WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensu lato isolates

  1. Whole-Genome Sequences of 94 Environmental Isolates of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Géraldine A; Feldgarden, Michael; Kolter, Roberto; Mahillon, Jacques

    2013-10-03

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is a species complex that includes the anthrax pathogen Bacillus anthracis and other bacterial species of medical, industrial, and ecological importance. Their phenotypes of interest are typically linked to large plasmids that are closely related to the anthrax plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 94 isolates of B. cereus sensu lato, which were chosen for their plasmid content and environmental origins.

  2. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate from a patient with lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato A14S was cultured from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with erythema migrans in The Netherlands. This isolate had a unique DNA fingerprint pattern compared to 135 other B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. In this study, the isolate A14S was further characterized

  3. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  4. Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Raquel; Barral, Marta; Pérez, Azucena; Vitutia, M. Mar; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Jiménez, Santos; Sellek, Ricela E.; Anda, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from questing ticks and skin biopsy specimens from erythema migrans patients in three different areas of Spain were characterized. Four different genospecies were found (nine Borrelia garinii, including the two human isolates, three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, two B. valaisiana, and one B. lusitaniae), showing a diverse spectrum of B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. B. garinii isolates were highly variable in terms of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and OspA serotype, with four of the seven serotypes described. One of the human isolates was OspA serotype 5, the same found in four of seven tick isolates. The second human isolate was OspA serotype 3, which was not present in ticks from the same area. Seven B. garinii isolates were able to disseminate through the skin of C3H/HeN mice and to cause severe inflammation of joints. One of the two B. valaisiana isolates also caused disease in mice. Only one B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate was recovered from the urinary bladder. One isolate each of B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae were not able to disseminate through the skin of mice or to infect internal organs. In summary, there is substantial diversity in the species and in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in areas in northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:11060064

  5. Incidence, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Toxin Profiles of Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolated from Korean Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Kwang-Yeop; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hong-Seok; Choi, Da-Som; Choi, In-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Korean fermented soybean products, such as doenjang, kochujang, ssamjang, and cho-kochujang, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sensu lato). The aim of this study was to characterize the toxin gene profiles, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns of B. cereus sensu lato strains isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. Eighty-eight samples of Korean fermented soybean products purchased from retails in Seoul were tested. Thirteen of 26 doenjang samples, 13 of 23 kochujang samples, 16 of 30 ssamjang samples, and 5 of 9 cho-kochujang samples were positive for B. cereus sensu lato strains. The contamination level of all positive samples did not exceed 4 log CFU/g of food (maximum levels of Korea Food Code). Eighty-seven B. cereus sensu lato strains were isolated from 47 positive samples, and all isolates carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of hblCDA, nheABC, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin genes among all isolates were 34.5%, 98.9%, 57.5%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen strains (17.2%) harbored the emetic toxin gene. Most strains tested positive for salicin fermentation (62.1%), starch hydrolysis (66.7%), hemolysis (98.9%), motility test (100%), and lecithinase production (96.6%). The B. cereus sensu lato strains were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, penicillin, cefepime, imipenem, and oxacillin. Although B. cereus sensu lato levels in Korean fermented soybean products did not exceed the maximum levels permitted in South Korea (<10(4) CFU/g), these results indicate that the bacterial isolates have the potential to cause diarrheal or emetic gastrointestinal diseases. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Genetic structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates infecting papaya inferred by multilocus ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and causes anthracnose disease in numerous plant species. Development of effective disease management strategies is dependent on, among other factors, an understanding of pathogen genetic diversity and population stratification at the intraspecific level. For 132 isolates of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato collected from papaya in Trinidad, inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) generated 121 polymorphic loci from five ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 22 ISSR primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 99.18%. Bayesian cluster analysis inferred three genetic subpopulations, where group 1 consisted exclusively of isolates collected in the southern part of Trinidad whereas groups 2 and 3, although genetically distinct, were mixtures of isolates collected from both the northern and southern parts of Trinidad. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean phylogeny were concordant with Bayesian cluster analysis and supported subdivision into the three subpopulations. Overall, the total mean gene diversity was 0.279, the mean within-population gene diversity was 0.2161, and genetic differentiation for the Trinidad population was 0.225. Regionally, northern isolates had a lower gene diversity compared with southern isolates. Nei's gene diversity was highest for group 1 (h = 0.231), followed by group 2 (h = 0.215) and group 3 (h = 0.202). Genotypic diversity was at or near maximum for all three subpopulations after clone correction. Pairwise estimates of differentiation indicated high and significant genetic differentiation among the inferred subpopulations (Weir's θ of 0.212 to 0.325). Pairwise comparisons among subpopulations suggested restricted gene flow between groups 1 and 2 and groups 1 and 3 but not between groups 2 and 3. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected

  7. Genetic structure and demographic history of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum isolates from Trinidad and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N; Perez-Brito, Daisy; Torres-Calzada, Claudia; Tapia-Tussell, Raul; Carrington, Christine V F

    2013-06-22

    C. gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most economically important post-harvest diseases affecting papaya production worldwide. There is currently no information concerning the genetic structure or demographic history of this pathogen in any of the affected countries. Knowledge of molecular demographic parameters for different populations will improve our understanding of the biogeographic history as well as the evolutionary and adaptive potential of these pathogens. In this study, sequence data for ACT, GPDH, β-TUB and ITS gene regions were analyzed for C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum isolates infecting papaya in Trinidad and Mexico in order to determine the genetic structure and demographic history of these populations. The data indicated that Mexico is the ancestral C. gloeosporioides sensu lato population with asymmetrical migration to Trinidad. Mexico also had the larger effective population size but, both Mexico and Trinidad populations exhibited population expansion. Mexico also had greater nucleotide diversity and high levels of diversity for each gene. There was significant sub-division of the Trinidad and Mexico populations and low levels of genetic divergence among populations for three of the four gene regions; β-TUB was shown to be under positive selection. There were also dissimilar haplotype characteristics for both populations. Mutation may play a role in shaping the population structure of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates from Trinidad and from Mexico, especially with respect to the ACT and GPDH gene regions. There was no evidence of gene flow between the C. truncatum populations and it is possible that the Mexico and Trinidad populations emerged independently of each other. The study revealed relevant information based on the genetic structure as well as the demographic history of two fungal pathogens infecting papaya, C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum, in Trinidad and Mexico. Understanding the genetic

  8. The Phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Richard T; Keim, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The three main species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were recognized and established by the early 1900 s because they each exhibited distinct phenotypic traits. B. thuringiensis isolates and their parasporal crystal proteins have long been established as a natural pesticide and insect pathogen. B. anthracis, the etiological agent for anthrax, was used by Robert Koch in the 19th century as a model to develop the germ theory of disease, and B. cereus, a common soil organism, is also an occasional opportunistic pathogen of humans. In addition to these three historical species designations, are three less-recognized and -understood species: B. mycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. pseudomycoides. All of these "species" combined comprise the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Despite these apparently clear phenotypic definitions, early molecular approaches to separate the first three by various DNA hybridization and 16S/23S ribosomal sequence analyses led to some "confusion" because there were limited differences to differentiate between these species. These and other results have led to frequent suggestions that a taxonomic change was warranted to reclassify this group to a single species. But the pathogenic properties of B. anthracis and the biopesticide applications of B. thuringiensis appear to "have outweighed pure taxonomic considerations" and the separate species categories are still being maintained. B. cereus sensu lato represents a classic example of a now common bacterial species taxonomic quandary.

  9. High-rate evolution of Saccharomyces sensu lato chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Yang, J.; Groth, C.

    2003-01-01

    Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic relat...

  10. Comparison of isolation rate of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two different culture media, MKP and BSK-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić-Sabljić, E; Maraspin, V; Cimperman, J; Strle, F; Lotrič-Furlan, S; Stupica, D; Cerar, T

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate two culture media for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolation from a 5 × 2 × 2 mm skin biopsy that was dissected into two pieces and inoculated into modified Kelly-Pettenkofer (MKP) and Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly-H (BSK-H) medium. Samples were incubated at 33°C for up to 9 weeks. Borrelia species was determined by MluI-restriction of whole genome or by MseI-restriction of PCR product. We determined the proportion of isolation rate, 'slow-growers', contaminated specimens and Borrelia species in the two media. In each of the two media 235 skin specimens were cultivated. We found 90/470 (19.1%) contaminated cultures (BSK-H 67/235, 28.5%; MKP 23/235, 9.8%; p cultures (p cultures were 59/168 (35.1%) and 102/212 (48.1%); (p 0.003). Fourteen specimens were positive only in BSK-H, 57 solely in MKP, and 43 in both culture media. Slow growth was present in 8/59 (13.6%) BSK-H and in 4/98 (4.1%) MKP positive cultures (p 0.019). Borrelia afzelii was identified in 44/51 (86.3%) BSK-H and in 88/98 (89.8%) MKP culture-positive samples; the corresponding findings for Boreelia garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were 6/51 (11.8%) and 9/98 (9.2%), and 1/51 (1.9%) and 1/98 (1.0%), for BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H medium for Borrelia culturing from skin specimens of European patients with erythema migrans revealed the advantage of MKP over BSK-H. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ružić-Sabljić

    Full Text Available The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; p<0.0001. The far most frequently isolated species was Borrelia afzelii (92.9% and 97.2% strains isolated from BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of strains cultured from individual patients in both media showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6% strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8% strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP. BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  12. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Maraspin, Vera; Stupica, Daša; Rojko, Tereza; Bogovič, Petra; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2017-01-01

    The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India) and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; pmedia showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6%) strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8%) strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP). BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  13. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Maraspin, Vera; Stupica, Daša; Rojko, Tereza; Bogovič, Petra; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2017-01-01

    The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India) and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; pmedia showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6%) strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8%) strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP). BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes. PMID:28170447

  14. Pathogenicity and characterization of a novel Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate toxic to the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, Luca; Falchi, Giovanni; Floris, Ignazio; Marche, Maria Giovanna; Mura, Maria Elena; Satta, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The lethal and sub-lethal effects of sporulated cultures of a novel Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain lacking detectable cry genes and identified through morphological and genetic analyses, have been studied on the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The lethal effects on young larvae were concentration dependent, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.48 × 10(8)spores/g of diet. Sporulated cultures of this strain significantly extended development time and reduced immature survival, and the size of emerging fly adults. Besides spores, the toxicity has been associated to the insoluble extra-spore fraction characterized through a proteomic approach. The profile of the extra-spore protein fraction (ES) showed major protein bands within the 35-65 kDa range. The results of mass spectrometry analysis highlighted the presence of putative virulence factors, including members of protein families previously associated to the insecticidal action of other microbial entomopathogens. These proteins include metalloproteases, peptidases and other enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato): an enigmatic complex

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Goyal; Gyan Prakash Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Lantana camara L., considered among the world's worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato). Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato), a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clea...

  16. An alternative method for the analysis of melanin production in Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda S N; España, Jaime D A; de Alencar, Lucas P; Pereira, Vandbergue S; Castelo-Branco, Débora de S C M; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro de A; Cordeiro, Rossana de A; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2017-10-01

    Melanin is an important virulence factor for several microorganisms, including Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, thus, the assessment of melanin production and its quantification may contribute to the understanding of microbial pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to standardise an alternative method for the production and indirect quantification of melanin in C. neoformans sensu lato and C. gattii sensu lato. Eight C. neoformans sensu lato and three C. gattii sensu lato, identified through URA5 methodology, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 (negative control) and one Hortaea werneckii (positive control) were inoculated on minimal medium agar with or without L-DOPA, in duplicate, and incubated at 35°C, for 7 days. Pictures were taken from the third to the seventh day, under standardised conditions in a photographic chamber. Then, photographs were analysed using grayscale images. All Cryptococcus spp. strains produced melanin after growth on minimal medium agar containing L-DOPA. C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 did not produce melanin on medium containing L-DOPA, while H. werneckii presented the strongest pigmentation. This new method allows the indirect analysis of melanin production through pixel quantification in grayscale images, enabling the study of substances that can modulate melanin production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Molecular Characterization and Risk Assessment of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Isolated from Ultrahigh-Temperature and Pasteurized Milk Marketed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Jeane Q; de Paiva, Eislaine P; Rabinovitch, Leon; Vivoni, Adriana M

    2017-07-01

    The presence of Bacillus cereus in milk is a major concern in the dairy industry. In this study 27 Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolates from pasteurized and ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk (24 whole UHT and 4 pasteurized samples) collected at supermarket chains in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were evaluated to assess the potential risk for food poisoning. Toxigenic and virulence profiles were defined by gene-specific PCR. Affiliation to phylogenetic groups was assigned by panC sequencing. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of B. cereus s.l. in eight (33.3%) brands (six brands of UHT and two brands of pasteurized milk). Twenty-seven isolates were recovered (13 B. cereus and 14 Bacillus thuringiensis ). Predominant toxigenic patterns were type I (contains all toxin genes except ces) and type II (does not contain cytK and ces), with seven (25.9%) isolates each. Predominant virulence patterns were type 2 (does not contain hlyII or shp) and type 3 (contains all virulence genes), with five (18.5%) isolates each. All isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups III and IV. Presence of hbl, piplc, and sph was associated with group IV isolates. Our results suggest that B. thuringiensis and B. cereus sensu stricto should be considered potential foodborne pathogens. Because the majority of the milk isolates studied have the potential to cause food poisoning because of the high prevalence of toxin and virulence genes and the specific phylogenetic group affiliations, these milk products can be potentially hazardous for human consumption.

  18. High-rate evolution of Saccharomyces sensu lato chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spírek, Mário; Yang, Jun; Groth, Casper; Petersen, Randi F; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Naumova, Elena S; Sulo, Pavol; Naumov, Gennadi I; Piskur, Jure

    2003-06-01

    Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic relationships among isolates based on the nuclear and mitochondrial sequences were usually similar, suggesting that horizontal transfer/introgression has not been frequent. The highest degree of polymorphism was observed at the chromosome level. Even isolates which had identical nuclear and mitochondrial sequences often exhibited variation in the number and size of their chromosomes. Apparently, yeast chromosomes have been frequently reshaped and therefore also the position of genes has been dynamic during the evolutionary history of yeasts.

  19. Characterization of the spore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato group and Clostridium perfringens bacteria isolated from the Australian dairy farm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréan, Paul; McAuley, Catherine M; Moore, Sean C; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2015-02-19

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group and Clostridium perfringens are spore-forming bacteria often associated with food spoilage and which can cause emetic and diarrheal syndromes in humans and ruminants. This study characterised the phenotypes and genotypes of 50 Bacillus cereus s. l. isolates and 26 Clostridium perfringens isolates from dairy farms environments in Victoria, Australia. Five of the seven B. cereus s. l. species were isolated, and analysis of the population diversity using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) suggested that the populations are largely distinct to each farm. Enterotoxin production by representative isolates of each B. cereus s. l. species identified was typically found to be reduced in milk, compared with broth. Among the C. perfringens isolates, only two different toxin types were identified, type A and D. Bovine and ovine farms harbored only type A whereas both type A and D were found on two of the three caprine farms. This study showed that the B. cereus s. l. populations on the sampled farms exhibit a broad diversity in both species and genotypes. The risk of toxin-induced diarrheal illness through consumption of contaminated milk may be limited, in comparison with other food matrices. Type A strains of C. perfringens were the most abundant on dairy farms in Victoria, however type D may be of concern on caprine farms as it can cause enterotoxemia in goats.

  20. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  1. Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus sensu lato and Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and Associated Enterotoxin Production Dynamics in Milk or Meat-Based Broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-York-Moore, Laura; Moore, Sean C.; Fox, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato species, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, are important pathogenic bacteria which can cause foodborne illness through the production of enterotoxins. This study characterised enterotoxin genes of these species and examined growth and enterotoxin production dynamics of isolates when grown in milk or meat-based broth. All B. cereus s. l. isolates harboured nheA, hblA and entFM toxin genes, with lower prevalence of bceT and hlyII. When grown at 16 °C, toxin production by individual B. cereus s. l. isolates varied depending on the food matrix; toxin was detected at cell densities below 5 log10(CFU/mL). At 16 °C no staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) production was detected by S. aureus isolates, although low levels of SED production was noted. At 30 °C all S. aureus isolates produced detectable enterotoxin in the simulated meat matrix, whereas SEC production was significantly reduced in milk. Relative to B. cereus s. l. toxin production, S. aureus typically required reaching higher cell numbers to produce detectable levels of enterotoxin. Phylogenetic analysis of the sec and sel genes suggested population evolution which correlated with animal host adaptation, with subgroups of bovine isolates or caprine/ovine isolates noted, which were distinct from human isolates. Taken together, this study highlights the marked differences in the production of enterotoxins both associated with different growth matrices themselves, but also in the behaviour of individual strains when exposed to different food matrices. PMID:28714887

  2. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Spanjaard, L.; Dankert, J.

    1998-01-01

    To study whether pathogenic clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains occur, we typed 136 isolates, cultured from specimens from patients (n = 49) with various clinical entities and from ticks (n = 83) or dogs (n = 4) from different geographic regions, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

  3. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. The majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with Borrelia. Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Methods Four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains were cultured from Ixodes minor larvae and four strains were isolated from Ixodes minor nymphs collected from a single Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). A multilocus sequence analysis that included 16S rRNA, a 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, a 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, flagellin, p66, and ospC separated 8 strains into 3 distinct groups. Additional multilocus sequence typing of 8 housekeeping genes, clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA was used to resolve the taxonomic status of bird-associated strains. Results Results of analysis of 14 genes confirmed that the level of divergence among strains is significantly higher than what would be expected for strains within a single species. The presence of cross-species recombination was revealed: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto housekeeping gene nifS was incorporated into homologous locus of strain, previously assigned to B. americana. Conclusions Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. We report the cross-species recombination that led to incorporation of a housekeeping gene from the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain into a homologous locus of another bird-associated strain. Our results support the hypothesis that recombination maintains a majority of sequence polymorphism within Borrelia

  4. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato seroreactivity and seroprevalence in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Peter J; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Wormser, Gary P; Barbour, Alan G; Platonov, Alexander E; Brancato, Janna; Lepore, Timothy; Dardick, Kenneth; Mamula, Mark; Rollend, Lindsay; Steeves, Tanner K; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Williamson, Phillip; Sarksyan, Denis S; Fikrig, Erol; Fish, Durland

    2014-07-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, a relapsing fever Borrelia sp., is transmitted by the same ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi (the Lyme disease pathogen) and occurs in all Lyme disease-endemic areas of the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of IgG against B. miyamotoi sensu lato in the northeastern United States and assess whether serum from B. miyamotoi sensu lato-infected persons is reactive to B. burgdorferi antigens, we tested archived serum samples from area residents during 1991-2012. Of 639 samples from healthy persons, 25 were positive for B. miyamotoi sensu lato and 60 for B. burgdorferi. Samples from ≈10% of B. miyamotoi sensu lato-seropositive persons without a recent history of Lyme disease were seropositive for B. burgdorferi. Our results suggest that human B. miyamotoi sensu lato infection may be common in southern New England and that B. burgdorferi antibody testing is not an effective surrogate for detecting B. miyamotoi sensu lato infection.

  5. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato: an enigmatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L., considered among the world’s worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato. Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato, a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clear terminology to examine weedy, naturalized and/or invasive complex constituents that have been placed under the contentious umbrella of ‘L. camara L. (sensu lato’. The time is ripe for invasion ecologists, cytogeneticists and conservationists to collaboratively focus on disentangling the complex and integrate their knowledge and expertise into management and control programs.

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmaraju, Venkata Arun; Theophilus, Priyanka A S; Balasubramanian, Kunthavai; Shakih, Shafiq; Luecke, David F; Sapi, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are microbial communities held together by an extracellular polymeric substance matrix predominantly composed of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. We had previously shown that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative organism of Lyme disease in the United States is capable of forming biofilms in vitro. Here, we investigated biofilm formation by B. afzelii and B. garinii, which cause Lyme disease in Europe. Using various histochemistry and microscopy techniques, we show that B. afzelii and B. garinii form biofilms, which resemble biofilms formed by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. High-resolution atomic force microscopy revealed similarities in the ultrastructural organization of the biofilms form by three Borrelia species. Histochemical experiments revealed a heterogeneous organization of exopolysaccharides among the three Borrelia species. These results suggest that biofilm formation might be a common trait of Borrelia genera physiology. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Karyotypes of Saccharomyces sensu lato species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Nilsson-Tilgren, Torsten; Piskur, Jure

    1999-01-01

    and Saccharomyces unisporus, 16 in Saccharomyces exiguus and seven in Saccharomyces kluyveri. The sizes of individual chromosomes were resolved and the approximate genome sizes were determined by the addition of individual chromosomes of the karyotypes. Apparently. the genome of S. exiguus, which is the only...... Saccharomyces sensu late yeast to contain small chromosomes, is larger than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, other species exhibited genome sizes that were 10-25% smaller than that of S. cerevisiae. Well-defined karyotypes represent the basis for future genome mapping and sequencing projects...

  9. Milk-originated Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains harbouring Bacillus anthracis-like plasmids are genetically and phenotypically diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszewicz, Marek; Marjańska, Paulina Sylwia

    2017-10-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is widely distributed in food products, including raw and processed milk. Plasmids often determine bacterial virulence and toxicity, but their role in the evolution of B. cereus sensu lato is only partly known. Here, we observed that nearly 8% of B. cereus sensu lato isolates were positive for pXO1-like plasmids and 12% for pXO2-like plasmids in raw and ultra-heat-treated (UHT) milk from one dairy plant. However, pXO1-like plasmids were significantly more frequent in raw milk, while pXO2-like plasmids were more frequent in processed milk. Strains from raw and UHT milk were enterotoxigenic, with up to one-fifth of the isolates being psychrotolerant. Phylogenetic assessment using multi-locus sequence typing revealed a polyphyletic structure for these bacilli, with distinct groups of cold-adapted isolates and pathogenic strains (including emetic B. cereus). Populations corresponding to both sampling sites exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium and the presence of purifying selection. The far-from-clonal population structure indicated the presence of sequence types or ecotypes adapted to specific conditions in the dairy industry. A high recombination-to-mutation ratio suggested an important role for horizontal gene transfer among B. cereus sensu lato isolates in milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ascospore development in Ceratocystis sensu lato (Fungi: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. J. van Wyk

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceratocystis. Ceratocxstiopsis and  Ophiostoma are important pathogens of trees and some agricultural crops and have recently been found on proteas and forest trees in South Africa. Taxonomic controversy exists regarding these genera and ultrastructural studies on the development of asci, uniquely shaped ascospores and centrum structure are inadequate. This rev iew summarises current knowledge of ascospore shape and development of the centrum obtained from light and electron microscope studies of Cemtocystis sensu lato. Important questions requiring further investigations are outlined. It is furthermore proposed that additional ultrastructural studies are required to clarify the current taxonomic disagreement in this group. Such studies could also identify relationships between these fungi and other Ascomycetes.

  12. Revisiting phylogenetic diversity and cryptic species of Cenococcum geophilum sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obase, Keisuke; Douhan, Greg W; Matsuda, Yosuke; Smith, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    The fungus Cenococcum geophilum Fr. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most common ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal to temperate regions. A series of molecular studies has demonstrated that C. geophilum is monophyletic but a heterogeneous species or a species complex. Here, we revisit the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato from a regional to intercontinental scale by using new data from Florida (USA) along with existing data in GenBank from Japan, Europe, and North America. The combination of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene resolved six well-supported lineages (87-100 % bootstrap values) that are closely related to each other and a seventh lineage that is phylogenetically distinct. A multi-locus analysis (small subunit (SSU), large subunit (LSU), translational elongation factor (TEF), and the largest and second-largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2)) revealed that the divergent lineage is the sister group to all other known Cenococcum isolates. Isolates of the divergent lineage grow fast on nutrient media and do not form ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of several pine and oak species. Our results indicate that C. geophilum sensu lato includes more phylogenetically distinct cryptic species than have previously been reported. Furthermore, the divergent lineage appears to be a non-mycorrhizal sister group. We discuss the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato and argue in favor of species recognition based on phylogenetic and ecological information in addition to morphological characteristics. A new genus and species (Pseudocenococcum floridanum gen. et sp. nov.) is proposed to accommodate a divergent and putatively non-mycorrhizal lineage.

  13. Intraspecific differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato based on in silico multilocus PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, Stephen; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most common and widely distributed plant pathogens in the world. Understanding fungal biodiversity is hinged on accurate identification and delimitation at the inter- and intraspecific levels. Sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (ITS), β-tubulin (TUB), actin (ACT), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) genes of 30 C. gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates, collected from anthracnose infected papaya fruits grown in the main production areas in Trinidad, were analyzed by in silico PCR-RFLP analysis with the aim of identifying which gene region(s) had the highest level of intraspecific polymorphism. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 13 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful at intraspecific discrimination of the C. gloeosporioides isolates. Genetic distance values were reflective of the level of polymorphisms obtained for the four different gene regions. In both cases (calculated genetic distance and percentage of polymorphic loci from RFLP profiles), ACT and ITS gene regions had the highest level of restriction site polymorphisms and genetic diversity, GPDH and TUB had the lowest. Cluster analysis based on PCR-RFLP genetic distance data revealed sub-specific placement of the isolates which appeared to be gene-dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed relative to biodiversity monitoring and the need for multilocus, polyphasic investigations which must take into account the possibility of exaggerated estimates of genetic diversity.

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  15. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Adam L

    2017-08-02

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis), and quantify the degree to which taxa sharing common attributes are phylogenetically clustered. A rapid k-mer based approach (Mash) was used to create reduced representations of selected Bacillus genomes, and a fast distance-based phylogenetic analysis of this data (FastME) was performed to determine which species should be included in B. cereus s. l. The complete genomes of eight B. cereus s. l. species were annotated de novo with Prokka, and these annotations were used by Roary to produce the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome. Scoary was used to associate gene presence and absence patterns with various phenotypes. The orthologous protein sequence clusters produced by Roary were filtered and used to build HaMStR databases of gene models that were used in turn to construct phylogenetic data matrices. Phylogenetic analyses used RAxML, DendroPy, ClonalFrameML, PAUP*, and SplitsTree. Bayesian model-based population genetic analysis assigned taxa to clusters using hierBAPS. The genealogical sorting index was used to quantify the phylogenetic clustering of taxa sharing common attributes. The B. cereus s. l. pan-genome currently consists of ≈60,000 genes, ≈600 of which are "core" (common to at least 99% of taxa sampled). Pan-GWAS analysis revealed genes associated with phenotypes such as isolation source, oxygen requirement, and ability to cause diseases such as anthrax or food poisoning. Extensive phylogenetic analyses using an unprecedented amount of data

  16. Gibberella xylarioides sensu lato from Coffea canephora: a new mating population in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoint, Pascale C E; Munaut, Françoise T J; Maraite, Henri M M

    2005-12-01

    Gibberella xylarioides Heim & Saccas (presumed anamorph, Fusarium xylarioides Steyaert) is the causal agent of coffee wilt disease, an economically important tracheomycosis in Africa. In vitro crosses carried out with Congolese, Ugandan, and Tanzanian single-ascospore/conidial isolates originating from diseased Coffea canephora/excelsa demonstrated a heterothallic mating system, controlled by a single locus with two alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2. Compatible isolates produced fertile perithecia within 2 to 8 weeks after mating. Mating type (MAT) was characterized by PCR with primer pairs previously developed for the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFC) and for Fusarium oxysporum. All strains analyzed were morphologically identical and corresponded to Booth's description of the "female" F. xylarioides strain. Based on crossing results and MAT-2/translation elongation 1-alpha (tef) sequence data, G. xylarioides, as currently understood, is demonstrated to encompass at least three "groups": G. xylarioides sensu strictu Ia, defined hitherto by two "historical" West African strains originating from the severe 1930s to 1950s epidemic (CBS 25852 and CBS 74979); G. xylarioides sensu strictu Ib, defined by two "historical" Central African lowland strains (DSMZ 62457 and ATCC 15664); and G. xylarioides sensu lato II, containing Congolese, Ugandan, and Tanzanian C. canephora/excelsa isolates. Infertility of crosses between the coffee wilt pathogen and known GFC mating populations demonstrates that G. xylarioides sensu lato constitutes a new biological species within the G. fujikuroi complex. MUCL 44532/MUCL 43887 and MUCL 35223/MUCL 44549 are proposed as G. xylarioides sensu lato II MAT-1/MAT-2 reference mating type tester strains.

  17. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato, is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii, despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR.IMPORTANCEBorrelia burgdorferisensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of borreliae in

  18. Sinopse taxonômica de Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil Taxonomic synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. in Alagoas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento sinóptico da família Boraginaceae sensu lato no Estado de Alagoas, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram encontrados três gêneros e 23 espécies: Cordia, com 13 espécies e Heliotropium e Tournefortia, representados por cinco espécies cada. São fornecidas chaves para o reconhecimento de gêneros e espécies, bem como ilustrações, dados de distribuição e hábitat.This work consists of a synoptic treatment for the family Boraginaceae sensu lato in Alagoas state, located in Northeast Brazil. Three genera and 23 species were found: Cordia with 13 species, Heliotropium and Tournefortia with five species each. Keys for determining genera and species are given, as well as illustrations, distribution data and habitat.

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in tick populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-09

    Estonia is located in a unique area of co-distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus, which are the main tick vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the last decade, the incidence rate of Lyme borreliosis in Estonia has increased dramatically up to 115.4 per 100,000 in 2012. Here we present the first survey of the presence, the prevalence and genetic characteristics of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex spirochetes in the tick population in Estonia. During the years 2006-2009, 2833 unfed Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus were collected from 43 sites in 7 counties in mainland Estonia as well as in 10 sites on the Saaremaa Island. DNA samples from ticks were analyzed individually using nested PCR of the ribosomal 5S-23S spacer region followed by bidirectional sequencing. The overall estimated prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l was 9.7% and varied from 4.9% to 24.2% on the mainland and to 10.7% in Saaremaa Island. Ixodes persulcatus ticks showed significantly higher prevalence rates compared to that in I. ricinus-16.3% and 8.2%, respectively. The most prevalent genospecies was B. afzelii which was detected in 53.5% of Borrelia-positive ticks, followed by B. garinii and B. valaisiana with 26.2% and 5.5%, respectively. Also, B. bavariensis and B. burgdorferi s.s. DNA in single I. ricinus ticks were detected. Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in both tick species. Two genetic subgroups of B. garinii (NT29 and 20047) and two genetic subgroups of B. afzelii (NT28 and VS461) were found to be circulating in all studied regions as well as in both tick species, except B. garinii subgroup NT29, which was found only in I. persulcatus ticks. In the current study we detected the circulation of five B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies and estimated the prevalence in ticks in different regions of Estonia. Detection and genetic characterization of Borrelia genospecies, especially those of public health importance, in the natural foci may help assessing

  20. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-07-15

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. In vitro repellency of DEET against the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum can parasite humans and domestic animals and are vectors of pathogens, including zoonoses. Repellents are an important tool of tick control. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of N,N-diethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard repell...

  2. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Schwartz, I.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochete that causes human Lyme borreliosis (LB), is a genetically and phenotypically divergent species. In the past several years, various molecular approaches have been developed and used to determine the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the

  3. First documentation of ivermectin resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The indiscriminate use of chemicals for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure...

  4. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans. Borrelia afzelii is the most common

  5. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  6. Genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum sensu lato isolates from wheat associated with Fusarium Head Blight in diverse geographic locations of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Verónica F; Ortega, Leonel M; Salerno, Graciela; Astoreca, Andrea L; Alconada, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight is an important wheat disease in the Argentine Pampas region, being Fusarium graminearum the predominant pathogen. DNA polymorphism of the isolates was analyzed by IGS-RFLP and ISSR. IGS-RFLP and ISSR profiling were carried out using six endonucleases and eight primers, respectively. IGS-RFLP yielded 41 bands, 30 of which were polymorphic while ISSR produced 87 bands with 47 polymorphic bands. Both markers showed genetic variability among the analyzed isolates; however, IGS-RFLP was more efficient than ISSR, showing a higher polymorphic average (59.91%) than the latter (44.11%). The averages of polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.211 and 0.129, respectively. Twenty haplotypes were identified by IGS-RFLP and 15 haplotypes by ISSR. Genotype clustering within dendrograms was different for both types of markers. The genetic groups obtained by IGS-RFLP showed a partial association to geographic origin. This is the first report on genetic variability of F. graminearum isolates from wheat in Argentina using IGS-RFLP and ISSR markers. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Arguments against the involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutacker, M; Valsangiacomo, C; Balmelli, T; Bernasconi, M V; Bouras, C; Piffaretti, J C

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of spirochaetes, such as the aetiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neuropathology, has been proposed by several groups in the past. In our laboratory, brains from 10 AD patients were analysed for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato by both standard and nested PCR techniques based on various target regions, such as the hbb gene (encoding the histone-like protein HBb), the fla gene (flagellin), the rrl-rrf ribosomal intergenic spacer region and the rrs gene (encoding 16S rRNA). In addition, ELISA and Western blot tests for the detection of antibodies against spirochaetal antigens were performed on 27 sera from clinical AD patients. Using these methods, we did not obtain any evidence of the involvement of B. burgdorferi in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Detection and differentiation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is an important endemic zoonosis whose distribution is closely related to the main ixodid tick vectors. In China, isolated cases of Lyme disease infection of humans have been reported in 29 provinces. Ticks, especially ixodid ticks are abundant and a wide arrange of Borrelia natural reservoirs are present. In this study, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB to identify Borrelia spp. in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in 7 Provinces covering the main extensive livestock regions in China. Results Four species-specific RLB oligonucleotide probes were deduced from the spacer region between the 5S-23S rRNA gene, along with an oligonucleotide probe which was common to all. The species specific probes were shown to discriminate between four genomic groups of B. burgdorferi sensu lato i.e. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana, and to bind only to their respective target sequences, with no cross reaction to non target DNA. Furthermore, the RLB could detect between 0.1 pg and 1 pg of Borrelia DNA. A total of 723 tick samples (Haemaphysalis, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor from sheep and cattle were examined with RLB, and a subset of 667 corresponding samples were examined with PCR as a comparison. The overall infection rate detected with RLB was higher than that of the PCR test. The infection rate of B. burgdoreri sensu stricto was 40% in south areas; while the B. garinii infection rate was 40% in north areas. The highest detection rates of B. afzelii and B. valaisiana were 28% and 22%, respectively. Mixed infections were also found in 7% of the ticks analyzed, mainly in the North. The proportion of B. garinii genotype in ticks was overall highest at 34% in the whole investigation area. Conclusion In this study, the RLB assay was used to detect B. burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China. The

  9. The Historical Speciation of Mauremys Sensu Lato: Ancestral Area Reconstruction and Interspecific Gene Flow Level Assessment Provide New Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaxing; Jiang, Yuan; Nie, Liuwang; Yin, Huazong; Li, Haifeng; Dong, Xianmei; Zhao, Feifei; Zhang, Huanhuan; Pu, Youguang; Huang, Zhenfeng; Song, Jiaolian; Sun, Entao

    2015-01-01

    Mauremys sensu lato was divided into Mauremys, Chinemys, Ocadia, and Annamemys based on earlier research on morphology. Phylogenetic research on this group has been controversial because of disagreements regarding taxonomy, and the historical speciation is still poorly understood. In this study, 32 individuals of eight species that are widely distributed in Eurasia were collected. The complete mitochondrial (mt) sequences of 14 individuals of eight species were sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships, interspecific divergence times, and ancestral area reconstructions were explored using mt genome data (10,854 bp). Subsequent interspecific gene flow level assessment was performed using five unlinked polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed a paraphyletic relationship among four old genera (Mauremys, Annamemys, Chinemys, and Ocadia) and suggested the four old genera should be merged into the genus (Mauremys). Ancestral area reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggested Southeast Asia may be the area of origin for the common ancestral species of this genus and genetic drift may have played a decisive role in species divergence due to the isolated event of a glacial age. However, M. japonica may have been speciated due to the creation of the island of Japan. The detection of extensive gene flow suggested no vicariance occurred between Asia and Southeast Asia. Inconsistent results between gene flow assessment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the hybrid origin of M. mutica (Southeast Asian). Here ancestral area reconstruction and interspecific gene flow level assessment were first used to explore species origins and evolution of Mauremys sensu lato, which provided new insights on this genus.

  10. Taxonomic study on Navicula sensu lato from inland waters in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukushima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very few comparative taxonomic studies on Arctic and circumboreal diatoms have been conducted in recent years. During the period of Aug. 1996 to 1999 (table 1, we visited a number of island within the Arctic Circle (Baf?n Island, Coburg Island, Beechey Island, Devon Island, Cornwallis Island, Spitsbergen, Greenland and collected specimens of 20 algal taxa (identi?ed by micrograph observations of Navicula sensu lato (Chamaepinnularia: 6 taxa, Geissleria: 1 taxon, Luticola: 1 taxon, Navicula: 11 taxa, Placoneis: 1 taxon.

  11. Horizontal distribution and growth of jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) sensu lato, in Mikawa Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kaoru; Yamada, Satoshi; Toyokawa, Masaya; Yasuda, Akira; Kikuchi, Tomohiko

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, growth, and horizontal distribution of the moon jelly, Aurelia aurita sensu lato, in Mikawa Bay from April 2007 to November 2008. In May and August 2007, dense populations of adults occurred in the bay mouth. After August, larger individuals with no planula larvae had involuted bells. In March 2008, adults were highly abundant in the western part of the bay. Small-sized moon jellies were observed from March to June, and dense swarms of adults and semi-adults sh...

  12. VERBENACEAE SENSU LATO EM UM TRECHO DA ESEC RASO DA CATARINA, BAHIA, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IRANILDO MIRANDA DE MELO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work carried out a floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Verbenaceae sensu lato in a stretch at the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina, Bahia State, Brazil. Four genera and six species were recorded: Aegiphila, with one species (A. sellowiana Cham.; Lantana, with one species (L. fucata Lindl.; Lippia, with three species (L. gracilis Schauer, Lippia cf. schomburgkiana Schauer and L. thymoides Mart. & Schauer and Stachytarpheta, with one species (S. caatingensis S. Atkins. A key for recognition of the species, descriptions and illustrations, beyond data about flowering and fruiting, geographical distribution and habitat are provided.

  13. VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE STUDENTS’ CHOICE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION LATO SENSU GRADUATE BUSINESS PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mendes Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Scriven’s User-Focused Evaluation Theory, the general objective in this study was to identify and analyze the degree of importance Brazilian students attribute to the variables that influence them when choosing distance education lato sensu graduate business programs. The research is classified as descriptive and an electronic questionnaire was used to survey the data, involving 354 students from distance education lato sensu graduate business programs distributed across different Brazilian locations. The questionnaire included 16 variables, which the students were expected to score from 0 to 10. The results indicated that 04 variables obtained a mean score superior to 9, and that flexibility was the main factor the respondents considered in the choice of a distance education program. This evidences that the possibility to structure the program according to their available time is fundamental for the students. Nevertheless, having a trained teaching staff (second most influential variable and a curriculum appropriate to their pedagogical needs (fourth are also essential characteristics. Finally, the respondents indicated the cost as the third most important variable. Some authors even consider it decisive in the students’ choice as distance education programs are frequently cheaper than in-class programs. In addition, it was verified that women score the investigated internal variables higher than men. In addition, the location of the support hub appeared as a determinant variable in the choice of the program.

  14. Ulex parviflorus sensu lato (Genisteae, Leguminosae en la zona centro de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubas, Paloma

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A group of gorses growing in Central Portugal has been traditionally identified as Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. The study of these plants reveáls important differences in morphological characters such as size, ramification, colour and indumentum of shoots, the type, disposition and indumentum of primary and secondary spines, and the dimensions, shape and indumentum of the calyx. Based on these morphological characteristics, as well as chromosome number, ecological requirements and geographic distribution, the plants are now ascribed to the following taxa: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso and U. jussiaei WebbEn la zona centro de Portugal crece un conjunto de tojos que han sido tradicionalmente identificados como Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. Sin embargo, estas plantas presentan diferencias morfológicas en el porte, ramificación, color e indumento de ejes y ramas, en el tipo, disposición e indumento de las espinas primarias y secundarias y en las dimensiones, forma e indumento del cáliz. Estos caracteres morfológicos, el número cromosómico, los requerimientos ecológicos y el área geográfica permiten adscribir estas plantas a los siguientes táxones: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso y U. jussiaei Webb.

  15. Mutation in the sodium channel gene corresponds with phenotypic resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to pyrethroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne d...

  16. Molecular Identification of Onchocerca spp. Larvae in Simulium damnosum sensu lato Collected in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Habomugisha, Peace; Katabarwa, Moses N; Begumisa, Stephen; Clouds, Philbert; Katamanywa, James; Nahabwe, Christine; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of larvae of other filarial species in Simulium damnosum sensu lato can distort estimates of transmission potential for Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa. However, studies conducted in foci of onchocerciasis in West Central Uganda indicated that larvae other than O. volvulus were not common in vectors collected there. Recent data collected in Northern Uganda revealed a striking discordance between estimates of the prevalence of flies carrying O. volvulus infective larvae obtained from molecular pool screening and dissection methods. To resolve this discrepancy, sequences from three mitochondrially encoded genes were analyzed from the larvae collected by dissection. All larvae analyzed were Onchocerca ochengi v. Siisa, a parasite of cattle, or Onchocerca ramachandrini, a parasite of warthogs. These results suggest that nonhuman parasite larvae are common in vectors in Northern Uganda, underscoring the necessity for molecular identification methods to accurately estimate O. volvulus transmission.

  17. A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group are revised. Neoserica calva Frey, 1972, comb. n. is redescribed. Thirteen new species are described from China and South Korea: Neoserica ailaoshanica sp. n., N. anonyma sp. n., N. calvoides sp. n., N. gulinqingensis sp. n., N. koelkebecki sp. n., N. liangi sp. n., N. luxiensis sp. n., N. menghaiensis sp. n., N. mengi sp. n., N. taipingensis sp. n., N. zheijangensis sp. n., N. zhibenshanica sp. n., and N. zongyuani sp. n. A key to Sericini genera with multilamellate antenna and species groups of Neoserica of mainland Asia as well as a key to species of the N. calva group are provided. A map of species distribution is given, habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.

  18. Divergence of protein-coding capacity and regulation in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains ubiquitous facultative anaerobic soil-borne Gram-positive spore-forming bacilli. Molecular phylogeny and comparative genome sequencing have suggested that these organisms should be classified as a single species. While clonal in nature, there do not appear to be species-specific clonal lineages, excepting B. anthracis, in spite of the wide array of phenotypes displayed by these organisms. Results We compared the protein-coding content of 201 B. cereus sensu lato genomes to characterize differences and understand the consequences of these differences on biological function. From this larger group we selected a subset consisting of 25 whole genomes for deeper analysis. Cluster analysis of orthologous proteins grouped these genomes into five distinct clades. Each clade could be characterized by unique genes shared among the group, with consequences for the phenotype of each clade. Surprisingly, this population structure recapitulates our recent observations on the divergence of the generalized stress response (SigB) regulons in these organisms. Divergence of the SigB regulon among these organisms is primarily due to the placement of SigB-dependent promoters that bring genes from a common gene pool into/out of the SigB regulon. Conclusions Collectively, our observations suggest the hypothesis that the evolution of these closely related bacteria is a consequence of two distinct processes. Horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication/divergence and deletion dictate the underlying coding capacity in these genomes. Regulatory divergence overlays this protein coding reservoir and shapes the expression of both the unique and shared coding capacity of these organisms, resulting in phenotypic divergence. Data from other organisms suggests that this is likely a common pattern in prokaryotic evolution. PMID:25350501

  19. Why are there several species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in dogs and humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, Bogumiła

    2014-04-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochete bacteria species some of which cause borreliosis in humans and dogs. Humans and dogs are susceptible to illness from many of the same tick-borne pathogens, including B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bbsl). Little is known about the pathogenic role of the species of Bbsl in canines. The molecular methods which detect and amplify the DNA of borreliae and allow differentiating borreliae species or strains have not been used in canine diagnostics yet. Until now, it has been believed that in European dogs, like in humans, at least three pathogenic species occur but the most frequently described symptoms may be associated with the infection caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto species. A dog as well as a human is a host for many species of Bbsl, because borreliacidal ability of serum of dogs and humans is evident only in certain genospecies of Bbsl. Therefore both a dog and a human harbor more species than in case of some wild animal species which create older phylogenetic Bbsl species-host systems and these animals may act even as a non-competent reservoir host. Apart from many genospecies of Bbsl, a dog harbors other tick-borne agents and dual or triple infections may occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; da Costa Cavalcante, Robson; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; de Lima Duré, Ana Íris; de Melo Iani, Felipe Campos; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  2. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2017), č. článku e00609-17. ISSN 0099-2240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * genospecies * meta-analysis * Lyme borreliosis * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  3. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  5. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lizards and their ticks from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Farkas, Róbert; Pet'ko, Branislav

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the involvement of lizard species in the natural cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in Hungary, a total of 186 reptiles belonging to three species--126 green lizards (Lacerta viridis), 40 Balkan wall lizards (Podarcis taurica), and 20 sand lizards (Lacerta agilis)--were captured in 2007 and 2008. All ticks removed from the lizards were Ixodes ricinus, either larvae (324/472; 68.6%) or nymphs (148/472; 31.4%). More than half (66/126; 52.4%) of L. viridis individuals were infested, and the prevalence of tick infestation on both the other two species was 35% each. All 472 I. ricinus ticks and tissue samples collected from 134 collar scales and 62 toe clips of lizards were further analyzed for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. with polymerase chain reaction. The amplification of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was successful in 8% (n = 92) of L. viridis, 9% (n = 32) of P. taurica, and 10% (n = 10) of L. agilis tissue samples. Restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping identified the species Borrelia lusitaniae in all tested lizard samples. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks collected from L. viridis, P. taurica, and L. agilis was 8%, 2%, and 0%, respectively. Most of the infected ticks carried B. lusitaniae (74% of genotyped positives); however, Borrelia afzelii (5%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (21%) were detected in ticks removed from green lizards and Balkan wall lizards, respectively. We conclude that lizards, particularly L. viridis, can be important hosts for I. ricinus larvae and nymphs; thus, they can be regarded as reservoirs of these important pathogen vectors. The role of green lizards has been confirmed, and the implication of Balkan wall lizards is suggested in the natural cycle of B. lusitaniae at our study site.

  6. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (MBL) activity. Since Ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for Lyme borreliosis in Europe and transmits several complement sensitive B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) strains, we aimed to identify, describe, and characterize the I. ricinus ortholog of TSLPI. We performed (q)PCRs on I. ricinus salivary gland cDNA to identify a TSLPI ortholog. Next, we generated recombinant (r)TSLPI in a Drosophila expression system and examined inhibition of the MBL complement pathway and complement-mediated killing of B. burgdorferi s.l. in vitro. We identified a TSLPI ortholog in I. ricinus salivary glands with 93% homology at the RNA and 89% at the protein level compared to I. scapularis TSLPI, which was upregulated during tick feeding. In silico analysis revealed that TSLPI appears to be part of a larger family of Ixodes salivary proteins among which I. persulcatus basic tail salivary proteins and I. scapularis TSLPI and Salp14. I. ricinus rTSLPI inhibited the MBL complement pathway and protected B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia garinii from complement-mediated killing. We have identified a TSLPI ortholog, which protects B. burgdorferi s.l. from complement-mediated killing in I. ricinus, the major vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe.

  7. Taxonomy of Navicula sensu lato (diatom collected from inland waters in Arctic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukushima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We identified 35 taxa of Navicula sensu lato in materials from inland waters at Herschel lsland, Smoking Hills, Holman, Byron Bay and Cambridge Bay while sailing across the reverse course of the Northwest Passage in July and August 1997. We found 20 taxa of Navicula, 4 of Chamaepinnularia, 2 each of Craticula and Placoneis, and 1 each taxon of Aneumatus, Caloneis, Fallacia, Naviculadicta, Parlibellus, Pinnuavis, and Sellaphora. The materials contain cosmopolitan species intermingled with subalpine or mountain species and endemic species (Table 1. Although samples were collected from inland waters, brackish or marine species (see Table 1 were mixed with fresh-water species similar to those reported from Antarctica. The occurrence of brackish-water and marine species is though to be made possible by the eolian transport of salt to inland water bodies. We propose the following seven new combinations: Chamaepinnularia soeherensis var. hassiaca, Chamaepinnularia soeherensis var. inflata, Chamaepinnularia soeherensis var. linearis, Chamaepinnularia soeherensis var. muscicola, Placoneis amphibola var. amphibola f. alaskaensis, Placoneis amphibola var. amphibola f. rectangularis, and Placoneis amphibola var. arctica.

  8. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included. PMID:25317056

  9. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Ahrens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China, N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos, N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand, N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar, N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam, N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China, N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China. One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included.

  10. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  11. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Species Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Using Molecular Biological Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Notter, Isabell; Fingerle, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial species identification is required in different disciplines and-depending on the purpose-levels of specificity or resolution of typing may vary. Nowadays, molecular methods are the mainstay for bacterial identification and sequence-based analyses are of ever-growing importance. For diagnostics, immediate results are needed and often real-time PCR of one or two loci is the method of choice while for epidemiological or evolutionary studies sequence data of several loci improve phylogenetic resolution to required levels. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) utilize sequences information of several housekeeping loci (eight for Borrelia) to distinguish between species. This method has been widely used for bacterial species and strain identification and will be described in this chapter.As more and more diversity is being detected in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, the importance of accurate species and strain typing has come to the fore. This is particularly significant with a view of differentiating human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains or species and understanding the epidemiology, ecology, population structure, and evolution of species.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stordal, Frode; Lager, Malin; Rognerud, Bjørg; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Matussek, Andreas; Gray, Jeremy; Stuen, Snorre

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana were similar to findings in most other studies in Scandinavia, with B. afzelii by far the most prevalent at 76%. The high Borrelia-infection prevalence in ticks from Brønnøy may explain the high incidence rate of reported Lyme borreliosis in the municipality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelle Marchant

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet. We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  15. Update of phylogenetic and genetic diversity of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Gamboa, Lucía; Martínez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Flisser, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato causes subcutaneous mycosis. In this article we analysed its phylogeny and genetic diversity using calmodulin DNA sequences deposited in GenBank database. Population genetics indices were calculated, plus phylogenetic and haplotype network trees were built. Five clades with high values of posterior probability, 47 haplotypes and high diversity in the complex were found. Analysis of partial calmodulin sequences alignment revealed conserved and polymorphic regions that could be used as reference for taxonomic identification. The use of population genetics analysis allowed understanding the phylogenetic proximity of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis; scarce genetic flow among them with low migration index and high ancestry coefficient was found. Similarly, S. globosa, S. mexicana and S. pallida sequences showed highly differentiated species with no genetic exchange. The phylogenetic tree suggests that S. mexicana shared a common ancestor with S. pallida; while S. globosa and S. brasiliensis are more related to S. schenckii s. str. and showed less haplotype diversity and restrictions in geographic distribution. In the haplotype network tree S. schenckii s. str. species displayed worldwide distribution without dispersion centres; while S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, exhibited Brazil and Euro-Asia as dispersion centres, respectively. Our data suggest that S. schenckii complex has been submitted to a divergent evolution process, probably due to the pressure of the environment and of the host. In contrast, S. brasiliensis could have been submitted to purifying selection or expansion process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Retreat and extinction of the Late Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus spelaeus sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Mateusz; Popović, Danijela; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Marciszak, Adrian; Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Nadachowski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 (14)C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal. years BP. The time is only slightly earlier, i.e. 27,000-26,100 cal. years BP, when young dates without associated collagen data are excluded. The demise of cave bear falls within the coldest phase of the last glacial period, Greenland Stadial 3. This finding and the significant decrease in the cave bear records with cooling indicate that the drastic climatic changes were responsible for its extinction. Climate deterioration lowered vegetation productivity, on which the cave bear strongly depended as a strict herbivore. The distribution of the last cave bear records in Europe suggests that this animal was vanishing by fragmentation into subpopulations occupying small habitats. One of them was the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland in Poland, where we discovered the latest record of the cave bear and also two other, younger than 25,000 (14)C years BP. The relatively long survival of this bear in karst regions may result from suitable microclimate and continuous access to water provided by deep aquifers, indicating a refugial role of such regions in the Pleistocene for many species.

  17. First documentation of ivermectin resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-01-15

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The intensive use of synthetic acaricides for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure for brown dog ticks to become resistant to them. Here, we investigated claims from the field regarding treatment failure associated with the use of veterinary products containing ivermectin (IVM) to control brown dog ticks infesting dogs in Yucatan state, Mexico. Dogs in six state municipalities were inspected to sample 15 R. sanguineus s.l. Interviews were conducted with dog owners to gather information on the history of dog treatment with conventional acaricides and IVM. The larval immersion test was used on the progeny of adult female ticks infesting dogs to test for susceptibility to IVM. Dose-mortality regressions, lethal concentrations (LC), their confidence intervals, and slope were estimated by probit analysis. Ten tick populations (66.7%) were classified as resistant compared with the most susceptible population. A high inter-population variation in the phenotypic level of IVM resistance was evident (resistance ratio at LC 50% and LC 99% ranged from 1.0 to 30.5, and from 1.0 to 458.8, respectively). Tick populations classified as resistant were collected from dogs known to have been treated with IVM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IVM resistance in R. sanguineus s.l. worldwide. Veterinary and pet owner education on integrated tick management practices is required to avoid widespread resistance and increased treatment failure with products containing IVM and other macrocyclic lactones used to control endo- and ectoparasites affecting dogs. Integrated tick management will also help mitigate the burden of brown dog tick-borne diseases on human and animal populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Retreat and extinction of the Late Pleistocene cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Mateusz; Popović, Danijela; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Marciszak, Adrian; Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Nadachowski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 14C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal. years BP. The time is only slightly earlier, i.e. 27,000-26,100 cal. years BP, when young dates without associated collagen data are excluded. The demise of cave bear falls within the coldest phase of the last glacial period, Greenland Stadial 3. This finding and the significant decrease in the cave bear records with cooling indicate that the drastic climatic changes were responsible for its extinction. Climate deterioration lowered vegetation productivity, on which the cave bear strongly depended as a strict herbivore. The distribution of the last cave bear records in Europe suggests that this animal was vanishing by fragmentation into subpopulations occupying small habitats. One of them was the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland in Poland, where we discovered the latest record of the cave bear and also two other, younger than 25,000 14C years BP. The relatively long survival of this bear in karst regions may result from suitable microclimate and continuous access to water provided by deep aquifers, indicating a refugial role of such regions in the Pleistocene for many species.

  19. Molecular survey of haemoplasmas in shelter dogs and associations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2017-07-07

    This study aimed to assess the occurrence of canine haemoplasma infection in domestic dogs and its possible trans-stadial transmission by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in shelter dogs in Diyarbakır Province in southeast Turkey. Blood samples (n = 282) collected from domestic dogs were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of canine haemoplasma. Fully engorged nymphs (n = 204) were removed from dogs that were positive for canine haemoplasma by PCR and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C for moulting. Unfed ticks (n = 2185) comprising 2100 nymphs and 85 adults collected from the grounds of the same shelter were also screened. Of 282 dogs, 108 [38.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.6-44.2] were PCR-positive for canine haemoplasmas. Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) infection (26.2%, 95% CI 21.2-31.8) was observed in a significantly higher number of dogs than was Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (CMhp) infection (6.7%, 95% CI 4.1-10.3). Co-infections were seen in 15 (5.3%, 95% CI 3.0-8.6) dogs. None of the tick specimens examined were found to be positive for haemoplasma. Partial sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% identity with the corresponding published sequences for Mhc and CMhp. The present results revealed no trans-stadial transmission of canine haemoplasma species by R. sanguineus s.l. in field conditions. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:28846709

  1. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Axelle; Le Coupanec, Alain; Joly, Claire; Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  2. Homogeneous Inflammatory Gene Profiles Induced in Human Dermal Fibroblasts in Response to the Three Main Species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Mariam; Carpentier, Wassila; Cagnard, Nicolas; Nadaud, Sophie; Grillon, Antoine; Barthel, Cathy; De Martino, Sylvie Josiane; Jaulhac, Benoît; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site for bacterial inoculation by the infected tick and for cutaneous manifestations. We previously showed that different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from tick and from different clinical stages of the Lyme borreliosis (erythema migrans, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) elicited a very similar transcriptional response in normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, using whole transcriptome microarray chips, we aimed to compare the transcriptional response of normal human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 3 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains belonging to 3 main pathogenic species (B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) in order to determine whether “species-related” inflammatory pathways could be identified. The three Borrelia strains tested exhibited similar transcriptional profiles, and no species-specific fingerprint of transcriptional changes in fibroblasts was observed. Conversely, a common core of chemokines/cytokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL-6, IL-8) and interferon-related genes was stimulated by all the 3 strains. Dermal fibroblasts appear to play a key role in the cutaneous infection with Borrelia, inducing a homogeneous inflammatory response, whichever Borrelia species was involved. PMID:27706261

  3. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  4. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  5. Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a tick population from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Müllegger, Robert R; Maurer, Florian; Fingerle, Volker; Achermann, Yvonne; Wilske, Bettina; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2014-03-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis DNA was discovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks in 1999 and is referred to as an emerging human pathogen since its first detection in patients with febrile illness reported in 2010. In recent years, Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis has been detected in ticks from several European, Asian, and African countries. However, no epidemiological data exist for Austria, which is a highly endemic region for tick-transmitted diseases. To assess the geographic spread and prevalence of Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis sympatric with other tick-transmitted pathogens, we analysed 518 I. ricinus ticks collected in 2002 and 2003 in Graz, Austria. The prevalence of Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis was 4.2%, that of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato 25.7%, and that of Anaplasma phagocytophilum 1%. Coinfections with Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato were found in 2.3% of all ticks. Thus, the results show a relatively high prevalence of Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Austrian ticks suggesting a high probability for the occurrence of undiagnosed human infections in Austria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation ofsusceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicalsfrom a less susceptible host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as tick repellents. We report th...

  7. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importance...

  8. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  9. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movilla, Rebeca; García, Carlos; Siebert, Susanne; Roura, Xavier

    2016-07-29

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. The aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for CVBD, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in Mexico. Seventy-four veterinary centres located in 21 federal Mexican states were asked to test dogs with clinical signs suspect for CVBD and healthy dogs, for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and Ehrlichia canis using the SNAP® 4DX® from IDEXX® Laboratories. A total of 1706 dogs were tested, including 943 apparently healthy and 722 CVBD-suspect dogs. Infected dogs were 36.7 %. The highest percentages of infection with E. canis (51.0 %) and Anaplasma spp. (16.4 %) were obtained in the northwestern region, while D. immitis was most frequently found in the northeastern region of the country (8.9 %). Four dogs from the northwestern, northeastern, eastern and southeastern regions, respectively, were positive for B. burgdorferi (sensu lato). Northcentral regions showed lowest overall prevalence of infection (2.4 %). Co-infections were detected in 8.8 % of the dogs tested. Statistically significant lower positivity was found among dogs aged less than one year (23.2 %) and small-sized dogs (27.6 %), while higher prevalence of infection was found in dogs living outdoors (42.0 %), dogs with detectable tick infestation (43.3 %) and dogs that received treatment for tick-transmitted infections (58.8 %). Seropositivity was a risk factor for the presence of clinical signs as follows: Anaplasma spp. (OR = 2.63; 95 % CI: 1.88-3.67; P immitis (OR = 2.52; 95 % CI: 1.61-3.95; P immitis and/or E. canis, while B. burgdorferi (sensu lato) transmission is minimal in the country. Practitioners play a fundamental role in the detection and control of these diseases to protect

  10. Seasonal Transmission of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato and a Lecithodendriid Trematode Species in Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Snails in Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kopolrat, Kulthida; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H.; Petney, Trevor N.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal changes play roles in the transmission success of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT). This study examined the seasonal transmission patterns of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.) and a virgulate cercaria (family Lecithodendriidae) in the snail intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand. Snail samples were collected monthly during the rainy, cool, and hot seasons during 2012–2013 to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval trematode infections. The prevalence of O. viverrini s.l. varied significantly with season, being 0.31%, 1.05%, and 0.37% in the rainy, cool, and hot seasons, respectively (P snails infected with O. viverrini s.l. were significantly smaller (P snails. Seasonal variation and the different sizes of B. s. goniomphalos parasitized by O. viverrini s.l. and virgulate trematodes indicate complex host–parasite interactions with important implications for the epidemiology of O. viverrini s.l. PMID:25918210

  11. Parasitismo humano por Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (ACARI: IXODIDAE no Mato Grosso do Sul, Centro-Oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Cunha Lima Acosta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O parasitismo humano pelo carrapato marrom do cão, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l., um importante parasita para a saúde pública e veterinária, é raramente relatado no continente americano. Este trabalho relata o registro de um macho de R. sanguineus s. l. parasitando um humano na cidade de Campo Grande, estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Essa observação é relevante para a saúde pública, uma vez que os carrapatos desse complexo são conhecidos como vetores de riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa para cães e humanos.

  12. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato septemlamellata group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Ahrens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato septemlamellata group, that included so far only four known species, are revised. Here we describe eleven new species originating mainly from Indochina and Southern China: N. daweishanica sp. n., N. gaoligongshanica sp. n., N. guangpingensis sp. n., N. igori sp. n., N. jiulongensis sp. n., N. plurilamellata sp. n., N. weishanica sp. n., N. yanzigouensis sp. n. (China N. sapaensis sp. n. (China, Vietnam, N. bansongchana sp. n., N. takakuwai sp. n. (Laos. The lectotypes of Neoserica septemlamellata Brenske, 1898 and N. septemfoliata Moser, 1915 are designated. Keys to the species and species groups are given, the genitalia of all species and their habitus are illustrated and distribution maps are included.

  13. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains during growth in CO2-bicarbonate and aerobic atmospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D Passalacqua

    Full Text Available Bacillus species are spore-forming bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and display a range of virulent and avirulent phenotypes. This range is particularly evident in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group; where closely related strains cause anthrax, food-borne illnesses, and pneumonia, but can also be non-pathogenic. Although much of this phenotypic range can be attributed to the presence or absence of a few key virulence factors, there are other virulence-associated loci that are conserved throughout the B. cereus group, and we hypothesized that these genes may be regulated differently in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains.Here we report transcriptional profiles of three closely related but phenotypically unique members of the Bacillus cereus group--a pneumonia-causing B. cereus strain (G9241, an attenuated strain of B. anthracis (Sterne 34F(2, and an avirulent B. cereus strain (10987--during exponential growth in two distinct atmospheric environments: 14% CO(2/bicarbonate and ambient air. We show that the disease-causing Bacillus strains undergo more distinctive transcriptional changes between the two environments, and that the expression of plasmid-encoded virulence genes was increased exclusively in the CO(2 environment. We observed a core of conserved metabolic genes that were differentially expressed in all three strains in both conditions. Additionally, the expression profiles of putative virulence genes in G9241 suggest that this strain, unlike Bacillus anthracis, may regulate gene expression with both PlcR and AtxA transcriptional regulators, each acting in a different environment.We have shown that homologous and even identical genes within the genomes of three closely related members of the B. cereus sensu lato group are in some instances regulated very differently, and that these differences can have important implications for virulence. This study provides insights into the evolution of the B. cereus group, and

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes ricinus was most abundant in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) wood, whereas H. punctata was mostly collected in hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) wood and on exposed rocks. Ixodes ricinus was also found up to 1670 m asl, in high stand beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. The overall prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis.

  16. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 3, De eikvaren (Polypodium vulgare L. sensu lato) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders-Groeneveld, J.; Segal, S.

    1967-01-01

    Pteridological Notes, 3 The genus Polypodium in the Netherlands Both Polypodium vulgare L. (sensu stricto) and P. interjectum Shivas occur in the Netherlands. Most of the differential characters reported in the literature overlap one another rather broadly, so that it is often necessary to use a

  17. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  19. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Călin M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  20. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, Călin M; Sándor, Attila D; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Marinov, Mihai; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2012-08-18

    Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  1. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Dzięgiel Beata; Kubrak Tomasz; Adaszek Łukasz; Dębiak Piotr; Wyłupek Dagmara; Bogucka-Kocka Anna; Lechowski Jerzy; Winiarczyk Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland). Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s...

  2. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland proteins in the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotté, Violaine; Sabatier, Laurence; Schnell, Gilles; Carmi-Leroy, Annick; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Malandrin, Laurence; Sertour, Natacha; Namane, Abdelkader; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valérie

    2014-01-16

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of I. ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to I. ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them are up-regulated and are involved in cell defense and protein synthesis and processing. Down-regulated proteins are mostly implicated in the cytoskeleton. The DIGE analysis allowed us to identify 35 proteins and showed the down-regulation of 4 proteins. All 15 proteins were not modulated by all strains. Overall, these observations showed that the presence of Borrelia in tick salivary glands is a factor of stress for the protein machinery, and also that some Borrelia strains produce a dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, a protein from Borrelia, OspA, was found in infected salivary glands. The consequence of its presence in salivary glands is discussed. Lyme borreliosis is still the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis is expanding, especially towards higher altitudes and latitudes. Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis belong to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. The bioactive molecules present in tick saliva not only promote tick feeding, but also create an advantageous microenvironment at the tick bite site for survival and replication of Borrelia bacteria. Investigation of the tick-host-pathogen interface would

  3. Synthesis of Th17 cytokines in the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambor Grygorczuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. [/b]Th17 lymphocytes and their cytokines, interleukin 17A (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, participate in the response to extracellular bacteria and in the autoimmunity and may be engaged in the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis. Concentrations were measured of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in the supernatant of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC culture stimulated with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato[/i] ([i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study group consisted of 13 patients with early disseminated and late Lyme borreliosis and a control group of 7 healthy persons. PBMC cultures were stimulated for 48 hours with [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]spirochetes of three pathogenic species: [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu stricto, B. afzelii or B. garinii, in the multiplicity of infection 10:1. Concentrations of Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, as well as Th2/immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 were measured with ELISA assays. [b]Results. [/b]Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 increased under stimulation, simultaneously with the increased IL-10 expression. Concentration of IL-17F tended to be lower in early neuroborreliosis than in late Lyme borreliosis and than in controls. [i]B. afzelii[/i] elicited higher expression of IL-17A than the other two species. [b]Conclusions.[/b] IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 are synthesized simultaneously by PBMC stimulated with [i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. There is no antagonism between Th17 response and IL-10 expression. The role of Th17 cytokines seems to differ depending on the clinical stage of Lyme borreliosis and on the [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] species.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  5. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  6. Comparison of infectivity, metacercarial burden and host mortality induced by Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato cercariae from Lao PDR compared with Thailand in cyprinid fish, Barbonymus gonionotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopolrat, Kulthida; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.) is a species complex with strong associations to geographical regions, i.e., specific wetlands. The present study was conducted to compare the infectivity, establishment and metacercarial burden and survival of the fish host following exposure to O. viverrini s.l. cercariae isolates from two different river wetlands. Experimental infections were performed by exposing fish (silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus) individually to 0 (control) and 100 O. viverrini s.l. cercariae originating from the Songkram River wetland in Thailand and the Nam Ngum River wetland, Lao PDR. Metacercarial burden and fish survivals were monitored after infection. Fish exposed to O. viverrini s.l. cercariae from the Nam Ngum River wetland had significantly greater metacercarial burden and more active motility at 28 and 35 days post infection than those from the Songkram River wetland. The mortality of fish infected with O. viverrini s.l. from the Nam Ngum River wetland was greater than that from the Songkram River wetland (log-rank test, pimportance of cryptic species of O. viverrini s.l. and it has implications for parasite transmission dynamics, life cycle success and disease ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid PCR and antibody concentrations against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs with neurological signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderlund, K H; Bergström, K; Egenvall, A; Hedhammar, A

    2009-01-01

    The tick-borne bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been suspected to cause neurological signs in dogs. Diagnosis often has been made based on positive antibody titers in serum of dogs with neurological signs, but a high seroprevalence in dogs in at-risk populations makes diagnosis difficult. To determine if the neurological signs in dogs examined were caused by any of these bacteria. Fifty-four dogs presented to a board-certified neurologist. Prospective study. We divided dogs into 2 groups: those with inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and those with neurological signs from other diseases. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from all dogs were analyzed. Dogs with inflammatory CNS diseases showed no serum antibodies against any of the agents. Among dogs with neurological signs from other diseases, 10.3% had serum antibodies for B. burgdorferi sl and 20.5% for A. phagocytophilum. All blood samples analyzed for bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and all CSF analyzed for antibodies and bacterial DNA for the 2 agents were negative. Based on this study, these bacteria are unlikely causes of neurologic disease in dogs and the presence of serum antibodies alone does not document or establish a definitive diagnosis of CNS disease caused by these organisms. Dogs that have neurologic disease and corresponding serum antibodies against these agents should have additional tests performed to assess for other potential etiologies of the signs.

  9. Characterization and epidemiology of Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (C. chrysanthemi) causing Carthamus tinctorius anthracnose

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baroncelli, R; Sarrocco, S; Zapparata, A; Tavarini, S; Angelini, L. G; Vannacci, G

    2015-01-01

    .... The genetic variability of these isolates was assessed by a multilocus sequencing approach and compared with those from Colletotrichum chrysanthemi and Colletotrichum carthami isolates from different...

  10. Evaluation of a modified culture medium for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the possible use of a modified medium, prepared in the laboratory using the constituents of Barbour-Stonner-Kelly (BSK medium and medium 199 as base, for the culture of Borrelia strains, comparing the growth of individual strains in this medium and in the BSK-H medium, and the protein profile and antigenic characteristics of Borrelia proteins expressed in these media. A qualitative evaluation of growth of Borrelia species was made with acceptable results (morphology and motility, but during a quantitative evaluation using the three main genospecies of Borrelia, the better results were obtained with a B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. The modified medium did not enable the growth of a B. afzelii strain. The protein profile and antigenic characteristic of the expressed proteins in the modified medium were studied with satisfactory results. These results suggest the modified medium as an alternative for the cultivation of Borrelia strains, with some limitations, in poorly-resourced laboratories.

  11. Heterogeneity in the abundance and distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) in Scotland: implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millins, Caroline; Gilbert, Lucy; Johnson, Paul; James, Marianne; Kilbride, Elizabeth; Birtles, Richard; Biek, Roman

    2016-11-22

    Cases of Lyme borreliosis, a vector-borne zoonosis caused by bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species group, have increased in recent years in Europe. Knowledge of environmental factors associated with abundance of the tick vector Ixodes ricinus and the pathogen B. burgdorferi (s.l.) is of interest to understand responses to environmental changes, predict variation in risk and to inform management interventions. Nineteen woodland sites across Scotland were surveyed in 2012 for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) infection in questing I. ricinus nymphs (n = 200 per site), deer abundance and vegetation. Climatic factors were extracted for each site. Six additional sites were surveyed for questing nymphs in both 2012 and 2013 (n = 200 per site and year) to test for variation in B. burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence between years. The mean prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) across 19 sites was 1.7% (95% CI: 1.4-2.2%; range 0-6%), all four genospecies known to be present in the UK were detected: B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) and B. valaisiana. A higher prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.), higher densities of nymphs and higher densities of infected nymphs were found at sites with warmer climates, estimated with growing degree-days. No association between infection prevalence in nymphs and woodland type (semi-natural mixed vs coniferous) or deer density was found. At six sites sampled in 2012 and 2013, there was a significant increase in B. afzelli prevalence at two sites and a decrease in B. garinii prevalence at one site. This study highlights challenges for the prediction of risk of Lyme borreliosis, reflecting the sensitivity of both pathogen and vector ecology to habitat, host and climatic factors. Significant changes in the prevalence of individual genospecies at sites monitored across time are likely to be due to variability in the host community composition between years. Our results indicate the importance of monitoring dynamic

  12. Antigenic and genomic analysis of a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Alto Adige-South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceroni, L; Ciarrocchi, S; Simeoni, J

    1998-07-01

    A Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strain isolated from IXodes ricinus ticks in Alto Adige-South Tyrol (Northern Italy) was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole cell proteins, Western immunoblotting analysis (WBA) with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolate named BZ6 was identified as belonging to the genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the basis of its protein profile and its reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The PFGE study performed with the two rare-cutting restriction enzymes MluI and SmaI confirmed the SDS-PAGE and WBA characterizations, but showed a genetic diversity between the isolate and two out of the three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains used in this study as controls, the American type strain B31 and the locally isolated strain BZ1. No difference in the PFGE patterns between the isolate BZ6 and the Swiss strain IRS was noted. Our findings show the value of PFGE analysis for classifying B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates and for revealing their genetic diversity, and its usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

  13. Mutation in the Sodium Channel Gene Corresponds With Phenotypic Resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to Pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, G M; Miller, R J; Tidwell, J; Barreto, R; Guerrero, F D; Kaufman, P E; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-07-13

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne disease transmission. However, acaricide resistance is an emerging problem in the management of the brown dog tick. Understanding the mechanism of resistance to acaricides, including pyrethroids, is important to adapt brown dog tick control strategies. The main objective of this study was to determine if target-site mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in other pests could be associated with phenotypic resistance detected in a brown dog tick population from Florida. We amplified segment 6 of the domain III of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel protein, using cDNAs synthesized from pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant tick strains. A single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) identified in a highly conserved region of domain III S6 in the resistant ticks resulted in an amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine. This mutation is characteristic of resistance phenotypes in other tick species, and is the first report of this mutation in R. sanguineus. Molecular assays based on this knowledge could be developed to diagnose the risk for pyrethroid resistance, and to inform decisions on integrated brown dog tick management practices. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A novel duplex real-time PCR permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venczel, R; Knoke, L; Pavlovic, M; Dzaferovic, E; Vaculova, T; Silaghi, C; Overzier, E; Konrad, R; Kolenčík, S; Derdakova, M; Sing, A; Schaub, G A; Margos, G; Fingerle, V

    2016-02-01

    For simultaneous detection of Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever spirochete) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR targeting the flagellin gene (flaB; p41), a locus frequently used in routine diagnostic PCR for B. burgdorferi s.l. detection. Primers and probes were designed using multiple alignments of flaB sequences of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. species. The sensitivity and specificity of primers and probes were determined using serial dilutions (ranging from 10(4) to 10(-1)) of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA and of several species of relapsing fever spirochetes. Conventional PCR on recG and glpQ and sequencing of p41 PCR products were used to confirm the species assignment. The detection limit of both singleplex and duplex PCR was 10 genome equivalents except for B. spielmanii and two B. garinii genotypes which showed a detection limit of 10(2) genome equivalents. There was no cross reactivity of the B. miyamotoi primers/probes with B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, while the B. burgdorferi s.l. primer/probe generated a signal with B. hermsii DNA. Out of 2341 Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany and Slovakia that were screened simultaneously for the presence of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l., 52 were positive for B. miyamotoi and 276 for B. burgdorferi s.l., denoting an average prevalence of 2.2% for B. miyamotoi and 11.8% for B. burgdorferi s.l., and B. miyamotoi DNA was also detectable by PCR using artificial clinical samples. The duplex real-time PCR developed here represents a method that permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi in environmental and potentially clinical samples.

  15. Determination of Age and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles Maculipennis Sensu Lato in the Central Plateau of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Edalat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Islamic Republic of Iran has greatly reduced its malaria burden and has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2025. The aim of this study was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato, in relation to probable malaria transmission. For this purpose, the study was conducted in three villages in Isfahan Province of Iran, from April to March 2014. Materials and Methods: Two mosquitoes sampling methods were conducted, comprises human landing catch and human bed net collection. The results of this investigation were subjected to one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: A. maculipennis s.l. was found as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 p.m and 1.00-2.00 a.m. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, and life expectancy of the species were 4, 0.82, and 5 days, respectively. Malaria vectorial capacity of A. maculipennis was measured 0.0128 and 0.059 for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium Falciparum, respectively. Conclusion: The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between the temperature and daily age of A. maculipennis s.l. The method described can be used as a standard method to determine the daily age of Anopheles, as well as of other mosquito species since it is fast and precise and needs small samples. Survey on the age structure of vectors is very important as it is useful in monitoring the success of large-scale vector control measures.

  16. Species diversity in the marine microturbellarian Astrotorhynchus bifidus sensu lato (Platyhelminthes: Rhabdocoela) from the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenkiste, Niels W L; Herbert, Elizabeth R; Leander, Brian S

    2017-12-14

    Increasing evidence suggests that many widespread species of meiofauna are in fact regional complexes of (pseudo-)cryptic species. This knowledge has challenged the 'Everything is Everywhere' hypothesis and also partly explains the meiofauna paradox of widespread nominal species with limited dispersal abilities. Here, we investigated species diversity within the marine microturbellarian Astrotorhynchus bifidus sensu lato in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. We used a multiple-evidence approach combining multi-gene (18S, 28S, COI) phylogenetic analyses, several single-gene and multi-gene species delimitation methods, haplotype networks and conventional taxonomy to designate Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs). This included the development of rhabdocoel-specific COI barcode primers, which also have the potential to aid in species identification and delimitation in other rhabdocoels. Secondary Species Hypotheses (SSHs) corresponding to morphospecies and pseudo-cryptic species were then proposed based on the minimum consensus of different PSHs. Our results showed that (a) there are at least five species in the A. bifidus complex in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, four of which can be diagnosed based on stylet morphology, (b) the A. bifidus complex is a mixture of sympatric and allopatric species with regional and/or subglobal distributions, (c) sympatry occurs on local (sample sites), regional (Northeastern Pacific) and subglobal (Northern Atlantic, Arctic, Northeastern Pacific) scales. Mechanisms for this co-occurrence are still poorly understood, but we hypothesize they could include habitat differentiation (spatial and/or seasonal) and life history characteristics such as sexual selection and dispersal abilities. Our results also suggest the need for improved sampling and exploration of molecular markers to accurately map gene flow and broaden our understanding of species diversity and distribution of microturbellarians in particular and meiofauna in general. Copyright

  17. Análise do perfil dos estudantes de um curso Lato Sensu utilizando ferramenta RapidMiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Leonardi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2013v18n37p19   A pesquisa tem como objetivo levantar o perfil dos participantes selecionados num curso em nível Lato Sensu na modalidade EaD realizado pela Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC. Foi utilizada a ferramenta de extração de conhecimento RapidMiner para observar e estruturar os dados (usando algoritmos de classificação baseado na técnica de árvore ID3 numérico sobre a formação, experiência em EaD e produção acadêmica dos candidatos selecionados. Com tal análise foi proposta uma abordagem pedagógica do curso congruente com o perfil dos selecionados, facilitando o desenvolvimento de situações de aprendizagem e formação de professores na interação de duas grandes áreas: gestão e docência. A organização do curso preocupa-se em preservar a unidade do conhecimento na formação dos participantes. Nesta perspectiva as disciplinas se integram pelos quatro eixos temáticos que constituem a organização curricular. Os eixos e os temas tratados como disciplinas propõem o cruzamento e a complementaridade durante o decorrer do curso, contemplando o olhar prismático da interdisciplinaridade e transversalidade.

  18. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show

  19. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Møller, Jens K.; Kolmos, Birte

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex-bead-based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contained 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay; thus, a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. A total of 49 Danish patients...

  20. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroug, Isam M A; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H; Samy, Abdallah M; Frah, Ehab A; ElMubarak, Wigdan A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in collection from April to June. There

  1. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  2. Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov., a widely distributed member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex in North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margos, Gabriele; Piesman, Joseph; Lane, Robert S; Ogden, Nicholas H; Sing, Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker

    .... Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter, B. burgdorferi) was described in the north-eastern USA during the early 1980s, an increasing diversity has been noted within the species complex...

  3. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulauskas Algimantas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been considered as pathogens in animals and humans. The role of wild cervids in the epidemiology is not clear. We analyzed questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in spring for these pathogens from sites with high (Fjelløyvær and Strøm and low density (Tjore, Hinnebu and Jomfruland of wild cervids to study the spread of the pathogens in questing ticks. Methods For detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum a 77-bp fragment in the msp2 gene was used. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was performed using the FL6 and FL7 primers according to sequences of conserved regions of the fla gene. The OspA gene located on the linear 49-kb plasmid was used as target in multiplex PCR for genotyping. Genospecies-specific primers were used in the PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. Results Infection rates with Borrelia spp. were significantly lower at Fjelløyvær and Strøm compared to Tjore and Hinnebu; Fjelløyvær vs. Tjore (χ2 = 20.27, p 2 = 24.04, p 2 = 11.47, p = 0.0007 and Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.63, p Borrelia genospecies were dominated by. B. afzelii (82% followed by B. garinii (9.7% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (6.9%. B. burgdorferi s.s. was only found on the island of Jomfruland. The infection rate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed the following figures; Fjelløyvær vs Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.27, p = 0.0001; Strøm vs. Tjore (χ2 = 13.16, p = 0.0003; Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 34.71, p 2 = 3.19, p = 0.0742 and Fjelløyvær vs. Støm (χ2 = 5.06, p = 0.0245. Wild cervids may serve as a reservoir for A. phagocytophilum. Jomfruland, with no wild cervids but high levels of migrating birds and rodents, harboured both B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks. Birds and rodents may play an important role in maintaining the pathogens on Jomfruland. Conclusion The high abundance of roe deer

  4. Human seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two comparable regions of the eastern Alps is not correlated to vector infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, S T; Margos, G; Wex, F; Simeoni, J; Zelger, R; Schmutzhard, E; Lass-Flörl, C; Walder, G

    2015-04-01

    Seroprevalences were determined by testing sera of 1607 blood donors from North, East, and South Tyrol. In the Tyrols, the continental divide delimitates areas with high seroprevalences of IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the North (7.2%) from areas with low seroprevalences in the South (1.5%). To determine Borrelia prevalences in unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks, 755 questing ticks were tested by PCR. Prevalences in nymphal and adult ticks were found to be 19.7% (n=132) and 21.5% (n=205) in North Tyrol and 23% (n=43) and 23.7% (n=376) in South Tyrol, respectively. Sequencing of 46 Borrelia-positive ticks yielded 74% Borrelia (B.) afzelii, 11% B. garinii, 7% B. lusitaniae, 7% B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and 2% B. valaisiana infections. Distinct genetic clusters could not be delimitated on either side of the continental divide. This study describes occurrence and geographic dispersion of Borrelia spp. in the Tyrols, discusses possible reasons for significant differences in human seroprevalence, and indicates that prevalence of Borrelia in vector ticks is not a direct predictive factor for the local seroprevalence in humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato)

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Adelina; Humphrey D Mazigo; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. Methods The standard WHO guideline for larvici...

  6. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 secondary structure modelling for intra-specific differentiation among species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2014-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of member species which are of quarantine importance is impacted by a number of factors that negatively affect species identification. Structural information of the rRNA marker may be considered to be a conserved marker which can be used as supplementary information for possible species identification. The difficulty in using ITS rDNA sequences for identification lies in the low level of sequence variation at the intra-specific level and the generation of artificially-induced sequence variation due to errors in polymerization of the ITS array during DNA replication. Type and query ITS sequences were subjected to sequence analyses prior to generation of predicted consensus secondary structures, including the pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms and number of indel haplotypes, GC content, and detection of artificially-induced sequence variation. Data pertaining to structure stability, the presence of conserved motifs in secondary structures and mapping of all sequences onto the consensus C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto secondary structure for ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 markers was then carried out. Motifs that are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes were found for all ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences. The sequences exhibited conserved features typical of functional rRNAs. Generally, polymorphisms occurred within less conserved regions and were seen as bulges, internal and terminal loops or non-canonical G-U base-pairs within regions of the double stranded helices. Importantly, there were also taxonomic motifs and base changes that were unique to specific taxa and which may be used to support intra-specific identification of members of the C. gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.

  7. Clinical and serological one-year follow-up of patients after the bite of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Flonta, Mirela; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker; Lupșe, Mihaela

    2017-04-01

    The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) after the bite of a Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infected tick in Romania is unknown. The present prospective study, performed in 2010-2011 in a hospital in Romania, has followed-up clinical and serological outcome of patients that presented with B. burgdorferi positive Ixodes (I.) ricinus bite. A second group of patients, including age, sex and residence-matched individuals bitten by B. burgdorferi negative ticks, was followed-up as a control group. The subjects' outcome was evaluated one year after the tick bite. Forty-three out of 389 ticks detached from patients were positive by hbb Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) for B. burgdorferi s.l. (mainly B. afzelii, but also B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae). Twenty patients bitten by B. burgdorferi positive ticks and twenty matched control patients returned for the one year follow-up. Two patients from the B. burgdorferi positive group developed clinical manifestations of acute LB (erythema migrans) and 5 patients seroconverted (two from the B. burgdorferi positive group and three from the B. burgdorferi negative group). Borrelia afzelii was identified in ticks collected from persons that developed erythema migrans (EM). Comparing the two groups of patients, no statistical significant differences were found regarding presence of clinical symptoms or seroconversion. No outcome differences were found between the group of patients bitten by B. burgdorferi positive ticks and the group of patients bitten by B. burgdorferi negative ticks.

  8. A Proposal for a Genome Similarity-Based Taxonomy for Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria that Is Sufficiently Precise to Reflect Phylogeny, Host Range, and Outbreak Affiliation Applied to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato as a Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatzer, Boris A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Monteil, Caroline L; Elmarakeby, Haitham A; Sheppard, Samuel K; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomy of plant pathogenic bacteria is challenging because pathogens of different crops often belong to the same named species but current taxonomy does not provide names for bacteria below the subspecies level. The introduction of the host range-based pathovar system in the 1980s provided a temporary solution to this problem but has many limitations. The affordability of genome sequencing now provides the opportunity for developing a new genome-based taxonomic framework. We already proposed to name individual bacterial isolates based on pairwise genome similarity. Here, we expand on this idea and propose to use genome similarity-based codes, which we now call life identification numbers (LINs), to describe and name bacterial taxa. Using 93 genomes of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato, LINs were compared with a P. syringae genome tree whereby the assigned LINs were found to be informative of a majority of phylogenetic relationships. LINs also reflected host range and outbreak association for strains of P. syringae pathovar actinidiae, a pathovar for which many genome sequences are available. We conclude that LINs could provide the basis for a new taxonomic framework to address the shortcomings of the current pathovar system and to complement the current taxonomic system of bacteria in general.

  9. Water immersion of dogs close to the time of topical fluralaner treatment does not reduce efficacy against a subsequent experimental challenge with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Heide; Meyer, Leon; Armstrong, Rob

    2017-09-25

    Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs and cats providing immediate and persistent flea- and tick-control after a single topical dose. Prescribing directions recommend waiting 72 h following topical administration before immersing dogs in water. The objective of this study was to determine whether water immersion immediately prior to treatment or earlier than 72 h post-treatment reduced subsequent treatment efficacy. Forty (n = 40) dogs were blocked on tick carrying capacity into 5 experimental groups and all but one of the groups (untreated control) were treated topically with fluralaner (Bravecto® Spot-On Solution, Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) at the commercial dose. Three of the four remaining groups were immersed in 38-40 °C water for a 5 min bath - either 1 h before treatment; 12 h after treatment; or 24 h after treatment. Seven days after treatment all dogs were challenged with 50 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks and after 24 h attached ticks were counted and removed. Efficacies (compared to the untreated control group) were: 99.3% for no water immersion; 99.6% for immersion 1 h before treatment; 99.3% for immersion 12 h after treatment; and, 100% for immersion 24 h after treatment. Water immersion of dogs around the time of topical fluralaner administration did not reduce subsequent systemic acaricidal efficacy.

  10. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Sebah, Daniela; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Leucuţa, Daniel; Meyer, Fabian; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Huber, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (FFM) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the ospA and hbb genes. Additionally, an optimized ospA real-time PCR assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (IAC) for the detection of inhibition in the PCR assay and was validated as an improved screening tool for B. burgdorferi. One hundred and thirty-six ticks collected from humans in a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were investigated regarding genus, stage of development and sex, and then tested by all three assays. A poor quality of agreement was found between FFM and each of the two real-time PCR assays, as assessed by concordance analysis (Cohen's kappa), whereas the agreement between the two real-time PCR assays was moderate. The present study argues for a low sensitivity of FFM and underlines that discordant results of different assays used for detection of B. burgdorferi in ticks are frequent.

  12. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  13. An alternative real-time PCR method for the detection of thermotolerant Bacillus sensu lato contaminants in naturally-contaminated gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekmans, R; Van den Plas, C; Stevens, P; Vervust, T; De Vos, P

    2009-06-01

    Comparison of an internally-controlled real-time PCR assay with the current plate-based assay for the detection of Bacillus sensu lato contaminants in gelatine. A comprehensive TaqMan probe was designed allowing the real-time PCR assay to be fully inclusive for the gelatine-contaminating Bacillus s.l. species. An internal amplification control was implemented at 500 copies per reaction without impact on target detection. Specific and selective detection of target cells was achieved with a quick and simple DNA preparation procedure. No significant difference (Kappa value = 0.94) was observed between the performance of the real-time PCR and the current plate-based method on naturally contaminated gelatines (n = 162). Relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were 97.5%. The real-time PCR assay is an adequate alternative of the current plate-based assay. The real-time PCR assay decreased the time between sample collection and result from 2 days to 2 h. The gelatine-producing industry can ensure gelatine quality in a much faster way.

  14. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Equids and Molecular Detection of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Amblyomma cajennense Sensu Lato Ticks From the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alvair Da S; Melo, Andréia L T; Amorim, Marcus V; Borges, Alice M C M; Gaíva E Silva, Lucas; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure of equids to rickettsial agents (Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Rickettsia bellii) and rickettsial infection in ticks of a Pantanal region of Brazil. Sera of 547 equids (500 horses and 47 donkeys) were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In total, 665 adults and 106 nymphal pools of Amblyomma cajennense F. sensu lato, 10 Dermacentor nitens Neumann ticks, and 88 larval pools of Amblyomma sp. were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 337 (61.6%) equids were reactive (titer ≥64) to at least one antigen of Rickettsia spp. The prevalence values for Rickettsia were 66%, and the highest endpoint titers were observed for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. By PCR 3 (0.45%) A. cajennense s.l. females were positive for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. Minimum infection rates of 0.75% for nymphs and 0.34% for larvae were calculated. Positive samples of ticks have had a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequenced and sequences showed 99% identity to Amblyomma sculptum Berlese. This study reports a wide exposure of equids to Rickettsia agents, and PCR evidence of infection with 'Ca. R. amblyommii', for the first time, in A. sculptum. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  15. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  16. Horses and Borrelia: immunoblot patterns with five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains and sera from horses of various stud farms in Austria and from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Iris; Khanakah, Gelas; Kundi, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2002-06-01

    Grazing animals are continuously exposed to tick bites. Consequently, one may expect that horses will become infected with the various pathogens carried by ticks including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Whether horses may develop clinical disease due to this pathogen is controversially discussed. We were interested to learn about the infection of horses with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within one season by studying the dynamics of the humoral immune response in paired blood samples. The majority of horses examined were Lipizzaner from the stud farm in Piber/Steiermark, and from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna. Smaller groups of animals of different breeds were from stud farms in Kärnten, Niederösterreich, Salzburg and Steiermark. Clinical status and medical history were obtained and blood was drawn at the beginning of the highest tick activity and nine months later in 1998. Immunoblot technique (Western blot) was used in order to determine the dynamics in the immune response patterns. As antigens served the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Borrelia valaisiana. 309 horses (age median 7 years, range 1/12 to 33 years) were seen at the first round. 186 of these animals (60.2%; median age 6 years, range 4/12 to 33 years) were re-examined in the second round. All animals were in normal health condition during both rounds of examination and blood sampling. Analysis of the immunoblot patterns was based on in-house-, Pko-, Pka2-, Pbi-, and European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB) 2 & 3-criteria; analyses revealed a variety of positive results with different strains and criteria. Positive immunoblot results with 186 paired samples and B. afzelii as antigen, for example, ranged from 52 to about 91% in the first, and 53 to 93% in the second round. The age dependency analyses showed that the first infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato occurs in the first year. Re

  17. Seasonality of Ixodes ricinus Ticks on Vegetation and on Rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Genospecies Diversity in Two Lyme Borreliosis–Endemic Areas in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, David; Kneubühler, Yvan; Rais, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We compared Ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis (LB)-endemic areas in Switzerland (Portes-Rouges [PR] and Staatswald [SW]) from 2003 to 2005. There were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. Questing nymphs were globally more abundant at PR than at SW, but the proportion of rodents infested by immature ticks was similar (59.4% and 61%, respectively). Questing tick activity lasted from February to November with a strong decline in June. The seasonal pattern of ticks infesting rodents was different. Ticks infested rodents without decline in summer, suggesting that the risk of being bitten by ticks remains high during the summer. Rodents from SW showed the highest infestation levels (10±21.6 for larvae and 0.54±1.65 for nymphs). The proportion of rodents infested simultaneously by larvae and nymphs (co-feeding ticks) was higher at SW (28%) than at PR (11%). Apodemus flavicollis was the species the most frequently infested by co-feeding ticks, and Myodes glareolus was the most infective rodent species as measured by xenodiagnosis. At PR, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in questing ticks was higher (17.8% for nymphs and 32.4% for adults) than at SW (10.4% for nymphs and 24.8% for adults), with B. afzelii as the dominant species, but B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana were also detected. Rodents transmitted only B. afzelii (at PR and at SW) and B. bavariensis (at SW) to ticks, and no mixed infection by additional genospecies was observed in co-feeding ticks. This implies that co-feeding transmission does not contribute to genospecies diversity. However, persistent infections in rodents and co-feeding transmission contribute to the perpetuation of B. afzelii in nature. PMID:22607074

  18. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does more favourable handling of the cerebrospinal fluid increase the diagnostic sensitivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific PCR in Lyme neuroborreliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forselv, Kristine J N; Lorentzen, Åslaug R; Ljøstad, Unn; Mygland, Åse; Eikeland, Randi; Kjelland, Vivian; Noraas, Sølvi; Quarsten, Hanne

    2017-11-10

    Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA). Patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for LNB were classified as LNB cases and the rest as controls. Bb DNA in CSF was detected by PCR in seven of 28 adults with LNB. Two were Bb antibody negative. No Bb DNA was detected in CSF from 137 controls. Diagnostic sensitivity was 25% and specificity 100%. There was a non-significant trend towards larger CSF sample volume, faster handling of the sample, shorter duration of symptoms, and higher CSF cell count in the PCR-positive cases. We did not find that optimized handling of CSF increased diagnostic sensitivity of PCR in adults with LNB. However, our case series is small and we hypothesize that the importance of these factors will be clarified in further studies with larger case series and altered study design. PCR for diagnosis of LNB may be useful in cases without Bb antibodies due to short duration of symptoms.

  20. A comparative laboratory trial evaluating the immediate efficacy of fluralaner, afoxolaner, sarolaner and imidacloprid + permethrin against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks attached to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Federica; Meyer, Leon; Armstrong, Rob

    2016-12-03

    Acaricides are used to treat and prevent tick infestations, and a common clinical scenario is to administer an acaricide on observing an attached tick. Consequently, immediate acaricidal efficacy (onset of activity and speed of kill) results are clinically valuable. This study evaluated the immediate efficacy of four commercially available acaricides against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato). Forty dogs were blocked on hair length and tick carrying capacity, then randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments (fluralaner, sarolaner, imidacloprid + permethrin, or afoxolaner) or left untreated as controls. All dogs were challenged with 50 adult R. sanguineus (s.l.) ticks 48 h prior to treatment. After treatment, in situ tick thumb counts were conducted at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h; thereafter ticks were removed and counted at 48 h. Imidacloprid + permethrin had the earliest onset of activity at 2 h (36.9% efficacy) followed at 4 h by fluralaner (60.2% efficacy) and sarolaner (48.2% efficacy), and lastly afoxolaner at 8 h (90.8% efficacy). Three oral treatments had an 8 h speed of kill (>90% efficacy) threshold; with corresponding efficacies as: fluralaner (99.6%), sarolaner (94.7%) and afoxolaner (90.8%). Fluralaner and sarolaner achieved 100% efficacy at 12, 24 and 48 h; afoxolaner achieved 100% efficacy at 48 h. Imidacloprid + permethrin achieved 80.1% efficacy at 48 h, therefore, failing to attain the speed of kill 90% efficacy threshold. The systemically distributed isoxazolines performed much better than cutaneously distributed imidacloprid + permethrin and are optimal treatment choices against attached ticks based on the combination of earlier onset of activity and speed of kill. Fluralaner had a 4 h onset of activity, an 8 h speed of kill and achieved 100% efficacy at 12 h.

  1. Genetic analysis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks parasites of dogs in Africa north of the Sahara based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Langguth, Johanna; Pfeffer, Martin; Kattner, Simone; Küpper, Thomas; Friese, Daniela; Dobler, Gerhard; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-05-30

    The aim of this work was to determine the evolutionary relationship among tick populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato distributed in Africa north of the Sahara and different lineages of R. sanguineus s.l. distributed in different regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, America and Europe through the analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes. One hundred and thirty six 16S rRNA gene sequences and twenty-seven 12S rRNA gene sequences of R. sanguineus s.l. were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed including different lineages of R. sanguineus s.l. from America, Europe and Africa, and species belonging to the R. sanguineus group as Rhipicephalus camicasi, Rhipicephalus guilhoni, Rhipicephalus sulcatus, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Rhipicephalus pusillus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus leporis. At least two different lineages of R. sanguineus s.l. are living in sympatry in Africa north of the Sahara. One of these mitochondrial lineages belongs to the same evolutionary entity that R. sanguineus s.l. from tropical areas of America, R. sanguineus s.l. from Sub-Saharan Africa, R. camicasi and R. guilhoni. The other mitochondrial lineage of R. sanguineus s.l. present in Africa north of the Sahara is phylogenetically associated to R. sanguineus s.l. ticks from southeastern Europe (Romania, Turkey and Greece). Both evolutionary entities are clearly different to the evolutionary entity formed by R. sanguineus s.l. from western Europe and temperate areas of America. Thus, the name R. sanguineus s.s. cannot be assigned to any of the two evolutionary entities present in Africa north of the Sahara. The taxonomic status of these taxa will remain unresolved until new lines of evidence become available to complement the current results based on mitochondrial DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R; Wilson, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide host range may

  3. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  4. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  5. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  6. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets.

  7. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Torracca, Beatrice; Cerri, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas Ehrlichia canis is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (4.68%), and B. burgdorferi s.l. (1.47%). Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban E. canis-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32%) of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for E. canis observed in 2012. The results confirm the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance.

  8. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC50 and LC95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC50 and LC95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  10. Genetic characterization of human-derived hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Heilongjiang Province and the first report of G7 genotype of E. canadensis in humans in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemin Zhang

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l. is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1-G10 have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, cytochrome b (cytb and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1 genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6 and G7 genotype (n = 4. All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l.

  11. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  12. ¿Sigue la producción de artículos ISI de los ecólogos chilenos (sensu lato la ley de Lotka (1926? Does the production of ISI papers by Chilean ecologists (sensu lato fit Lotka's (1926 law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME R RAU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se propusieron dos nuevos indicadores bibliométricos aplicados a la productividad de artículos ISI para una muestra de 120 ecólogos chilenos (sensu lato. El propósito de esos índices fue realizar una corrección del índice-h tanto para el número de coautores como para el número de autocitas, y efectuar una estandarización para la edad científica. Sin embargo, un análisis de los residuos de la regresión del logaritmo decimal del número de alocitas (correlacionado con el índice-h demostró un bajo efecto del número de coautores y autocitas y demostró que el examen de los residuales es un indicador bibliométrico más robusto. Pese a ello, utilizo esa base de datos y, a través de un análisis de regresión log-log y el empleo del programa computacional LOTKA, demuestro que los ecólogos chilenos no siguen la ley epistemométrica de Lotka (1926, la cual postula que es solo una minoría la que produce la mayoría de los artículos publicados en una determinada área disciplinaria.Recently, two new bibliometric indicators were proposed to gauge the productivity of ISI papers and applied to a sample of 120 Chilean ecologists (sensu lato. The purpose of these indexes was to make a correction of the h-index for the number of coauthors and the number of self-citations as well as to a scientific age-standardization of that index. However, an analysis of residuals from the regression of the logarithm of the number of alocitations (correlated with the h-index showed little effect of both, the number of coauthors and of self-citations and showed that the examination of the residuals is a more robust bibliometric indicator. Nevertheless, in this comment I use that database and, through a log-log regression analysis and the use of the LOTKA computer program, I show that Chilean ecologists do not follow the scientometric law of Lotka (1926, which postulates that only a minority of authors produces most of the articles published in

  13. Estrutura da comunidade de Chlorococcales sensu lato (Chlorophyceae em diferentes hábitats aquáticos e hidroperíodos Structure of the Chlorococcales sensu lato (Chlorophyceae community in different aquatic habitats and hydroperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa avaliar a riqueza, a densidade, a diversidade específica e a distribuição da comunidade de Chlorococcales s.l. em zonas pelágicas e litorâneas de diferentes hábitats aquáticos (lagoas isoladas, lagoas interligadas, banhados, açudes e arroios em dois hidroperíodos (águas altas e baixas em região subtropical no sul do Brasil. As amostragens de fitoplâncton foram realizadas em duas áreas, situadas entre as coordenadas 30(040´ - 30(010´ S e 50(030´ - 51(031´W no ano de 2003, com a obtenção simultânea de dados de temperatura, condutividade, pH, transparência e profundidade da água. Os resultados revelaram que as médias de riqueza e de diversidade específica foram maiores na zona litorânea e significativamente maiores (p24°C. Dentre os táxons observados, Desmodesmus heteracanthus (Guerr. Hentschke et Torgan, D. lunatus (W. et G. S. West Hegew. e Monoraphidium griffithii (Berk. Kom-Legn., mostraram-se indicadoras de hábitats e D. armatus (Chod. Hegew., D. denticulatus (Lagerh. An, Friedl et Hegew. e D. lunatus foram indicadoras de hidroperíodo. Este estudo demonstra a importância do hábitat e do hidroperíodo, na estrutura da comunidade de Chlorococcales s.l.This study aims to evaluate richness, density specific diversity and distribution of the Chlorococcales s.l. community in pelagic and littoral zones of different aquatic habitats (isolated lagoons, interlinked lagoons, swamps, reservoirs and streams during two hydroperiods (high and low water in a subtropical region in Southern Brazil. Phytoplankton sampling was carried out in two areas, situated within the coordinates 30(040´ - 30(010´ S and 50(030´ - 51(031´ W, in 2003 with simultaneous information on temperature, conductivity, pH, transparency and depth of water. The results showed that richness and specific diversity averages were higher in the littoral zone and significantly higher (p24°C. Among the observed taxa Desmodesmus heteracanthus

  14. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s

  15. Serological detection of antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike

    2017-03-15

    In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number

  16. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato: insights into the evolution of a fungal species complex interacting with diverse plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaofei; Tian, Xianglin; Liu, Wenkui; Wei, Tingyu; Wang, Wei; Dong, Qiuyue; Wang, Bo; Meng, Yanan; Zhang, Rong; Gleason, Mark L; Sun, Guangyu

    2017-02-15

    The fungal species complex Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato contains over 20 plant-interacting species. These species exhibit different life styles (e.g., endophytes, foliar and fruit pathogens) and show considerable variation in host and tissue adaptation strategies. Accurate species delimitation in C. gloeosporioides s.l. is very challenging due to nascent lineage boundaries and phenotypic plasticity, which strongly impedes studies of the complex's host-interaction biology. In this study, we first sequenced and compared nine mitogenomes belonging to four C. gloeosporioides s.l. species lineages (C. gloeosporioides, C. fructicola, C. aenigma, and C. siamense s.l.), and evaluated the usefulness of mitogenome sequence in complementing prevailing nuclear markers for species delimitation. The C. gloeosporioides s.l. mitogenomes ranged between 52,671 and 58,666 bp in size, and each contained an identical set of genes transcribed in the same direction. Compared with previously reported Colletotrichum mitogenomes, these mitogenomes were uniquely featured by: (1) significantly larger genome size due to richer intron content and longer intergenic region; (2) striking GC content elevation at the intergenic region; and (3) considerable intron content variation among different species lineages. Compared with nuclear DNA markers commonly used in phylogeny, the mitogenome nucleotide diversity was extremely low, yet the mitogenome alignment contained the highest number of parsimony informative sites, which allowed the generation of a high-resolution phylogeny recognizing all taxonomic lineages, including ones belonging to the very nascent C. siamense s.l. complex. The tree topology was highly congruent with the phylogeny based on nuclear marker concatenation except for lineages within C. siamense s.l. Further comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that lineage-specific rapid divergence of GS and SOD2 markers confounded concatenation-based species relationship

  17. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  18. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Gouzelou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE using the Montpellier (MON system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37. However, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT has shown that this zymodeme is paraphyletic; composed of distantly related genetic subgroups of different geographical origin. Consequently the origin of the Cypriot strains remained enigmatic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Cypriot strains were compared with a set of Turkish isolates obtained from a CL patient and sand fly vectors in south-east Turkey (Çukurova region; CUK strains and from a VL patient in the south-west (Kuşadasi; EP59 strain. These Turkish strains were initially analyzed using the K26-PCR assay that discriminates MON-1 strains by their amplicon size. In line with previous DNA-based data, the strains were inferred to the L. donovani complex and characterized as non MON-1. For these strains MLEE typing revealed two novel zymodemes; L. donovani MON-309 (CUK strains and MON-308 (EP59. A population genetic analysis of the Turkish isolates was performed using 14 hyper-variable microsatellite loci. The genotypic profiles of 68 previously analyzed L. donovani complex strains from major endemic regions were included for comparison. Population structures were inferred by combination of bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches. MLMT placed the Turkish and Cypriot strains in a subclade of a newly discovered, genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group, suggesting that the Cypriot strains may originate from Turkey. CONCLUSION: The discovery of a genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group in the south-eastern Mediterranean stresses the importance of species genetic characterization towards better understanding

  19. Efficacy and speed of kill of a topically applied formulation of dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen against weekly tick infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Varloud, Marie; Horak, Ivan G

    2016-05-16

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) is a vector of canine babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. In order to reduce the chance of transmission of these diseases, an ectoparasiticide should rapidly repel or kill new infestations with this tick. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment and preventive acaricidal efficacy of Vectra® 3D (54.45 mg/ml of dinotefuran, 396.88 mg/ml of permethrin and 4.84 mg/ml of pyriproxyfen) against R. sanguineus (s.l.) measured at 2, 8, and 48 h after treatment and weekly re-infestation. Twenty-four dogs were each infested with 50 adult R. sanguineus (s.l.) on Day -7 and allocated to three groups (n = 8) based on tick counts: an untreated control group (Group 1), and two groups (Groups 2 and 3) treated with Vectra®3D. The dogs in each group were infested with 50 ticks on Day -2. Vectra®3D was administered topically to the dogs on Day 0. Ticks were counted, in situ at 2 and 8 h after treatment on dogs in Groups 1 and 3. Group 3 was then withdrawn from the study and ticks were counted and removed from the dogs in Groups 1 and 2, 48 h after treatment. On Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, the dogs in Groups 1 and 2 were re-infested with 50 ticks, which were then counted in situ at 2 and 8 h, and counted and removed at 48 h after re-infestation. Ticks from the initial infestation were visually unaffected by 2 and 8 h after treatment. However, by 2 h after weekly re-infestation the arithmetic mean (AM) efficacy of Vectra® 3D from Days 7 through 28 ranged from 61.1 to 78.8 %, falling to 60.1 and 47.4 % on Days 35 and 42 respectively. By 8 h after weekly re-infestation, the AM efficacy ranged from 89.1 to 97.4 % falling to 81.4 and 69.8 % on Days 35 and 42 respectively. The AM efficacy 48 h after treatment after the initial infestation was 22.9 % but after weekly re-infestation the efficacy at 48 h ranged from 89.1 to 100.0 %, falling to 86.0 and 81.1 % on Days 35 and 42 respectively

  20. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  1. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  2. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  3. Residência multiprofissional em saúde e pós-graduação lato sensu no Brasil: apontamentos históricos Multiprofessional residency in healthcare and postgraduate education in Brazil: historical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da discussão da educação superior brasileira, tomando-se como parâmetro a especialização no conjunto da pós-graduação, a partir da análise do Programa da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde, reconhecido como pós-graduação lato sensu. Utilizou-se a pesquisa histórica e documental como instrumento para análise dos problemas enfrentados no modelo de formação proposto no referido programa e apresentado pelos ministérios da Educação e da Saúde como base para a consolidação da política nacional de educação em saúde. Os resultados alcançados nos permitem afirmar a importância da pós-graduação lato sensu no âmbito da educação em saúde. Contudo, sua oferta descontínua e, na maioria dos casos, não acadêmica, tem caracterizado um modelo limitado pela lógica mercantil, evidenciando a falta de políticas públicas que assegurem a devida qualificação profissional. A Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde pretende ser uma nova estratégia para políticas de educação permanente que, enfocando categorias profissionais não médicas da área, favoreça a produção das condições necessárias para mudanças no modelo médico-assistencial restritivo, ainda hegemônico, de atenção em saúde. Resta saber se essa interferência no modelo educacional vai contribuir para uma melhor ação profissional ou se restringe à estruturação da rede de serviços públicos, através da oferta de um campo de trabalho precarizado.This is a discussion about Brazilian higher education, using as a parameter specialization courses in the postgraduate program based on the analysis of the Programa da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde [Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health-care], known as a postgraduate program. We used historical and documental research as a tool for analysis of the problems faced in the training model proposed in the Program and presented by the ministries of Education and Health as the basis

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence and diversity in ticks and small mammals in a Lyme borreliosis endemic Nature Reserve in North-Western Spain. Incidence in surrounding human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí, Alberto; Del Cerro, Ana; Somoano, Aitor; García, Verónica; M Prieto, José; Barandika, José F; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in an endemic Nature Reserve (Sierra del Sueve) in North-Western Spain, and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks in Asturias, 1013 questing ticks and 70 small mammals were collected between 2012 and 2014. A retrospective descriptive analysis was also carried out on human Lyme borreliosis (LB) cases reported to the local hospital (Cabueñes). Samples were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. presence by a nested PCR assay, and genospecies were confirmed by sequencing. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 1.4% (12/845) of I. ricinus questing nymphs, 9.1% (2/33) of questing adults, and 12.9% (9/70) of small mammals, as well as in the other tick species. PCR positive samples of 17 questing tick and 6 small mammals were sequenced. Four genospecies were identified: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, and B. valaisiana. Phylogenetic analyses based on the flaB gene showed the heterogeneity of B. afzelii in this area. The detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. among questing ticks and small mammals in the study area, as well as the abundance of ticks and of large wild and domestic mammals, indicate a high risk of infection by B. burgdorferi s.l. in the area. Reporting of LB cases to the local hospital support this, and shows the need of thorough monitoring of B. burgdorferi infection in ticks and hosts in the area. More investigations are needed to assess the role of different wildlife species and the risk of transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from dairy farms and traditional dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Wuni, Alhassan; Akabanda, Fortune

    2017-01-01

    Background: B. cereus are of particular interest in food safety and public health because of their capacity to cause food spoilage and disease through the production of various toxins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance profile...

  6. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  7. The enzootic life-cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and tick-borne rickettsiae: an epidemiological study on wild-living small mammals and their ticks from Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Król, Nina; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Nader, Julian; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-03-13

    Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) by qPCR targeting the gltA and p41 genes, respectively. Partial sequencing of the rickettsial ompB gene and an MLST of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) were conducted for species determination. In total, 673 small mammals belonging to eight species (Apodemus agrarius, n = 7; A. flavicollis, n = 214; Microtus arvalis, n = 8; Microtus agrestis, n = 1; Mustela nivalis, n = 2; Myodes glareolus, n = 435; Sorex araneus, n = 5; and Talpa europaea, n = 1) were collected and examined. In total, 916 questing ticks belonging to three species (Ixodes ricinus, n = 741; Dermacentor reticulatus, n = 174; and I. trianguliceps, n = 1) were collected. Of these, 474 ticks were further investigated. The prevalence for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) in the investigated small mammals was 25.3 and 31.2%, respectively. The chance of encountering Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus was seven times higher for specimens infested with D. reticulatus than for those which were free of D. reticulatus (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 3.3-14.7; P < 0.001). In total, 11.4% of questing I. ricinus and 70.5% of D. reticulatus were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) was detected only in I. ricinus (5.5%). Sequence analysis revealed 9 R. helvetica, 5 R. raoultii, and 1 R. felis obtained from 15 small mammal samples. Small mammals may serve as reservoirs for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.). While the prevalence for Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus is most

  8. Articulação entre universidade e escola públicas: o caso do curso de pós-graduação lato sensu em ensino de Sociologia da UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Handfas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the continuing education of teachers, based on the experience of the post-graduation course - specialization in teaching sociology at the School of UFRJ Education. To achieve this goal and relying on notions of field and habitus of Pierre Bourdieu, interviews were conducted, questionnaires and considered the data coordinating the evaluation of the course, to understand the impacts caused by the transit of teachers between university courses and from school. Among the conclusions, we point out that for a considerable part of the course students is the real possibility of resumption of academic training that was largely abandoned by the contingency of teaching in school. The analyzed data reaffirm the design of the Specialization Course Knowledge and Practices in Basic Education - CESPEB, whose principles are based on the relationship between university and public school. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a formação continuada de professores, tendo por base a experiência do curso de pós-graduação lato sensu – especialização em ensino de sociologia da Faculdade de Educação da UFRJ. Para alcançar esse objetivo e apoiando-se nas noções de campo e habitus de Pierre Bordieu, foram realizadas entrevistas, aplicados questionários e considerados os dados da avaliação da coordenação do curso, para entender os impactos causados pelo trânsito dos professores entre os campos da universidade e da escola. Dentre as conclusões, destacamos que para uma parte considerável dos alunos o curso representa a possibilidade real de retomada da formação acadêmica, que em grande parte foi abandonada pela contingência do trabalho docente na escola. Os dados analisados reafirmam a concepção do Curso de Especialização Saberes e Práticas na Educação Básica – CESPEB, cujos princípios se assentam na articulação entre universidade e escola públicas. El propósito de este artículo es discutir la

  9. Comparative anatomy of the Crypteroniaceae sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.; Baas, P.

    1975-01-01

    The leaf, twig, and nodal anatomy of Alzatea, Axinandra, Crypteronia, Dactylocladus, and Rhynchocalyx is described in detail. This family, as newly delimited by Van Beusekom-Osinga and Van Beusekom, appears to be very heterogeneous, a conclusion supported by the wood anatomical diversity reported in

  10. Molecular detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lager, Malin; Faller, Maximilian; Wilhelmsson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    participating laboratory was asked to analyse three different sets of samples (reference panels; all blinded) i) cDNA extracted and transcribed from water spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, ii) cerebrospinal fluid spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, and iii) DNA dilution series extracted from cultured...... Borrelia and relapsing fever strains. The results and the method descriptions of each laboratory were systematically evaluated. Results and conclusions: The analytical sensitivities and the concordance between the eight protocols were in general high. The concordance was especially high between....... The analytical specificity for all eight protocols was high. However, some protocols were not able to detect Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae or Borrelia japonica....

  11. New Antarctic stenothoids sensu lato (Amphipoda, Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudl Krapp-Schikkel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Three stenothoid species are reported from recent Antarctic collections. Two of these are new to science (Prometopa cedrici sp. nov. and Antatelson claudei sp. nov.. A few character states of Antatelson walkeri are discussed. Keys are provided for Prometopa as well as for Antatelson.

  12. Systematics of the Gomphales: the genus Gomphus sensu stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admir J. Giachini; Carla M. Camelini; Márcia J Rossi; Cláudio R.F.S. Soares; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    Gomphus sensu lato (Gomphales) was described to include species of cantharelloid-gomphoid fungi that had “merulioid” (wrinkled) hymenia and verrucose spores. Gomphus sensu stricto is currently characterized by unipileate to merismatoid (composed of several pilei) basidiomata, depressed funnel- to fan-shaped...

  13. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYTA) OF ISOLATED ISLANDS: NEW TAXA IN THE GENUS NAVICULA SENSU STRICTO FROM THE GALáPAGOS ISLANDS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Alistair W R; Froyd, Cynthia A; Witkowski, Andrzej

    2011-08-01

    The diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from a coastal lagoon from the Diablas wetlands (Isla Isabela, the Galápagos Islands) were studied in material from surface samples and a sediment core spanning the past 2,700 years in order to examine evidence of diatom evolution under geographic isolation. The total number of taxa found was ∼100. Ultrastructural variation in valve morphology between members of Galápagos taxa was used to describe 10 species from the genus Navicula sensu stricto, which are new to science. Four taxa: N. isabelensis, N. isabelensoides, N. isabelensiformis, and N. isabelensiminor, shared several key characteristics that may be indicative of a common evolutionary heritage; these species therefore provide possible evidence for the in situ evolution of diatoms in the Galápagos coastal lagoons. Shared morphological characteristics include: (i) stria patterning in the central area, (ii) an elevated and thickened external raphe-sternum, (iii) external central raphe endings that are slightly deflected toward the valve primary side, and (iv) an arched valve surface. To explain these findings, two models were proposed. The first suggested limited lateral diatomaceous transport of Navicula species between the Galápagos and continental South America. Alternatively, these new species may be ecological specialists arising from the unique environmental conditions of the Galápagos coastal lagoons, which restrict the colonization of common diatom taxa and enable the establishment of novel, rare species. The Diablas wetlands are an important site for diatom research, where local-scale environmental changes have combined with global-scale biogeographic processes resulting in unique diatom assemblages. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Dose-response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-03-14

    Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Dose-response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization's Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77% of eggs laid by females exposed to 0

  15. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171(T) and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171(T) ( = CIP 110486(T) = CCUG 26390(T) = CCM 8555(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  16. Dose–response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Dose–response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization’s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77

  17. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Danielová, V; Fialová, A; Kříž, B; Malý, M

    Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens. The work program included the identification of existing spectrum of spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and the conditions of their occurrence and distribution. In the areas of the Ústí nad Labem Region, Olomouc Region, South Bohemian Region, and Highlands Region, 600 m2 plots were selected in the local optimal I. ricinus habitats where tick flagging was performed every year in the spring-summer and autumn seasons of the tick questing activity. Collected adult ticks (1369 males and 1404 females) were individually screened for B. burgdorferi s. l. spirochets. Spirochetes from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex were detected in all 13 studies sites in all altitudes from 280 to 1030 meters a. s. l. The total rate of infection was determined as 11.4% (males 10.4%, females 12.4%) with range limits from 1.4% (Ústí nad Labem in 2011) to 19.7% (South Bohemian Region, 2012).Genospecies were detected in various proportions and in different combinations: Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s. s., B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. valaisiana, B. spielmanii and B. lusitaniae. The three-year observation justifies the assumption that the regional differences in infectivity of I. ricinus are based on the character of the local biocenosis of the respective region. The dynamics of its seasonal changes, conditioned by climatic factors, determines the annual differences. Three of the medically most important Borrelia species formed a core group among all detected genospecies

  18. Similarities in murine infection and immune response to Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang Ting

    2015-12-01

    In 1982, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) was identified as the aetiological agent of Lyme disease. Since then an increasing number of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) species have been isolated in the United States. To date, many of these species remain understudied despite mounting evidence associating them with human illness. Borrelia bissettii is a spirochaete closely related to B. burgdorferi that has been loosely associated with human illness. Using an experimental murine infection model, we compared the infectivity and humoral immune response with a North American isolate of B. bissettii and B. burgdorferi using culture, molecular and serological methods. The original B. bissettii cultures were unable to infect immunocompetent mice, but were confirmed to be infectious after adaptation in immunodeficient animals. B. bissettii infection resulted in spirochaete burdens similar to B. burgdorferi in skin, heart and bladder whereas significantly lower burdens were observed in the joint tissues. B. bissettii induced an antibody response similar to B. burgdorferi as measured by both immunoblotting and the C6 ELISA. Additionally, this isolate of B. bissettii was sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM, which successfully identified many genes orthologous to mammalian virulence factors described in B. burgdorferi. Similarities seen between both infections in this well-characterized murine model contribute to our understanding of the potential pathogenic nature of B. bissettii. Infection dynamics of B. bissettii, and especially the induced humoral response, are similar to B. burgdorferi, suggesting this species may contribute to the epidemiology of human borreliosis.

  19. De Larven der Nederlandse Chironomidae (Diptera) : Orthocladiinae sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Systematiek De indeling van de Orthocladiinae levert zo mogelijk nog meer problemen op dan die van de andere subfamilies van de Chironomidae. Momenteel is het algemeen gebruikelijk de groep in vier subfamilies te splitsen: Diamesinae, Prodiamesinae, Orthocladiinae en Telmatogetoninae (zie bijv.

  20. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) sensu lato (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) no Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Os ácaros tenuipalpídeos ou ácaros planos são importantes fitófagos constituintes do agroecossistema e florestas semitropical e tropical (JEPPSON et al., 1975; HOY, 2011), sendo que algumas espécies estão associadas à transmissão de fitovírus (CHAGAS et al., 2001 e 2003; CHILDERS et al., 2001; KITAJ...

  1. The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2005-01-01

    Eight species of Phanerochaete are reported from Uruguay for the first time, including a new species, P. vesiculosa. Phanerochaete vesiculosa is characterized by thin-walled, clavate to cylindrical vesicles embedded in the subiculum. A key to the known species of Phanerochaete from Uruguay is provided.

  2. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por lo tanto, dentro de Vicia existen, al menos, dos táxones anficárpicos claramente diferenciados, tanto en su morfología externa como en el cariotipo.

  3. Do marine phytoplankton follow Bergmann's rule sensu lato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ulrich; Peter, Kalista H; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Global warming has revitalized interest in the relationship between body size and temperature, proposed by Bergmann's rule 150 years ago, one of the oldest manifestations of a 'biogeography of traits'. We review biogeographic evidence, results from clonal cultures and recent micro- and mesocosm experiments with naturally mixed phytoplankton communities regarding the response of phytoplankton body size to temperature, either as a single factor or in combination with other factors such as grazing, nutrient limitation, and ocean acidification. Where possible, we also focus on the comparison between intraspecific size shifts and size shifts resulting from changes in species composition. Taken together, biogeographic evidence, community-level experiments and single-species experiments indicate that phytoplankton average cell sizes tend to become smaller in warmer waters, although temperature is not necessarily the proximate environmental factor driving size shifts. Indirect effects via nutrient supply and grazing are important and often dominate. In a substantial proportion of field studies, resource availability is seen as the only factor of relevance. Interspecific size effects are greater than intraspecific effects. Direct temperature effects tend to be exacerbated by indirect ones, if warming leads to intensified nutrient limitation or copepod grazing while ocean acidification tends to counteract the temperature effect on cell size in non-calcifying phytoplankton. We discuss the implications of the temperature-related size trends in a global-warming context, based on known functional traits associated with phytoplankton size. These are a higher affinity for nutrients of smaller cells, highest maximal growth rates of moderately small phytoplankton (ca. 10 2  µm 3 ), size-related sensitivities for different types of grazers, and impacts on sinking rates. For a phytoplankton community increasingly dominated by smaller algae we predict that: (i) a higher proportion of primary production will be respired within the microbial food web; (ii) a smaller share of primary production will be channeled to the classic phytoplankton - crustacean zooplankton - fish food chain, thus leading to decreased ecological efficiency from a fish-production point of view; (iii) a smaller share of primary production will be exported through sedimentation, thus leading to decreased efficiency of the biological carbon pump. © 2016 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Characterization of virulence profile, protein secretion and immunogenicity of different Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates compared with S. globosa and S. brasiliensis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sasaki, Alexandre Augusto; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-04-01

    A comparative study about protein secretion, immunogenicity and virulence was performed in order to characterize and to compare eight Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates. For virulence characterization, a murine model, based on survival assay and CFU counting was used. S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, a highly virulent and a non-virulent isolates, respectively were used as external controls. Exoantigen profiles showed different secreted molecules; the 46- and 60-kDa molecules were commonly secreted by all three species. The S. schenckii s. str. isolates could be classified as non-virulent or presenting low, medium or high virulence, based on survival times after infection and recovery of viable fungi. The humoral response profiles of mice infected with S. schenckii s. str., S. globosa and S. brasiliensis were heterogeneous; five virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 4 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1) had in common the recognition of the 60-kDa molecule by their respective antisera, suggesting that this antigen may be involved in virulence. Furthermore, the 110-kDa molecule was secreted and recognized by antisera from four virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 3 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1), so there is a possibility that this molecule is also related to virulence. Our findings reveal different degrees of virulence in S. schenckii s. str. isolates and suggest the correlation of protein secretion and immunogenicity with virulence of S. schenckii complex. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of S. schenckii s. str. and improve the knowledge about immunogenicity and protein profiles in S. schenckii complex.

  5. Молекулярно-филогенетическое исследование видов рода Colpodium sensu lato (Роеае, Роасеае)

    OpenAIRE

    Родионов, Александр; Ким, Елена; Носов, Николай; Райко, Михаил; Мачс, Эдуард; Пунина, Елизавета

    2008-01-01

    •·Для того чтобы исследовать круг родства видов с необычным двухромосомным геномом Zingeria biebersteiniana (триба Aveneae) и Colpodium versicolor (триба Poeae), мы секвенировали ITS1 и ITS2 ядерных генов рРНК и определили филогенетические отношения видов рода Colpodium sensu lato и некоторых других злаков из триб Aveneae и Poeae. Показано, что Z. biebersteiniana (2n = 4, x = 2), Z. trichopoda (2n = 8, x = 2) и C. versicolor2n = 4, x = 2) формируют хорошо поддержаную кладу только с одним видо...

  6. Acinetobacter colistiniresistens sp. nov. (formerly genomic species 13 sensu Bouvet and Jeanjean and genomic species 14 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing), isolated from human infections and characterized by intrinsic resistance to polymyxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Radolfova-Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej

    2017-07-01

    Strains of the genusAcinetobacter, classified as genomic species 13BJ/14TU have been previously associated with human infections and resistance to colistin. To clarify the taxonomy of this provisional group, we investigated 24 strains that have been isolated from humans since the 1960s in 10 countries. The genus-wide analysis of the rpoB and gyrB sequences of all strains and whole-genome sequences of strains representing different rpoB/gyrB genotypes showed that the 24 strains formed a distinct monophyletic group within the so-called haemolytic clade of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was supported by the results of the cluster analysis of the whole-cell protein fingerprints generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS. The 24 strains had very similar metabolic features and could be distinguished from other members of the genus by the combination of strong haemolytic and proteolytic activities and the ability to oxidize d-glucose and grow on phenylacetate and/or l-phenylalanine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the 24 strains to colistin and polymyxin B ranged from 16 to 64 mgl-1 and from 4 to 32 mgl-1, respectively, so uniformly reaching the current clinical resistance breakpoint (4 mg l-1) for these drugs. Genus-wide comparison revealed that such a consistently high level of resistance to polymyxins is a unique feature among species of the genus Acinetobacter,which occur in humans. We conclude that genomic species 13BJ/14TU represents a biologically meaningful and medically relevant species, for which the name Acinetobacter colistiniresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIPH 2036T (=CCM 8641T=CIP 110478T=CCUG 67966T=CNCTC 7573T).

  7. Trophic requirements and evolution in the genera Euphydryas and Melitaea sensu lato (Lep. Nymphalidae.) Exigences Trophiques et evolution dans les genres Euphydryas et Melitaea sensu lato (Lep. Nymphalidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, R

    1982-01-01

    .... Hibridization, leading to the sterility of the imagoes or to the death of the larvae if the food-plants are changed, proves the genotypic character of those trophic demands and show that the E...

  8. La familia Apocynaceae sensu lato en México: diversidad y distribución The family Apocynaceae sensu lato in Mexico: diversity and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Juárez-Jaimes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Apocynaceae s.l. se ubica entre las 15 familias más diversas de México, con 385 especies repartidas en 50 géneros y 3 subfamilias, de las cuales Asclepiadoideae es la de mayor diversidad en géneros, especies y endemismos. Los géneros con más especies nativas (y endémicas son Asclepias y Matelea. Los estados más ricos en diversidad de taxones son los ubicados en ambas vertientes; destacan Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca y Veracruz. Por su número de especies, sobresalen el bosque tropical caducifolio y los matorrales xerófilos. Del total de especies, 176 son endémicas de México. Se presenta la lista de especies registradas, señalándose su distribución por estados.Apocynaceae s.l. is among the 15 most diverse families in Mexico, with a total of 385 species, distributed in 50 genera and 3 subfamilies of which Asclepiadoideae is the most diverse in numbers of genera, species and endemics. The genera with the most native species and endemics are Asclepias and Matelea. The richest states in terms of taxon diversity are those at the Pacific and Atlantic slopes, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Veracruz being the most prominent. Tropical deciduous forest and arid tropical scrub are the most important vegetation types by their total number of species, 176 of which are endemic to Mexico. A list of species recorded in México is provided, indicating their state distribution.

  9. Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato Classificação dos grandes grupos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the Apidae - is advocated here. A total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. These subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. Although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate Hymenoptera. It also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. A correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. Scrapterini new tribe (type-genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville is proposed to accommodate the southern African genus Scrapter.Apresenta-se uma classificação para as abelhas em que o todo o grupo é tratado como uma única família - Apidae. São reconhecidas sete subfamílias, 51 tribos e 27 subtribos. As subfamílias correspondem às famílias da classificação tradicional. Apesar das mudanças propostas afetarem apenas o status dos grupos, o novo sistema torna a classificação das abelhas mais consistente com aquela adotada para os grandes grupos de Hymenoptera aculeados. Além disso, distancia-se da tradição de dar status de família aos grupos principais de abelhas, uma prática do século 19 perpetuada na classificação tradicional. É apresentada uma tabela de correspondência associando os nomes dos táxons usados na classificação tradicional corrente com aquelas da classificação sendo proposta aqui. Scrapterini tribo nova (gênero-tipo Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville é proposta para acomodar Scrapter, um gênero restrito à porção sul do continente africano.

  10. Molecular identification of Sporothrix clinical isolates in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular phylogeny of 64 clinical isolates which were identified as Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato by morphological identification. All of the strains were isolates from patients from several provinces in China. The phylogeny was inferred by DNA sequence analyses based on datasets of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a combined ITS and partial β-tubulin region. Reference sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Results showed that all of the isolates were clustered in a distinct clade with a type of Sporothrix globosa. Our analysis showed that S. globosa is the causal agent of the tested sporotrichosis in China, rather than S. schenckii that was generally believed to be the case. The existence of S. schenckii in China remains to be confirmed. This study improved our understanding of the distribution of the species in S. schenckii complex. PMID:24390750

  11. Molecular identification of Sporothrix clinical isolates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular phylogeny of 64 clinical isolates which were identified as Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato by morphological identification. All of the strains were isolates from patients from several provinces in China. The phylogeny was inferred by DNA sequence analyses based on datasets of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a combined ITS and partial β-tubulin region. Reference sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Results showed that all of the isolates were clustered in a distinct clade with a type of Sporothrix globosa. Our analysis showed that S. globosa is the causal agent of the tested sporotrichosis in China, rather than S. schenckii that was generally believed to be the case. The existence of S. schenckii in China remains to be confirmed. This study improved our understanding of the distribution of the species in S. schenckii complex.

  12. Aristoteles: De Sensu et Sensato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morán C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Saint Thomas Aquinas explains that in the science of mobiles, when descending to the living, each one of the species of the animals and plants are attended specifying what is proper to each of them, and here is where De Sensu et Sensato is found. Aquinas enumerates the diverse types of living beings according to the parts of soul and enlists the books that have a relation with them, deducing that De Sensu et Sensato corresponds to the exterior act that occurs when feeling.

  13. Using plastic tips in artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida Valim; Charles Passos Rangel; Bruna de Azevedo Baêta; Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo Ribeiro; Matheus Dias Cordeiro; Rafaella Câmara Teixeira; Patrícia Barizon Cepeda; Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the influence of the initial weight, feeding period and temperature on weight gain and biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of partially engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females that were artificially fed using plastic tips as feeding devices. The device did not alter the oviposition of the females or any other parameters evaluated. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature of the feeding the group did not affect the weight gain and biology o...

  14. Using plastic tips in artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida; Rangel, Charles Passos; Baêta, Bruna de Azevedo; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Cepeda, Patrícia Barizon; Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique da

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the initial weight, feeding period and temperature on weight gain and biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of partially engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females that were artificially fed using plastic tips as feeding devices. The device did not alter the oviposition of the females or any other parameters evaluated. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature of the feeding the group did not affect the weight gain and biology of ticks. This device has great potential for the development of studies on bioagent transmission because it provides higher intake of blood by ixodid ticks.

  15. Using plastic tips in artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida Valim

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the influence of the initial weight, feeding period and temperature on weight gain and biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of partially engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females that were artificially fed using plastic tips as feeding devices. The device did not alter the oviposition of the females or any other parameters evaluated. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature of the feeding the group did not affect the weight gain and biology of ticks. This device has great potential for the development of studies on bioagent transmission because it provides higher intake of blood by ixodid ticks.

  16. A Brief Review of Recent Controversies in the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Sambucus nigra sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Applequist, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Sambucus is widespread and morphologically difficult, and as a result, no taxonomic treatment to date has been entirely satisfactory. The only modern revision, by Bolli, reduced the number of recognized species worldwide from over 30 to nine. In Bolli’s treatment, five taxa formerly considered to be distinct species, including S. canadensis, S. cerulea, S. peruviana, and the endemic island taxa S. maderensis and S. palmensis, were placed within S. nigra as subspecies. Available data...

  17. A Brief Review of Recent Controversies in the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Sambucus nigra sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, W L

    2015-01-12

    The genus Sambucus is widespread and morphologically difficult, and as a result, no taxonomic treatment to date has been entirely satisfactory. The only modern revision, by Bolli, reduced the number of recognized species worldwide from over 30 to nine. In Bolli's treatment, five taxa formerly considered to be distinct species, including S. canadensis, S. cerulea, S. peruviana, and the endemic island taxa S. maderensis and S. palmensis, were placed within S. nigra as subspecies. Available data relating to these taxa are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that, while the recognition of the American elder as S. nigra subsp. canadensis is reasonable, S. cerulea and possibly S. peruviana would be better treated as distinct species; the best classification of the other two taxa remains uncertain. The preferred family assignment for Sambucus is Adoxaceae, though the name of this family may change in future depending upon the ultimate disposition of published nomenclatural proposals now in process.

  18. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Benning, M.E.; Jacobs, F.; Leidekker, J.; Sprong, H.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are

  19. Stomata Diversification and Phylogenenetic Analysis of 13 Species of Family Euphorbiaceae sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOPIK HIDAYAT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on diversity of stomata from 13 species of family Euphorbiaceae has been carried out. Characters like type of stomata, position of stomata, presence/absence of ledge, and density both abaxial and adaxial leaf surface were examined. Stomata characters in the family were found quite diverse in this study. Monophyletic nature of Euphorbiaceae has been proved in this study on the basis of phylogenetic analysis using parsimoni method. Our data further suggested that the family can be classified into two major groups. However, surprisingly, genus Phyllanthus is non-monophyletic.

  20. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and their reflection on immune response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefančíková, A.; Derdáková, M.; Tresová, Gabriela; Peťko, B.; Szestáková, E.; Škardová, I.; Čisláková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2005), s. 211-216 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : horses * ELISA * SDS-PAGE * IgG * seroprevalence * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia garinii * Borrelia afzelii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2005

  1. Acarological risk of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections across space and time in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Verhulst, N.O.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Gassner, F.; Hartemink, Nienke; Mulder, S.; Sprong, H.

    2017-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation on tick populations and their Borrelia infections in the Netherlands was undertaken between 2006 and 2011 with the aim to assess spatial and temporal patterns of the acarological risk in forested sites across the country and to assess variations in Borrelia genospecies

  2. Accession to Ukraine’s market of pea (Pisum sativum L. sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article details economical value, directions of use for valuable legume crop, pea for grain production purposes, growth rates of its production during recent years worldwide and in our country, development of its varietal resources in Ukraine. A complete characterization has been provided for new pea varieties meant for grain production listed in the State Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine in 2012, for which descriptions are available.

  3. BORAGINACEAE A. JUSS. SENSU LATO EM UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DE TERRAS BAIXAS EM PERNAMBUCO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IRANILDO MIRANDA DE MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the survey of the family Boraginaceae in a lowland seasonal dry forest in the municipality of Aliança, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Seven species and three genera were recorded: Cordia L., with three species (C. sellowiana Cham., C. taguahyensis Vell. and C. trichotoma (Vell. Arráb. ex Steud.; Heliotropium L., with only one species, H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia L., represented by three species (T. bicolor Sw., T. gardneri A.DC. and T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.. A key to the recognition of the species, as well as descriptions and illustrations were given. Data about distribution, flowering and or fruiting of the species also are provided.

  4. A new approach to the quantification of degree of reciprocity in distylous (sensu lato) plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose M; Ferrero, Victoria; Navarro, Luis

    2008-09-01

    Although evolution of sexual polymorphism has been traditionally analysed using discrete characters, most of these polymorphisms are continuous. This is the case of heterostyly. Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism successfully used as a model to study the evolution of the sexual systems in plants. It involves the reciprocal positioning of anthers and stigmas in flowers of different plants within the same population. Studies of the functioning of heterostyly require the quantification of the degree of reciprocity between morphs of heterostylous species. Some reciprocity indices have been proposed previously, but they show significant limitations that need to be dealt with. This paper analyses these existing indices, and proposes a new index that aims to avoid their main problems (e.g. takes into account population variability and offers a single value per population). The new index is based on the comparison of the position of every single sexual organ in the population with each and every organ of the opposite sex. To carry out all the calculations, a macro was programmed with MS Visual Basic in MS Excel. The behaviour of the index is tested using hypothetical data to simulate different situations of dimorphic populations; the index is also tested with some actual populations of different species of the genus Lithodora. The index of reciprocity proposed here is a sound alternative to previous indices: it compares stigma-stamen height gaps for all potential crosses in the population, it comprises stigma-stamen distance as well as dispersion, it is not skewed by the more frequent sex, and it can be meaningfully compared between populations and species. It has produced solid results for both hypothetical and natural populations.

  5. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilly, F C A; Benning, M E; Jacobs, F; Leidekker, J; Sprong, H; Van Wieren, S E; Takken, W

    2014-10-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are known to occur. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was examined in a fraction of the collected ticks. Larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were found on the three large grazers. Red deer had the highest tick burden, with many of the nymphs and adult females attached for engorgement. Most larvae had not attached. The mean number of ticks on the animals varied from 13 to 67. Ticks were highly aggregated amongst the animals: some animals had no ticks, while others had high numbers. Larvae and nymphs were mostly found on the ears, while adult ticks were attached to the axillae. The Borrelia infection rate of questing nymphs was 8.5%. Unengorged wandering nymphs on deer had a Borrelia infection rate of 12.5%, while only 0.9% of feeding nymphs carried a Borrelia infection. The infection rate of unengorged adult male ticks was 4.5%, and that of feeding female ticks was 0.7%. The data suggest that ticks feeding on red deer and wild boar lose their Borrelia infections. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to Borrelia epidemiology and maintenance of a Borrelia reservoir as well as the role of reproductive hosts for Ixodes ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Downy mildew on coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides [syn. = Solenostemon scutellarioides]) is a popular ornamental plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), prized for its colorful and showy foliage. In August 2015, disease symptoms typical of downy mildew were observed at two sites in Nashville, Tennessee: (i) at the...

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 sensu lato (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive phylogenetic analysis and genus-level taxonomic revision of Paranoplocephala Lühe, 1910 -like cestodes (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) are presented. The phylogenetic analysis is based on DNA sequences of two partial mitochondrial genes, i.e. cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and...

  8. What is Antrodia sensu stricto?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Niemelä, Tuomo; Miettinen, Otto

    2013-01-01

    The polypore genus Antrodia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) in the strict sense consists of a small number of species grouped around the type species A. serpens in phylogenetic analyses. This distinct clade (Antrodia sensu stricto in our view) contains species of the Antrodia heteromorpha complex, A. macra coll. and Antrodia mappa (formerly Postia mappa). Nuclear rDNA ITS and tef1 data show that the Antrodia heteromorpha species complex includes four species: A. heteromorpha sensu stricto (mostly on gymnosperms, large pores and spores), A. serpens (on angiosperms in Europe, resupinate, smaller pores but large spores), A. favescens (smaller pores and spores, pileate species in North America, formerly known as Trametes sepium), and A. tanakai (a close kin of A. favescens in Eurasia). Antrodia albida is a synonym of A. heteromorpha sensu stricto. We combine A. mappa, A. favescens and A. tanakai in Antrodia and designate neotypes for A. albida and A. heteromorpha, and an epitype for A. serpens. We also compare the morphologically similar but distantly related A. albidoides and A. mellita, and conclude that A. macrospora and A. subalbidoides are synonyms of A. albidoides.

  9. The Aldine Edition of Aristotle's De Sensu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497).......This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497)....

  10. A divergent spirochete strain isolated from a resident of the southeastern United States was identified by multilocus sequence typing as Borrelia bissettii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Clark, Kerry; Oliver, James H; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia

    2016-02-04

    Out of 20 spirochete species from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex recognized to date some are considered to have a limited distribution, while others are worldwide dispersed. Among those are Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and Borrelia bissettii which are distributed both in North America and in Europe. While B. burgdorferi s.s. is recognized as a cause of Lyme borreliosis worldwide, involvement of B. bissettii in human Lyme disease was not so definite yet. Multilocus sequence typing of spirochete isolates originating from residents of Georgia and Florida, USA, revealed the presence of two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains highly similar to those from endemic Lyme borreliosis regions of the northeastern United States, and an unusual strain that differed from any previously described in Europe or North America. Based on phylogenetic analysis of eight chromosomally located housekeeping genes divergent strain clustered between Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia carolinensis, two species from the B.burgdorferi s.l. complex, widely distributed among the multiple hosts and vector ticks in the southeastern United States. The genetic distance analysis showed a close relationship of the diverged strain to B. bissettii. Here, we present the analysis of the first North American human originated live spirochete strain that revealed close relatedness to B. bissettii. The potential of B. bissettii to cause human disease, even if it is infrequent, is of importance for clinicians due to the extensive range of its geographic distribution.

  11. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products...... which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus......, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist....

  12. Nonpathogenic Isolates of the Citrus Black Spot Fungus, Guignardia citricarpa, Identified as a Cosmopolitan Endophyte of Woody Plants, G. mangiferae (Phyllosticta capitalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baayen, R P; Bonants, P J M; Verkley, G; Carroll, G C; van der Aa, H A; de Weerdt, M; van Brouwershaven, I R; Schutte, G C; Maccheroni, W; de Blanco, C Glienke; Azevedo, J L

    2002-05-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Guignardia citricarpa sensu lato (anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa), a fungus of which strains pathogenic to citrus are subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the United States, was investigated. Internal transcribed spacer sequences revealed two phylogenetically distinct groups in G. citricarpa. This distinction was supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis that also supported the exclusion of two isolates that had apparently been misclassified as G. citricarpa. On cherry decoction agar, but not on other media, growth rates of group I isolates were lower than those of group II isolates. Conidial dimensions were similar, but group I isolates formed conidia with barely visible mucoid sheaths, whereas those of group II formed conidia with thick sheaths. Cultures of isolates belonging to group I produced rare infertile perithecia, whereas fertile perithecia were formed by most isolates of group II. Colonies of isolates belonging to group I were less dark than those of group II, with a wider translucent outer zone and a lobate rather than entire margin. On oatmeal agar, exclusively group I isolates formed a yellow pigment. Group I harbored strains from citrus fruits with classical black spot lesions (1 to 10 mm in diameter) usually containing pycnidia. Group II harbored endophytic strains from a wide range of host species, as well as strains from symptomless citrus fruits or fruits with minute spots (citrus black spot, justifying its exclusion from quarantine measures.

  13. Observations of taxa of Melosira sensu lato among the slides from the Grunow Diatom Collection in Vienna (Austria). Part 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houk, Václav; Klee, R.; Passauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2007), s. 57-80 ISSN 0269-249X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : diatom s * taxonomy * revision Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2007

  14. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how

  15. DNA barcoding reveals new insights into the diversity of Antarctic species of Orchomene sensu lato (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, C.; Nagy, Z. T.; Sonet, G.; De Broyer, C.; Martin, P.

    2011-03-01

    Recent molecular analyses revealed that several so-called "circum-Antarctic" benthic crustacean species appeared to be complexes of cryptic species with restricted distributions. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in order to detect possible cryptic diversity and to test the circumpolarity of some lysianassoid species. The orchomenid genus complex consists of the genera Abyssorchomene, Falklandia, Orchomenella, Orchomenyx and Pseudorchomene. Species of this genus complex are found throughout the Southern Ocean and show a high species richness and level of endemism. In the majority of the studied species, a genetic homogeneity was found even among specimens from remote sampling sites, which indicates a possible circum-Antarctic and eurybathic distribution. In four investigated species ( Orchomenella ( Orchomenopsis) acanthurus, Orchomenella ( Orchomenopsis) cavimanus, Orchomenella ( Orchomenella) franklini and Orchomenella ( Orchomenella) pinguides), genetically divergent lineages and possible cryptic taxa were revealed. After a detailed morphological analysis, O. ( O.) pinguides appeared to be composed of two distinct species, formerly synonymized under O. ( O.) pinguides. The different genetic patterns observed in these orchomenid species might be explained by the evolutionary histories undergone by these species and by their different dispersal and gene flow capacities.

  16. Borniopsis mortoni sp. n. (Heterodonta, Galeommatoidea, Galeommatidae sensu lato, a new bivalve commensal with a synaptid sea cucumber from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans. A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan. This species has elongate-ovate shells covered by a tan to dark brown periostracum, and lives attached by both its foot and byssal threads to the body surface of the synaptid sea cucumber Patinapta ooplax. Several individuals of B. mortoni are often found on the same host, but sometimes more than 10 individuals can occur together. Borniopsis mortoni is one of the smallest species in this genus. Probably, its small body size is an adaptation to the mode of life in a narrow host burrow. Until now, only two other Borniopsis species were known to have commensal associations with synaptids. Thus, this is the third example of a synaptid-associated species from this genus. In addition, we briefly review the galeommatoideans commensal with apodid sea cucumbers.

  17. A parapatric propensity for breeding precludes the completion of speciation in common teal (Anas crecca, sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L; McCracken, Kevin G; Pruett, Christin L; Rohwer, Sievert; Drovetski, Sergei V; Zhuravlev, Yuriy N; Kulikova, Irina; Gibson, Daniel D; Winker, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    Speciation is a process in which genetic drift and selection cause divergence over time. However, there is no rule dictating the time required for speciation, and even low levels of gene flow hinder divergence, so that taxa may be poised at the threshold of speciation for long periods of evolutionary time. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and eight nuclear introns (nuDNA) to estimate genomic levels of differentiation and gene flow between the Eurasian common teal (Anas crecca crecca) and the North American green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis). These ducks come into contact in Beringia (north-eastern Asia and north-western North America) and have probably done so, perhaps cyclically, since the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, ~2.6 Ma, when they apparently began diverging. They have diagnosable differences in male plumage and are 6.9% divergent in the mtDNA control region, with only 1 of 58 crecca and 2 of 86 carolinensis having haplotypes grouping with the other. Two nuclear loci were likewise strongly structured between these teal (Φ(st) ≥ 0.35), but six loci were undifferentiated or only weakly structured (Φ(st) = 0.0-0.06). Gene flow between crecca and carolinensis was ~1 individual per generation in both directions in mtDNA, but was asymmetrical in nuDNA, with ~1 and ~20 individuals per generation immigrating into crecca and carolinensis, respectively. This study illustrates that species delimitation using a single marker oversimplifies the complexity of the speciation process, and it suggests that even with divergent selection, moderate levels of gene flow may stall the speciation process short of completion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Comparative analysis of spermatids of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros rostratus ticks (Argasidae): morphophysiology aimed at systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Calligaris, Izabela Bragião; Matos, Renata da Silva; Páez, Fredy Arvey Rivera; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among tick species (Acari: Ixodida) have been revisited by several researchers over the last decades. Two subfamilies, Rhipicephalinae (Ixodidae) and Ornithodorinae (Argasidae), deserve special attention. The male reproductive system morphology, as well as the ultrastructure of the germ cells, may provide important information for phylogeny and systematics of metazoan groups, with spermatozoa exhibiting characters that can be used for this purpose. With that information in mind, this study aimed at evaluating, through a comparative analysis, the morphology of the male reproductive systems and germ cells of ticks species Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ornithodoros rostratus. In order to do that, histology and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used. The results have shown that despite the similarities in the general morphology of the male reproductive system among studied Ixodida so far, there are morphological differences among the species studied herein, mainly the U-shaped testis (ancestral character) in O. rostratus and the pair testes (derived character) in R. sanguineus, and the general morphology of germ cells (spermatids V). Besides that, the morphological changes observed during the spermiogenesis appear to be different between the species studied here, probably characterizing the two families considered. The data generated in this study showed the importance of comparative internal morphology studies, mainly in regard to spermatology, despite the morphological data obtained herein not being enough to product a cladogram (sperm cladistics), it was already possible to observe clear differences among families Argasidae and Ixodidae in regard to the organization of their male reproductive systems and concerning the external morphology of spermatids. Data yet to be obtained through transmission electron microscopy techniques will allow the application of spermiocladistics and spermiotaxonomy as tools for tick systematics.

  19. Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae (sensu lato Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968: An endoparasite of croakers (Teleostei: Sciaenidae from Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Theisen

    Full Text Available An endoparasitic monogenean was identified for the first time from Indonesia. The oesophagus and anterior stomach of the croakers Nibea soldado (Lacépède and Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider (n = 35 each sampled from the South Java coast in May 2011 and Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker (n = 2 (all Sciaenidae from Kedonganan fish market, South Bali coast, in November 2016, were infected with Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. Prevalences in the first two croakers were 63% and 46%, respectively, and the two J. amblycephalus harboured three and five individuals. All three croakers represent new hosts for this monogenean genus. We provide infection rates, light microscopical observations, 3D confocal microscopical illustrations, and a morphometric comparison with all congeners. The new species differs in body size, the position and shape of the ovary and testes, and especially in the composition of the dorsal anchor complex, with the dorsal bar being anteriorly concave rather than planar or convex as in its congeners. The dorsal and ventral anchors of this new species are the longest in the genus, whereas the male copulatory organ is the smallest. The first DNA sequences for a member of this genus demonstrate the greatest similarity with endoparasitic freshwater monogeneans from African cichlid fishes. This suggests a freshwater origin for these marine endoparasitic monogeneans.

  20. Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae (sensu lato) Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968): An endoparasite of croakers (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Stefan; Palm, Harry W; Al-Jufaili, Sarah H; Kleinertz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    An endoparasitic monogenean was identified for the first time from Indonesia. The oesophagus and anterior stomach of the croakers Nibea soldado (Lacépède) and Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (n = 35 each) sampled from the South Java coast in May 2011 and Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker) (n = 2) (all Sciaenidae) from Kedonganan fish market, South Bali coast, in November 2016, were infected with Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. Prevalences in the first two croakers were 63% and 46%, respectively, and the two J. amblycephalus harboured three and five individuals. All three croakers represent new hosts for this monogenean genus. We provide infection rates, light microscopical observations, 3D confocal microscopical illustrations, and a morphometric comparison with all congeners. The new species differs in body size, the position and shape of the ovary and testes, and especially in the composition of the dorsal anchor complex, with the dorsal bar being anteriorly concave rather than planar or convex as in its congeners. The dorsal and ventral anchors of this new species are the longest in the genus, whereas the male copulatory organ is the smallest. The first DNA sequences for a member of this genus demonstrate the greatest similarity with endoparasitic freshwater monogeneans from African cichlid fishes. This suggests a freshwater origin for these marine endoparasitic monogeneans.

  1. Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae (sensu lato) Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968): An endoparasite of croakers (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Theisen; Harry W Palm; Al-Jufaili, Sarah H.; Sonja Kleinertz

    2017-01-01

    An endoparasitic monogenean was identified for the first time from Indonesia. The oesophagus and anterior stomach of the croakers Nibea soldado (Lacépède) and Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (n = 35 each) sampled from the South Java coast in May 2011 and Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker) (n = 2) (all Sciaenidae) from Kedonganan fish market, South Bali coast, in November 2016, were infected with Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. Prevalences in the first two croakers were 63% and 46%, respe...

  2. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AF. Colombo

    Full Text Available After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  3. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, A F; Joly, C A

    2010-10-01

    After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica), considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  4. A Molecular Phylogeny of Anopheles Annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: The Most Species-Rich Anopheline Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-27

    portions of two nuclear genes (nDNA) and two mitochondrial genes ( mtDNA ), representing coding and non-coding regions, in maximum parsimony and partitioned...COII Outgroup taxa Katherine, NT 132°16E 14°28S An. amictus (35) — DQ420553 DQ420425 DQ420489 Seram Is, Maluku, Indonesia 130°26E 3°10S An...and primers used in this study The selection of molecular markers included nDNA and mtDNA as well as protein-coding and non-protein-coding gene regions

  5. The gold tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu lato (Squamata: Teiidae): evidence for an established population in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jake R.; Ketterlin, Jennifer K.; Rochford, Michael R.; Irwin, Rodney; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Duquesnel, James G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Reed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gold tegus, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758), are generalist predators from South America and are ecologically similar to Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), a successful invader in Florida. We trapped gold tegus in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, Florida, USA. In Miami-Dade County, collection occurred from 2008 through 2016. We combined new trapping records with previous literature records. Ten gold tegus of both sexes and multiple size classes over a nine year period indicate a reproducing population in Miami-Dade County. Tupinambis teguixin is the sixth established non-native teiid species in Florida. Additionally, we report Tupinambis teguixin from Sarasota and Lee counties, Florida, USA. Determining population status in those counties requires further study. It is critical to differentiate this species fromSalvator merianae during removal efforts. The possibility of eradicating Tupinambis teguixin exists if proper identification enables reliable monitoring of the populations.

  6. PCR-based methods for the detection of L1014 kdr mutation in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Aditya P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies s.l., a major malaria vector in India, has developed widespread resistance to DDT and is becoming resistant to pyrethroids–the only insecticide class recommended for the impregnation of bed nets. Knock-down resistance due to a point mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel at L1014 residue (kdr is a common mechanism of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. The selection of this resistance may pose a serious threat to the success of the pyrethroid-impregnated bed net programme. This study reports the presence of kdr mutation (L1014F in a field population of An. culicifacies s.l. and three new PCR-based methods for kdr genotyping. Methods The IIS4-IIS5 linker to IIS6 segments of the para type voltage gated sodium channel gene of DDT and pyrethroid resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population from the Surat district of India was sequenced. This revealed the presence of an A-to-T substitution at position 1014 leading to a leucine-phenylalanine mutation (L1014F in a few individuals. Three molecular methods viz. Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS and Primer Introduced Restriction Analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR were developed and tested for kdr genotyping. The specificity of the three assays was validated following DNA sequencing of the samples genotyped. Results The genotyping of this An. culicifacies s.l. population by the three PCR based assays provided consistent result and were in agreement with DNA sequencing result. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in heterozygous condition was observed in the resistant population. Frequencies of the different genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion The Leu-Phe mutation, which generates the kdr phenotype in many insects, was detected in a pyrethroid and DDT resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population. Three PCR-based methods were developed for kdr genotyping. All the three assays were specific. The ARMS method was refractory to non-specific amplification in non-stringent amplification conditions. The PIRA-PCR assay is able to detect both the codons for the phenylalanine mutation at kdr locus, i.e., TTT and TTC, in a single assay, although the latter codon was not found in the population genotyped.

  7. Songbirds as general transmitters but selective amplifiers of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes rinicus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Dieter; Matthysen, Erik; Fonville, Manoj; Sprong, Hein

    2014-09-01

    We investigated to what extent a European songbird (Parus major) selectively transmits and amplifies Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. Borrelia-naïve birds were recurrently exposed to Ixodes ricinus nymphs carrying a community of more than 34 5S-23S genotypes belonging to five genospecies (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia spielmanii). Fed ticks were screened for Borrelia after moulting. We found evidence for co-feeding transmission of avian and possibly also mammalian genotypes. Throughout the course of infestations, the infection rate of B. garinii and B. valaisiana increased, indicating successful amplification and transmission, while the infection rate for B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s and B. spielmanii tended to decrease. Within the B. garinii and B. valaisiana genotype communities, certain genotypes were transmitted more than others. Moreover, birds were able to host mixed infections of B. garinii and B. valaisiana, as well as mixed infections of genotypes of the same genospecies. We experimentally show that resident songbirds transmit a broad range of Borrelia genotypes, but selectively amplify certain genotypes, and that one bird can transmit simultaneously several genotypes. Our results highlight the need to explicitly consider the association between genotypes and hosts, which may offer opportunities to point out which hosts are most responsible for the Borrelia presence in questing ticks. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Relationship between characteristics of sexual behavior and male sperm competitive ability in taxa of superspecies complex Mus musculus sensu lato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaryan, A B; Maltzev, A N; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Some physiological parameters that determine quality of male sperm (its concentration, spermatozoa morphology) and testicle size vary in integrity, i.e. the bigger are testicles the higher is sperm quality. Therefore, the estimate of testicles relative mass is often used as a characteristic of sperm competitive ability when comparing phylogenetically close mammal species. In house mice belonging to the superspecies complex Mus musculus s.l., testicles relative mass is greater in exoanthropic species than in synanthropic ones. It is shown in our study that this pattern is apparent also at the intraspecies level since testicles mass index, sperm concentration, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in subspecies Mus musculus wagneri, which is facultatively synanthropic, are higher compared with synanthropic subspecies M m. musculus. An analysis of sexual behavior of the three forms (namely, exoanthropic species M. spicilegus and two subspecies mentioned above) indicates that in M. spicilegus both sexual behavior efficiency and ejaculation rate during coupling were higher as compared with other two subspecies. Based on the analysis of life pattern, reproduction systems, and group spatial-ethological structure, the hypotheses are formulated that explain the maintenance of selection directed to increase of sperm competitive ability in exoanthropic house mice species.

  9. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Movilla, Rebeca; García, Carlos; Siebert, Susanne; Roura, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for CVBD, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national...

  10. Persistent bacterial infections : identification of immunogenic structures of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Chlamydophila pneumoniae by phage surface display

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Markus

    2004-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden die immunogenen (Antikörper induzierenden) Eigenschaften von Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. und Chlamydophila pneumoniae, beides Pathogene, die in Menschen über Jahre persistieren können, wurden untersucht.B. burgdorferi s.l. ist der Verursacher der Lyme Borreliose (LB) und Persistenz kann in Menschen zu Spätmanifestationen wie Acrodermatitis chronica atropicans, Arthritis und Neuroborreliose führen.C. pneumoniae stellt ein weit verbreiteter Atemwegserreger dar, der zu Lung...

  11. Geodemographic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato using the 5S-23S rDNA spacer region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coipan, E.C.; Fonville, M.; Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.; Takumi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the predominant tick-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere, with considerable heterogeneity in clinical manifestations. Here, we evaluated one genetic marker for its use in population genetic based analysis. For that we collected molecular and epidemiological

  12. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Oers, van K.; Fonville, M.; Leirs, H.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I.

  13. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Van Oers, K.; Fonville, M.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist

  14. Variations in C-heterochromatin and AgnOr distribution in the common vole (Microtus arvalis sensu lato (Mammalia: Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorulmaz Tarkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation pattern of the C-heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer region (nOr distribution, both between and within two cytotypes of M. arvalis with 46 chromosomes, are described. The positive C-bands were observed on six or seven small bi-armed autosomal pairs and in two, three or four acrocentric autosomal pairs. Only a small dark C-band was observed in the acrocentric homologue from a large heteromorphic autosomal pair in the complement of specimens belonging to the obscurus cytotype. The nucleolar organizer region was localized in the secondary constrictions in three autosomal pair in the specimens of the obscurus cytotype. These results may contribute to the knowledge of cytogenetic differentiation between the cytotypes and investigation of their systematic status.

  15. Molecular identification of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fish and cetacean in Japanese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Azusa; Kawakami, Yasushi; Matsui, Toshihiro; Araki, Jun; Uchida, Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Parasites morphologically consistent with Anisakis simplex sensu lato collected from the coast of Japan and Western North Pacific Ocean were examined by PCR-RFLP of the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 subunit rRNA gene and ITS2) and mtDNA cox1. The RFLP patterns of rDNA generated by HinfI and HhaI showed that 100% of the larvae collected from Hokkaido and 94% of adults collected from Western North Pacific Ocean were identified as A. simplex sensu stricto. On the other hand, 97% of the larvae collected from Fukuoka prefecture were identified as A. pegreffii. A hybrid genotype was found in adults in Western North Pacific Ocean and larva in Fukuoka prefecture. These findings revealed that A. simplexs. str. is primarily distributed in the North Pacific Ocean and A. pegreffii is primarily distributed in the southern Sea of Japan. RFLP analysis of mtDNA cox1 showed different patterns between A. simplex s. str. and A. pegreffii after digestion with HinfI. This polymorphism obtained by RFLP analysis of mtDNA cox1 proved the usefulness as new genetic markers to distinguish two sibling species.

  16. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic profiling and characterization of differential allergens in the nematodes Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and A. pegreffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Susana C; Ciordia, Sergio; Roberston, Lee; Zapico, Inés; Jiménez-Ruiz, Yolanda; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Miguel; Moneo, Ignacio; Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana; Albar, Juan P; Navas, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The parasite species complex Anisakis simplex sensu lato (Anisakis simplex sensu stricto; (A. simplex s.s.), A. pegreffii, A. simplex C) is the main cause of severe anisakiasis (allergy) worldwide and is now an important health matter. In this study, the relationship of this Anisakis species complex and their allergenic capacities is assessed by studying the differences between the two most frequent species (A. simplex s.s., A. pegreffii) and their hybrid haplotype by studying active L3 larvae parasiting Merluccius merluccius. They were compared by 2D gel electrophoresis and parallel Western blot (2DE gels were hybridized with pools of sera from Anisakis allergenic patients). Unambiguous spot differences were detected and protein assignation was made by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis or de novo sequencing. Seventy-five gel spots were detected and the corresponding proteins were identified. Differentially expressed proteins for A. simplex s.s., A. pegreffii, and their hybrid are described and results are statistically supported. Twenty-eight different allergenic proteins are classified according to different families belonging to different biological functions. These proteins are described for the first time as antigenic and potentially new allergens in Anisakis. Comparative proteomic analyses of allergenic capacities are useful for diagnosis, epidemiological surveys, and clinical research. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000662 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000662). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Genetic variation analysis and relationships among environmental strains of Scedosporium apiospermum sensu stricto in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanwa Wongsuk

    Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex is an emerging filamentous fungi that has been isolated from environment. It can cause a wide range of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. We aimed to study the genetic variation and relationships between 48 strains of S. apiospermum sensu stricto isolated from soil in Bangkok, Thailand. For PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we used the following genes: actin; calmodulin exons 3 and 4; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II; ß-tubulin exon 2-4; manganese superoxide dismutase; internal transcribed spacer; transcription elongation factor 1α; and beta-tubulin exons 5 and 6. The present study is the first phylogenetic analysis of relationships among S. apiospermum sensu stricto in Thailand and South-east Asia. This result provides useful information for future epidemiological study and may be correlated to clinical manifestation.

  19. ASPECTOS QUE INFLUENCIAM OS ESTUDANTES DE GRADUAÇÃO A CONTINUIDADE ACADÊMICA NO STRICTO SENSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Rohr Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é resultado de uma investigação realizada, na forma de survey, a alunos de graduação de um determinado curso em uma instituição de ensino privada localizada no Rio Grande do Sul. Esta survey foi aplicada eletronicamente e foi composta por doze questões fechadas, através das quais os estudantes foram questionados com relação a suas expectativas de continuidade acadêmica e qual a importância para suas carreiras e para o desenvolvimento da região na qual atuam, com principal enfoque para os cursos de pós-graduação stricto sensu. Possíveis fatores que influenciam na continuidade dos estudos, tais como financeiros, de interesse pessoal e a falta de conhecimento com relação aos conceitos e programas de lato sensu e stricto sensu oferecidos localmente, também foram abordados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, na amostra obtida, houve demonstração de interesse de 97% dos alunos na continuidade acadêmica sendo que 98,8% deles consideraram essa continuidade como fator fundamental para seu crescimento, porém observou-se 58,3% dos alunos não possui conhecimentos sobre o programa da instituição onde estão inseridos e que 88,4% dos mesmos citaram o alto investimento como um obstáculo.

  20. Non-Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Strains Belonging to the B. anthracis Clade Isolated from the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Singh, Nitin K; Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Pope, Robert K; Bergman, Nicholas H; van Tongeren, Sandra P; Patel, Nisha B; Lawson, Paul A; Satomi, Masataka; Williamson, Charles H D; Sahl, Jason W; Keim, Paul; Pierson, Duane; Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In an ongoing Microbial Observatory investigation of the International Space Station (ISS), 11 Bacillus strains (2 from the Kibo Japanese experimental module, 4 from the U.S. segment, and 5 from the Russian module) were isolated and their whole genomes were sequenced. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed the highest similarity (>99%) to the Bacillus anthracis-B. cereus-B. thuringiensis group. The fatty acid composition, polar lipid profile, peptidoglycan type, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight profiles were consistent with the B. cereus sensu lato group. The phenotypic traits such as motile rods, enterotoxin production, lack of capsule, and resistance to gamma phage/penicillin observed in ISS isolates were not characteristics of B. anthracis. Whole-genome sequence characterizations showed that ISS strains had the plcR non-B. anthracis ancestral "C" allele and lacked anthrax toxin-encoding plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, excluding their identification as B. anthracis. The genetic identities of all 11 ISS isolates characterized via gyrB analyses arbitrarily identified them as members of the B. cereus group, but traditional DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) showed that the ISS isolates are similar to B. anthracis (88% to 90%) but distant from the B. cereus (42%) and B. thuringiensis (48%) type strains. The DDH results were supported by average nucleotide identity (>98.5%) and digital DDH (>86%) analyses. However, the collective phenotypic traits and genomic evidence were the reasons to exclude the ISS isolates from B. anthracis. Nevertheless, multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism analyses placed these isolates in a clade that is distinct from previously described members of the B. cereus sensu lato group but closely related to B. anthracis. IMPORTANCE The International Space Station Microbial Observatory (Microbial Tracking-1) study is generating a microbial

  1. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes for two desert cyprinodontoid fishes, Empetrichthys latos and Crenichthys baileyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Miguel; Goodchild, Shawn C; Stockwell, Craig A; Lema, Sean C

    2017-08-30

    The Pahrump poolfish (Empetrichthys latos) and White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi) are small-bodied teleost fishes (order Cyprinodontiformes) endemic to the arid Great Basin and Mojave Desert regions of western North America. These taxa survive as small, isolated populations in remote streams and springs and evolved to tolerate extreme conditions of high temperature and low dissolved oxygen. Both species have experienced severe population declines over the last 50-60years that led to some subspecies being categorized with protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Here we report the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for both E. l. latos and the moapae subspecies of C. baileyi. Complete mitogenomes of 16,546bp nucleotides were obtained from two E. l. latos individuals collected from introduced populations at Spring Mountain Ranch State Park and Shoshone Ponds Natural Area, Nevada, USA, while a single mitogenome of 16,537bp was sequenced for C. b. moapae. The mitogenomes of both species contain 13 protein-encoding genes, twenty-two tRNAs, and two rRNAs (12S and 18S) following the syntenic arrangement typical of Actinopterygiian fish mitogenomes, as well as D-loop control regions of 858bp for E. latos and 842bp for C. baileyi moapae. The two E. latos individuals exhibited only 0.0181% nucleotide sequence divergence across the entire mitogenome, implying little intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the poolfish and springfish mitochondrial genomes to available mitogenomes of other Cyprinodontoid fishes confirmed the close relationship of these oviparous Empetrichthys and Crenichthys genera to the viviparous goodeid fishes of central Mexico, and showed the combined clade of these fishes to be a sister group to the Profundulidae killifishes. Despite several significant life history and morphological differences between the Empetrichthyinae and Goodienae, estimates of evolutionary genetic

  2. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  3. Nicolaus Graecus and the Translatio Vetus of Aristotle's De Sensu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    I diskussion med en artikel skrevet til samme tidsskrift af Griet Galle (Leuven) argumenteres for, at den middelalderlige oversættelse af Aristoteles' De Sensu blev lavet af Robert Grossetestes samarbejdspartner Nicolaus Graecus...

  4. Molecular identification of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... 2Department of Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere. University, Kampala ... Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (formerly A. gambiae S molecular form), the largely anthropophilic .... using molecular methods can have important implications.

  5. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  6. Isolation and characterization by conventional methods and genetic transformation of Psychrobacter and Acinetobacter from fresh and spoiled meat, milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, M; Parini, M; Volpon, D; Serio, M

    1992-01-01

    Of 126 samples of fresh and spoiled meat and dairy products, 40% were positive for the presence of Moraxella-like bacteria and 64% of Acinetobacter; 279 and 466 strains, respectively, were isolated and a part of these were tested by biochemical methods and DNA transformation assays. In some cases, the Moraxellaceae in the samples examined reached considerable quantitative levels, but their percentage in the microflora was generally low. Moraxella-like bacteria were predominant in fresh meat, Acinetobacter in spoiled meat and milk. Most acinetobacters belonged to biotype lwoffii (sensu lato) and all 90 strains tested were positive for DNA transformation with an auxotrophic Acinetobacter. Moraxella-like bacteria were identified as Psychrobacter immobilis in 96% of 103 transformation assays. Moraxellaceae show lipolytic activity but they are considered of low incidence in food spoilage. Only 3.7% of acinetobacters from dairy sources was able to produce ropy milk. Unlike strains from clinical isolates, psychrobacters and acinetobacters isolated from food often do not grow at 37 degrees C.

  7. Molecular characterization and comparison of four Anisakis allergens between Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Zenke, Kosuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2013-07-01

    It remains unclear whether allergens are the same among the sibling species of Anisakis simplex sensu lato. This study was carried out to compare the amino acid sequences of three major (Ani s 1, 2 and 12) and one minor (Ani s 9) Anisakis allergens between A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. We found 2 (out of 163), 1 (out of 869), and 29 (out of 266) amino acid variable sites for Ani s 1, 2, and 12, respectively. However, as both intra- and inter-species variations were present at the same amino acid positions, no amino acid variations clearly distinguished the two sibling species. IgE-binding epitopes (Ani s 1) and a binding motif of human leukocyte antigen (Ani s 2 and 9) demonstrated by previous studies were conserved. The similarities of the amino acid sequences of the allergens indicate possible similar allergy-associated health risks in humans infected with or accidentally ingesting either Anisakis species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rhizospheric bacteria of maize with potential for biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Figueroa-López, Alejandro Miguel; Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; López-Meyer, Melina; Lizárraga-Sánchez, Glenda Judith; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Castro-Martínez, Claudia; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ... (Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus) that inhibit Fv growth (>45 %). In planta assays demonstrated that three Bacillus isolates: B. megaterium (B5), B. cereus sensu lato (B25) and Bacillus sp. (B35...

  9. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and whole genome analysis of endospore-forming bacteria from heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Jörn; Ahrens, Björn; Al-Dilaimi, Arwa; Winkler, Anika; Wibberg, Daniel; Schleenbecker, Uwe; Rückert, Christian; Wölfel, Roman; Grass, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B. cereus sensu lato group as well as diverse Clostridia were identified. In this work 82 samples of non-street market ("wholesale") heroin originating from the German Federal Criminal Police Office's heroin analysis program seized during the period between 2009 and 2014 were analyzed for contaminating bacteria. Without contact with the end user and with only little contaminations introduced by final processing, adulteration and cutting this heroin likely harbors original microbiota from the drug's original source or trafficking route. We found this drug to be only sparsely populated with retrievable heterotrophic, aerobic bacteria. In total, 68 isolates were retrieved from 49 out of 82 samples analyzed (60% culture positive). All isolates were endospore-forming, Gram-positive Bacilli. Completely absent were non-endospore-formers or Gram-negatives. The three most predominant species were Bacillus clausii, Bacillus (para)licheniformis, and Terribacillus saccharophilus. Whole genome sequencing of these 68 isolates was performed using Illumina technology. Sequence data sets were assembled and annotated using an automated bioinformatics pipeline. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values were calculated for all draft genomes and all close to identical genomes (ANI>99.5%) were compared to the forensic data of the seized drug, showing positive correlations that strongly warrant further research on this subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Melanin-Like Pigment Synthesis by Soil Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolates from Northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowska, Justyna M; Zambrzycka, Monika; Kalska-Szostko, Beata; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Although melanin is known for protecting living organisms from harmful physical and chemical factors, its synthesis is rarely observed among endospore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato. Here, for the first time, we reported that psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis from Northeastern Poland can produce melanin-like pigment. We assessed physicochemical properties of the pigment and the mechanism of its synthesis in relation to B. weihenstephanensis genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy displayed a stable free radical signal of the pigment from environmental isolates which are consistent with the commercial melanin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and physicochemical tests indicated the phenolic character of the pigment. Several biochemical tests showed that melanin-like pigment synthesis by B. weihenstephanensis was associated with laccase activity. The presence of the gene encoding laccase was confirmed by the next generation whole genome sequencing of one B. weihenstephanensis strain. Biochemical (API 20E and 50CHB tests) and genetic (Multi-locus Sequence Typing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis) characterization of the isolates revealed their close relation to the psychrotrophic B. weihenstephanensis DSMZ 11821 reference strain. The ability to synthesize melanin-like pigment by soil B. weihenstephanensis isolates and their psychrotrophic character seemed to be a local adaptation to a specific niche. Detailed genetic and biochemical analyses of melanin-positive environmental B. weihenstephanensis strains shed some light on the evolution and ecological adaptation of these bacteria. Moreover, our study raised new biotechnological possibilities for the use of water-soluble melanin-like pigment naturally produced by B. weihenstephanensis as an alternative to commercial non-soluble pigment.

  12. Melanin-Like Pigment Synthesis by Soil Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolates from Northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna M Drewnowska

    Full Text Available Although melanin is known for protecting living organisms from harmful physical and chemical factors, its synthesis is rarely observed among endospore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato. Here, for the first time, we reported that psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis from Northeastern Poland can produce melanin-like pigment. We assessed physicochemical properties of the pigment and the mechanism of its synthesis in relation to B. weihenstephanensis genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy displayed a stable free radical signal of the pigment from environmental isolates which are consistent with the commercial melanin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and physicochemical tests indicated the phenolic character of the pigment. Several biochemical tests showed that melanin-like pigment synthesis by B. weihenstephanensis was associated with laccase activity. The presence of the gene encoding laccase was confirmed by the next generation whole genome sequencing of one B. weihenstephanensis strain. Biochemical (API 20E and 50CHB tests and genetic (Multi-locus Sequence Typing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of the isolates revealed their close relation to the psychrotrophic B. weihenstephanensis DSMZ 11821 reference strain. The ability to synthesize melanin-like pigment by soil B. weihenstephanensis isolates and their psychrotrophic character seemed to be a local adaptation to a specific niche. Detailed genetic and biochemical analyses of melanin-positive environmental B. weihenstephanensis strains shed some light on the evolution and ecological adaptation of these bacteria. Moreover, our study raised new biotechnological possibilities for the use of water-soluble melanin-like pigment naturally produced by B. weihenstephanensis as an alternative to commercial non-soluble pigment.

  13. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-11-01

    The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P < 0.05) in the estimation of transmission indices generated by automated method when compared with PC method. The fact that the automated method is sensitive to pool size up to 100 confers advantage over PC method and can, therefore, be employed in large-scale ES of onchocerciasis transmission in endemic areas of Latin America.

  14. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  15. Water immersion of dogs close to the time of topical fluralaner treatment does not reduce efficacy against a subsequent experimental challenge with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato)

    OpenAIRE

    Dongus, Heide; Meyer, Leon; Armstrong, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs and cats providing immediate and persistent flea- and tick-control after a single topical dose. Prescribing directions recommend waiting 72 h following topical administration before immersing dogs in water. The objective of this study was to determine whether water immersion immediately prior to treatment or earlier than 72 h post-treatment reduced subsequent treatment efficacy. Methods Forty (n = 40) dogs were blocked on tic...

  16. Molecular detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato – An analytical comparison of real-time PCR protocols from five different Scandinavian laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Maximilian; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Kjelland, Vivian; Andreassen, Åshild; Dargis, Rimtas; Quarsten, Hanne; Dessau, Ram; Fingerle, Volker; Margos, Gabriele; Noraas, Sølvi; Ornstein, Katharina; Petersson, Ann-Cathrine; Matussek, Andreas; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Henningsson, Anna J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick transmitted disease in Europe. The diagnosis of LB today is based on the patient´s medical history, clinical presentation and laboratory findings. The laboratory diagnostics are mainly based on antibody detection, but in certain conditions molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may serve as a complement. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity and concordance of eight different real-time PCR methods at five laboratories in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Method Each participating laboratory was asked to analyse three different sets of samples (reference panels; all blinded) i) cDNA extracted and transcribed from water spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, ii) cerebrospinal fluid spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, and iii) DNA dilution series extracted from cultured Borrelia and relapsing fever strains. The results and the method descriptions of each laboratory were systematically evaluated. Results and conclusions The analytical sensitivities and the concordance between the eight protocols were in general high. The concordance was especially high between the protocols using 16S rRNA as the target gene, however, this concordance was mainly related to cDNA as the type of template. When comparing cDNA and DNA as the type of template the analytical sensitivity was in general higher for the protocols using DNA as template regardless of the use of target gene. The analytical specificity for all eight protocols was high. However, some protocols were not able to detect Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae or Borrelia japonica. PMID:28937997

  17. Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in Lower Silesia, Poland--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stańczak, Joanna; Richter, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of Borrelia spirochetes in Europe, including both the Lyme borreliosis (LB) group and the relapsing fever (RF) group. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of different genospecies from the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex and B. miyamotoi in questing I. ricinus collected in chosen areas in Lower Silesia, SW Poland. A total of 599 I. ricinus ticks were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. The calculated overall minimum infection rate of ticks with Borrelia spirochetes in Lower Silesia was 15.5%. Five different restriction patterns, characteristic of B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdoreri s.s., B. valaisiana, and B. miyamotoi, were obtained and confirmed by DNA sequencing. At least 14% of ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. while B.afzelii was the dominant genospecies (68.5%). The MIR for B. miyamotoi was calculated at 2%. Four co-infections in single adult ticks were found: B. miyamotoi/B. afzelii, B. miyamotoi/B. burdorferi s.s., B. miyamotoi/B. garinii, and B. afzelii/B. burgdorferi s.s. The results of this study confirm the risk of LB and RF occuring in both urban and protected areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P gene across Africa. The potential operational implications of these findings on malaria control need further exploration. Objectif Les marqueurs moléculaires de la résistance aux insecticides peuvent fournir des indicateurs sensibles du développement de la résistance dans les populations de vecteurs Anopheles. Le test de ces indicateurs est d'une importance énorme dans le programme de surveillance de la résistance. Nous avons étudié la présence et la répartition des mutations de résistance knockdown (kdr) chez Anopheles gambiae s.l. en Tanzanie. Méthodes Des anophèles d'intérieur, au repos ont été collectées dans 10 sites et testées pour la résistance aux insecticides en utilisant le protocole standard de l'OMS. Les diagnostics moléculaires basés sur la PCR ont été utilisés pour le génotypage des moustiques et la détection des génotypes kdr. Résultats Les An. gambiae testées étaient résistantes à la lambdacyhalothrine à Muheza, Arumeru et Muleba. Sur 350 An. gambiae s.l. génotypées, 35% étaient An. gambiae s.s. et 65% étaient An. arabiensis. Les mutations L1014S et L1014F ont été détectées à la fois chez An. gambiae s.s. et An. arabiensis. La mutation ponctuelle L1014S a été trouvée à la fréquence allélique de 4 à 33%, tandis que L1014F était à la fréquence allélique de 6 à 14%. La mutation L1014S a été fortement associée à An. gambiae s.s. (Chi carré = 23,41; Pmutaciones de resistencia knockdown (kdr) en Anopheles gambiae s.l. en Tanzania. Métodos Se recolectaron mosquitos Anopheles intradomiciliarios de 10 lugares diferentes y se evaluaron en busca de resistencia a insecticidas utilizando el protocolo estándar de la OMS. Mediante un diagnóstico molecular basado en la PCR se genotiparon los mosquitos y se detectaron los genotipos kdr. Resultados Los An. gambiae evaluados eran resistentes a lambdacialotrina en Muheza, Arumeru y Muleba. De 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotipados, 35% eran An. gambiae s.s. y 65% eran An. arabiensis. Se detectaron mutaciones L1014S y L1014F tanto en An. gambiae s.s. como en An. arabiensis. La mutación puntual L1014S se encontró con una frecuencia alélica de 4-33%, mientras que L1014F tenía una frecuencia alélica de 6-14%. La mutación L1014S estaba ampliamente asociada a An. gambiae s.s. (Chi-Cuadrado = 23.41; P mutaciones de L1014S y L1014F junto con informes de resistencia a los insecticidas sugiere que la resistencia a piretroides se está convirtiendo en un fenómeno común entre las poblaciones del vector de la malaria en Tanzania. La presencia de la mutación L1014F en estas poblaciones del Este de África indican la diseminación del gen a lo largo del continente africano. Determinar las implicaciones potenciales a nivel operativo de estos hallazgos sobre el control de la malaria requiere de más estudios. PMID:24386946

  19. Prevalencia de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en roedores sinantrópicos de dos comunidades rurales de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analilia Solís-Hernández

    2016-04-01

    Conclusiones. Los roedores presentaron una alta prevalencia de infección con B. burgdorferi s.l.; las especies M. musculus y R. rattus podrían jugar un papel importante en la continuidad de la presencia de esta bacteria en comunidades rurales de Yucatán, México.

  20. Circumscription of the genus Lepra, a recently resurrected genus to accommodate the “Variolaria”-group of Pertusaria sensu lato (Pertusariales, Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Imke; Hodkinson, Brendan; Flakus, Adam; Kukwa, Martin; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kirika, Paul M.; Otte, Jürgen; Meiser, Anjuli; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Pertusarialean lichens include more than 300 species belonging to several independent phylogenetic lineages. Only some of these phylogenetic clades have been comprehensively sampled for molecular data, and formally described as genera. Here we present a taxonomic treatment of a group of pertusarialean lichens formerly known as “Pertusaria amara-group”, “Monomurata-group”, or “Variolaria-group”, which includes widespread and well-known taxa such as P. amara, P. albescens, or P. ophthalmiza. We generated a 6-locus data set with 79 OTUs representing 75 species. The distinction of the Variolaria clade is supported and consequently, the resurrection of the genus Lepra is followed. Thirty-five new combinations into Lepra are proposed and the new species Lepra austropacifica is described from mangroves in the South Pacific. Lepra is circumscribed to include species with disciform ascomata, a weakly to non-amyloid hymenial gel, strongly amyloid asci without clear apical amyloid structures, containing 1 or 2, single-layered, thin-walled ascospores. Chlorinated xanthones are not present, but thamnolic and picrolichenic acids occur frequently, as well as orcinol depsides. Seventy-one species are accepted in the genus. Although the distinction of the genus from Pertusaria is strongly supported, the relationships of Lepra remain unresolved and the genus is tentatively placed in Pertusariales incertae sedis. PMID:28700682

  1. Circumscription of the genus Lepra, a recently resurrected genus to accommodate the "Variolaria"-group of Pertusaria sensu lato (Pertusariales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinli; Schmitt, Imke; Hodkinson, Brendan; Flakus, Adam; Kukwa, Martin; Divakar, Pradeep K; Kirika, Paul M; Otte, Jürgen; Meiser, Anjuli; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Pertusarialean lichens include more than 300 species belonging to several independent phylogenetic lineages. Only some of these phylogenetic clades have been comprehensively sampled for molecular data, and formally described as genera. Here we present a taxonomic treatment of a group of pertusarialean lichens formerly known as "Pertusaria amara-group", "Monomurata-group", or "Variolaria-group", which includes widespread and well-known taxa such as P. amara, P. albescens, or P. ophthalmiza. We generated a 6-locus data set with 79 OTUs representing 75 species. The distinction of the Variolaria clade is supported and consequently, the resurrection of the genus Lepra is followed. Thirty-five new combinations into Lepra are proposed and the new species Lepra austropacifica is described from mangroves in the South Pacific. Lepra is circumscribed to include species with disciform ascomata, a weakly to non-amyloid hymenial gel, strongly amyloid asci without clear apical amyloid structures, containing 1 or 2, single-layered, thin-walled ascospores. Chlorinated xanthones are not present, but thamnolic and picrolichenic acids occur frequently, as well as orcinol depsides. Seventy-one species are accepted in the genus. Although the distinction of the genus from Pertusaria is strongly supported, the relationships of Lepra remain unresolved and the genus is tentatively placed in Pertusariales incertae sedis.

  2. The bionomics of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Southeast Tanzania : adult size variation and its effect on female fecundity, survival and malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyimo, E.O.K.

    1993-01-01

    Size of adult mosquitoes is known to affect both population dynamics as well as disease transmission. Studies devoted to this topic have given different results for different species. For example in some mosquito species, large size was found to be associated with high fecundity and longer

  3. The invasion and expansion of three North American species of goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. sensu lato. S. gigantea Ait. and S. graminifolia (L Salisb in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Guzikowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distributions of three adventive species of North American goldenrods (S. canadensis L. s.l., S. gigantea Ait. and S. graminifolin (L. Salisb. throughout Poland are presented. The history of escape, initial establishent and subsequent spread are documented on the basis of almost 1400 herbarium collections and site records of the authors. Of the three species S. gigantea is the most aggressive S. cunadensis has continued to spread vigorously. but S. graminifolia has barely moved beyond its initial area of establishment. The first two species occur essentially throughout Poland. having expanded from centers in southwestern Poland in the decade between 1840 to 1850. Both of these plants are spreading rapidly and producing vigorous populations which thrive in disturbed and semi-disturbed environments and S. gigantea seems to have now attained the capability of invading stabilized habitats and communities. They are in the process of becoming a serious threat to many natural environments and ecosystems in Poland.

  4. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ticks from a recreational coniferous forest of East Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Sándor; Lügner, Jenny; Fingerle, Volker; Margos, Gabriele; Földvári, Gábor

    2017-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-transmitted pathogens in Europe, frequently occurring in urban parks and greenbelts utilized for recreational activities. This species is the most common vector of the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Similarly, the species spreads Borrelia miyamotoi, causing a relapsing-fever like illness. A total of 1774 Ixodes ricinus (50 females, 68 males, 840 nymphs and 818 larvae) were collected with flagging between March and September 2014 in a coniferous forest patch in Niederkaina near the town of Bautzen in Saxony, Germany. To measure questing tick density a time-based density estimating method was utilized. From each month, a total of 100 adults and nymphal ticks and all larvae (pools of 10 individuals per tube/month) were selected for the molecular analyses. For simultaneous detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi a duplex real-time PCR targeting the flaB locus was performed. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was 9.4% (female: 6%, male: 2.9%, nymph: 12.2%, larva: 0%) and minimum prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 1.2% (female: 0%, male: 4.3%, nymph: 2.8%, larva: 0.1%) in the 714 samples with real-time polymerase chain reaction. A real-time PCR reaction was utilized first to target the histone-like protein gene (hbb) of B. burgdorferi s.l., a hemi-nested outer surface protein (ospA) gene conventional PCR was then performed followed by a restriction enzyme analysis to distinguish B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Seven B. afzelii, one B. burgdorferi s.s., one B. bavariensis and four B. miyamotoi infections were confirmed. Prevalence of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes was significantly higher in nymphs than in adults (p<0.01, Fisher exact test) probably due to the diluting effect of the local roe deer population. Our data highlight the potential risk of human infection with the emerging pathogen B. miyamotoi within the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  6. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  7. Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Paton, D.; Touré, M.; Sacko, A.; Coulibaly, MB; Traoré, SF; Tripet, F

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa...

  8. Polyphasic taxonomy of the basidiomycetous yeast genus Rhodotorula: Rh. glutinis sensu stricto and Rh. dairenensis comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2002-03-01

    The phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of the basidiomycetous yeast species Rhodotorula glutinis was investigated in a group of 109 isolates. A polyphasic taxonomic approach was followed which included PCR fingerprinting, determination of sexual compatibility, 26S and ITS rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA reassociation experiments and reassessment of micromorphological and physiological attributes. The relationships with species of the teleomorphic genus Rhodosporidium were studied and isolates previously identified as Rh. glutinis were found to belong to Rhodosporidium babjevae, Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Rhodosporidium sphaerocarpum. Other isolates included in the study were found to belong to Rh. glutinis var. dairenensis, which is elevated to the species level, or to undescribed species. The concept of Rh. glutinis sensu stricto is proposed due to the close phenetic and phylogenetic proximity detected for Rh. glutinis, Rhodotorula graminis and R. babjevae.

  9. A catalog of the types of Chrysomelidae sensu lato (Insecta, Coleoptera, Polyphaga deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires Catálogo de los tipos de Chrysomelidae sensu lato (Insecta, Coleoptera, Polyphaga depositados en el Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel O. Bachmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The type specimens (all current categories of Chrysomelidae s.l. deposited in this Museum are listed; 125 names are recorded, 85 of them (68 percent are represented here by name-bearing types ('primary' types, five of them dubious. The family is taken in its broadest sense, including the Bruchinae, Hispinae (along with the former Cassidinae, and other groups sometimes considered as separate families. The specific and subspecific names were alphabetically filed, followed by the generic ones as they were spelled in the original publication, or the generic and specific names in the case of subspecies and varieties. Later combinations and/or current binomina are mentioned insofar as these are known to the authors. Two lists are added: 1. of specimens labelled as types of unavailable names, chiefly those not found in the literature, and supposedly not published, and 2. of specimens labelled as types, but not originally included as such, and published or not after the original description.Se catalogan los ejemplares típicos, de todas las categorías aceptadas, de Chrysomelidae s.l. conservados en este museo; se registran 125 nombres, 85 de ellos (68 por ciento representados aquí por tipos portadores de nombres (tipos 'primarios', cinco de ellos dudosos. La familia se toma en su concepto más amplio, incluyendo a las Bruchinae, las Hispinae (con las anteriores Cassidinae y otros grupos a veces considerados como familias separadas. Los nombres específicos y subespecíficos fueron ordenados alfabéticamente; a estos siguen los de los géneros, así como se publicaron originalmente, o de los géneros y especies en el caso de las subespecies y variedades. Se mencionan las combinaciones ulteriores y/o los binomios en uso, hasta donde son conocidos por los autores. Se agregan dos listas: 1. de los ejemplares rotulados como tipos, de nombres no disponibles, principalmente aquellos no hallados en la bibliografía, y supuestamente no publicados, y 2. de los ejemplares rotulados como tipos, pero no incluidos originalmente como tales, publicados o no después de la descripción original.

  10. Genetic Stability and Evolution of thesigBAllele, Used for Listeria Sensu Stricto Subtyping and Phylogenetic Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wiedmann, Martin; Kovac, Jasna

    2017-06-15

    Sequencing of single genes remains an important tool that allows the rapid classification of bacteria. Sequencing of a portion of sigB , which encodes a stress-responsive alternative sigma factor, has emerged as a commonly used molecular tool for the initial characterization of diverse Listeria isolates. In this study, evolutionary approaches were used to assess the validity of sigB allelic typing for Listeria For a data set of 4,280 isolates, sigB allelic typing showed a Simpson's index of diversity of 0.96. Analyses of 164 sigB allelic types (ATs) found among the 6 Listeria sensu stricto species, representing these 4,280 isolates, indicate that neither frequent homologous recombination nor positive selection significantly contributed to the evolution of sigB , confirming its genetic stability. The molecular clock test provided evidence for unequal evolution rates across clades; Listeria welshimeri displayed the lowest sigB diversity and was the only species in which sigB evolved in a clocklike manner, implying a unique natural history. Among the four L. monocytogenes lineages, sigB evolution followed a molecular clock only in lineage IV. Moreover, sigB displayed a significant negative Tajima D value in lineage II, suggesting a recent population bottleneck followed by lineage expansion. The absence of positive selection along with the violation of the molecular clock suggested a nearly neutral mechanism of Listeria sensu stricto sigB evolution. While comparison with a whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny revealed that the sigB phylogeny did not correctly reflect the ancestry of L. monocytogenes lineage IV, the availability of a large sigB AT database allowed accurate species classification. IMPORTANCE sigB allelic typing has been widely used for species delineation and subtyping of Listeria However, an informative evaluation of this method from an evolutionary perspective was missing. Our data indicate that the genetic stability of sigB is affected by neither

  11. Patterns of genetic variability in Anopheles quadrimaculatis (sensu stricto) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in eastern Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Larry R; Cooksey, Lynita M

    2004-01-01

    Electrophoretically detectable isozyme differences in 15 populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Say) (sensu stricto) from eastern Arkansas were compared to measure levels of genetic diversity and study the sources of the variation. All of the enzyme loci had 2-7 alleles. Average levels of polymorphism per population were 88.9%. Heterozygotes for alleles of at least 1 of the 9 loci made up an average overall loci of 0.323 +/- 0.078 of the individuals examined. F-statistic analysis suggested a small, but statistically significant interpopulation differentiation of heterozygote frequency. The reduced heterozygote frequency was not attributable to the presence of more than one species in any population nor to the preferential use of oviposition habitats by certain populations within the species. Nei's distance values for pairwise population comparisons were small (<0.06). Correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices was not significant. Migration among populations in the agricultural areas of the Arkansas delta region is apparently sufficient to homogenize most of the genetic divergence arising because of habitat or geographic isolation between populations in the region.

  12. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preparations from human isolates in unusual tissue sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizem, A; M'rad, S; Oudni-M'rad, M; Mestiri, S; Hammedi, F; Mezhoud, H; Zakhama, A; Mokni, M; Babba, H

    2016-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains a serious problem worldwide for issues relating to public health and the economy. The most predominantly affected sites are the liver and the lungs, but other organs such as the heart, the spleen and the peritoneum can also be infected. Access to cysts from uncommon sites has limited genomic and molecular investigations. In the present study, genotypes of E. granulosus sensu lato were identified from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FF-PETs) implicated in human CE. Tissue samples were obtained from 57 patients with histologically confirmed CE. DNA samples were analysed using Egss 1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E. granulosus sensu stricto. All cysts were typed as E. granulosus sensu stricto with up to 35% of the liver and 16.6% of lungs being the most frequently infected, and up to 48.4% of samples being from rare sites. No correlation was found between cyst site and either the gender or the age of patients. This study demonstrates the possibility of exploiting atypical cysts using FF-PET samples and highlights the predominance of E. granulosus sensu stricto species in the Tunisian population, even in unusual infection sites.

  13. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii: biological characteristics and pathogenetic potential in human anisakiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2012-06-01

    Anisakiasis is one of the most common fishborne helminthic diseases in Japan, which is contracted by ingesting the larvae of the nematode Anisakis spp. carried by marine fish. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii are the dominant species in fish caught offshore Japan. The present study aimed to identify the anisakid species infecting Japanese patients and determine whether there is any difference in the pathogenetic potential of A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii. In total, 41 and 301 Anisakis larvae were isolated from Japanese patients and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), respectively; these were subjected to molecular identification using polymerase chain reaction targeted at a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. Chub mackerel larvae were further examined for survival in artificial gastric juice (pH 1.8) for 7 days and for invasiveness on 0.75% solid agar over a 24-h interval. All clinical isolates, including those of asymptomatic, acute, and chronic infections as well as those from the stomach, small intestine, colon, and stool, were identified as A. simplex (s.s.). Chub mackerel harbored A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii larvae, together with a few larvae of other anisakid species. A. simplex (s.s.) larvae from chub mackerel tolerated the artificial gastric juice better than A. pegreffii, with 50% mortality in 2.6 and 1.4 days, respectively. In addition, A. simplex (s.s.) penetrated the agar at significantly higher rates than A. pegreffii. These results show that A. simplex (s.s.) larvae have the potential to survive acidic gastric juice to some extent and penetrate the stomach, small intestine, or colon in infected humans.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Sorbus sensu stricto (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Ohi-Toma, Tetsuo; Gao, Yun-Dong; Xu, Bo; Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Ju, Wen-Bin; Gao, Xin-Fen

    2017-06-01

    Explaining how plants from eastern Asia migrated to other Northern Hemisphere regions is still challenging. The genus Sorbus sensu stricto (including c. 88 species) is considered as a good example to illuminate this scenario, due to the wide distribution in the temperate zone and high diversity in the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains. Based on four nuclear markers (LEAFY-2, GBSSI-1, SBEI and WD) and one chloroplast marker (rps16-trnK), we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationship of Sorbus using 54 taxa (60% of the genus representing all subgenera, sections, or series and geographical areas in the previous classifications), and estimated divergence time and historical biogeography of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses supported that the subgenera Sorbus and Albo-carmesinae, as defined by traditional morphological characters (such as fruit color), are suitable. However, five clades defined by phylogenetic analysis of the genus are not consistent with traditionally defined sections or series. Molecular dating and biogeographic reconstruction showed that the age of the most recent common ancestor was estimated at 41mya (95% HPD: 49-35mya) in eastern Asia. Four dispersal events are assumed to explain the wide distribution of Sorbus in the temperate zone and diversification in the edges of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Species dispersed from eastern Asia to the Tianshan Mountains, North America and Europe during the Oligocene and Miocene period. We found that polyploidization occurred multiple times in the subgenus Albo-carmesinae, in the Tianshan Mountains, Himalayas, and H-D Mountains. Finally, we suggest that apomixis, polyploidization, and hybridization may have combined with the multistage uplifting of Himalayas and H-D Mountains (and the subsequent increases in geologic, ecological and climatic heterogeneity) to drive the striking species diversity of Sorbus in this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Serological diagnosis of sporotrichosis using an antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Primavera; Ostos, Ana; Franquiz, Nohelys; Roschman-González, Antonio; Zambrano, Edgar A; Mendoza, Mireya

    2015-06-01

    We developed and analyzed an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in order to detect antibodies in sera from sporotrichosis patients. We used a crude antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, obtained from the mycelial phase of the fungi. Positive sera were analyzed by other serological techniques such as double immunodiffusion (IGG) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The assay was validated by using sera from patients with other pathologies such as: histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, lupus and healthy individuals as negative controls. For the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, we found a 100% of specificity by every technique and sensitivity higher than 98% with IDD, CIE and ELISA. Our results show a high sensitivity and specificity for the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, so it can be used for IDD, CIE and ELISA. The results suggest that this antigen could be used in conjunction with other conventional tests for differential diagnosis and may be useful for monitoring the disease progression and response to treatment.

  16. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; Lópes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and germlings, but S. schenckii

  17. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-Álvarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and

  18. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study,

  20. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Li, Xin; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; van Dam, Alje P.; Barthold, Stephen W.; van der Poll, Tom; Speelman, Peter; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks and mice can be infected with both Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii. The effect of coinfection with these two Borrelia species on the development of murine Lyme borreliosis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether coinfection with the

  1. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-02

    Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product

  2. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 72, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of procedures to evaluate the pathogenicity of Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato isolates from Eucalyptus in South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M van Wyk, RN Heath, M Tarigan, M Vermeulen, MJ Wingfield.

  4. Molecular identification, genetic diversity, population genetics and genomics of Rhizoctonia solani. In:perspective of plant pathology in genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basidiomycetous soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia (sensu lato) is an economically important pathogen of worldwide distribution and it is known to attack at least 188 species of higher plants, including agronomic crops, vegetables, ornamentals, forest trees and turfgrasses. The pathogenic isolates may...

  5. Molecular and phenotypic description of Stachybotrys chlorohalonata sp. nov and two chemotypes of Stachybotrys chartarum found in water-damaged buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-five Stachybotrys isolates from two previous studies have been examined and compared, rising morphological, chemical and phylogenetic methods. The results show that S. chartarum sensu lato can be segregated into two chemotypes and one new species. The new species, S. chlorohalonata, differ...

  6. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of Saccharomyces contaminants isolated from lager breweries and their phylogenetic relationship with brewing yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene; Kühle, Alis Van der Aa; Petersen, Kamilla M.

    2000-01-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out for isolates of Saccharomyces spp. identified as contaminants ("wild yeast") in 24 different lager breweries. With reference to the current taxonomy all isolates were found to belong to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and 58% of the isolates were further ...

  7. THE FERN-GENUS ARCYPTERIS UNDERWOOD (Dictyopteris PresI sensu Fee)

    OpenAIRE

    R. E. HOLTTUM

    2015-01-01

    1. The genus Arcypteris Underw. (Dictyopteris Presl sensu Pee) is maintained as different from Tectaria Cav. and redefined. It is considered very closely related to Pleocnemia Presl. 2. Four species are recognized. 3. The following new combinations are made: Arcypteris irregularis (Presl) Holttum (basinym: Polypodium irregulare Presl), A. macrodonta (Fee) Holttum (basi- nym: Dictyopteris macrodonta Presl ex Fee), A. brongniariii (Bory) Holttum (basinym: Polypodium brongniartii Bory), and A. g...

  8. A Escola Fiocruz de Governo na profissionalização de servidores públicos federais: uma análise dos cursos lato sensu para a Anvisa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Andrade de Melo e SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo a análise quanti-qualitativa dos Trabalhos de Conclusão-TCC do “Curso de Especialização em Vigilância Sanitária dos Servidores da Anvisa” entre 2006 e 2009, cujo principal objeto era formar servidores recém-ingressos da Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – Anvisa no campo da saúde coletiva. Foram examinados 366 TCC, a partir de seus resumos. Foram divididos os trabalhos por Macroeixos e categorizados entre artigos, projetos de pesquisa e monografias. Os resultados demonstraram que os temas que mais predominaram como objeto de estudo foram “vigilância” e “medicamentos”.

  9. A new genus of athecate interstitial dinoflagellates, Togula gen. nov., previously encompassed within Amphidinium sensu lato: Inferred from light and electron microscopy and phylogenetic analyses of partial large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Murray, Shauna; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2004-01-01

    subunit ribosomal DNA as well as in size and shape. Based on morphological similarity and partial large subunit ribosomal DNA evidence, we erect the new genus, Togula gen. nov. with the emended type species Togula britannica (Herdman) comb. nov. Based on differences in division pattern and partial large...

  10. STRATEGY AND PLANNING - PROJECT FOR MONITORING STRICTO SENSU POSTGRADUATE ALUMNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES has been contributing to the development of post-graduate studies in Brazil, through its system of evaluation. Lately, CAPES signaled the importance of follow the professional performance of the alumni as a way to measure the quality of courses. One difficulty reported by institutions that intend to recognize the trajectory of its graduates is to compile a lot of isolated and outdated data. In order to structure the data collection and to assist educational managers in decision making, we propose the development of a system that enables the evolution of the students and alumni professional career, in order to diagnose the influence of the courses. Based on literature review, this study presents an analysis and makes recommendations about the Monitoring Alumni Project planning. As a result, it is expected that the analysis will serve as a driver for conducting the project, aiming to contribute to the academic reflections, and in practice, contribute to improve educational projects quality.

  11. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  12. THE FERN-GENUS ARCYPTERIS UNDERWOOD (Dictyopteris PresI sensu Fee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. HOLTTUM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The genus Arcypteris Underw. (Dictyopteris Presl sensu Pee is maintained as different from Tectaria Cav. and redefined. It is considered very closely related to Pleocnemia Presl. 2. Four species are recognized. 3. The following new combinations are made: Arcypteris irregularis (Presl Holttum (basinym: Polypodium irregulare Presl, A. macrodonta (Fee Holttum (basi- nym: Dictyopteris macrodonta Presl ex Fee, A. brongniariii (Bory Holttum (basinym: Polypodium brongniartii Bory, and A. gigantea (Ces. Holttum (basinym: Nephrodium giganteum Ces.. 4s. Reductions to synonymy are: Aspidium difforme Blume to Arcypteris irre- gularis (Presl Holtt., and Polypodium pteroides Presl to A. brongniartii (Bory Holtt.

  13. Genomic fingerprints, ARDRA profiles and quinone systems for classification of Pasteurella sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, A; Lubitz, W; Busse, H J

    2000-12-01

    In order to investigate the relationships between species of the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto such as Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella stomatis, Pasteurella dagmatis, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, Pasteurella gallinarum, Pasteurella species A, Pasteurella species B and "Pasteurella leonis" MCCM 00659 their genomic fingerprints and ARDRA profiles were compared and their quinone systems were analysed. Visual comparison of band patterns from rep-PCR (ERIC-, REP- and BOX-PCR) and the analyses of the combined band patterns by UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with averages) dendrogram derived from the combined fingerprint profiles demonstrated that each strain displays a distinct genomic fingerprint. In members of the same species several similarities in the band patterns were observed. Combined ARDRA profiles, obtained after digestion of amplified 23S rRNA coding genes with the enzymes DdeI, MseI and RsaI, revealed a dissection of the members of the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto into two groups which was in agreement with the two groups obtained from our analyses of the quinone systems. These two groups corresponded with the two phylogenetically determined subclusters 3A and 3B described previously. The species of subcluster 3A displayed a quinone system with ubiquinone Q-7 (32-56%) and ubiquinone Q-8 (44-63%) as major compounds. Members of subcluster 3B had a quinone system with ubiquinone Q-8 (86-97%) as the major compound. Based on these results it can be suggested that the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto should be restricted to the species of subcluster 3B including the species Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella stomatis, Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella species B. In addition, evidence was found which would indicate that: 1) Pasteurella canis MCCM 00927 is misnamed and should be reclassified with Pasteurella multocida; 2) Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica may be classified as a separate species; and

  14. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  15. Comparison of two in vitro antifungal sensitivity tests and monitoring during therapy of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto in Malaysian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hock Siew; Kano, Rui; Chen, Charles; Noli, Chiara

    2017-02-01

    Feline sporotrichosis is common in Malaysia. Thermosensitivity and effects of azole treatment on fungal susceptibility are unknown. To evaluate thermotolerance and antifungal susceptibility of feline Malaysian Sporothrix isolates, compare microdilution (MD) and E-test results, and investigate changes in susceptibility during azole therapy. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto was isolated from 44 cats. Thermotolerance was determined via culture at 37°C for 7 days. Susceptibility to itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ) and terbinafine (TRB) was assessed in 40 isolates by MD; to amphotericin B (AMB), KTZ, ITZ, fluconazole (FLC) and posaconazole (POS) by E-test. Results were statistically compared by Pearson's Product Moment. In eight ketoconazole treated cats, susceptibility testing to itraconazole and ketoconazole was repeated every two months for six months. Thermotolerance was observed in 36 of 44 (82%) isolates. Assuming that isolates growing at antifungal concentrations ≥4 mg/mL were resistant, all were resistant on E-test to FLC and AMB, 11 (28%) to POS, 6 (15%) to ITZ and 1 (3%) to KTZ. On MD, 27 of 40 (68%) were resistant to TRB, 2 (5%) to ITZ and 3 (8%) to KTZ. There was no correlation between E-test and MD results (KTZ r = 0.10, P = 0.54, and ITZ r = 0.11, P = 0.48). MD values for ITZ and KTZ did not exceed 4 mg/L during KTZ therapy. The majority of feline isolates in Malaysia are thermosensitive. Lack of correlation between E-test and MD suggests that the E-test is unreliable to test antifungal susceptibility for Sporothrix spp. compared to MD. KTZ was the antifungal drug with the lowest MIC. Prolonged KTZ administration may not induce changes in antifungal susceptibility. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Molecular typing of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Okubo, Miki; Siew, Han Hock; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological data on the aetiologic agents of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia have not been reported, though human sporotrichosis in Malaysia is reported to be transmitted primarily via cat scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study of the molecular epidemiology of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats with sporotrichosis in Malaysia. In the present work, we characterised 18 clinical isolates from cats in Malaysia based on molecular properties, including sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the rDNA ITS region and selective PCR of mating type (MAT) loci. In this study, isolates from feline sporotrichosis were identified as a S. schenckii sensu stricto by sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS confirmed assignment to clinical clade D (and not C) of S. schenckii sensu stricto. Therefore, clinical clade D of S. schenckii sensu stricto appeared to be the prevailing source of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. The ratio of MAT1-1-1:MAT1-2-1 in these Malaysian isolates was found to be 1 : 0. This result suggested that a clonal strain of S. schenckii is the prevailing causative agent of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Analysis of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis virulence in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo-Giraldo, Diana M; Matínez-Alvarez, José A; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Franco, Bernardo; Almeida, Ricardo S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the host-pathogen interaction is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying adhesion, colonization and tissue damage by pathogens. This is usually achieved by performing in vivo studies using small mammals, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs. Nowadays, the mouse models of systemic or subcutaneous infection are the gold standard assays to analyze the virulence of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. There are, however, invertebrates that have been recently used as alternative hosts to assess the virulence of both bacteria and fungi, and among them, larvae of Galleria mellonella are popular because they are easy to breed, and require non-specialized facilities to maintain the colony. Here, we assessed the use of G. mellonella larvae to test the virulence of S. schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis strains, and found that infection with yeast-like cells, but not with conidia or germlings, reproduces the virulence data generated in the mouse model of infection. Furthermore, with this insect model we could classify the virulence of some strains as low, intermediate or high, in line with the observations in the mammalian model. Therefore, G. mellonella is suitable, and a new alternative, to test virulence of both S. schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. STRICTO SENSU POST-GRADUATION PROGRAMME NURSING: THE OPINION OF UNDERGRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Maria Leite Meirelles Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer o entendimento dos graduandos de Enfermagem de uma Universidade Pública de Pernambuco sobre a contribuição de um Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório qualitativo. Foram entrevistados trinta estudantes de enfermagem nos meses de agosto a novembro de 2009. Os dados foram apresentados utilizando-se a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultado: Foram evidenciadas três Idéias Centrais: Conhecimento sobre o Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem da UPE; contribuição para a prática profissional e o interesse em ingressar. Conclusão: O entendimento da proposta de fortalecimento das pesquisas e de uma articulação destas com as tecnologias e práticas profissionais vem requerer um redirecionamento na filosofia das IES, tendo a incumbência de despertar o mais precocemente, entre seus graduandos o interesse e a habilidade por pesquisar, sedimentando sua formação na busca contínua de conhecimentos, na renovação dos saberes, na inquietação por investigar objetos de estudo instrumentalizadores do agir profissional em saúde.

  19. SENSU STRICTO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Class Amphibia. Grahamstown: Albany Museum. WAGRa, V. A. 1965. The frogs 0/ South Africa. Cape Town: Purnell & Sons. VAN DUK, D. B. 1966. Systematic and field keys to the families, genera and described species of southern African anuran tadpoles. Ann. Natal. Mus. 18: 231-286. capture (Wedemeyer 1972; Hattingh ...

  20. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  1. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human emanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hoppe, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Bakker, E.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been

  2. Structural and environmental variations in a continuum of gallery forest/savana stricto sensu in Itumirim, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo José Santos Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work verified the possible correlations among the variations of the strucuture, species diversity and variations of the substrate in a tree compartment in a continuum of Gallery Forest/Savana stricto sensu in Itumirim, southern of Minas Gerais. The soils of the areas of Gallery Forest, Transition Forest and Savana stricto sensu presented medium structure, high acidity with pH between 4.5 and 5.0 and high aluminum contents. The structural survey all over the patch presented 1,347 individuals distributed into 39 families, 77 genera and 102 species. The family Fabaceae stood out by the greatest richness of species followed by the families Myrtaceae, Lauraceae and Rubiaceae. The species Protium spruceanum and Myrsine umbellata were superior in all the phytosociological parameters, respectively, for all the areas of Gallery Forest and Savana stricto sensu. In the area of transition , the species Copaifera langsdorffii reached the highest values of basal area and absolute dominance; however, as regards to absolute density and cover value was the species Myrsine umbellata. Shannon's diversity indices (H' and Pielou's equatibility index (J' for the three places were of 3,57, 3,51 and 2,58 and 0,79, 0,88 and 0,77, respectively, for the areas of Gallery Forest, transition Forest and Savana stricto sensu. Through the rectified correspondence analysis (DCA, two groupings in the DCA diagram were found: grouping 1 containing only the three plots corresponding to the Savana stricto sensu; and grouping 2 joining together the other plots sampled encompassing the sites of Gallery and transition Forest.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in humans from a Cuban village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Lyme disease has not been officially reported in Cuba. However, clinical cases have been serologically reported. Seroprevalence survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto antibodies in humans in the country has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of borrelial antibodies in inhabitants of a village with historically high level of tick infestation. METHODS: Serum specimens from 247 persons randomly selected from the population of the village were examined by IgG Western blot using B31 strain for estimating the prevalence of antibodies profile. RESULTS: A seroprevalence value interval (95% CI of 0.6%-7.2% was estimated for the studied population. The prevalent borrelial protein bands on immunoblots were 41, 72, 90/93, 34, 47, 60, 58, 56, 65/66 and 31 kDa in a decreasing order of significance. CONCLUSION: These results support the previous serological findings, suggesting the presence of this borreliosis in Cuba.

  4. Assessment of different management systems in an area of cerrado sensu strict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nascimento de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of different management systems on the floristic composition and diversity of a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto vegetation located in Brasilândia de Minas (MG, eleven years after interventions. In 1997, 30 plots were installed in the study site, in a random block design, consisting of ten treatments with three replications: 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% removal of the basal area, involving 20% reduction and increase in the De Liocourt quotient value; clear cutting and control treatment. Prior to treatment installation, an inventory was compiled of original vegetation. In 2004 and 2008 further inventories were produced. It was observed that interventions in the relevant Cerrado area led to changes in the floristic composition and diversity of local vegetation, yet these changes were also observed in undisturbed areas which had not been subjected to management plans.

  5. Arquitectura y anatomía foliar del complejo Polypodium plesiosorum sensu Moran (Polypodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daniel Tejero-Díez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El complejo Polypodium plesisorum es un grupo de morfología heterogénea. Se estudió la arquitectura y anatomía foliar de 12 especies que constituyen el complejo de Polypodium plesiosorum reconocidas por Moran, y otras 23 especies de Polypodium (complejos P. dulce, P. polypodioides y P. vulgare sunsu Moran y géneros relacionados taxonómicamente (Goniophlebium, Phlebodium, Pleopeltis, Serpocaulon, Synammia con fines comparativos. Dos grupos de especies homogéneas fueron establecidos en el complejo P. plesisorum. Uno de ellos se reconoce por el tipo de anastomosis de las venas (tipo III: Polypodium conterminans (originalmente considerado en el grupo de P. dulce de venación libre según Moran, P. hispidulum, P. plesiosorum y P. rhodopleuron. El segundo grupo formado por Polypodium arcanum, P. castaneum, P. colpodes, P. eatonii y P. flagellare, se reconoce por el tipo de anastomosis de las venas (tipo IV y la forma en que se fusionan los cordones vasculares a lo largo del eje pecíoloraquis de la hoja. Los caracteres estudiados ayudaron a relacionar las especies restantes con otros grupos fuera del complejo estudiado.Architecture and leaf anatomy of the Polypodium plesiosorum sensu Moran complex (Polypodiaceae. The Polypodium plesisorum complex is a heterogeneous morphology group. We studied leaf architecture and anatomy of 12 species of this group, in addition to other 23 species of Polypodium (P. dulce, P. polypodioides and P. vulgare complex sensu Moran and related genera (Goniophlebium, Phlebodium, Pleopeltis, Serpocaulon, Synammia, for comparative purposes. Two homogeneous groups of species were established in P. plesiosorum complex. One of them is recognized based on the type of anastomosis of the veins (Type III: Polypodium conterminans (originally considered in the group of P. dulce with free venation by Moran, P. hispidulum, P. plesiosorum and P. rhodopleuron. The second group with Polypodium arcanum, P. castaneum, P. colpodes, P

  6. The Awesome Power of Yeast Evolutionary Genetics: New Genome Sequences and Strain Resources for the Saccharomyces sensu stricto Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, Devin R; Zill, Oliver A; Rokas, Antonis; Payen, Celia; Dunham, Maitreya J; Eisen, Michael B; Rine, Jasper; Johnston, Mark; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2011-06-01

    High-quality, well-annotated genome sequences and standardized laboratory strains fuel experimental and evolutionary research. We present improved genome sequences of three species of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts: S. bayanus var. uvarum (CBS 7001), S. kudriavzevii (IFO 1802(T) and ZP 591), and S. mikatae (IFO 1815(T)), and describe their comparison to the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. The new sequences, derived by assembling millions of short DNA sequence reads together with previously published Sanger shotgun reads, have vastly greater long-range continuity and far fewer gaps than the previously available genome sequences. New gene predictions defined a set of 5261 protein-coding orthologs across the five most commonly studied Saccharomyces yeasts, enabling a re-examination of the tempo and mode of yeast gene evolution and improved inferences of species-specific gains and losses. To facilitate experimental investigations, we generated genetically marked, stable haploid strains for all three of these Saccharomyces species. These nearly complete genome sequences and the collection of genetically marked strains provide a valuable toolset for comparative studies of gene function, metabolism, and evolution, and render Saccharomyces sensu stricto the most experimentally tractable model genus. These resources are freely available and accessible through www.SaccharomycesSensuStricto.org.

  7. Population Dynamics and Food Preferences of the Testate Amoeba Nebela tincta major-bohemica-collaris Complex (Protozoa) in a Sphagnum Peatland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Daniel; Mitchell, Edward A.D.; Bourdier, Gilles; Francez, André-Jean

    2010-01-01

    Population dynamics and food preferences of the testate amoeba species complex Nebela tincta major-bohemica-collaris ("Nebela collaris sensu lato") were described from a Sphagnum peatland over one growing season. The average abundance of Nebela collaris sensu lato was 29582 ind. l-1 active, and 2263 ind. l-1 encysted forms. On average, 17.4% of Nebela collaris sensu lato specimens were observed associated with prey, 71% of which could not be identified because of their poor preservation state...

  8. Evidence for Host-Genotype Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mechai

    Full Text Available Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this study, evidence for host species associations of B. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 B. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal species and 50 samples from host-seeking ticks collected during the course of field studies in four regions of Canada: Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. The B. burgdorferi genotypes in the samples were characterized using three established molecular markers (multi-locus sequence typing [MLST], 16S-23S rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer, and outer surface protein C sequence [ospC] major groups. Correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed effect models revealed significant associations between B. burgdorferi genotypes and host species (in particular chipmunks, and white-footed mice and deer mice, supporting the hypotheses that host adaptation contributes to the phylogenetic structure and possibly the observed variation in pathogenicity in humans.

  9. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors.

  10. Quality of life of postgraduate students stricto sensu in dentistry and sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Nara Gadelha TEIXEIRA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Quality of life (QL is subjective and must be based on a multidimensional construct and on positive and negative factors in the individual’s life. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the QL of the students of the Postgraduate Program in Dentistry (PPGO of the Federal University of Ceará. Material and method Cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, conducted with 88 students regularly enrolled in PPGO. The QL was measured by the World Health Organization Questionnaire for Quality of Life-bref (WHOQOL-bref. For a better analysis of the QL scores, they were categorized into three levels: dissatisfaction, uncertainty and satisfaction. A multinomial logistic regression model was used. Result The majority of the respondents (55.7% was classified in the area of satisfaction with QL, with 14,05 total average scores, corresponding to 62.8% of the total. By associating the socio-demographic data with the categories of analysis of QL, it was observed relevant in single students (p=0.005, those who considered themselves religious (p=0.041 and those who did not have a postgraduate scholarship (p=0.025, being evaluated in the area of dissatisfaction/uncertainty about the QL. Conclusion It was concluded that marital status, religion and scholarship in postgraduate school were relevant in the QL of stricto sensu postgraduate students in Dentistry.

  11. Evidence for Host-Genotype Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechai, Samir; Margos, Gabriele; Feil, Edward J.; Barairo, Nicole; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Michel, Pascal; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this study, evidence for host species associations of B. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 B. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal species and 50 samples from host-seeking ticks collected during the course of field studies in four regions of Canada: Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. The B. burgdorferi genotypes in the samples were characterized using three established molecular markers (multi-locus sequence typing [MLST], 16S-23S rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer, and outer surface protein C sequence [ospC] major groups). Correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed effect models revealed significant associations between B. burgdorferi genotypes and host species (in particular chipmunks, and white-footed mice and deer mice), supporting the hypotheses that host adaptation contributes to the phylogenetic structure and possibly the observed variation in pathogenicity in humans. PMID:26901761

  12. Allozyme diversity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus (sensu stricto) populations in northeastern Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Larry R; Parrack, Jesse W; Cooksey, Lynita M

    2003-03-01

    A comparison of electrophoretically detectable isozyme differences in 6 populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (sensu stricto) from northeastern Arkansas was undertaken to test the hypothesis that microgeographic variation in habitat types was promoting significant within- and between-population genetic diversity. Genetic heterogeneity within populations was substantial, with all of the enzyme loci examined having 2-7 alleles and average levels of polymorphisms per population between 54.5 and 72.7%. Heterozygotes made up an average over all loci of between 20.6 and 24.8% of the individuals examined. Only weak evidence was found for gametic disequilibrium between pairs of loci. Neither F-statistic nor genetic distance analysis suggested interpopulation divergence. The FST value averaged over loci was 0.190. All Nei distances for pair-wise population comparisons were greater than 0.010, which was much lower than published values from comparisons between populations belonging to different species of the complex. Divergence was not significantly correlated to either geographic distance or habitat type. Examination of the results suggests that little genetic divergence has occurred between populations of An. quadrimaculatus in northeastern Arkansas, possibly because of the dispersal ability and low level of discrimination between oviposition sites exhibited by this species.

  13. Application of a strategic planning model in a stricto sensu postgraduate program in business administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1996 the Educational Directives and Bases Law, the Brazilian educational sector has been going through a revolution in the flexibility and extension of the supply of higher education (Brasil 1996. This can also be seen in stricto sensu postgraduate programs (which require dissertation, due to the increase in the number of new courses which have been offered by higher educational institutions, and because of the quality requirements which these courses are expected to fulfill by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, specifically Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento Pessoal de Nível Superior – CAPES. The demands imposed by CAPES have forced the higher educational institutions and their postgraduate programs to plan and manage in a more professional way. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of strategic planning as a managerial tool for graduate Programs in Business Administration. To do this we designed the research as an action-research, using Almeida’s (2003 Strategic Planning Model to frame the research process. The main results indicate that the combination of CAPES’ quality parameters used in a systemic way, according to the selected strategic planning model, allow Graduate Program Chairmen to reach pursued vision. In the case studied, the action-research method induced the Program Chairmanship to change the Program’s status from business orientation to academic orientation, targeting to its new strategic trajectory.

  14. Nutritive Value and Mineral Elements of Wild Astragalus meridioalis sensu auct. Seeds in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rahimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature survey revealed that there was no biological investigation on Astragalus meridioalis sensu auct. seeds worldwide. The mature seeds of A. meridioalis was collected in August 2015 from Geno, Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan Province, Iran to evaluate their nutritional value and explore a new source for nutritional purposes .The digested seeds of A. meridioalis with the mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and per chloride acid (4 :2: 1 under the condition of the boiling point and the normal pressure, the contents of the seven mineral elements necessary to humanity, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, selenium , lithium and manganese in the seeds of A. meridioalis were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS in Pharmaceutical sciences branch, Islamic Azad university , Tehran and the results were analyzed in statistics. The results revealed that the sequence of the content of metal elements is as follows in all samples: Zn >K > Fe > Cu> Mn >Ca>Na > Se > Li. The content of K, Zn, Fe and Cu in this seed is much richer than some other medicinal plants in this region. The high level of Zinc, Potassium and sufficient amount of suitable mineral element showing high Nutritive value of this seed and seem to be good for younger people, anemic people and common local food and diet for people in the region of Hormozgan province in the south of Iran.

  15. Disseminated Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII) infection in an Arabian horse from Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Jörg; Joseph, Marina; Wernery, Ulrich; Nogradi, Nora; Hagen, Ferry

    During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported. Tissue samples were studied by conventional mycology procedures and the obtained cryptococcal isolate was molecularly characterized by mating-type determination, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to investigate the geographic origin of the cryptococcal isolate. The isolate was identified as Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII), mating-type α. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was closely related to another C. deuterogattii isolate from the Middle East. A second case of a C. deuterogattii infection in the Middle East is described. It is likely that the horse acquired the infection in the Middle East, as the isolate is closely related to that of a recent human case from that region. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and genetic stability of hybrids of industrial wine yeasts Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Rajkowska, K

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physiological and genetic stability of hybrids of industrial wine yeasts Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex subjected to acidic stress during fermentation. Laboratory-constructed yeast hybrids, one intraspecific Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. cerevisiae and three interspecific S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces bayanus, were subcultured in aerobic or anaerobic conditions in media with or without l-malic acid. Changes in the biochemical profiles, karyotypes and mitochondrial DNA profiles of the segregates were assessed after 50-190 generations. All yeast segregates showed a tendency to increase the range of the tested compounds utilized as sole carbon sources. Interspecific hybrids were alloaneuploid and their genomes tended to undergo extensive rearrangement especially during fermentation. The karyotypes of segregates lost up to four and appearance up to five bands were recorded. The changes in their mtDNA patterns were even broader reaching 12 missing and six additional bands. These hybrids acquired the ability to sporulate and significantly changed their biochemical profiles. The alloaneuploid intraspecific S. cerevisiae hybrid was characterized by high genetic stability despite the phenotypic changes. L-malic acid was not found to affect the extent of genomic changes of the hybrids, which suggests that their demalication ability is combined with resistance to acidic stress. The results reveal the plasticity and extent of changes of chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA of interspecific hybrids of industrial wine yeast especially under anaerobiosis. They imply that karyotyping and restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA make it possible to quickly assess the genetic stability of genetically modified industrial wine yeasts but may not be applied as the only method for their identification and discrimination. Laboratory-constructed interspecific hybrids of industrial strains may provide a model for studying the adaptive evolution

  17. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Paton

    Full Text Available Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  18. Molecular and toxigenic characterization of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from commercial ground roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Jeane Quintanilha; Cavados, Clara de Fátima Gomes; Vivoni, Adriana Marcos

    2012-03-01

    Thirty samples of roasted ground coffee beans from 10 different commercial brands were analyzed to investigate the occurrence and levels of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Strains were evaluated for their genetic diversity by repetitive element sequence polymorphism PCR (Rep-PCR) and for their toxigenic profiles, i.e., the presence of hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, ces, and entFM. Survival and multiplication of B. cereus sensu lato in the ready-to-drink coffee was determined to evaluate this beverage as a possible vehicle for B. cereus infection. B. cereus was detected in 17 (56.7%) of the 30 samples, and B. thuringiensis was detected in 8 (26.7%) of the 30 samples. Five samples did not produce any characteristic growth. The most common gene, entFM, was detected in 23 strains (92%). The NHE complex (nheA, nheB, and nheC genes) was found in 19 strains (76%). The HBL complex (hblA, hblC, and hblD) was found in 16 strains (64%). All strains were negative for ces. The cytK gene was found in 16 strains (64%). The computer-assisted cluster analysis of Rep-PCR profiles using a clustering criterion of 80% similarity revealed four main clusters. Cluster 1 was the predominant and comprised three B. thuringiensis strains with 100% similarity, cluster 2 comprised two B. cereus strains (100% similarity), cluster 3 comprised two B. thuringiensis strains (90% similarity), and cluster 4 comprised one B. thuringiensis strain and one B. cereus strain (85% similarity). The cluster analysis of fingerprints generated by Rep-PCR revealed a high genetic diversity among the B. cereus strains, suggesting that the contamination could have originated from different sources. In our experiments, when sugar was added and the beverage was kept in thermic bottles there was a significant increase in B. cereus sensu lato levels, which may increase the risk of food poisoning. These results highlight the need for additional studies on this subject to better evaluate

  19. Cryptic diversity in Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in the western portion of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie; Lamb, Jennifer M; Goodman, Steven M

    2015-10-30

    The Commerson's leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto, is endemic to Madagascar and is relatively common in the western portion of the island, where it is found in areas, including forested zones, from sea level to 1325 m. A previous study on morphological patterns of geographic variation within the species highlighted the presence of two distinct morphotypes; larger individuals in the north portion of the island and smaller individuals in the south. The main aim of this study was to use a combination of craniodental morphology and molecular data (mitochondrial and nuclear) to test previous hypotheses based on morphology and clarify the evolutionary history of the species group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from Hipposideros commersoni obtained from the western portion of Madagascar, and compared them with other African species as outgroups. We analyzed the sequence data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Divergence dates were estimated using Bayesian molecular clock approach. Variation in craniodental variables was also assessed from sequenced individuals. The molecular analyses suggest that H. commersoni is not monophyletic, with strong support for the presence of several independently evolving lineages. Two individuals amongst those sequenced from Isalo (south central) and Itampolo (southwest) form a separate clade (Clade A), distinct from other H. commersoni, and sister to continental African H. vittatus and H. gigas. Within the H. commersoni clade, the molecular data support two geographically distributed clades; one from the south (Clade B) and the other from the north (Clade C), which diverged approximately 3.38 million years ago. Morphometric data were consistent with the molecular analyses, suggesting a north-south break within H. commersoni. However, at some localities, animals from both clades occurred in sympatry and these individuals could not be differentiated based on external and

  20. Evidence of natural hybridization among homothallic members of the basidiomycete Armillaria mellea sensu stricto.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, K.; Baker, B.R.; Korhonen, K.; Zhao, J.; Hughes, K.W.; Bruhn, J.; Bowman, T.S.; Bergemann, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Armillaria mellea (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) across much of its range are heterothallic; homothallic populations occur only in Africa (A. mellea ssp. africana), China (China Biological Species CBS G), and Japan (A. mellea ssp. nipponica). Monosporous isolates of heterothallic A.

  1. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or

  2. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  3. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  4. REVISIÓN DE Ceratocystis sensu stricto CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A LOS COMPLEJOS DE LAS ESPECIES C. coerulescens Y C. fimbriata A REVIEW OF Ceratocystis sensu stricto WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SPECIES COMPLEXES C. coerulescens AND C. fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marín Montoya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Ceratocystis sensu stricto incluye un alto número de hongos fitopatógenos de plantas angiospermas y gimnospermas en diversas regiones del mundo. Entre las principales enfermedades causadas por estos hongos se destacan los marchitamientos vasculares, manchado de maderas, chancros y pudriciones radiculares, de tallos y frutos. Muchas especies producen metabolitos volátiles con olores que atraen una amplia variedad de insectos a los tejidos vegetales infectados, sin embargo, el grado de asociación entre los insectos y las diferentes especies de Ceratocystis es altamente variable, presentandose asociaciones mutualistas tales como aquellas entre C. polonica, C. laricicola y C. rufipenni e insectos escolítidos, así como también relaciones no específicas como en los casos de C. paradoxa, C. fagacearum y C. fimbriata con nitidúlidos, moscas y diversos coleópteros. El alto grado de similitud morfológica encontrada entre estos hongos hace difícil la definición de los límites entre las especies de Ceratocystis. Durante la pasada década, la utilización de estudios filogenéticos basados en comparaciones de DNA ha contribuido sustancialmente a clarificar la taxonomía de este grupo de hongos, así por ejemplo, dichos estudios han permitido concluir que algunas especies de Ceratocystis realmente representan complejos de especies crípticas. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo principal proveer una introducción a los estudios experimentales desarrollados para las especies de Ceratocystis sensu stricto y brevemente discutir aspectos relacionados con los denominados hongos ophiostomatoides.The genus Ceratocystis sensu stricto Ellis & Halst. includes many economically important plant pathogens of both angiosperms and gymnosperms, worldwide. Diseases caused by these fungi include vascular wilts, sap stains on logs and lumber, stem cankers and rots of roots, stems and fruits. Most Ceratocystis species are well adapted to dispersal by

  5. SELECTION OF INDIGENOUS YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CV. GEWURZTRAMINER FROM ILOK WINEGROWING REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora DUJMOVIĆ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 36 indigenous strains belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex isolated from the variety of Gewurztraminer from Ilok winegrowing region were tested with the purpose of making top-quality wines. Microfermentation was applied in order to examine the synthesis of ethyl alcohol and volatile acidity. Killer factor, synthesis of pectinase, ß-glucosidase and H2S was determined in isolated yeast strains. In the selection results, strains RO 1344, RO 1351, RO 1364 were the best evaluated and they should be examined in midifermentation.

  6. Análise comparativa da anatomia foliar de Melastomataceae em ambiente de vereda e cerrado sensu stricto Comparative analysis of Melastomataceae leaf anatomy in palm swamp and cerrado sensu stricto environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Sílvia Somavilla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a anatomia das lâminas foliares de três espécies de Melastomataceae, Lavoisiera bergii Cogn., Macairea radula (Bonpl. DC. e Trembleya parviflora (D. Don Cogn. que estão colonizando a zona alagável e aberta de fundo de vereda e de M. radula e T. parviflora que ocorrem no cerrado sensu stricto da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, Planaltina/DF. Os dados estruturais mostrados pelas três espécies indicam escleromorfia com características particulares a cada uma delas, como projeções nas células epidérmicas de L. bergii, diferentes tipos e localização de emergências formadas por esclereídes em L. bergii e M. radula, e evaginações na epiderme de T. parviflora. A caracterização anatômica das folhas de M. radula e T. parviflora não difere entre os ambientes. No entanto, as lâminas foliares dos indivíduos encontrados na vereda apresentaram plasticidade com valores significativamente (PThis study describes the anatomy of the leaf blade of three species of Melastomataceae, Lavoisiera bergii Cogn., Macairea radula (Bonpl. DC. and Trembleya parviflora (D. Don Cogn., which colonize the flooded and open areas of a lower zone of palm swamp, and the M. radula and T. parviflora, which occur in cerrado sensu stricto, of the Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, Planaltina, DF. Structural data of the three species indicate sclerophylly with particular characteristics to each of them, such as projections on epidermal cells of L. bergii, different types and position of emergencies in L. bergii and M. radula and the protrusion in the epidermis of T. parviflora. Anatomical characterization of the leaves of M. radula and T. parviflora did not differ between environments. However, the leaf blades of individuals of M. radula and T. parviflora found in the palm swamp showed plasticity in relation to individuals from the cerrado sensu stricto. Significantly higher values (P < 0.05 for the thickness of the mesophyll

  7. New hybrids between Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species found among wine and cider production strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masneuf, I; Hansen, J.; Groth, C

    1998-01-01

    Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel(+) strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene...... as different sequences of the OLI1 gene. The sequence of the OLI1 gene from the wine hybrid strain appeared to be the same as that of the S. cerevisiae gene, whereas the OLI1 gene of the cider hybrid strain its equally divergent from both putative parents, S. bayanus and S, cerevisiae, Some fermentative...

  8. Population dynamics and food preferences of the testate amoeba Nebela tincta major-bohemica-collaris complex (Protozoa) in a Sphagnum peatland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Daniel; Mitchell, Edward; Amblard, Christian; Bourdier, Gilles; Francez, André-Jean

    2003-01-01

    Population dynamics and food preferences of the testate amoeba species complex Nebela tincta major-bohemica-collaris (“Nebela collaris sensu lato”) were described from a Sphagnum peatland over one growing season. The average abundance of Nebela collaris sensu lato was 29582 ind. l-1 active, and 2263 ind. l-1 encysted forms. On average, 17.4% of Nebela collaris sensu lato specimens were observed associated with prey, 71% of which could not be identified because of their poor preservation state...

  9. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Efeito do fogo na produção de frutos de Qualea parviflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae em cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cesar Palermo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre os muitos efeitos causados por queimadas nas espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado, a alteração da produção de frutos tem destaque, pois implica diretamente na manutenção de populações locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito de uma queimada prescrita na produção de frutos de Qualea parviflora Mart. em área de Cerrado sensu stricto em Brasília, DF. Foram utilizadas duas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto, uma submetida a regime de queima bienal em agosto (queimada e outra protegida contra a queima há 14 anos (controle. Em cada área, 10 indivíduos reprodutivos foram selecionados e a sua produção de botões florais, flores e frutos, acompanhada durante 22 meses. Dois meses após uma queimada prescrita em 26 de agosto de 2008, a produção de estruturas reprodutivas foi maior na área queimada do que na área-controle. Contudo, a proporção de botões que geram flores e frutos ("fruit set" foi a mesma nas duas áreas. Na estação reprodutiva seguinte, um ano após a queima não houve produção de inflorescências na área queimada. No entanto, na área-controle a produção de frutos foi maior do que no período anterior. A ausência de produção de flores nos indivíduos da área queimada um ano após o fogo sugere que Q. parviflora pode necessitar de mais de um ano para retornar ao seu ciclo normal de reprodução, indicando que os efeitos de médio e de longo prazo devem ser considerados ao se usar o fogo como instrumento de manejo para redução do combustível em áreas de Cerrado.

  11. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato.

  12. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  13. Isolation and structural characterization of echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins from the Australian medicinal and food plant Acacia ligulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Ndi, Chi P.; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    to the isolation of the two new echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins, ligulatasides A (1) and B (2), which differ in the fine structure of their glycan substituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and saccharide linkage analysis. These are the first isolated...... compounds from A. ligulata and the first fully elucidated structures of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia sensu stricto having echinocystic acid reported as the aglycone. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a human melanoma cancer cell line (SK-MEL28) and a diploid fibroblast...

  14. New Hybrids between Saccharomyces Sensu Stricto Yeast Species Found among Wine and Cider Production Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masneuf, Isabelle; Hansen, Jørgen; Groth, Casper; Piskur, Jure; Dubourdieu, Denis

    1998-01-01

    Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel+ strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene fragments, and the sequence analysis of a part of the two MET2 gene alleles found support the notion that these two strains constitute hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus. The two hybrid strains had completely different restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA as well as different sequences of the OLI1 gene. The sequence of the OLI1 gene from the wine hybrid strain appeared to be the same as that of the S. cerevisiae gene, whereas the OLI1 gene of the cider hybrid strain is equally divergent from both putative parents, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Some fermentative properties were also examined, and one phenotype was found to reflect the hybrid nature of these two strains. The origin and nature of such hybridization events are discussed. PMID:9758815

  15. A phylogenomic and molecular marker based proposal for the division of the genus Borrelia into two genera: the emended genus Borrelia containing only the members of the relapsing fever Borrelia, and the genus Borreliella gen. nov. containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-06-01

    The genus Borrelia contains two groups of organisms: the causative agents of Lyme disease and their relatives and the causative agents of relapsing fever and their relatives. These two groups are morphologically indistinguishable and are difficult to distinguish biochemically. In this work, we have carried out detailed comparative genomic analyses on protein sequences from 38 Borrelia genomes to identify molecular markers in the forms of conserved signature inserts/deletions (CSIs) that are specifically found in the Borrelia homologues, and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) which are uniquely present in Borrelia species. Our analyses have identified 31 CSIs and 82 CSPs that are uniquely shared by all sequenced Borrelia species, providing molecular markers for this group of organisms. In addition, our work has identified 7 CSIs and 21 CSPs which are uniquely found in the Lyme disease Borrelia species and eight CSIs and four CSPs that are specific for members of the relapsing fever Borrelia group. Additionally, 38 other CSIs, in proteins which are uniquely found in Borrelia species, also distinguish these two groups of Borrelia. The identified CSIs and CSPs provide novel and highly specific molecular markers for identification and distinguishing between the Lyme disease Borrelia and the relapsing fever Borrelia species. We also report the results of average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis on Borrelia genomes and phylogenetic analysis for these species based upon 16S rRNA sequences and concatenated sequences for 25 conserved proteins. These analyses also support the distinctness of the two Borrelia clades. On the basis of the identified molecular markers, the results from ANI and phylogenetic studies, and the distinct pathogenicity profiles and arthropod vectors used by different Borrelia spp. for their transmission, we are proposing a division of the genus Borrelia into two separate genera: an emended genus Borrelia, containing the causative agents of relapsing fever and a novel genus, Borreliella gen. nov., containing the causative agents of Lyme disease.

  16. Cirurgias êntero-colorretais: abordagem cirúrgica de 129 pacientes do SUS no Programa de Pós-Graduação Sensu Lato em coloproctologia Abdominal entero-colorectal surgery: surgical approach of 129 patients from a public health service from a Post Graduate Program (Residency in coloproctology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guimarães Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do Programa de pós-graduação em Coloproctologia, durante o ano 2009, os dois pós-graduandos de segundo ano realizaram, como cirurgiões principais, 129 cirurgias de grande porte, sempre assistidos, efetivamente, por um ou dois preceptores. Todas as cirurgias foram realizadas em pacientes do SUS, na Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, com absoluta presença dos membros do Grupo de Coloproctologia da Santa Casa e Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Minas Gerais (GCP-SCBH-FCMMG. Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva dos 129 prontuários, permitindo várias observações importantes. A média etária dos pacientes foi 56,9 anos, com extremos de 25 e 87 anos, sendo as sexta e sétima décadas a mais representativa, respectivamente com 25,6% e 24,8%, totalizando 50,4% dos 55 pacientes (p0,05. A entidade nosológica mais comum foi o câncer colorretal (74 casos; 57,4%, seguindo as ileostomias (16 casos; 12,4% e as complicações cirúrgicas (11 casos; 8,5%. As cirurgias mais realizadas foram as retossigmoidectomia com anastomose colorretal (35 casos; 27,1%, as hemicolectomias direitas com anastomose ileo-transverso (20 casos; 15,5% e o restabelecimento de trânsito intestinal de ileostomia (16 casos;12,4%. Das 129 cirurgias 53 (41,1% não envolveram anastomoses e 76 (58,9% envolveram ressecções intestinais e anastomoses. Houve oito co-morbidades (6,2%, sendo a caquexia (três casos a mais comum. Houve 17 complicações (13,2%, 11 envolvendo as 76 ressecções com anastomose (14,5% e seis as ressecções sem anastomoses (11,3%. As complicações mais comuns entre as 11 provenientes de ressecções e anastomoses foram as deiscências (sete; 9,2%. As anastomoses mecânicas (55 complicaram mais (16,3% que as manuais (21 (9,5%. Houve 14 óbitos (10,8%, sendo seis (4,6% devidos à sepse, quatro (3,1% devido a TEP e quatro (3,1% devido a falência múltipla de órgãos. Dos 14 óbitos, quatro (3,1% foram decorrentes de complicações cirúrgicas e dez (7,7% foram decorrentes de co-morbidades.In the framework of postgraduate Coloproctology for the year 2009, the two graduate students conducted the second year as principal surgeons, 129 major surgeries, always assisted effectively by one or two tutors. All surgeries were performed on public patients in Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, with absolute presence of members of the Coloproctology Unit of Santa Casa School of Medical Sciences of Minas Gerais (GCP-CBHS-FCMMG. A retrospective analysis of 129 medical records was carried out, allowing several important observations. The average age of patients was 56.9 years, with extremes of 25 and 87 years, while the sixth and seventh decades the most representative, with respectively 25.6% and 24.8% to 50.4% of 55 patients (p 0.05. The most common nosological entity was colorectal cancer (74 cases, 57.4%, following the ileostomies (16 cases, 12.4% and surgical complications of previous surgeries (11 cases, 8.5%. The most commonly performed procedures were abdominal rectosigmoidectomy with colorectal anastomosis (35 cases, 27.1%, the right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis (20 cases, 15.5% and the resumption of intestinal transit of ileostomy (16 cases, 12, 4%. Of 129 surgeries 53 (41.1% did not involve anastomosis and 76 (58.9% involved intestinal resection and anastomosis. There were eight co-morbidities (6.2% and cachexia (three cases the most common. There were 17 complications (13.2%, 11 involving the 76 resections with anastomosis (14.5% and six resections without anastomosis (11.3%. The most common complications among the 11 patients from resection and anastomosis were dehiscence (seven, 9.2%. The mechanical anastomosis (55 developed more complications (16.3% than handmade anastomosis (21 (9.5%. There were 14 deaths (10.8%, six (4.6% due to sepsis, four (3.1% due to pulmonary thromboembolic disease and four (3.1% due to multiple organ failure. Of the 14 deaths, four (3.1% were due to surgical complications and ten (7.7% were due to co-morbidities.

  17. Cirurgia no câncer colorretal: abordagem cirúrgica de 74 pacientes do SUS portadores de câncer colorretal em programa de pós-graduação lato sensu em coloproctologia Surgery in colorectal cancer: surgical approach of 74 patients from the Brazilian National Health System with colorectal cancer in a postgraduate program (residency in coloproctology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guimarães Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A análise retrospectiva de 74 prontuários de pacientes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, operados de câncer colorretal pelo Residente R2 supervisionado e auxiliado por preceptores, permitiu as seguintes conclusões: a média etária dos pacientes foi 57,2, sendo as sexta e sétima décadas responsáveis por 51,4% dos pacientes. O câncer retal foi preponderante nas mulheres (54,1%. As localizações mais comuns dos tumores foram no sigmoide (31,1%, reto alto (24,3% e ceco (17,6%. As cirurgias mais realizadas foram a retossigmoidectomia com anastomose colorretal (36,6%, e hemicolectomia direita com anastomose íleo-transverso (21,7%. As características anatômicas dos tumores, baseadas na classificação TNM, mais comuns foram: T3 (62,1%, N0 (59,5% e M0 (77,0% (pIn the framework of postgraduate Coloproctology for 2009, two graduate students conducted the second year as principal surgeons, 129 major surgeries, always assisted effectively by one or two tutors. All surgeries were performed on public patients in Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, with absolute presence of members of the Grupo de Coloproctologia da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte e Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Minas Gerais (GCP-CBHS-FCMMG. A retrospective analysis of 74 medical records of patients from the Brazilian National Health System, resected of colorectal cancer by Resident R2, supervised and assisted by mentors, could get into the following conclusions: the average age of patients was 57.2, and the sixth and seventh decades accounted for 51.4% of the patients. The rectal cancer was predominant in women (54.1%. The most common sites of tumors were in the sigmoid (31.1%, rectum (24.3%, and cecum (17.6%. The most commonly performed procedures were retossigmoidectomy with colorectal anastomosis (36.6% and right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis (21.7%. The anatomical characteristics of the tumors based on TNM classification findings were: T3 (62.1%, N0 (59.5%, and M0 (77.0% (p<0.05. The average number of lymph nodes found in surgical specimens was 10.4. Sixty-three anastomoses (85.1% were carried out, being 38 (60.3% mechanical and 25, manual (39.7%. There were 14 comorbidities (18.9%, the cachexia having more prominence (eight cases. The rate of surgical complications was 12.2% (nine cases, and the surgeries that have caused more complications were total colectomy with ileo-rectal anastomosis (40.0%, and double stapled abdominal retossigmoidectomy (20%. The most common complications were anastomotic fistula (five cases. Complications (nine were more caused by comorbidities (seven than by the surgical procedure (two. The surgeries that required less time were: laparotomy with ileostomy (average of 75 minutes and with colostomy (average of 95 minutes, and the longest times were occupied by total proctocolectomy with definite ileostomy (240 minutes and left hemicolectomy with transverse-rectal anastomosis (240 minutes, with an average length of 160 minutes. The smaller specimens were those resulting from Hartmann's procedure (29 cm and retossigmoidectomy (32 cm; and the most extensive specimens were of total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (120 cm and total proctocolectomy with terminal ileostomy (150 cm, with the mean at 34.5. There were 12 deaths (16.2%, two of which directly related to surgery and the other related to clinical complications and comorbities

  18. Formação pedagógica na pós-graduação stricto sensu em saúde coletiva Pedagogical training in stricto sensu graduate programs in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Maria Brant Ribeiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo discutir a relevância e a necessidade da formação pedagógica do professor universitário no campo da Saúde Coletiva. Discutiu-se a docência como uma prática que exige formação específica, pois é caracterizada por elementos complexos que vão além do domínio de determinado conteúdo. Ao assumir a pós-graduação stricto sensu como uma importante etapa para a formação do professor universitário, buscou-se identificar e caracterizar as disciplinas/práticas de formação pedagógica dos mestrados e doutorados acadêmicos em Saúde Coletiva. Para alcançar o objetivo do estudo tomou-se como base a teoria dos campos de Pierre Bourdieu e a teoria do currículo de Tomaz Tadeu da Silva. Os resultados apontam que a pós-graduação não toma a questão da formação pedagógica como objeto de interesse; e no que tange à Saúde Coletiva, aproximadamente 61% dos mestrados e 38% dos doutorados apresentam disciplinas/práticas de formação pedagógica, sendo que há uma tendência de formação técnica-instrumental, o que vai de encontro à história do campo da Saúde Coletiva. Conclui-se que há necessidade de se desenvolver uma cultura de valorização do ensino na universidade e na pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva assumindo a complexidade da prática pedagógica em todas as suas dimensões.The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this

  19. Flora arbórea da bacia do rio Tibagi (Paraná, Brasil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist Tree flora of the Tibagi river basin (Paraná, Brazil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou, por meio de coleções de herbários, os representantes arbóreos da ordem Celastrales sensu Cronquist, encontrados na bacia do rio Tibagi, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Esta bacia hidrográfica, subdividida em três zonas de norte para sul, baixo Tibagi (BT, médio Tibagi (MT e alto Tibagi (AT, apresenta diferentes condições ambientais e tipos de vegetação ao longo de sua extensão. A ordem Celastrales está representada na bacia estudada por 15 espécies arbóreas, pertencentes às famílias Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae e Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae conta com apenas duas espécies, Citronella gongonha e C. paniculata, sendo a primeira distinta pelo ovário glabro e folhas geralmente com espinhos. Aquifoliaceae contém seis espécies: Ilex brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. chamaedryfolia, I. dumosa, I. paraguariensis e I. theezans, que ocorrem preferencialmente no AT e MT e se distinguem pela dimensão, revestimento, ápice e margem da folha e pela morfologia das sépalas. Celastraceae está representada por sete espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros, Plenckia populnea, espécie de cerrado, encontrada apenas no MT e seis espécies de Maytenus (M. aquifolia, M. dasyclada, M. evonymoides, M. ilicifolia, M. robusta e M. salicifolia, com distinção baseada principalmente no tipo de margem e dimensão das folhas, forma do ramo e número de flores por inflorescência.A study of the tree species of the order Celastrales sensu Cronquist from the Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil, is presented, based on herbarium material. This basin is subdivided into three zones, from north to south: lower Tibagi (BT, mid Tibagi (MT and upper Tibagi (AT, each with different environmental conditions and vegetation types. The order Celastrales is represented in the basin by 15 tree species belonging to three families: Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae and Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae has only two species, Citronella gongonha and C. paniculata. The

  20. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  1. Massive horizontal gene transfer, strictly vertical inheritance and ancient duplications differentially shape the evolution of Bacillus cereus enterotoxin operons hbl, cytK and nhe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Huptas, Christopher; Krey, Viktoria Magdalena; Scherer, Siegfried

    2015-11-10

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato comprises eight closely related species including the human pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus. Within B. cereus sensu lato, chromosomally and plasmid-encoded toxins exist. While plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer of the emetic toxin, anthrax and insecticidal toxins is known, evolution of enterotoxin genes within the group has not been studied. We report draft genome assemblies of 25 strains, a phylogenetic network of 142 strains based on ANI derived from genome sequences and a phylogeny based on whole-genome SNP analysis. The data clearly support subdivision of B. cereus sensu lato into seven phylogenetic groups. While group I, V and VII represent B. pseudomycoides, B. toyonensis and B. cytotoxicus, which are distinguishable at species level (ANI border ≥ 96 %), strains ascribed to the other five species do not match phylogenic groups. The chromosomal enterotoxin operons nheABC and hblCDAB are abundant within B. cereus both isolated from infections and from the environment. While the duplicated hbl variant hbl a is present in 22 % of all strains investigated, duplication of nheABC is extremely rare (0.02 %) and appears to be phylogenetically unstable. Distribution of toxin genes was matched to a master tree based on seven concatenated housekeeping genes, which depicts species relationships in B. cereus sensu lato as accurately as whole-genome comparisons. Comparison to the phylogeny of enterotoxin genes uncovered ample evidence for horizontal transfer of hbl, cytK and plcR, as well as frequent deletion of both toxins and duplication of hbl. No evidence for nhe deletion was found and stable horizontal transfer of nhe is rare. Therefore, evolution of B. cereus enterotoxin operons is shaped unexpectedly different for yet unknown reasons. Frequent exchange of the pathogenicity factors hbl, cytK and plcR in B. cereus sensu lato appears to be an important mechanism of B. cereus virulence evolution, including so

  2. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  3. Plate pattern clarification of the marine dinophyte Heterocapsa triquetra sensu Stein (Dinophyceae) collected at the Kiel Fjord (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Urban; Hoppenrath, Mona; Gottschling, Marc; Kusber, Wolf-Henning; Elbrächter, Malte

    2017-12-01

    One of the most common marine dinophytes is a species known as Heterocapsa triquetra. When Stein introduced the taxon Heterocapsa, he formally based the type species H. triquetra on the basionym Glenodinium triquetrum. The latter was described by Ehrenberg and is most likely a species of Kryptoperidinium. In addition to that currently unresolved nomenclatural situation, the thecal plate composition of H. triquetra sensu Stein (1883) was controversial in the past. To clarify the debate, we collected material and established the strain UTKG7 from the Baltic Sea off Kiel (Germany, the same locality as Stein had studied), which was investigated using light and electron microscopy, and whose systematic position was inferred using molecular phylogenetics. The small motile cells (18-26 μm in length) had a biconical through fusiform shape and typically were characterized by a short asymmetrically shaped, horn-like protuberance at the antapex. A large spherical nucleus was located in the episome, whereas a single pyrenoid laid in the lower cingular plane. The predominant plate pattern was identified as apical pore complex (Po, cp?, X), 4', 2a, 6'', 6c, 5s, 5''', 2''''. The triradiate body scales were 254-306 nm in diameter, had 6 ridges radiating from a central spine, 9 peripheral and 3 radiating spines, and 12 peripheral bars as well as a central depression in the basal plate. Our work provides a clarification of morphological characters and a new, validly published name for this important but yet formally undescribed species of Heterocapsa: H. steinii sp. nov. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Epidemiological study of gastric Helicobacter spp. in dogs with gastrointestinal disease in Japan and diversity of Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Mimuro, Hitomi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological and pathological studies of Helicobacter spp. in canine stomachs in Japan were performed to investigate strain specific pathogenicity. Gastric biopsies from 144 dogs with gastrointestinal diseases were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp. using genus and species specific PCRs for Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto (s.s.) and Helicobacter pylori. PCR indicated that 50/144 (34.7%) dogs were infected with Helicobacter spp. Of the genus positive samples, 21/50 could not be amplified by any of the species specific PCRs. To investigate Helicobacter at the species level, partial ureAB gene sequences from 48/50 genus positive samples were determined; 47 strains were identified. Thirty-five strains from 45 cases were closely related to H. heilmannii s.s. (89-99% sequence similarity), seven strains from seven cases were closely related to H. bizzozeronii (95-99% sequence similarity), three strains from three cases were closely related to Helicobacter felis (86%, 98% and 99% sequence similarity), one strain from one case was closely related to Helicobacter salomonis (99% sequence similarity) and one strain from one case was closely related to H. pylori (99% sequence similarity). Dogs infected with Helicobacter spp. most similar to H. heilmannii s.s. had a higher frequency of moderate to severe gastritis than dogs negative for Helicobacter spp. (P=0.044). In conclusion, the predominant Helicobacter spp. detected in canine stomachs in our study were most closely related to H. heilmannii s.s. and displayed substantial genetic diversity. Infection with Helicobacter spp. may be associated with more severe gastritis in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estrutura de um cerrado strico sensu na Gleba Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Alessandra Tomaselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado ocupa aproximadamente 23% do território brasileiro e 70% do bioma correspondem a cerrado stricto sensu (s.s., sendo relevantes os estudos que buscam o entendimento da estrutura da vegetação nessas áreas. Com esse objetivo, foram estudadas cinco parcelas (10×25m em um hectare de cerrado s.s., amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com perímetro no nível do solo igual ou acima de 3cm (exceto lianas e indivíduos mortos. Alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos foram analisados, assim como a distribuição de classes de diâmetro dos indivíduos amostrados e a estrutura vertical. Foram amostradas 1.747 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, pertencentes a 31 famílias. A densidade total absoluta encontrada foi de 13.976 ind.ha-1 e a área basal total, de 4,902m². Leguminosae foi a família com o maior número de espécies (16. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores valores de Índice do Valor de Importância (IVI foram Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Altschul, Myrcia guianensis (Aubl. DC., Xylopia aromatica (Lm. Mart., Ouratea spectabilis (Mart. Engl. e Pouteria ramiflora (Mart. Radlk. O Índice de Shannon encontrado foi de 3,623. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe. A área estudada não apresentou estratos bem definidos, estando a maioria dos indivíduos entre 1 e 3m de altura.

  6. The mode of action of spatial repellents and their impact on vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Ogoma

    Full Text Available Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi-field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%-82% were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi-field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95] when used as a "bubble" compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76] when used as a "point source". Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi-field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human-vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools.

  7. Molecular characterization of a DNA fragment harboring the replicon of pBMB165 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp tenebrionis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ziniu; Han Dongmei; Wang Li; Van der Auwera Géraldine A; Mahillon Jacques; Guo Suxia; Huang Junyan; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacillus thuringiensis belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group of Gram-positive and spore-forming bacteria. Most isolates of B. thuringiensis can bear many endogenous plasmids, and the number and size of these plasmids can vary widely among strains or subspecies. As far as we know, the replicon of the plasmid pBMB165 is the first instance of a plasmid replicon being isolated from subsp. tenebrionis and characterized. Results A 20 kb DNA fragment containing a plasmi...

  8. Social isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

    2011-01-01

    ..., reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms...

  9. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  10. Pyriproxyfen for mosquito control: female sterilization or horizontal transfer to oviposition substrates by Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2014-06-21

    The use of gravid mosquitoes as vehicles to auto-disseminate larvicides was recently demonstrated for the transfer of pyriproxyfen (PPF) by container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes and presents an appealing idea to explore for other disease vectors. The success of this approach depends on the female's behaviour, the time of exposure and the amount of PPF that can be carried by an individual. We explore the effect of PPF exposure at seven time points around blood feeding on individual Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus fecundity and ability to transfer in laboratory assays. Mosquitoes were exposed to 2.6 mg PPF per m2 at 48, 24 and 0.5 hours before and after a blood meal and on the day of egg-laying. The proportion of exposed females (N=80-100) laying eggs, the number of eggs laid and hatched was studied. Transfer of PPF to oviposition cups was assessed by introducing 10 late instar insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. larvae into all the cups and monitored for adult emergence inhibition. Exposure to PPF between 24 hours before and after a blood meal had significant sterilizing effects: females of both species were 6 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.26) to lay eggs than unexposed females. Of the few eggs laid, the odds of an egg hatching was reduced 17 times (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08) in Anopheles but only 1.2 times (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93) in Culex. Adult emergence inhibition from larvae introduced in the oviposition cups was observed only from cups in which eggs were laid. When females were exposed to PPF close to egg laying they transferred enough PPF to reduce emergence by 65-71% (95% CI 62-74%). PPF exposure within a day before and after blood feeding affects egg-development in An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus and presents a promising opportunity for integrated control of vectors and nuisance mosquitoes. However, sterilized females are unlikely to visit an oviposition site and therefore do

  11. Austinotheres angelicus (Lockington, 1877: the correct name for the symbiotic crab Juxtafabia muliniarum sensu Cabrera-Peña et al. (2001 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Campos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic identity of the symbiotic crabs Juxtafabia muliniarum sensu Cabrera-Peña et al. (2001 was revised. The morphology of these specimens, collected in the estuary of Punta Morales, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, in the oyster Saccostrea palmula did not agree with J. muliniarum but concurs well with topotypes and voucher material of Austinotheres angelicus from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Austinotheres angelicus belongs to the subfamily Pinnotherinae sensu Campos, 2009, and the morphology of A. angelicus supports its close relationship with Bonita mexicana and Enigmatheres canfieldi. The presence of a soft and thin carapace colored with deep chocolate brown with dark purple tones, a conspicuous protuberance in the basal antennal article, a third maxilliped with an ischio-merus fused with its inner margin angled, a carpus larger than the propodus, and a digitiform and small dactylus subdistally inserting on the ventral margin of the propodus are diagnostic features for A. angelicus. These characteristics separate this species from other pinnotherid crabs from the entire Pacific Ocean.

  12. Institucionalização do Conhecimento em Sustentabilidade Ambiental pelos Programas de Pós-gradução Stricto Sensu em Administração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Machado Junior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the process of institutionalization and legitimization of knowledge in research-oriented (stricto sensu management programs in the field of environmental sustainability by proposing and applying a theoretical model based on Berger and Luckmann. Berger and Luckmann’s sociology of knowledge, a theoretical interpretation of phenomena that develop in society, is used as the basis for the construction of a research model for institutionalization and legitimization processes. The research presents different methodological approaches that are inherently complementary, with a predominance of quantitative techniques, characterizing social network analysis as a mixed-methods approach. The research shows that collaborative networks formed by stricto sensu management programs contribute to the institutionalization and legitimization of knowledge in environmental sustainability. Bibliometrics and data mining techniques identified which authors have published works that are institutionalized and legitimized. The results show that the model developed by Berger and Luckmann allows the identification of authors and institutions that have institutionalized or legitimized the production of knowledge in environmental sustainability, something that can be applied in other scientific fields.

  13. Isolated Aortitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among others. In some cases, biologics like anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs such as infliximab or rituximab have been used. Isolated aortitis occurring with retroperitoneal fibrosis has been treated with tamoxifen, an anti- ...

  14. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  15. A formação pedagógica no ensino superior e o papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu The pedagogical formation in higher education and the role of stricto sensu graduate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Torres Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvemos este trabalho com base na ideia de que ser docente no ensino superior não é apenas uma questão de domínio de conteúdo, de expertise em determinado campo. A prática pedagógica em tal nível de ensino é complexa, contextualizada, muitas vezes imprevisível e se configura por escolhas éticas e políticas. Nesse sentido, entendemos que a docência demanda um processo formativo que pode ter como fase inicial a pós-graduação stricto sensu. A partir de tal discussão, estabelecemos como objetivo estudar o modo como a formação pedagógica é tratada no âmbito das políticas públicas para o ensino superior, mais especificamente no que tange à pós-graduação stricto sensu. Para tanto, valemo-nos de dois referenciais metodológicos: a teoria dos campos de Pierre Bourdieu e a análise crítica do discurso de Norman Fairclough. A compreensão da pós-graduação como um campo científico e a análise do Plano Nacional de Pós-Graduação indicaram que esse nível de formação superior está basicamente voltado para a acumulação de capital científico e para a formação de habitus científico, tudo isso em meio a um silêncio sobre a dimensão do ensino no fazer e ser docente. Concluímos que há a necessidade de desenvolver uma cultura de valorização do ensino na universidade, processo este que pode ter na valorização de um capital pedagógico e na formação de um habitus pedagógico na pós-graduação stricto sensu uma fase de grande relevância.This work was developed based on the idea that being a higher education teacher is not just a question of having command of contents, of having expertise in a given field. The pedagogical practice at that level is complex, contextualized, often unpredictable, and is shaped by ethical and political choices. In this sense, we understand that teaching demands a formative process that may have as its initial stage stricto sensu graduate studies. From such discussions we have

  16. METAL CONTENT OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) LEAVES IN RELATION TO SOIL CONTAMINATION AND AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R826602)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this `species' a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its ...

  17. Bibliographic Analysis of Nigerian Finfish and Fisheries Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensu lato) is compiled with 439 publications assessed. These are commented on with respect to geographic, biotope/catchment and taxonomic spread. The southwest of Nigeria was most favoured with respect to geographic zone: with Lake ...

  18. [The role of the thyroid gland hormone in ontogenesis and morphological diversification of Barbus intermedius sensu of Lake Tana in Ethiopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkil', F N; Borisov, V B; Belai, Abdissa; Smirnov, S V

    2010-01-01

    The role of thyroid gland hormone in the ontogenesis of the Large African Barb Barbus intermedius sensu Banister, 1973 (Teleostei; Cyprinidae)--the supposed ancestral species which produced the species flock of the large African Barbs of the Lake Tana (Ethiopia)--has been studied. It has been shown that the thyroid hormone influences the period of many morphological processes and a change in its level causes heterochrony, reflecting on the definitive morphology of fish. Thus, it can be assumed that even a slight change in activity of the thyroid axis in the process of ontogenesis can be the cause of wide variability of the morphological features of B. intermedius and is at the basis for the fast diversification of the species flock of Big African Barbs of Lake Tana.

  19. Redefinition of the millipede subgenus Megaphyllum sensu stricto Verhoeff, 1894 and neotype designation for Megaphyllum austriacum (Latzel, 1884) (Myriapoda: Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazányi, Eszter; Vagalinski, Boyan

    2013-11-26

    Megaphyllum sensu stricto, i.e. the nominotypical subgenus of the very complicated genus Megaphyllum Verhoeff, 1894, is redefined on the basis of examination of type and non-type material and literature data. Four species-groups including twenty species in all are listed, and the identity of M. austriacum (C. L. Koch, 1838) is clarified with a proposal of neotype designation under ICZN Article 75.6. in order to stabilize the current usage of the name. Prevailing usage of M. silvaticum (Verhoeff, 1898) syn. nov. (nomen protectum) over the senior synonym M. nigrescens (Latzel, 1884) (nomen oblitum) is maintained under ICZN Article 23.9. M. banaticum (Verhoeff, 1899) is syn. nov. of M. erythronotum (Latzel, 1884) comb. nov., M. bosniense cotinophilum (Loksa, 1962) syn. nov. of M. bosniense bosniense (Verhoeff, 1897) and M. transsylvanicum transdanubicum (Loksa, 1962) syn. nov. of M. transsylvanicum transsylvanicum (Verhoeff, 1897). M. unilineatum (C. L. Koch, 1838) is new to the fauna of Turkey.

  20. Depicting the Discrepancy between Tri Genotype and Chemotype on the Basis of Strain CBS 139514 from a Field Population of F. graminearum Sensu Stricto from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kulik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on a field population of F. graminearum sensu stricto from Argentina revealed an atypical panel of strains identified through PCR genotyping as 15ADON genotypes, but producing high levels of 3ADON. Based on representative strain CBS 139514, we asked if the discrepancy between the trichothecene genotype and chemotype might result from an inter-chemotype recombination of the chemotype-determining genes. To answer this, we sequenced the complete core Tri gene cluster (around 30,200 bp from this strain and compared its sequence to sequence data of typical type B trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes. Sequence alignment showed that CBS 139514 has an identical sequence within the entire core Tri cluster to the 15ADON genotype. The revealed discrepancy underlines the need for using both molecular and chemical methods for reliable characterization of toxigenic strains of Fusarium.

  1. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Multilocus sequence type profiles of Bacillus cereus isolates from infant formula in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Yu, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Li; Chen, Jiancai; Zhang, Yunyi; Zhang, Junyan; Chen, Honghu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yanjun; Lu, Yiyu; Mei, Lingling

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu stricto is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) of 74 B. cereus isolated from 513 non-random infant formula in China was analyzed. Of 64 sequence types (STs) detected, 50 STs and 6 alleles were newly found in PubMLST database. All isolates except for one singleton (ST-1049), were classified into 7 clonal complexes (CC) by BURST (n-4), in which CC1 with core ancestral clone ST-26 was the largest group including 86% isolates, and CC2, 3, 9, 10 and 13 were first reported in China. MLST profiles of the isolates from 8 infant formula brands were compared. It was found the brands might be potentially tracked by the variety of STs, such as ST-1049 of singleton and ST-1062 of isolate from goat milk source, though they could not be easily tracked just by clonal complex types of the isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribuições da pós-graduação stricto sensu para o aprendizado da docência de professores de contabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marchine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inserida no campo da Docência no Ensino Superior, esta investigação teve por objetivo compreender quais contribuições mestrados e doutorados forneceram para professores-contadores universitários em termos de aprendizado dos saberes necessários para o exercício profissional da docência. A revisão de literatura abordou questões relativas à formação e desenvolvimento profissional de professores do ensino superior, aos saberes docentes na perspectiva de Tardif (2012, à formação para pesquisa e para o ensino e ao papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu na formação do professor de contabilidade, resgatando resultados de pesquisas já realizadas no âmbito da contabilidade. Metodologicamente a investigação teve orientação qualitativa como estratégia geral. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 12 professores dos cursos de Ciências Contábeis de uma universidade pública estadual. As análises foram realizadas fundamentando-se na Análise Textual Discursiva, método que se situa entre a Análise de Conteúdo e a Análise do Discurso. Como principal resultado, apurou-se que a percepção que têm sobre contribuição da pós-graduação para seus processos formativos docentes está relacionada mais com aprendizagem e atualização de conteúdos disciplinares específicos do que com o aprendizado de outros saberes necessários ao exercício docente. Percepção essa que se alinha a resultados de estudos sobre cursos de stricto sensu e aprendizagem da docência. Sobre os demais saberes profissionais docentes, há ausência nos discursos dos investigados sobre terem tido algum contato formal com eles (em disciplinas ou estágios docentes no decurso da realização dos seus mestrados e doutorados.

  5. Phylogenomic analyses of clostridia and identification of novel protein signatures that are specific to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Gao, Beile

    2009-02-01

    The species of Clostridium comprise a very heterogeneous assemblage of bacteria that do not form a phylogenetically coherent group. It has been proposed previously that only a subset of the species of Clostridium that form a distinct cluster in the 16S rRNA tree (cluster I) should be regarded as the true representatives of the genus Clostridium (i.e. Clostridium sensu stricto). However, this cluster is presently defined only in phylogenetic terms, and no biochemical, molecular or phenotypic characteristic is known that is unique to species from this cluster. We report here phylogenomic and comparative analyses based on sequenced clostridial genomes in an attempt to bridge this gap and to clarify the evolutionary relationships among species of clostridia. In phylogenetic trees for species of clostridia based on concatenated sequences for 37 highly conserved proteins, the species of Clostridium cluster I formed a strongly supported clade that was separated from all other clostridia by a long branch. Several other Clostridium species that are not part of this cluster grouped reliably with other species of clostridia in a number of well-resolved clades. Our comparative genomic analyses have identified three conserved indels in three highly conserved proteins (a 4 aa insert in DNA gyrase A, a 1 aa deletion in ATP synthase beta subunit and a 1 aa insert in ribosomal protein S2) that are unique to the species of Clostridium cluster I and are not found in any other bacteria. blastp searches on various proteins in the genomes of Clostridium tetani E88 and Clostridium perfringens SM101 have also identified more than 10 proteins that are found uniquely in the cluster I species. These results provide evidence that the species of Clostridium cluster I not only are phylogenetically distinct but also share many unique molecular characteristics. These newly identified molecular markers provide useful tools to define and circumscribe the genus Clostridium sensu stricto in more

  6. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  7. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  8. Taxonomy, phylogeny, historical biogeography, and historical ecology of the genus Pontonia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Species of the genus Pontonia Latreille, 1829, are distributed in tropical and subtropical waters around the world, living in association with either molluscan or ascidian hosts. In the present taxonomic revision, Pontonia sensu lato is divided into six genera: Pontonia sensu stricto; Ascidonia gen.

  9. Composition and structure of recent marine sediments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, van L.M.J.U.

    1954-01-01

    Ch. I. The environment of the Dutch Wadden Sea, as well as that of the estuaries in the southwestern part of the Netherlands can be divided into three sub-zones: (1) the channel floors (sensu lato), i.e. the areas below mean low tide level, (2) the tidal flats (sensu stricto), between the levels of

  10. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  12. Characterization and genetic variability of feed-borne and clinical animal/human Aspergillus fumigatus strains using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gabriela A; Coelho, Irene; Reynoso, María M; Soleiro, Carla; Cavaglieri, Lilia R

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, the major etiological agent of human and animal aspergillosis, is a toxigenic fungus largely regarded as a single species by macroscopic and microscopic features. However, molecular studies have demonstrated that several morphologically identified A. fumigatus strains might be genetically distinct. This work was aimed to apply PCR-restriction length fragment polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers to characterize a set of feed-borne and clinical A. fumigatus sensu lato strains isolated from Argentina and Brazil and to determine and compare their genetic variability. All A. fumigatus strains had the same band profile and those typical of A. fumigatus sensu stricto positive controls by PCR-RFLP. Moreover, all Argentinian and Brazilian strains typified by RAPD showed similar band patterns to each other and to A. fumigatus sensu stricto reference strains regardless of their isolation source (animal feeds or human/animal clinical cases) and geographic origin. Genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.61 to 1.00, but almost all isolates showed 78% of genetic similarly suggesting that genetic variability was found at intraspecific level. Finally, benA sequencing confirmed its identification as A. fumigatus sensu stricto species. These results suggest that A. fumigatus sensu stricto is a predominant species into Aspergillus section Fumigati found in animal environments as well as in human/animal clinical cases, while other species may be rarely isolated. The strains involved in human and animal aspergillosis could come from the environment where this fungus is frequently found. Rural workers and animals would be constantly exposed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. O alcance da excelência por programas brasileiros de pós-graduação stricto sensu com doutorado em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este tuve como objetivo identificar los programas de postgrado en enfermería stricto sensu evaluados por el campo de la enfermería de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento de Personal de Nivel Superior, en el trienio 2007-2009, la excelencia alcanzado - 6 º grado. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio de naturaleza documental que examinó los datos de los informes de los indicadores de estos programas en el sitio de la Coordenación mencionada, en 2010. Se analizaron 99 fichas de 33 programas para el trienio 2007 a 2009, agrupadas en el sub-cláusulas sociales y categorías de artículos para los grados 6/7. Presenta los indicadores de excelencia de programas estadounidenses y brasileños, los resultados de la evaluación trienal sobre los subtemas del tema 5 y la descripción de la ejecución de los programas especificados para el grado 6. De ello se deduce que la excelencia de los programas ha ido ganando de forma progresiva, con el rendimiento en ciertas categorías como los exigidos por las normas internacionales, la superación de los obstáculos a la consecución de la excelencia en toda su plenitud.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of the giant genus Croton and tribe Crotoneae (Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto) using ITS and TRNL-TRNF DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Paul E; Hipp, Andrew L; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Van Ee, Benjamin; Riina, Ricarda

    2005-09-01

    Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of nuclear ITS and plastid trnL-F DNA sequence data are presented for the giant genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) and related taxa. Sampling comprises 88 taxa, including 78 of the estimated 1223 species and 29 of the 40 sections previously recognized of Croton. It also includes the satellite genus Moacroton and genera formerly placed in tribe Crotoneae. Croton and all sampled segregate genera form a monophyletic group sister to Brasiliocroton, with the exception of Croton sect. Astraea, which is reinstated to the genus Astraea. A small clade including Moacroton, Croton alabamensis, and C. olivaceus is sister to all other Croton species sampled. The remaining Croton species fall into three major clades. One of these is entirely New World, corresponding to sections Cyclostigma, Cascarilla, and Velamea sensu Webster. The second is entirely Old World and is sister to a third, also entirely New World clade, which is composed of at least 13 of Webster's sections of Croton. This study establishes a phylogenetic framework for future studies in the hyper-diverse genus Croton, indicates a New World origin for the genus, and will soon be used to evaluate wood anatomical, cytological, and morphological data in the Crotoneae tribe.

  15. A cerato-platanin-like protein HaCPL2 from Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto induces cell death in Nicotiana tabacum and Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxin; Quintana, Julia; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-11-01

    The cerato-platanin family is a group of small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusive for filamentous fungi. They have been shown to be involved in the interactions between fungi and plants. Functional characterization of members from this family has been performed mainly in Ascomycota, except Moniliophthora perniciosa. Our previous phylogenetic analysis revealed that recent gene duplication of cerato-platanins has occurred in Basidiomycota but not in Ascomycota, suggesting higher functional diversification of this protein family in Basidiomycota than in Ascomycota. In this study, we identified three cerato-platanin homologues from the basidiomycete conifer pathogen Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto. Expression of the homologues under various conditions as well as their roles in the H. annosum s.s.-Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) pathosystem was investigated. Results showed that HaCPL2 (cerato-platanin-like protein 2) had the highest sequence similarity to cerato-platanin from Ceratocystis platani and hacpl2 was significantly induced during nutrient starvation and necrotrophic growth. The treatment with recombinant HaCPL2 induced cell death, phytoalexin production and defense gene expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Eliciting and cell death-inducing ability accompanied by retardation of apical root growth was also demonstrated in Scots pine seedlings. Our results suggest that HaCPL2 might contribute to the virulence of H. annosum s.s. by promoting plant cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A influência do sistema de avaliação nos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Barsalini Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2012v5n3p155   Neste artigo foi analisado como o sistema de avaliação da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – CAPES influenciou os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu brasileiro da área de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Turismo a se adaptarem para o atendimento dos quesitos deste sistema de avaliação. Apoiados nos Cadernos de Indicadores disponibilizados no site da CAPES, a pesquisa se caracterizou como descritiva, exploratória e documental. Como resultados, foi possível identificar três ações colocadas em práticas pelos programas que possuíam as notas mais elevadas e os programas que subiram de notas consecutivamente nos três triênios avaliados: a constância no número de defesas de Teses e Dissertações; b dinamismo na composição (alterações/adaptações do corpo de docentes; e c consolidação das redes de colaboração de publicações entre os professores do corpo docente do mesmo programa.

  17. Genotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes ticks from North America and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Crowder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans.We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45 were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11 were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l.The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have potential clinical consequences.

  18. What has happened to the “aquatic phycomycetes” (sensu Sparrow)? Part I: A brief historical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleason, Frank H.; Marano, Agostina V.; Lilje, Osu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The “aquatic phycomycetes” constitute an ecologically and economically important assemblage of eukaryotic microorganisms, because they share many morphological traits and important ecological functions and they interact with each other in aquatic ecosystems. The last two decades of resea......Abstract The “aquatic phycomycetes” constitute an ecologically and economically important assemblage of eukaryotic microorganisms, because they share many morphological traits and important ecological functions and they interact with each other in aquatic ecosystems. The last two decades...... these microorganisms are often hard to isolate and maintain in most laboratory facilities, little background data has been available to identify the species, the studies were time consuming, the state of the art technology in many cases did not permit studies on these groups and they were thought to be economically...... for industrial applications and (4) can serve as indicator species for eco-tox monitoring. This review discusses the assemblages of microorganisms which Sparrow placed into the aquatic phycomycetes, their history in brief and their current phylogenetic placement....

  19. Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

    2014-08-18

    Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cirurgia colorretal videolaparoscópica: experiência inicial na abordagem de 90 pacientes, no Programa de Pós-graduação sensu lato (residência e especialização em Coloproctologia, pelo Grupo de Coloproctologia de Belo Horizonte Videolaparoscopic colorectal surgery: initial report of surgical approach of 90 patients in a Postgraduate Program (residency in Coloproctology by the Group of Coloproctology of Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Barros Lima Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi proceder a uma revisão criteriosa de uma casuística de 90 pacientes submetidos às ressecções colorretais por via videolaparoscópica no decurso de 12 meses (maio de 2009 a maio de 2010. A média etária foi de 62,1 anos, com extremos de 20 e 93 anos, sendo a maioria dos pacientes do sexo feminino (52; 57,8%. O diagnóstico mais comum foi câncer colorretal, com 60 casos (66,7%, seguido pelos pólipos colorretais, com 12 casos (13,4%, doença diverticular, com sete casos (7,8%, e outros diagnósticos, com 11 casos (12,1%. O preparo intestinal mais realizado foi com o Picolax (53 casos; 58,9%; 76 pacientes foram submetidos à colonoscopia e biópsia (84,4%. As cirurgias mais realizadas foram as retossigmoidectomias (54 casos; 60,0%, seguidas pelas hemicolectomias direitas (20 casos; 22,2%. O tempo de execução da maioria das cirurgias foi entre duas e três horas (34 casos; 37,8% e entre três e quatro horas (24 casos, 26,7%, com média de 203 minutos. Em 81 casos, houve anastomoses (90,0%, a maioria mecânica intra-abdominal (55,6% e manual extra-abdominal (25 casos; 27,8%, tendo sido o conjunto de grampeadores circulares e lineares articulados os recursos mais utilizados (50 casos; 55,6%. O eletrocautério foi usado em 68 pacientes (75,6%. A incisão abdominal mais usada foi a de Mallard (39 casos, 43,4% e a mediana (22 casos; 24,4%, sendo as extensões mais comuns entre 6 e 10 cm (55 casos; 78,6%. Houve 12 intercorrências peroperatórias (13,2%, que levaram a conversões para laparotomia. A média de dimensões das peças cirúrgicas foi 33,2 cm, a maioria entre 21 e 30 cm (51 casos, 56,8%. Houve 13 complicações pós-operatórias (14,4%, 11 delas cirúrgicas (12,2% e duas clínicas (2,2%, das quais decorreram três óbitos, sendo dois cirúrgicos e um clínico. O tempo médio de internamento foi de 5,3 dias, tendo sido 57 (63,3% a até cinco dias. Foram para o CTI 28 pacientes (31,1%, sobretudo por conta de comorbidades (22 casos; 24,4%. A liberação de dieta oral foi de um dia para 49 pacientes (54,5%. Os autores comparam os resultados com a bibliografia correlata.The objective was to undertake a careful review of a sample of 90 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections through the course of 12 months (May 2009 to May 2010. The average age was 62.1 years, with extremes of 20 and 93 years, mostly female (52 patients; 57.8%. Bowel preparation was performed with Picolax in 53 patients (58.9%; 76 patients underwent colonoscopy and biopsy (84.4%. Colorectal cancer was the most common disease (60 cases; 66.7%, followed by polyps (12 cases; 13.4%, diverticular disease (7 cases; 7.8% and other diseases (11 cases; 12,1%. The surgeries performed were retosigmoidectomy (54 cases; 60.0%, followed by right hemicolectomy (20 cases; 22.2% and others. Most of the surgeries were carried out between 2 and 3 hours (34 cases; 37.8% and between 3 and 4 hours (24 cases; 26.7%, with an average of 203 minutes. In 81 cases, there were anastomosis (90.0%, most mechanical intra-abdominal (55.6% and manual extra-abdominal (25 cases, 27.8%, being the set of circular and linear articulated staplers the most commonly used features (50 cases, 55.6%. Electrocautery was used in 68 patients (75.6%. The most used abdominal incision was Mallard incision (39 cases; 43.4% and median incision (22 cases; 24.4%, being the most common extensions between 6.0 and 10.0 cm (55 cases; 78.6%. There were 12 postoperative complications (13.2%, leading to conversions to laparotomy. The average size of surgical specimens was 33.2 cm, mostly between 21 and 30 cm (51 cases; 56.8%. There were 13 postoperative complications (14.4%, being 11 surgical (12.2% and two clinics (2.2% of which took place three deaths, being two from surgery and one from comorbidities. The mean length of hospital stay was 5.3 days, and 57 patients (63.3% up to 5 days. 28 patients were admitted in the ICU (31.1%, mainly because of comorbidities (22 cases; 24.4%. The release of oral intake was a day for 49 patients (54.5%. The authors compare the results with related literature and confirm the similarities.

  1. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y T; Smallegange, R C; VAN Loon, J J A; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or synergists in the host-seeking behaviour of female An. gambiae. In previous work, aromatics, alcohols and ketones in human odours were found to elicit electrophysiological activity in antennal olfactory neurons of female An. gambiae. However, the behavioural effects of these compounds have not been investigated. In this study, behavioural responses of female An. gambiae to components of human breath, urine and sweat at a series of concentrations, or a single concentration in the case of acetone, were examined in combination with ammonia and L-lactic acid in a dual-choice olfactometer. The results showed that at specific concentrations 4-ethylphenol, indole, 3-methyl-1-butanol and two ketones inhibited the attractive effect of a mixture of ammonia and lactic acid. Acetone on its own was not attractive; however, when combined with lactic acid, the binary mixture was attractive. When combined with ammonia, acetone inhibited the attractiveness exerted by ammonia alone. Dodecanol and dimethyldisulphide did not affect the attraction exerted by ammonia and lactic acid at any of the concentrations tested. By contrast, a human-specific armpit odour, 7-octenoic acid, augmented the attraction exerted by the combination of ammonia and lactic acid at a specific dosage. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the northwest of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Over a 3-y period, Ixodes ricinus ticks were randomly collected to study the prevalence of 4 Borrelia species: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana. While B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii, and B. garinii have been associated with human borreliosis in Norway for several years, B. valaisiana was reported in a Norwegian tick for the first time in 2010. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed as an easy-to-use method, with high sensitivity and specificity, to detect and genospecies-type B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana in I. ricinus ticks. A combination of species-specific primers and TaqMan MGB probes labelled with fluorescents with different emission spectra, ensured a highly specific method with the potential to detect more than 1 genospecies in 1 run. Sequencing of the housekeeping gene recG from 48 Borrelia-positive samples was used to confirm specificity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of tick-borne bacteria was used to help optimize the assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay was applied to analyze 1808 I. ricinus ticks collected in the field, which resulted in an overall infection rate of 14.8%, 18.7%, and 14.3% in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. The majority of the Borrelia-infected ticks were infected with B. afzelii. The overall infection rate is somewhat lower than that reported in the most recent study of the infection rate in southern Norway in 2010, and this study indicates that the infection rate varies from one year to another.

  3. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHO. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  4. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M H O; Monteiro, R

    2010-02-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  5. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.

  6. [Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of blood isolates of the Candida parapsilosis species complex in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Xiomara; Reviakina, Vera; Panizo, María M; Ferrara, Giusseppe; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Garcés, María F; Dolande, Maribel

    Candida parapsilosis is a species complex consisting of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Studies worldwide have described its epidemiology and susceptibility to antifungal agents. The aims of this study were to carry out the molecular identification of blood isolates belonging to the Candida parapsilosis species complex, and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to antifungals of systemic use. A study of 86 strains of C. parapsilosis species complex collected in 2008-2011 and obtained from the Candidaemia Surveillance Network of Mycology Department of the Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene, was made. Secondary alcohol-dehydrogenase gene amplification was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and the products were analysed by restriction fragments length polymorphisms using the enzyme BanI. Susceptibility tests were performed using Etest(®), following the manufacturer's instructions with modifications. Of the 86 isolates studied, 81 (94.2%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (4.6%) C. orthopsilosis, and one (1.2%) C. metapsilosis. C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, showing low rates of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole. C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to all the antifungals tested. The results obtained in Venezuela provide for the first time important information about the distribution of C. parapsilosis species complex in cases of candidaemia, and support the need for continuing surveillance programs, including molecular discrimination of species and antifungal susceptibility tests, which may guide specific therapy. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applied to identifying species of insect-pathogenic fungi from the Metarhizium anisopliae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rogério Biaggioni; Faria, Marcos; Souza, Daniela Aguiar; Bloch, Carlos; Silva, Luciano P; Humber, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for taxonomic resolution of microorganisms. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effectiveness of this technique to track the current gene sequence-based phylogenetic classification of species in the Metarhizium anisopliae complex. Initially the phylogenetic analysis of 5' strains by sequencing of the 59' end of the TEF-1α gene region revealed seven species within M. anisopliae sensu lato and two varieties outside this complex. Because initial studies on MS profiles from different cell types showed that mycelial fragments or conidia produced on nutrient-poor medium may yield too much background noise, all subsequent spectrometric analyses were performed with acidhydrolyzed conidia from 10-12 d old PDA cultures. The initial MALDI-TOF reference library included protein spectral profiles from nine taxonomically distinct, molecularly identified isolates sharing high genetic homology with the ex-type or ex-epitype isolates of these taxa in Metarhizium. A second reference library added one isolate each for M. anisopliae sensu stricto and M. robertsii. The second, larger reference library (including 11 taxa) allowed nearly perfect MALDI-TOF matching of DNA-based species identification for the 40 remaining isolates molecularly recognized as M. anisopliae sensu stricto (n = 19), M. robertsii (n = 6), M. majus (n = 3), M. lepidiotae (n = 1), M. acridum (n = 3), M. flavoviride var. pemphigi (n = 1), plus seven unidentified strains (six of them phylogenetically close to M. anisopliae sensu stricto and one outside the Metarhizium pingshaense-anisopliae-robertsii-brunneum clade). Due to the increasing frequency of phylogenetically (genomically) based taxonomic revisions of fungi, this approach is especially useful for culture collections, because once the protein profiles of Metarhizium isolates are obtained taxonomic updating of MALDI

  8. Identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from the urine of patients in a university hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from candiduria episodes at a tertiary hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, and to determine their susceptibility profiles to antifungal compounds. From May 2011 to April 2012, Candida spp. isolated from 106 adult patients with candiduria admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were evaluated. Both, species identification and susceptibility testing with fluconazole-FLC, voriconazole-VRC, and amphotericin B-AmB were carried out using the Vitek 2. To discriminate species of the C. parapsilosis complex, a RAPD-PCR technique using the RPO2 primer was performed. From the total of 106 isolates, 42 (39.6% C. albicans and 64 (60.4% Candida non-albicans (CNA - 33 C. tropicalis, 18 C. glabrata, 5 C. krusei, 4 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 C. kefyr, 1 C. lusitaniae, and 1 C. guilliermondii were identified. All isolates were susceptible to AmB and VRC, whereas all C. glabrata isolates presented either resistance (5.6% or dose-dependent susceptibility (94.4% to FLC. The study of Candida spp. and their resistance profiles may help in tailoring more efficient therapeutic strategies for candiduria.

  9. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdices, Anabel; Bohlen, Joerg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella) or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia) supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses also show

  10. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Perdices

    Full Text Available We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic

  11. Panorama dos conteúdos de esporte adaptado nos programas de Pós-Graduação strito sensu de Educação Física no Brasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Klein Carmona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar um panorama dos conteúdos relativos à atividade física e ao esporte adaptado nos cursos de Pós-Graduação strito sensu, em Educação Física no Brasil. Método e Resultados: foram analisadas as informações que resultaram da avaliação dos PPGs disponibilizados pela CAPES e nos websites de cada curso no ano de 2013. Utilizaram-se as informações das áreas de concentração, linhas de pesquisa e disciplinas dos 29 PPGs na área de Educação Física existentes no Brasil. Destes, apenas o PPG da Unicamp apresenta uma área de concentração e duas linhas de pesquisa destinadas a promover estudos relacionados às pessoas com deficiência. A UNB oferece uma linha de pesquisa específica para estudos sobre pessoas com deficiência. Quanto às disciplinas, 11 cursos abordam a temática, sendo grande parte concentrados na UNICAMP. Considerações finais: os dados revelam que os conteúdos sobre atividade física adaptada e esporte adaptado ainda carecem de mais espaço na pós-graduação stricto sensu.

  12. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Hametner, Christian; Ward, Todd J; Dong, Yanhong; Schöfbeck, Denise; McCormick, Susan; Broz, Karen; Stückler, Romana; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Kistler, H Corby; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX-2) was characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX-2 as 3α-acetoxy-7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene. Compared with the well-known 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), it lacks the keto group at C-8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10-fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX-3, (up to 540 mg kg(-1) ) compared with NX-2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX-3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX-2 is far less toxic, similar to 3-ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI1 allele in the N-isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C-8. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  14. Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu do Departamento de Enfermagem da Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile Stricto Sensu graduate program at the Nursing Department of Concepción University: Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paravic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Artículo que relata la trayectoria e historia del Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Concepción. Concepción, Chile. Describe el diseño curricular de los programas , sus líneas de investigación , el producto que se quiere obtener y su impacto, así como el proceso para llegar a la aprobación del primer programa de Doctorado en Enfermería en Chile.Este artigo relata a trajetória histórica da Pós-Graduação stricto sensu do Departamento de Enfermagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Concepción, Chile. Descreve o desenho curricular dos programas, suas linhas de investigação, o produto que se pretende obter e seu impacto, assim como o processo para a aprovação do primeiro programa de Doutorado em Enfermagem do Chile.This article reports on the trajectory and history of the stricto sensu graduate program offered at the Nursing Department of Concepción University Medical School, Concepción, Chile. It describes the curricular design of its programs, its research lines, the desired product and its impact, as well as the process to arrive at the approval of the first Ph.D. program in nursing in Chile.

  15. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  16. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  17. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R.; Tapia, Elicio E.; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R. Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W. Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450–1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis. PMID:28329011

  18. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Hutter, Carl R; Tapia, Elicio E; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450-1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis.

  19. Earliest true moth lacewing from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyu Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new moth lacewing Guithone bethouxi gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation (Inner Mongolia, China. This taxon is characterized by robust body, head retracted under pronotum, and remarkable costal space (expanded basad, narrowed distad. Herein, we propose a detailed definition of the lineages of Ithonidae sensu lato (moth lacewings, giant lacewings, and montane lacewings based on extant groups in order to clarify the systematics of fossil species within the taxon. The comparison shows that Guithone bethouxi gen. et sp. nov. unquestionably represents the earliest true moth lacewing, implying that lineage differentiations within Ithonidae sensu lato must have taken place before the Middle Jurassic. Furthermore the new genus possessing some particular venation characters, such as irrecurrent humeral veinlet and simplified crossveination in radial sector, represents an important intermediate group in the evolution of Ithonidae sensu lato.

  20. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.

    Denne SBI-meddelelse beskriver resultaterne af en undersøgelse af bygninger, hvor der er anvendt alternativ isolering. Undersøgelsen omfatter termografering og fugtmåling af udvendige bygningsdele isoleret med alternativ isolering. Endvidere rapporteres resultaterne af målinger af indholdet af tu...

  1. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Smith, M. Alex; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie D.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M.; Solis, M. Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica – including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  2. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica –including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5. Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI mitochondrial gene, information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae, ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  3. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Rodriguez, Josephine J; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie D; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Solis, M Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica - including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae and

  4. Ecological Factors Characterizing the Prevalence of Bacterial Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Pastures and Woodlands ▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Bord, Séverine; Cotté, Violaine; Gasqui, Patrick; Abrial, David; Barnouin, Jacques; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2010-01-01

    Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. The prevalence of infection in ticks depends upon ecological factors that are rarely taken into account simultaneously. Our objective was to investigate the influences of forest fragmentation, vegetation, adult tick hosts, and habitat on the infection prevalence of three tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. Samples of questing nymphs and adults were taken from 61 pastures and neighboring woodlands in central France. The ticks were tested by PCR of pools of nymphs and individual adults. The individual infection prevalence was modeled using multivariate regression. The highest infection prevalences were found in adult females collected in woodland sites for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum (16.1% and 10.7%, respectively) and in pasture sites for Rickettsia sp. (8.7%). The infection prevalence in nymphs was lower than 6%. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was more prevalent in woodlands than in pastures. Forest fragmentation favored B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in woodlands, and in pastures, the B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence was favored by shrubby vegetation. Both results are probably because large amounts of edges or shrubs increase the abundance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts. The Rickettsia sp. prevalence was maximal on pasture with medium forest fragmentation. Female ticks were more infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato than males and nymphs in woodland sites, which suggests an interaction between the ticks and the bacteria. This study confirms the complexity of the tick-borne pathogen ecology. The findings support the importance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts and make a case for further studies in Europe on the link between the

  5. Ecological factors characterizing the prevalence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in pastures and woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Bord, Séverine; Cotté, Violaine; Gasqui, Patrick; Abrial, David; Barnouin, Jacques; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2010-07-01

    Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. The prevalence of infection in ticks depends upon ecological factors that are rarely taken into account simultaneously. Our objective was to investigate the influences of forest fragmentation, vegetation, adult tick hosts, and habitat on the infection prevalence of three tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. Samples of questing nymphs and adults were taken from 61 pastures and neighboring woodlands in central France. The ticks were tested by PCR of pools of nymphs and individual adults. The individual infection prevalence was modeled using multivariate regression. The highest infection prevalences were found in adult females collected in woodland sites for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum (16.1% and 10.7%, respectively) and in pasture sites for Rickettsia sp. (8.7%). The infection prevalence in nymphs was lower than 6%. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was more prevalent in woodlands than in pastures. Forest fragmentation favored B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in woodlands, and in pastures, the B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence was favored by shrubby vegetation. Both results are probably because large amounts of edges or shrubs increase the abundance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts. The Rickettsia sp. prevalence was maximal on pasture with medium forest fragmentation. Female ticks were more infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato than males and nymphs in woodland sites, which suggests an interaction between the ticks and the bacteria. This study confirms the complexity of the tick-borne pathogen ecology. The findings support the importance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts and make a case for further studies in Europe on the link between the

  6. Production of hemolysin BL by Bacillus cereus group isolates of dairy origin is associated with whole-genome phylogenetic clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jasna; Miller, Rachel A; Carroll, Laura M; Kent, David J; Jian, Jiahui; Beno, Sarah M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-08-09

    this toxin. Isolates from clade VI (B. weihenstephanensis) carried hblACD homologues, but did not produce hemolysin BL, possibly due to amino acid substitutions in different toxin-encoding genes. Our results demonstrate that production of diarrheal enterotoxin hemolysin BL is neither inclusive nor exclusive to B. cereus sensu stricto, and that phylogenetic classification of isolates may be better than taxonomic identification for assessment of B. cereus group isolates risk for causing a diarrheal foodborne disease.

  7. [Rd7 genotyping of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with lung tuberculosis in different areas of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, V V; Korneva, I N; Riazanova, Iu A; Muminov, T A; Beĭsembaeva, Sh A; Zhakipbaeva, B T; Shopaeva, G A; Dauletbakova, A M

    2008-01-01

    A three-primer PCR assay was designed for detection of possible deletions in the RD7 region of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex chromosome. The assay produced amplicons of different size depending on the presence or absence of the deletions. The PCR assay was applied to 176 isolates from patients with lung tuberculosis collected in different areas of Kazakhstan in summer 2004. The isolates were initially characterized by culture and biochemical tests. The RD7 genotyping results demonstrated no polymorphism and the absence of deletions in the RD7 genome region. Some strains were additionally characterized using PCR-RFLP analysis of gyrB and hsp64 genes. The RFLP-patterns obtained corresponded to the M. tuberculosis genotypes. The results of this work are consistent with certain previous studies, indicating population stability of the RD7 region in M. tuberculosis strains. Species characterization of the isolates shows that M. tuberculosis sensu stricto is the principal causative agent of human lung tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

  8. Molecular identification of Anisakis type I larvae isolated from hairtail fish off the coasts of Taiwan and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Azusa; Kawakami, Yasushi; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Uchida, Akihiko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2010-10-15

    Anisakid nematodes are known to cause the zoonotic disease, anisakiasis, through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. The parasites most frequently associated with the disease in humans are categorized as Anisakis type I, which comprise several species of the genus Anisakis. The larvae show primitive forms and lack the detailed morphological characteristics required for precise species identification. Thus, molecular characterization is necessary for determining the species of Anisakis type I larvae and acquiring important clinical and epidemiological information. In this study, we isolated Anisakis type I larvae from hairtail fish caught off the coasts of Taiwan and Japan. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using HinfI and HhaI was carried out for species identification. Most larvae isolated from hairtail caught in Taiwan were Anisakis typica (84%), while those isolated from hairtail caught in Japan were almost exclusively identified either as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (65%) or Anisakis pegreffii (33%). This is the first report of A. typica in fish obtained from Taiwan. Our results shed the light on the epidemiology of Anisakis type I larvae, which is a potential cause of human anisakiasis in Taiwan and Japan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efeitos da época de queima sobre a reprodução sexuada e estrutura populacional de Heteropterys pteropetala (Adr. Juss., Malpighiaceae, em áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto submetidas a queimas bienais Effects of the season on sexual reproduction and population structure of Heteropterys pteropetala (Adr. Juss., Malpiguiaceae, in areas of Cerrado sensu stricto submitted to biennial fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Belloni Schmidt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Heteropterys pteropetala é um arbusto comum no Cerrado. A dispersão dos diásporos ocorre na estação seca, quando queimadas são comuns. Investigamos efeitos da época de queima na reprodução sexuada e estrutura populacional deste espécie em um cerrado sensu stricto na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, Brasília, DF, Brasil. As parcelas selecionadas para este estudo têm sido submetidas a queimas bienais em três meses diferentes (junho, agosto, setembro. A parcela controle é protegida do fogo. Quantificou-se o número de diásporos dispersos mensalmente, testou-se efeitos de altas temperaturas na viabilidade e na germinação, mediu-se a altura e diâmetro basal de todos os indivíduos encontrados em 1 ha/parcela, e estimou-se a distribuição espacial dos indivíduos e a densidade populacional. A dispersão ocorreu entre junho e setembro, sendo que 90% dos diásporos foram dispersos entre julho e agosto. Tratamentos térmicos de 60 ºC/40', 80 ºC/10' e 100 ºC/2'30" não interferiram na viabilidade (>80% e na germinação (>70%, mas tratamentos de 100 ºC/5', 100 ºC/10' and 200 ºC/1' reduziram a germinabilidade cerca de 50, 90 e 100%, respectivamente. A altura média e diâmetro basal dos indivíduos foram similares entre as parcelas. A distribuição espacial da população foi agregada nas quatro parcelas (Índice de Morisita >1. A densidade populacional foi menor na parcela submetida a queimadas em junho, e nas parcelas queimadas em agosto e setembro, foi similar ao controle. Queimadas precoces podem estar limitando a reprodução sexuada pois em junho a maior parte dos diáporos está ainda preso à planta-mãe, sujeitas assim a temperaturas letais (~500 ºC durante a passagem do fogo. Em agosto e setembro a maior parte dos diásporos foi dispersa, encontrando-se no solo e provavelmente protegidas das altas temperaturas. Os resultados indicam que queimadas prescritas para junho são prejudiciais para esta espécie por reduzirem seu

  10. Season is an unreliable predictor of Lyme neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Bødker; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Vilholm, Ole Jakob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a tick-borne infection of the nervous system caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary symptoms are usually painful radiculitis, facial palsy and lymphocytic meningitis. The aim of this study was to provide data on the seaso......INTRODUCTION: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a tick-borne infection of the nervous system caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary symptoms are usually painful radiculitis, facial palsy and lymphocytic meningitis. The aim of this study was to provide data...

  11. [Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces castellii, S. exiguus and S. martiniae yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S; Marinoni, G; Piskur, J

    1998-04-01

    Genetic lines of three biological yeast species of the Saccharomyces sensu lato group--S. castellii, S. exiguus, and S. martiniae--were created. Homo- and heterothalmic monosporic fertile strains were marked by different auxotrophic mutations. Conditions for the hybridization of the Saccharomyces sensu lato yeast were established. The mating of spores or haploid cells of auxotrophic complementary mutants was performed on the complete YPD medium. Prototrophic diploid hybrids were selected on a minimal medium. In S. castellii, the hybridization of diploid cells was demonstrated. All three species studied were suitable for tetrad analysis.

  12. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  13. isolated rural hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the results of a qualitative study that evaluated the effect of an educational intervention aimed at rural ... performance spiral in academically isolated rural hospitals. .... Heavy after-hrs workload, alcohol ... Continued academic stimula-.

  14. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om målinger på alternative isoleringsmaterialer i bygninger, udgivet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI meddelelse 128) under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  15. Isolated Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects related to astrophysics of isolated neutron stars are discussed. We start with an introduction into the “new zoo” of young isolated neutron stars. In addition to classical radio pulsars, now we know several species (soft gamma-ray repeators, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, close-by cooling neutron stars - aka “Magnificent seven”, - RRATs, and some others. All these types are briefly discussed. In the second lecture a description of magneto-rotational evolution of neutron stars is given. Finally, in the third lecture we discuss population synthesis of isolated neutron stars. In some details we discuss population synthesis of young isolated radio pulsars and young close-by cooling neutron stars.

  16. Isolation of Plastid Ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Plastid ribosomes are responsible for a large part of the protein synthesis in plant leaves, green algal cells, and the vast majority in the thalli of red algae. Plastid translation is necessary not only for photosynthesis but also for development/differentiation of plants and algae. While some isolated plastid ribosomes from a few green lineages have been characterized by biochemical and proteomic approaches, in-depth proteomics including analyses of posttranslational modifications and processing, comparative proteomics of plastid ribosomes isolated from the cells grown under different conditions, and those from different taxa are still to be carried out. Establishment of isolation methods for pure plastid ribosomes from a wider range of species would be beneficial to study the relationship between structure, function, and evolution of plastid ribosomes. Here I describe methodologies and provide example protocols for extraction and isolation of plastid ribosomes from a unicellular green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), a land plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), and a marine red macroalga (Pyropia yezoensis).

  17. Reproductive isolation during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Rummell, Sonja E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked "domestication trait." Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow.

  18. Phylogeny of the lady fern group, tribe Physematieae (Dryopteridaceae), based on chloroplast rbcL gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, R; Takamiya, M; Ito, M; Kurita, S; Hasebe, M

    2000-06-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast gene rbcL from 42 species of the fern tribe Physematieae (Dryopteridaceae) were analyzed to gain insights into the inter- and intrageneric relationships and the generic circumscriptions in the tribe. The phylogenetic relationships were inferred using the neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony methods, and both methods produced largely congruent trees. These trees reveal that: (1) Athyrium, Cornopteris, Pseudocystopteris, and Anisocampium form a clade and Athyrium is polyphyletic; (2) Deparia sensu lato is monophyletic and Dictyodroma formosana is included in the Deparia clade; (3) Diplaziopsis forms a clade with Homalosorus, which is isolated from the other genera of the Physematieae; (4) Monomelangium is included in the monophyletic Diplazium clade; and (5) Rhachidosorus is not closely related to either Athyrium or Diplazium. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Emergence of pathogenicity in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-05-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato is a complex of thermally dimorphic species whose natural habitats are soil and plant materials. However, the traumatic implantation of the species into human skin is traditionally thought to be the route leading to the fungal disease sporotrichosis. The complex contains Sporotrhix mexicana, S. globosa, S. brasiliensis, S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. In this study we evaluated the differences among these species relative to their frequency in the environment and in human hosts, as well as discuss their remarkable diverse pathogenicity. Today, S. brasiliensis is epidemic in and geographically restricted to Brazil. In contrast, S. mexicana and S. globosa have rarely been reported over the decades. We discovered that the species have been present in collections from clinical cases since 1955 and were able to re-identify six isolates originally classified as S. schenckii as Sporothrix mexicana (three isolates) and Sporothrix globosa (three isolates). Despite their long presence as potential human pathogens they have not shown any increase in frequency as etiologic agents of human infections.

  20. Fator de impacto e pós-graduação stricto sensu em alimentos, nutrição e ciência e tecnologia de alimentos Impact factor and stricto sensu post graduation in foods, nutrition and science and food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre o fator de impacto de publicações e o conceito da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior para os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu envolvidos com Alimentos e Nutrição, foram selecionados 39 programas do triênio 2001-2003, de 4 Comitês (Agrárias, Alimentos, Medicina II e Nutrição e Zootecnia. Apesar de a publicação científica ser muito valorizada, sua aplicação na conceituação de programas é limitada. Uma correlação muito pobre (r²= 0,0611 entre o conceito atribuído ao programa e a média anual de fator de impacto por docente, por programa, foi encontrada. Por outro lado, 48,6% dos artigos produzidos no triênio 2001-2003 por esses programas foram enviados para periódicos não indexados pelo Institute of Scientific Information. Houve, nos programas de pós-graduação analisados neste período, 1149 (51% trabalhos publicados em 231 revistas não indexadas na base Institute of Scientific Information, e 1216 (49% trabalhos publicados em 331 periódicos indexados no Institute of Scientific Information. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade de aprimorar a avaliação da produção intelectual na área de Alimentos e Nutrição, no sentido de ajustar as medidas de produção para reconhecer as particularidades da produção científica dessa área. É preciso, também, desenvolver mecanismos de inclusão da medida de fator de impacto de publicações nacionais.Aiming to analyze the relationship between the impact factor of publications and the concept of graduate nutrition and food programs, 39 programs were selected from the years 2001-2003 from 4 Committees (Agrarian, Foods, Medicine II and Nutrition and Zootechny. Even though scientific publications are highly valued, their application in the conceptualization of programs is very limited. A very poor correlation (r²= 0.0611 between the concept given to the program and the annual mean of the impact

  1. Programas de pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em contabilidade: sua contribuição na formação de professores e pesquisadores = Graduate programs in Stricto Sensu accounting: its contribution to teachers and researchers development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Comunelo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a formação de professores e pesquisadores em Contabilidade importam no processo de desenvolvimento do ensino. Com o aumento da demanda destes profissionais e da oferta de cursos de graduações, o docente e o pesquisador devem estar preparados para enfrentar novos desafios. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo foi desenvolvido com objetivo de verificar a contribuição dos Programas de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Contabilidade em nível de mestrado quanto à formação de professores e pesquisadores. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida sob as formas qualitativa e quantitativa, utilizando-se de dados secundários e de análise de conteúdo para atingir o objetivo proposto. A análise de dados pautou-se em 6 PPGs, contemplando 115 mestres em Contabilidade que concluíram o curso no ano de 2004. Foram analisadas as suas publicações e atuação profissional nos cinco anos subsequentes, ou seja, até 2009. Os resultados apontam que os PPGs no período em estudo estavam voltados basicamente para a formação de professores, pois 104 mestres atuam na docência. Ainda, demonstrou que o destino destes professores eram as instituições de ensino superior privadas e para o curso de Ciências Contábeis. No processo de formação pedagógica, todos os programas possuíam a disciplina de Metodologia do Ensino Superior, sendo alguns de forma obrigatória e outros, optativa. No entanto, os dados da pesquisa mostraram que no período estudado, os programas não contribuíram significativamente para a formação de pesquisadores, pois estes estavam centrados na formação de docentes, evidenciada pela baixa publicação dos egressos dos programas e pela concentração em determinados egressos.Studies on the training of teachers and researchers in accounting matter in the process of development of education. With the increasing demand of these professionals and the supply of graduate courses, the teacher and the researcher must be prepared to face

  2. Lyme disease and current aspects of immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Kamradt, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystem disease that affects primarily the skin, nervous system, heart and joints. At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, namely Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii, can cause the disease. This review will focus mainly on the pathophysiology of Lyme arthritis, the long-term outcome of Lyme disease, and the recently licensed vaccine against Lyme disease.

  3. High genetic differentiation within the Hemidactylus turcicus complex (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) in the Levant, with comments on the phylogeny and systematics of the genus

    OpenAIRE

    Moravec, J.; Kratochvíl, L.; Amr, Z. S.; Jandzik, D.; Šmíd, J.; Gvoždík, V. (Václav)

    2011-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of Hemidactylus turcicus (sensu lato) and related Levantine taxa of Hemidactylus geckos were studied using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Five main phylogenetic lineages were detected within the distribution area of H. turcicus: (1) H. turcicus (sensu stricto) from the Mediterranean region comprising two widely distributed haplotype groups divergent by 2.1%; (2) H. cf. turcicus from north-eastern Israel forming a divergent (7.2%) sister lineage to H. turcicus s.s.; (...

  4. Identification of Borrelia Species after Creation of an In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Calderaro; Chiara Gorrini; Giovanna Piccolo; Sara Montecchini; Mirko Buttrini; Sabina Rossi; Maddalena Piergianni; Maria Cristina Arcangeletti; Flora De Conto; Carlo Chezzi; Maria Cristina Medici

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) complex transmitted to humans by Ixodes ticks. B. burgdorferi sl complex, currently comprising at least 19 genospecies, includes the main pathogenic species responsible for human disease in Europe: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), B. afzelii, and B. garinii. In this study, for the first time, MALDI-TOF MS was applied to Borrelia spp., supplementing the existing database, limited to the species B....

  5. Influenza virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type.

  6. Global isolation by distance despite strong regional phylogeography in a small metazoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Scott

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small vagile eukaryotic organisms, which comprise a large proportion of the Earth's biodiversity, have traditionally been thought to lack the extent of population structuring and geographic speciation observed in larger taxa. Here we investigate the patterns of genetic diversity, amongst populations of the salt lake microscopic metazoan Brachionus plicatilis s. s. (sensu stricto (Rotifera: Monogononta on a global scale. We examine the phylogenetic relationships of geographic isolates from four continents using a 603 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene to investigate patterns of phylogeographic subdivision in this species. In addition we investigate the relationship between genetic and geographic distances on a global scale to try and reconcile the paradox between the high vagility of this species and the previously reported patterns of restricted gene flow, even over local spatial scales. Results Analysis of global sequence diversity of B. plicatilis s. s. reveals the presence of four allopatric genetic lineages: North American-Far East Asian, Western Mediterranean, Australian, and an Eastern Mediterranean lineage represented by a single isolate. Geographically orientated substructure is also apparent within the three best sampled lineages. Surprisingly, given this strong phylogeographic structure, B. plicatilis s. s. shows a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance on a global scale ('isolation by distance' – IBD. Conclusion Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and potential for high gene flow, B. plicatilis s. s. is strongly structured at a global scale. IBD patterns have traditionally been interpreted to indicate migration-drift equilibrium, although in this system equilibrium conditions are incompatible with the observed genetic structure. Instead, we suggest the pattern may have arisen through persistent founder effects, acting in a similar fashion to geographic barriers for larger

  7. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesada-Moraga Enrique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921. Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2% are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled.

  8. Nucleic acid isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  9. Nucleic acid isolation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  10. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  12. Global isolation by distance despite strong regional phylogeography in a small metazoan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Scott; Lunt, David H; Gómez, Africa

    2007-01-01

    ... observed in larger taxa. Here we investigate the patterns of genetic diversity, amongst populations of the salt lake microscopic metazoan Brachionus plicatilis s. s. (sensu stricto) (Rotifera: Monogononta) on a global scale...

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DE COMPETÊNCIAS DESENVOLVIDAS NA DISCIPLINA DE QUÍMICA MEDICINAL DA PÓS-GRADUÇÃO STRICTU SENSU: UMA EXPERIÊNCIA DE SALA DE AULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Passos Mendes

    Full Text Available The knowledge transmission in scientific education demands the formulation of methods capable to insert between student and the study object a nearness, making the student apt to build, from autodidactic posture, solutions that only the professional formation can produce. In this sense, a teaching should develop an effective pedagogy, focusing on knowledge production and its preservation, helping the scientific progress. Guided by these concepts, the educational process can be considered complex and should focus on the quality of the transmitted knowledge, through strategies that ensure the maximum information accessibility. In strictu sensu post-graduation context, some particularities related to the knowledge building and not so only the concepts memorization should have more attention, due to the scientific and teacher training goals. The medicinal chemistry area exhibits the necessity to have a great interlocution with other chemistry disciplines, such as organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and as well as disciplines related to human health. In this sense, the evaluation of learning process becomes, currently, a great challenge for professors that seek to develop the interdisciplinary sense. Considering this reality, in this study, the authors present a classroom experience, where specific competences developed in students of medicinal chemistry discipline was a target of evaluation based on creation of review text. From the results obtained was possible to rethink strategies that can contribute to foster new forms to evaluate the learning process based on competences development.

  14. Avaliação de redes multidisciplinares com a ferramenta scriptlattes: os casos da nanotecnologia, da dengue e de um programa de pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em Administração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2014v19n40p67 O Scriptlattes é uma ferramenta computacional que extrai informações acadêmicas e profissionais de pesquisadores cadastrados no CNPq, criando relatórios de produção, gráficos de colaboração e internacionalização da pesquisa, além de mapas geográficos de investigação. Neste trabalho utilizou-se o Scriptlattes para avaliar as redes multidisciplinares de colaboração em dois assuntos prioritários para o Brasil: a dengue e a nanotecnologia, além de avaliar as redes de colaboração entre os professores de um Programa de Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em Administração. A disponibilização dos resultados, além facilitar a visualização de maneira organizada de uma série de informações anteriormente fragmentadas e disponíveis apenas nos currículos individuais dos pesquisadores cadastrados na Plataforma Lattes, contribui para divulgação ao grande público dos resultados das pesquisas realizadas entre as redes de colaboração em pesquisa.

  15. Proteoglycan isolation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton-linked proteoglycans. Methods for analysis...

  16. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012) ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars 500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Isolated Intraorbital Frontosphenoidal Synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermiller, Paul A; Yeom, Kristen W; Menard, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Unilateral anterior plagiocephaly is most commonly the result of deformational plagiocephaly or unilateral coronal synostosis, a premature fusion of the frontoparietal suture. However, other sutures within the coronal ring have been implicated in producing anterior cranial asymmetries. These fusions can occur in isolation or in concert with adjacent sutures. The frontosphenoidal suture is one such suture within the coronal ring that has been involved both concomitantly with and independently of frontoparietal suture fusion. Although isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis has been presented previously in the literature, these reports include patients with fusion of the extraorbital portion of the frontosphenoidal suture. This clinical report presents the first clearly documented patient of isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis that occurs entirely within the intraorbital region.The patient presented to Plastic Surgery Clinic at 3 months of age with left frontal flattening, supraorbital rim retrusion, and temporal bulging that was noted soon after birth. Computed tomography analysis revealed an isolated fusion of the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone to the frontal bone on the left side. The patient had no family history of cranial anomalies and genetic testing was negative for mutations. The infant was treated with a cranial orthotic for 3 months, underwent open fronto-orbital advancement and cranial vault remodeling at 6 months, and continued wearing a cranial orthotic for another 4.5 months. Following surgical and orthotic treatment, the patient achieved a satisfactory result.

  18. ISOLATION OF DIHYDROCHALCONE GLUCOSIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-04-26

    Apr 26, 1994 ... ABSTRACT: The internal tissue flavonoids of P- senegalense are glycosides, based mostly on quercetin. Chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex Lil-20 of the hydrophilic extract resulted in the isolation and characterizationof quercetin-S -B—0-galactoside(l), quercetin-S-B-O-glucoside. (2), quercetin-3 ...

  19. Isolation of RNP granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Christiansen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    be regarded as a supramolecular assembly of RNA and protein, probably representing several overlapping post-transcriptional operons. The present protocol describes how RNP granules may be isolated by the transgenic expression of a 3X FLAG version of an RNA-binding protein under tetracycline control via...

  20. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  1. Isolated mucosal Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Sundriyal; Naveen Kumar; Raj Kumar; Brijesh Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a term used to define a group of clinical syndrome caused by various species of parasite Leishmania. Three main clinical types of leishmaniasis are visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. However, isolated presentation as mucosal disease is rare. We report a case of primarily mucosal leishmaniasis.

  2. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  3. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence...

  4. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  5. Levantamento florístico e sua distribuição diamétrica da vegetação de um cerrado sensu stricto e de um fragmento de floresta de galeria no ribeirão Dois Irmãos na APA de Cafuringa, DF, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p35 Foram identificadas todas as espécies vegetais ocorrentes em uma área de 2.500m² de cerrado sensu stricto e de 5.000m² de um fragmento de uma floresta de galeria do ribeirão Dois Irmãos na APA de Cafuringa, localizada na região norte do Distrito Federal, próximo à divisa do Estado de Goiás, nas coordenadas geográficas 15º30’19”S e 48º06’18”W. Foram medidos os diâmetros de todos os indivíduos arbóreos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP a partir de 5cm, tanto do cerrado sensu stricto como do fragmento da floresta de galeria. A composição florística do cerrado sensu stricto ficou composta por 100 indivíduos arbóreos distribuídos em 25 espécies, e da floresta de galeria por 155 árvores distribuídas em 50 espécies. A regeneração natural constituída por indivíduos de hábito arbóreo com DAP inferior a 5cm, no cerrado sensu stricto foi de 211 indivíduos distribuídos em 38 espécies, e na floresta de galeria foram 287 indivíduos, distribuídos em 55 espécies. A área basal ocupada pelos componentes arbóreos foi de 3,40m2.ha-1 na área do cerrado sensu stricto e 5,08m2.ha-1 na floresta de galeria. A curva da distribuição diamétrica de ambas as comunidades ajustada pela equação de Meyer apresentou a tendência típica do “J” invertido e mostrou forte intervenção antrópica nas classes de 11 a 17cm.

  6. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of a novel phylogenetic lineage of Alternaria alternata causing citrus brown spot in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Fu, Yushi; Nie, Danni; Stewart, Jane E; Peever, Tobin L; Li, Hongye

    2015-05-01

    Alternaria alternata sensu lato, casual agent of citrus brown spot, first identified in Yunnan province in 2010 and subsequently found in Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangdong provinces, Chongqing municipality andGuangxi autonomous region in China. During 2010-2012, 86 isolates were collected from diseased citrus, of which 85 % isolates were pathogenic to Ponkan tangerine. Phylogenetic analyses of Chinese and worldwide isolates using partial sequences of an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and combined dataset ofendoPG and two anonymous loci (OPA1-3, OPA2-1) found that Chinese isolates fell into two of three previously described clades. One clade ('clade 3') contained isolates from Turkey and Israel, and the other clade ('clade 1') contained isolates from Florida, USA. None of the isolates from China fell into the last previously described clade ('clade 2'). However, 24 isolates from Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi fell into a fourth clade ('clade 4') not previously reported to be associated with citrus brown spot. This clade included multilocus haplotypes known to infect Japanese pear and strawberry. The observation that Chinese brown spot isolates fell into only two of three known worldwide lineages suggests that this fungus may not have co-evolved with its host in China but elsewhere in Southeast Asia and introduced to China. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathology of oak-wisteria powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Roger T A; Denton, Jenny O; Denton, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between oak and wisteria powdery mildew, the reason artificial infection of Wisteria sinensis was difficult, and the identity of the pathogen were investigated. Inoculations of detached leaves of Quercus robur with Erysiphe alphitoides from either W. sinensis or Q. robur were successful. Wisteria floribunda was completely and W. sinensis partially resistant. Isolates from wisteria and oak had similar pathogenicities and matching DNA profiles and hence not separable into formae speciales. Instead, oak mildew now includes wisteria and possibly Sorbaria as hosts. On non-host Brassica and cellulose acetate, conidial germ tube development ceased after formation of terminal appressoria. Only Q. robur supported visible lesions. W. sinensis supported fewer colony forming hyphae (CFH) per conidium and smaller hyphal appressoria. Failure to form visible lesions was due to prevention or termination of CFH and not to inhibition of conidial germination or to a host's hypersensitive reaction. Absorption of antifungal compounds via appressoria from maturing host tissue is discussed. The pathogen's DNA ITS region indicated an identification of Erysiphe alphitoides sensu lato, since some isolates did not completely match E. alphitoides sensu stricto. To rapidly indicate susceptibility, a microscopic examination of young leaves 48 h post inoculation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto Population and Its Involvement in Borrelia Pathogenicity: Study on Murine Model with Specific Emphasis on the Skin Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Kern

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by B. burgdorferi sl. The molecular basis for specific organ involvement is poorly understood. The skin plays a central role in the development of Lyme disease as the entry site of B. burgdorferi in which specific clones are selected before dissemination. We compared the skin inflammatory response (antimicrobial peptides, cytokines and chemokines elicited by spirochete populations recovered from patients presenting different clinical manifestations. Remarkably, these spirochete populations induced different inflammatory profiles in the skin of C3H/HeN mice. As spirochete population transmitted into the host skin is heterogeneous, we isolated one bacterial clone from a population recovered from a patient with neuroborreliosis and compared its virulence to the parental population. This clone elicited a strong cutaneous inflammatory response characterized by MCP-1, IL-6 and antimicrobial peptides induction. Mass spectrometry of this clone revealed 110 overexpressed proteins when compared with the parental population. We further focused on the expression of nine bacterial surface proteins. bb0347 coding for a protein that interacts with host fibronectin, allowing bacterial adhesion to vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix, was found to be induced in host skin with another gene bb0213 coding for a hypothetical protein. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of the B. burgdorferi ss population and the complexity of the interaction involved early in the skin.

  10. Isolated limb perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kuhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated limb perfusion is a surgical procedure that can be used to treat an advanced malignant melanoma and soft tissue sarcomas, it is also effective in treating in-transit metastases of melanoma and local metastases of soft tissue sarcomas. With perfusion of the affected limb with cytostatic agents it is possible to avoid amputation and mutilating operations that significantly reduced the function of the limb. Since the procedure is isolated on a limb, it can be perfused with much higher doses of cytotoxic drugs, systemic toxicity is thus reduced or prevented. The most common side effects are erythema and edema.Cytotoxic drugs, that are manly used, are melphalan and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Efficient also proved to be simultaneous hyperthermia of the affected limb.

  11. [Isolated mediastinal cystic lymphangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Iury Andrade; Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Gomes, Bruno de Moraes; Cabrera, Giovana Abero; Machuca, Tiago Noguchi

    2009-01-01

    A 59 years old female patient, asymptomatic, with the incidental finding of an ovarian tumor in her routine gynecological evaluation, and during the preoperative examinations it was incidentally found an isolated mediastinal tumor, and then routed to diagnostic evaluation of the lesion, which later proved to be a cystic lymphangioma. The cystic hygroma of the mediastinum is a benign tumor and very infrequent, representing only 0.7 to 4.5% of all mediastinal tumors, and of these, only 1% is exclusively mediastinal in location. The definitive diagnosis is only possible by pathological examination, and the recommended treatment consists of complete surgical resection. Cases are described in isolated reports or series with few patients, and their readiness or synchronicity with other tumors, unknown, and to the best of out knowledge, not reported yet.

  12. Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryoon Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid.

  13. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  14. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varner P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema

  15. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  16. Isolated third ventricle glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Kılıç, Türker

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and the most malignant type of gliomas. Cerebral hemispheres are usual locations for gliomas. Isolated third ventricular presentation is very rare for glioblastomas. A new case of isolated third ventricular glioblastoma has been presented in this report. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to outpatient clinic with headache, blurred vision and confusion. A head CT scan and MRI had showed third ventricular mass lesion with obstructive hydrocephalus. Previous to her admission to our clinic, a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt had been inserted and her hydrocephalus had been relieved to some extent in acute settings. In our clinic, stereotactic biopsy was performed and a second ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted from the opposite site. Histopathological diagnosis was glioblastoma. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were started immediately after the surgery. Patient's hydrocephalus has resolved and she was well at post-operative 6th month. In differential diagnosis list of the tumors presenting in the third ventricle, there are plenty of tumors such as colloid cyst, meningioma, germinoma, craniopharyngioma, lymphoma, choroid plexus papilloma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, chiasmatic and hypothalamic benign astrocytoma. Ring enhancement of this region pathology is a peculiar sign for glioblastoma, yet not pathognomonic. Tumor histology is crucial to yield the final diagnosis. Management of obstructive hydrocephalus, making histopathological diagnosis, starting adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in isolated third ventricular glioblastomas is a safe and effective approach when we consider malignant nature and intractable progress of glioblastomas.

  17. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  18. Two haplotype clusters of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in northern Iraq (Kurdistan region) support the hypothesis of a parasite cradle in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zuber Ismael; Meerkhan, Azad Abdullah; Boufana, Belgees; Hama, Abdullah A; Ahmed, Bayram Dawod; Mero, Wijdan Mohammed Salih; Orsten, Serra; Interisano, Maria; Pozio, Edoardo; Casulli, Adriano

    2017-08-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus s.s. is a major public health problem in Iraqi Kurdistan with a reported surgical incidence of 6.3 per 100,000 Arbil inhabitants. A total of 125 Echinococcus isolates retrieved from sheep, goats and cattle were used in this study. Our aim was to determine species/genotypes infecting livestock in Iraqi Kurdistan and examine intraspecific variation and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus s.s. in this region and relate it to that of other regions worldwide. Using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) we identified E. granulosus s.s. as the cause of hydatidosis in all examined animals. The haplotype network displayed a double-clustered topology with two main E. granulosus s.s. haplotypes, (KU05) and (KU33). The 'founder' haplotype (KU05) confirmed the presence of a common lineage of non-genetically differentiated populations as inferred by the low non-significant fixation index values. Overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. We used E. granulosus s.s. nucleotide sequences from GenBank to draw haplotype networks for the Middle East (Iran, Jordan and Turkey), Europe (Albania, Greece, Italy, Romania and Spain), China, Mongolia, Russia, South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) and Tunisia. Networks with two haplotype clusters like that reported here for Iraqi Kurdistan were seen for the Middle East, Europe, Mongolia, Russia and Tunisia using both 827bp and 1609bp cox1 nucleotide sequences, whereas a star-like network was observed for China and South America. We hypothesize that the double clustering seen at what is generally assumed to be the cradle of domestication may have emerged independently and dispersed from the Middle East to other regions and that haplotype (KU33) may be the main haplotype within a second cluster in the Middle East from where it has spread into Europe, Mongolia, Russia and North

  19. Análise comparativa inicial de critérios oncológicos de 120 pacientes submetidos a cirurgias colorretais por via laparotômica (60 pacientes e por via videolaparoscópica (60 pacientes para câncer colorretal no Programa de Pós-graduação sensu lato pelo Grupo de Coloproctologia de Belo Horizonte Initial analysis of oncologic criteria of 120 patients undergone colorectal laparotomic (60 patients and videolaparoscopic surgeries (60 patients for colorectal cancer in a Postgraduate Program (residency by the Group of Coloproctology of Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Monteiro Constantino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi proceder a uma revisão criteriosa de uma casuística de 120 pacientes portadores de câncer colorretal operados por via videolaparoscópica (grupo-Video, 60 pacientes e por via laparotômica (grupo-Lap, com 60 pacientes, no decurso de 12 meses (maio de 2009 a maio de 2010. A média etária foi de 58 anos, sendo 58,8 anos no grupo-Lap e 57,3 no grupo-Video, e a maioria era do sexo feminino em ambos os grupos (grupo-Lap - 55,0% e grupo-Video - 61,7%, com média de 58,3 anos. Todos os pacientes de ambos os grupos foram submetidos à colonoscopia e biópsia, com diagnóstico histopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Na distribuição dos tumores pelo intestino grosso no grupo-Lap, 43 se localizavam no reto e sigmoide (71,7% contra 45 no grupo-Video (75,0%, mas com diferenças entre reto baixo (grupo-Lap, 13,3%; grupo-Video, 16,7% e alto (grupo-Lap, 30,0%; grupo-Video, 16,7%, sigmoide e retossigmoide (grupo-Lap, 28,4%; grupo-Video, 41,6%. As cirurgias mais realizadas foram as retossigmoideCtomias abdominais altas (grupo-Lap, 27 casos, 45,0%; grupo-Video, 33 casos, 55,0%, seguidas pelas hemicolectomias direitas com anastomose íleo-transverso (grupo-Lap, 16 casos, 26,6%; e grupo-Video, 13 casos, 21,7%. As extensões das peças cirúrgicas foram maiores no grupo-Lap (média de 46,1 cm contra 30,0 cm no grupo-Video em decorrência de maior número de cirurgias que resultaram peças de grandes dimensões. Quando se comparam as mesmas técnicas cirúrgicas, a diferença não persiste, como nos casos das retossigmoidectomias (grupo-Lap com 32 casos, média de 28,2 cm; grupo-Video com 39 casos, com média de 26,6 cm. No tocante à gradação TNM dos tumores, a gradação T3N0M0 foi a mais comum: grupo-Lap com 30 casos (50,0% e grupo-Video com 35 casos (58,4%. No tocante à contagem de linfonodos nas peças cirúrgicas, nenhuma diferença foi notada: total de 810 linfonodos no grupo-Lap, com média de 13,5 linfonodos por peça, e total de 862 linfonodos no grupo-Video, com média de 14,3 linfonodos por peça. Não houve diferença também no tocante à contagem de linfonodos nas peças cirúrgicas, mais comuns entre 11 e 15: 34 casos no grupo-Lap (56,7% e 38 no grupo-Video (63,3%. Assim, nenhuma diferença foi notada entre os dois grupos (grupo-Lap e grupo-Video no tocante aos critérios oncológicos cirúrgicos.The objective was to undertake a careful review of a consecutive series of 120 patients with colorectal cancer approached by laparoscopic surgery (Video-group, 60 patients and by laparotomy (Lap-group, 60 patients, during 12 months (May 2009 to May 2010. The average age was 58 years and 58.8 years in group-Lap and 57.3 years in Video-group, the majority being females in both groups (Lap-group - 55.0% and Video-group - 61.7%, general mean 58.3 years. All patients in both groups underwent colonoscopy and biopsy with histopathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. As far as distribution of tumors in the large intestine in Lap-group, 43 tumors were located in the rectum, rectosigmoid and sigmoid colon (71.7% versus 45 in Video-group (75.0%, but with differences between low rectum (Lap-group 13,3%, Video-group 16.7% and upper rectum (Lap-group 30.0%, Video-group 16.7%, sigmoid and rectosigmoid (Lap-group 28.4%, Video-group 41.6%. The most performed surgery was abdominal rectosigmoidectomy (Lap-group 27 cases, 45.0%; and Video-group 33 cases, 55,0%, followed by right hemicolectomy (Lap-group 16 cases, 26,6%; and Video-group 13 cases, 21.7%. The extensions of the surgical specimens were greater in Lap-group (mean 46.1 cm vs. 30.0 cm in Video-group, but due to higher number of surgeries that resulted in longer specimens. When comparing same surgical techniques, the difference does not persist as in cases of retosigmoidectomy (Lap-group with 32 cases, mean 28.2 cm; and Video-group with 39 cases, mean 26.6 cm. With regard to TNM staging T3N0M0, tumors was the most common in Lap-group with 30 cases (50.0% and Video-group with 35 cases (58.4%. Regarding the lymph nodes count in surgical specimens, no difference was noted: total of 810 lymph nodes in specimens of Lap-group with a mean of 13.5 nodes per specimen, and total of 862 lymph nodes in Video-group with an average of 14.3 nodes per specimen. No difference was noted in relation to the count of lymph nodes in surgical specimens: the number of nodes was most commonly between 11 and 15 per specimen: 34 cases in Lap-group (56.7% and 38 in Video-group (63.3%. Thus, no difference was noted between the two groups (Lap-group and Video-group as far as oncologic and surgical criteria are concerned.

  20. Involvement of the CasK/R two-component system in optimal unsaturation of the Bacillus cereus fatty acids during low-temperature growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diomandé, Sara Esther; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Abee, Tjakko; Tempelaars, M.H.; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is composed of a set of ubiquitous strains including human pathogens that can survive a range of food processing conditions, grow in refrigerated food, and sometimes cause food poisoning. We previously identified the two-component system CasK/R that plays a key role in

  1. Emergence of pathogenicity in the Sporothrix schenckii complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; de Hoog, S.; Pires de Camargo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato is a complex of thermally dimorphic species whose natural habitats are soil and plant materials. However, the traumatic implantation of the species into human skin is traditionally thought to be the route leading to the fungal disease sporotrichosis. The complex

  2. A multimarker phylogeography of crested newts, Triturus cristatus superspecies, reveals cryptic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielstra, B.M.; Wielstra, B.; Baird, A.B.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The crested newt Triturus cristatus superspecies is composed of five recognized species. One of these, T. karelinii sensu lato, comprises three geographically structured mitochondrial DNA lineages: ‘eastern’, ‘central’ and ‘western T. karelinii’. Genetic divergence among these lineages is comparable

  3. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhan (Lin); W.C. Cao (Wu Chun); C.Y. Chu (Chen); B.G. Jiang; F. Zhang (Fang); L.J. Liu (Wei); J.S. Dumler (Stephen); X-M. Wu (Xiao-Ming); S-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); H.N. Huang; Q.M. Zhao; N. Jia (Na); H. Yang (Hong); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis). Infection rates were

  4. Distinct species exist within the Cercospora apii morphotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Cercospora is one of the largest genera of hyphomycetes. Cercospora apii sensu lato is the oldest name for a large complex of morphologically indistinguishable Cercospora spp. occurring on a wide host range. There are currently 659 recognized Cercospora spp., and names of another 281

  5. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac?) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex?, Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a

  6. Autophagy Modulates Borrelia burgdorferi-induced Production of Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffen, K.; Oosting, M.; Mennens, S.; Anand, P.K.; Plantinga, T.S.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Meer, J.W. van der; Xavier, R.J.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Recent studies have shown that recognition of the spirochete is mediated by TLR2 and NOD2. The latter receptor has been associated with the induction of the intracellular degradation process called autophagy. The present study

  7. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  8. Publications relevant to the Kalahari Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J van Rensburg

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available While compiling the proceedings of a symposium on the ecology of the Kalahari Ecosystem (October 1983, the authors became aware of a diversity of publications which exist pertaining to the "Kalahari" (sensu lato as an ecosystem. It is assumed that a provisional compilation of the available data serves a useful purpose and is therefore included in these proceedings.

  9. The genus Dendrothele (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.K. Nakasone; H.H. Burdsall

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen species of Dendrothele sensu lato are confirmed from New Zealand. Nine new taxa are described: Dendrothele arachispora, D. aucklandica, D. australis, D. cymbiformis, D. leptostachys, D. magnenavicularis, D. navicularis, D. novae-zelandiae and D. subellipsoidea. Ten species were previously reported, but...

  10. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium among pairs of loci, or of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These six loci were informative in studies of population genetic structure of C. pumilus sensu lato. Keywords: Bats, Chaerephon pumilus, Chiroptera, microsatellites, Molossidae, cross-genus amplification

  11. Factors affecting the transmission of human onchocerciasis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the transmission of human onchocerciasis by Simulium damnosum sensu lato were the focus of a study carried out in River Lewa, Etikpe, a fringe savanna village in Ikom LGA in Cross River State, Nigeria. The duration of the study was six months (August 1999 to January 2000). The thrust of the study was ...

  12. Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB,and matK DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuénoud, P.; Savolainen, V.; Chatrou, L.W.; Powell, M.; Grayer, R.J.; Chase, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    To study the inter- and infrafamilial phylogenetic relationships in the order Caryophyllales sensu lato (s.l.), 930 base pairs of the matK plastid gene have been sequenced and analyzed for 127 taxa. In addition, these sequences have been combined with the rbcL plastid gene for 53 taxa and with the

  13. Insight into tradeoff between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake Olson; Andrea Aerts; Fred Asiegbu; Lassaad Belbahri; Ourdia Bouzid; Anders Broberg; Bjorn Canback; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Kerstin Dalman; Giuliana Deflorio; Linda T.A. van Diepen; Christophe Dunand; Sebastien Duplessis; Mikael Durling; Paolo Gonthier; Jane Grimwood; Carl Gunnar Fossdal; David Hansson; Bernard Henrissat; Ari Hietala; Kajsa Himmelsrand; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Timothy Y. James; Magnus Karlsson; Annegret Kohler; Ursula Kues; Yong-Hwan Lee; Yao-Cheng Lin; Marten Lind; Erika Lindquist; Vincent Lombard; Susan Lucas; Karl Lunden; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jongsun Park; Tommaso Raffaello; Pierre Rouze; Asaf Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Halvor Solheim; Jerry Stahlberg; Heriberto Velez; Ronald P. deVries; Ad Wiebenga; Steve Woodward; Igor Yakovlev; Matteo Garbelotto; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Jan. Stenlid

    2012-01-01

    • Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. • We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript...

  14. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis is of

  15. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaff

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato, wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  16. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; McAtear, J.; Recuero, E.; Ziermann, J.M.; Ohler, A.; Alphen, van J.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate

  17. South American frogs of the Hyla rostrata group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duellman, W.E.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Few groups of Neotropical anurans are so diverse and taxonomically puzzling as the Hyla rubra group (sensu lato). Within this complex which possibly is generically distinct from Hyla, there are several species groups: Hyla strigilata Spix and related taxa in eastern Brasil; Hyla parkeri

  18. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the ...

  19. Seven chemicals fail to protect Ponderosa pine from Armillaria root disease in central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Lewis F. Roth

    1987-01-01

    Chemicals were applied once to the root collars of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) to prevent mortality caused by Armillaria obscura (Pers.) Herink Roll-Harisen (A. meilea sensu lato). After 10 years, none of the 15 treatments appeared to reduce mortality in treated trees vs. untreated trees....

  20. Impacts of climate change on invasive Lantana camara L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change and invasive species are now seen as two major contributors to global biodiversity change. The combined effects of these two factors have serious implications for biodiversity and agriculture. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato) (lantana) is a woody shrub that is highly invasive in many countries of the world ...

  1. Complement evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: it takes three to tango

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Taeye, Steven W.; Kreuk, Lieselotte; van Dam, Alje P.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Schuijt, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is one of the major innate defense mechanisms Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato has to overcome to establish an infection of mammalian hosts and to cause Lyme borreliosis in humans. Borrelia prevents complement-mediated killing during host colonization through (i) recruitment of

  2. Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Staarink, Pieter J.; Sprong, Hein; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete that has only recently been identified as a human pathogen. Borrelia miyamotoi is genetically and ecologically distinct from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, while both are present in Ixodes ticks. Over 50 patients with an acute febrile illness have

  3. Menage a trois: Borrelia, dendritic cells, and tick saliva interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Lauren M. K.; Veerman, Christiaan C.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is inoculated into the skin during an lxodes tick bite where it is recognised and captured by dendritic cells (DCs). However, considering the propensity of Borrelia to disseminate, it would appear that DCs fall short in

  4. Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Agnetha

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria, and transmitted through tick bites. The disease most commonly manifests as erythema migrans, a slowly expanding skin lesion at the site of the tick bite. Disseminated Lyme borreliosis can develop when the infection spreads to

  5. Larvicidal activities of Biostop Moustiques ® , a botanical insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal activities of Biostop Moustiques ® , a botanical insecticide on field collected malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Togo. ... In general, this study showed that the botanical insecticide tested has almost the same larvicidal effect no matter the strains of Anopheles gambiae used. Keywords: Biostop ...

  6. Susceptibility to DDT and pyrethroids, and detection of knockdown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly emerged female mosquitoes of two to five days old were selected and exposed to DDT 4%, Permethrin 1% and Deltamethrin 0.05%, the WHO diagnostic doses. These adult mosquitoes were from larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato collected from rural and urban settings and reared in an insectary. A susceptible ...

  7. Using a top predator as a sentinel for environmental contamination with pathogenic bacteria: the Iberian wolf and leptospires

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, Javier; García, Emilio J; Oleaga, Álvaro; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; Candela, Mónica G; Cevidanes, Aitor; Rodríguez, Alejandro; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus) is the top predator in the Iberian environments in which it lives, feeding on a wide range of species, thus encountering a wide range of disease agents. Therefore, the wolf can serve as sentinel of environmental contamination with pathogens. We investigated the exposure of free-living wolves to 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu lato. Kidney samples f...

  8. Tired of Lyme borreliosis Lyme borreliosis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, J.; van der Poll, T.; Speelman, P.; Hovius, J. W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis has become the most common vector-borne illness in North Eastern USA and Europe. It is a zoonotic disease, with well-defined symptoms, caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato, and transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis is endemic in the Netherlands with a yearly incidence of

  9. A Study on the Feasibility of Creating a Web-Accessible Marine Mammal Sound Library Based upon the Collections at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    caused by a nearby ship. Some Physeter clicking throughout recording. 64119 Ambient; Amphibia 12/9/1964 Bligh Sound, New Zealand S45 E167 2 08...are visible. Much reverb. 60024 Amphibia ; Fish, sensu lato; Insecta //1960 Various unknown unknown 1 24:02.884 7 Low ambient recording

  10. Phylogeny of basal descendants of cocoon-forming annelids (Clitellata)

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen,Martin Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Molecular analyses have been unsuccessful in placing the clitellates among annelids. Available morphological characters are ordered into congruent transformation series according to Hennigian principles. Orbiniidae is chosen as the outgroup. I propose the following phylogeny [number of apomorphies within brackets]: (Clitellata sensu lato [6] (Questidae [6] + Apodadrilida, new [2] (Parergodrilidae [3] (Stygocapitella [3] + Parergodrilus [4]) + Oligochaeta [7] (Aphanoneura [2] (Aeolosomatidae [...

  11. Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, Van Gilian; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I. ricinus larvae during a blood meal. The infected engorged

  12. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi