) by modulating pH or temperature. The functionalized cellulose-based aerogels could be used to absorb the water under 60 °C (pH 7.0) and pH is 1.0 (T = 25 °C), while absorb oil underwater when the temperature is above 60 °C (pH 7.0) or pH is 13.0 (T = 25 °C). So this adsorbent were suitable for the separation of water-rich or oil-rich oil/water mixtures, and it could adsorb oil over ten times its own weight, and had a good reusability. What's more, the cellulose-based aerogel is green, low cost, and environmental friendly, which makes it a promising candidate to be used for oil-water separation.

  6. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes....... We develop new theory on the nature, antecedents, and motivational implications of separation awareness - a psychological state in which people are aware of their physical separation from others—and proffer a model of the mechanisms that link separation and motivation. We distinguish between control...... and autonomy affirmation as psychological states that are triggered by physical separation in the workplace, and discuss individual and context specific moderators, as well as motivational implications of separation awareness. In doing so, we reconcile the seemingly contradicting findings that have been...

  7. Test beam studies of possibilities to separate particles with gamma factors above 103 with straw based Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, N.; Cherry, M. L.; Doronin, S. A.; Filippov, K.; Fusco, P.; Konovalov, S.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kramarenko, V.; Loparco, F.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pyatiizbyantseva, D.; Radomskii, R.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Savchenko, A.; Shulga, E.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spinelli, P.; Teterin, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Vorobev, K.; Zhukov, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of hadron production in the TeV energy range are one of the tasks of the future studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main goal of these experiments is a study of the fundamental QCD processes at this energy range, which is very important not only for probing of the Standard Model but also for ultrahigh-energy cosmic particle physics. One of the key elements of these experiments measurements are hadron identification. The only detector technology which has a potential ability to separate hadrons in this energy range is Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) technology. TRD prototype based on straw proportional chambers combined with a specially assembled radiator has been tested at the CERN SPS accelerator beam. The test beam results and comparison with detailed Monte Carlo simulations are presented here.

  8. A study of fish behaviour in the extension of a demersal trawl using a multi-compartment separator frame and SIT camera system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Madsen, Niels; Karlsen, Junita

    2009-01-01

    A rigid separator frame with three vertically stacked codends was used to study fish behaviour in the extension piece of a demersal trawl. A video camera recorded fish as they encountered the separator frame. Ten hauls were conducted in a mixed species fishery in the northern North Sea. Fish...

  9. Characterization and Study of Transgenic Cultivars by Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Domínguez Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the analysis of genetically modified organisms. Study of the substantial equivalence, discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars, study of the unintended effects caused by a genetic modification or their response to diverse situations or stress conditions (e.g., environmental, climatic, infections are some of the concerns that need to be addressed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE is emerging as an alternative to conventional techniques for the study and characterization of genetically modified organisms. This article reviews the most recent applications of CE for the analysis and characterization of transgenic cultivars in the last five years. Different strategies have been described depending on the level analyzed (DNA, proteins or metabolites. Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE has shown to be particularly useful for the analysis of DNA fragments amplified by PCR. Metabolites and proteins have been mainly separated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using UV and MS detection. Electrophoretic chips have also proven their ability in the analysis of transgenic cultivars and a section describing the new applications is also included.

  10. LC-MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2: Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI-MS and UV-Vis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    The protein species of apomyoglobin (apoMb) and heme are freed and segregated from the aqueous protein solution of metmyoglobin by liquid chromatography, and are distinguished by UV-Vis absorption or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This is an ingenious and effective approach to characterize apomyoglobin and heme, while students…

  11. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies with Duolite-162, a type-II resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The selection of resin plays an important role in the process of separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography. The determination of (i) ion exchange capacity of Duolite-162 resin for hydroxyl - chloride exchange, (ii) hydroxyl - borate exchange, (iii) isotopic exchange separation factor by batch method and (iv) effect of concentration of boric acid on isotopic exchange separation factor to test the suitability of the above resin for this process are discussed in this report. (author)

  12. Radiochemical Study on the Separation of Chromium-51 from the Irradiated Target by Using Commercial and/or Synthesized Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydia, M.I.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work involves the following steps:1- Preparation of Triton X-100 Cerium(IV) Phosphate (TX-100CeP) as a surface active ion exchanger or organometallic molecules. 2- Characterization of the TX-100CeP by different methods (i.e. IR, TGA/DTA X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and elemental analysis). 3- Development a method for separation and quantification of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). 4- Separation of 51 Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in the target of K 2 CrO 4 on TX-100CeP and Permutit as a commercial ion exchanger. 5- Quality control on the separated 51 Cr(III).

  13. Characterization of INEL compactible wastes, compactor options study, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Larsen, M.M.; Aldrich, W.C.

    1986-03-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed characterization and evaluation of low-level radioactive waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and an evaluation of compactors available commercially. The results of these evaluations formed the basis for a study of compactor options suitable for compacting INEL-generated low-level waste. Seven compactor options were evaluated. A decision analysis performed on the results of the compactor option study and cost analysis showed that a 200-ton box compactor and a 5000-ton box supercompactor were the best options for an INEL compaction facility other than the RWMC. Two compactor locations were considered: WERF and CPP. The WERF location is recommended on the basis of existing facilities to house the compactor and store the waste, the presence of a trained waste-handling staff, and the desirability of maintaining a single location for processing INEL-generated low-level waste

  14. Study on selective separation of uranium(VI) by new N,N-dialkyl carboxy-amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Sugo, Yumi; Kimura, Takaumi; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The Feasibility study (FS) on commercialized FR cycle systems has been carried out in Japan. In this Feasibility study, 'Advanced Aqueous' reprocessing was designed as a new reprocessing concept to enhance nuclear non-proliferation by recycling U, Pu and minor actinides (MA) with some fission products (FP). The crystallization and U(VI)/TRU(transuranics) co-extraction technique have been selected as candidate technique in the 'Advanced Aqueous' reprocessing. In JAEA, the result of Feasibility study was received and Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT) was started. In the nuclear spent fuel reprocessing, FBR spent fuels will coexist with LWR spent fuels for several decades until FBR cycle begins to operate. For the treatment of LWR spent fuels, high decontamination factor for FP was required for U(VI) storage, and solvent extraction technique was selected in the nuclear fuel treatment. In our laboratory, N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides have been developed as extractant based on solvent extraction technique for one of a back-up technology of 'Advanced Aqueous' reprocessing in FBR spent fuel treatments. N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides were noted as one of the alternative extractant of tri-butylphosphate (TBP) in the field of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides was almost similar to those with TBP. N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides have some advantages, namely, their complete incinerability (CHON principle) and high stability for hydrolysis and radiolysis. Their main degradation products are carboxylic acids and secondary amines which hardly affect the separation of U(VI) and Pu(IV) from fission products. Further, the synthesis of N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides was relatively easy with reaction of carboxylic chloride and secondary amine. The main purpose of this solvent extraction technique using N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides is selective separation of Uranium(VI) with branched N,N-di-alkyl carboxy

  15. Information collection and analysis of geological characterization and evaluation technology and application to geological characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideki; Noda, Masaru; Nishikawa, Naohito; Sato, Shoko; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2003-03-01

    Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting the Regional Groundwater Investigation and Mizunami Underground Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop investigation technologies and evaluation methods of geological environment. At present, towards the next progress reporting on research and development for geological disposal of HLW in Japan, based on the existing research and development results, the projects which are conducted by TGC are required for promoting smoothly and efficiently with regard to the current Japanese HLW program. According to such situation, for planning of the geological environment investigation and research at TGC and the next progress reporting, this study has investigated and summarizes overseas environmental impact assessments for final disposal, overseas site characterization and site selection, and overseas research plan of underground research laboratories. Based on the results of investigation, some technologies which have possibility to be applied to the MIU Project have been studied. Also overseas quality assurance programs have been investigated, and examples of the application of their concepts to MIU project have been considered. (author)

  16. Understanding Am3+/Cm3+ separation with H4TPAEN and its hydrophilic derivatives: a quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Wen; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wu, Qun-Yan; Lan, Jian-Hui; Song, Gang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2018-05-10

    Am3+/Cm3+ separation is an extremely hard but important task in nuclear waste treatment. In this study, Am and Cm complexes formed with a back-extraction agent N,N,N',N'-tetrakis[(6-carboxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]ethylene-diamine (H4TPAEN) and its two derivatives with hydrophilic substituents (methoxy and morpholine groups) were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). The optimized geometrical structures indicated that the Am3+ cation matched better with the cavities of the three studied ligands than Cm3+, and the Am3+ cations were located deeper in the cavities of the ligands. The bond order and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses suggested that ionic interactions dominated An-N and An-O (An = Cm and Am) bonds. However, weak and different extents of partial covalency could also be found in the Am-N and Cm-N bonds. The O donor atoms in the carboxylate groups preferably coordinated with Cm3+ rather than Am3+, whereas the N atoms preferred Am3+. Therefore, the Am3+/Cm3+ selectivity of H4TPAEN and its two hydrophilic derivatives may be ascribed to the competition between the An-N and An-O interactions and the few dissimilarities in their geometrical structures. Based on our calculations, the methoxy and morpholine groups in the two derivatives can serve as electron-donating groups and enhance the strength of the An-NPY bonds (NPY denotes the nitrogen atom of pyridine ring). When compared with the Am-complex, the Cm-complex exhibited significant strength effect, resulting in the relatively lower Am3+/Cm3+ separation ability of the H4TPAEN's hydrophilic derivatives.

  17. Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Hannes; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Päären, Aivar; Jonsson, Ulf

    2017-03-29

    Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  18. Characterization Study of Accelerator for Application in Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid-M; Muryono, H.

    2000-01-01

    The characterization of accelerator for application in biotechnology was studied. Accelerator is a machine to produce ion beam particles. Accelerator can be used for biotechnology experiments. Ion beam particles irradiation on the biological material will produced variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. In general, new varieties were found by hybridization method or mutation breeding method by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particles can be used for biological material irradiation to find variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. The high percentage of mutation rate and LET value by ion beam particles irradiation was found higher than by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particle irradiation can also be controlled and foewed to target in biological material. The characterization of accelerator needed for biotechnology experiments are types of accelerator (Tandem Van de Graff, AVF Cyclotron, Synchrotron, Rilac), types of ion particles (C, He, electron, Ar, Ne, Ni, Al, Xe and Au), range of energy (5 - 2.090 MeV), range of dose irradiation (10 - 250 Gy), range of ion current (0.02 - 20 nA), range of ion beam particles diameter (10 - 100 μm), range of LET value (300 - 1.800 keV/μm ) and irradiation time (5 - 30 seconds/samples). (author)

  19. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff

  20. A Study on the Flow Characterization in the Reactor Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Ko, Kwang Jeok; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Min Gyu; Cho, Yeon Ho; Kim, Hyun Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the flow characterization of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed by using a 3 dimensional model and the ANSYS CFX software in order to predict the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC) of the RCPSA. The Reactor Cavity is the annular space by the concrete structure, the Reactor Cavity Pool Seal Assembly (RCPSA), which consists of the welded steel and is designed to be installed between the RV and the refueling pool floor, and the Reactor Vessel (RV). For such reason, the RCPSA should be designed to provide the cooling air passage for ventilation to circulate high temperature air passing by the RV during the reactor operation. It means that the RCPSA is influenced by the convection of cooling air and the thermal expansion of the RV. Therefore, the flow characterization at the reactor cavity is one of the factors of the RCPSA design during the reactor operation. The flow distribution of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed using ANSYS CFX software to obtain the CHTC at surface of the RCPSA. 1) The temperature from the RV and the insulation is one of the critical factors for the thermal gradient of the cooling air and the CHTC in the reactor cavity. 2) The rapid change of the CHTC in inner region nearby inner and outer flexure is related to the geometry shape of the RCPSA and velocity of cooling air.