WorldWideScience

Sample records for sensitive paint measurement

  1. Miniaturisation of Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurement Systems Using Low-Cost, Miniaturised Machine Vision Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kenneth Quinn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of pressure-sensitive paint (PSP have been performed using new or non-scientific imaging technology based on machine vision tools. Machine vision camera systems are typically used for automated inspection or process monitoring. Such devices offer the benefits of lower cost and reduced size compared with typically scientific-grade cameras; however, their optical qualities and suitability have yet to be determined. This research intends to show relevant imaging characteristics and also show the applicability of such imaging technology for PSP. Details of camera performance are benchmarked and compared to standard scientific imaging equipment and subsequent PSP tests are conducted using a static calibration chamber. The findings demonstrate that machine vision technology can be used for PSP measurements, opening up the possibility of performing measurements on-board small-scale model such as those used for wind tunnel testing or measurements in confined spaces with limited optical access.

  2. Miniaturisation of Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurement Systems Using Low-Cost, Miniaturised Machine Vision Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mark Kenneth; Spinosa, Emanuele; Roberts, David A

    2017-07-25

    Measurements of pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) have been performed using new or non-scientific imaging technology based on machine vision tools. Machine vision camera systems are typically used for automated inspection or process monitoring. Such devices offer the benefits of lower cost and reduced size compared with typically scientific-grade cameras; however, their optical qualities and suitability have yet to be determined. This research intends to show relevant imaging characteristics and also show the applicability of such imaging technology for PSP. Details of camera performance are benchmarked and compared to standard scientific imaging equipment and subsequent PSP tests are conducted using a static calibration chamber. The findings demonstrate that machine vision technology can be used for PSP measurements, opening up the possibility of performing measurements on-board small-scale model such as those used for wind tunnel testing or measurements in confined spaces with limited optical access.

  3. Binary pressure-sensitive paint measurements using miniaturised, colour, machine vision cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mark Kenneth

    2018-05-01

    Recent advances in machine vision technology and capability have led to machine vision cameras becoming applicable for scientific imaging. This study aims to demonstrate the applicability of machine vision colour cameras for the measurement of dual-component pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). The presence of a second luminophore component in the PSP mixture significantly reduces its inherent temperature sensitivity, increasing its applicability at low speeds. All of the devices tested are smaller than the cooled CCD cameras traditionally used and most are of significantly lower cost, thereby increasing the accessibility of such technology and techniques. Comparisons between three machine vision cameras, a three CCD camera, and a commercially available specialist PSP camera are made on a range of parameters, and a detailed PSP calibration is conducted in a static calibration chamber. The findings demonstrate that colour machine vision cameras can be used for quantitative, dual-component, pressure measurements. These results give rise to the possibility of performing on-board dual-component PSP measurements in wind tunnels or on real flight/road vehicles.

  4. Wavenumber-frequency Spectra of Pressure Fluctuations Measured via Fast Response Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, J.; Roozeboom, N. H.; Ross, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advancement in fast-response Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) allows time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations from a dense grid of spatial points on a wind tunnel model. This capability allows for direct calculations of the wavenumber-frequency (k-?) spectrum of pressure fluctuations. Such data, useful for the vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, are difficult to obtain otherwise. For the present work, time histories of pressure fluctuations on a flat plate subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body were measured using PSP. The light intensity levels in the photographic images were then converted to instantaneous pressure histories by applying calibration constants, which were calculated from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Fourier transform of the time-histories from a large number of spatial points provided k-? spectra for pressure fluctuations. The data provides first glimpse into the possibility of creating detailed forcing functions for vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, albeit for a limited frequency range.

  5. Oxygen-Independent Pressure Sensitive Paint, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) systems are excellent tools for performing global pressure measurements in aerodynamic testing, especially in wind tunnel studies. The...

  6. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements on the NASA Common Research Model in the NASA 11-ft Transonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The luminescence lifetime technique was used to make pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) measurements on a 2.7% Common Research Model in the NASA Ames 11ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. PSP data were obtained on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing and horizontal tail, as well as one side of the fuselage. Data were taken for several model attitudes of interest at Mach numbers between 0.70 and 0.87. Image data were mapped onto a three-dimensional surface grid suitable both for comparison with CFD and for integration of pressures to determine loads. Luminescence lifetime measurements were made using strobed LED (light-emitting diode) lamps to illuminate the PSP and fast-framing interline transfer cameras to acquire the PSP emission.

  7. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  8. Detection of small-amplitude periodic surface pressure fluctuation by pressure-sensitive paint measurements using frequency-domain methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Nakakita, Kazuyki; Wakahara, Masaki; Kameda, Masaharu

    2018-06-01

    Image measurement using pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an effective tool for analyzing the unsteady pressure field on the surface of a body in a low-speed air flow, which is associated with wind noise. In this study, the surface pressure fluctuation due to the tonal trailing edge (TE) noise for a two-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil was quantitatively detected using a porous anodized aluminum PSP (AA-PSP). The emission from the PSP upon illumination by a blue laser diode was captured using a 12-bit high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. The intensities of the captured images were converted to pressures using a standard intensity-based method. Three image-processing methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were tested to determine their efficiency in improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the unsteady PSP data. In addition to two fundamental FFT techniques (the full data and ensemble averaging FFTs), a technique using the coherent output power (COP), which involves the cross correlation between the PSP data and the signal measured using a pointwise sound-level meter, was tested. Preliminary tests indicated that random photon shot noise dominates the intensity fluctuations in the captured PSP emissions above 200 Hz. Pressure fluctuations associated with the TE noise, whose dominant frequency is approximately 940 Hz, were successfully measured by analyzing 40,960 sequential PSP images recorded at 10 kfps. Quantitative validation using the power spectrum indicates that the COP technique is the most effective method of identification of the pressure fluctuation directly related to TE noise. It is possible to distinguish power differences with a resolution of 10 Pa^2 (4 Pa in amplitude) when the COP was employed without use of another wind-off data. This resolution cannot be achieved by the ensemble averaging FFT because of an insufficient elimination of the background noise.

  9. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  10. Application of pressure-sensitive paint in shock-boundary layer interaction experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Seivwright, Douglas L.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A new type of pressure transducer, pressure-sensitive paint, was used to obtain pressure distributions associated with shock-boundary layer interaction. Based on the principle of photoluminescence and the process of oxygen quenching, pressure-sensitive paint provides a continous mapping of a pressure field over a surface of interest. The data measurement and acquisition system developed for use with the photoluminescence sensor was eva...

  11. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  12. Pressure Sensitive Paint Applied to Flexible Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One gap in current pressure-measurement technology is a high-spatial-resolution method for accurately measuring pressures on spatially and temporally varying...

  13. Pressure-Sensitive Paints Advance Rotorcraft Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rotors of certain helicopters can spin at speeds as high as 500 revolutions per minute. As the blades slice through the air, they flex, moving into the wind and back out, experiencing pressure changes on the order of thousands of times a second and even higher. All of this makes acquiring a true understanding of rotorcraft aerodynamics a difficult task. A traditional means of acquiring aerodynamic data is to conduct wind tunnel tests using a vehicle model outfitted with pressure taps and other sensors. These sensors add significant costs to wind tunnel testing while only providing measurements at discrete locations on the model's surface. In addition, standard sensor solutions do not work for pulling data from a rotor in motion. "Typical static pressure instrumentation can't handle that," explains Neal Watkins, electronics engineer in Langley Research Center s Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch. "There are dynamic pressure taps, but your costs go up by a factor of five to ten if you use those. In addition, recovery of the pressure tap readings is accomplished through slip rings, which allow only a limited amount of sensors and can require significant maintenance throughout a typical rotor test." One alternative to sensor-based wind tunnel testing is pressure sensitive paint (PSP). A coating of a specialized paint containing luminescent material is applied to the model. When exposed to an LED or laser light source, the material glows. The glowing material tends to be reactive to oxygen, explains Watkins, which causes the glow to diminish. The more oxygen that is present (or the more air present, since oxygen exists in a fixed proportion in air), the less the painted surface glows. Imaged with a camera, the areas experiencing greater air pressure show up darker than areas of less pressure. "The paint allows for a global pressure map as opposed to specific points," says Watkins. With PSP, each pixel recorded by the camera becomes an optical pressure

  14. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become...

  15. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  16. Polymer-Particle Pressure-Sensitive Paint with High Photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Matsuda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel fast-responding and paintable pressure-sensitive paint (PSP based on polymer particles, i.e. polymer-particle (pp-PSP. As a fast-responding PSP, polymer-ceramic (PC-PSP is widely studied. Since PC-PSP generally consists of titanium (IV oxide (TiO2 particles, a large reduction in the luminescent intensity will occur due to the photocatalytic action of TiO2. We propose the usage of polymer particles instead of TiO2 particles to prevent the reduction in the luminescent intensity. Here, we fabricate pp-PSP based on the polystyrene particle with a diameter of 1 μm, and investigate the pressure- and temperature-sensitives, the response time, and the photostability. The performances of pp-PSP are compared with those of PC-PSP, indicating the high photostability with the other characteristics comparable to PC-PSP.

  17. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; von Freymann, Georg; Urbansky, Ralph; Beigang, René

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  18. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Beigang, René; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Freymann, Georg von; Urbansky, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  19. Flow Visualization at Cryogenic Conditions Using a Modified Pressure Sensitive Paint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Goad, William K.; Obara, Clifford J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Bell, James H.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    A modification to the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to visualize streamlines on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the tests were carried out in the National Transonic Facility operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. Oxygen is required for conventional PSP measurements, and several tests have been successfully completed in nitrogen environments by injecting small amounts (typically < 3000 ppm) of oxygen into the flow. A similar technique was employed here, except that air was purged through pressure tap orifices already existent on the model surface, resulting in changes in the PSP wherever oxygen was present. The results agree quite well with predicted results obtained through computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), which show this to be a viable technique for visualizing flows without resorting to more invasive procedures such as oil flow or minitufts.

  20. Analysis of painted arts by energy sensitive radiographic techniques with the Pixel Detector Timepix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlicka, J; Jakubek, J; Kroupa, M; Hradil, D; Hradilova, J; Mislerova, H

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive techniques utilizing X-ray radiation offer a significant advantage in scientific investigations of painted arts and other cultural artefacts such as painted artworks or statues. In addition, there is also great demand for a mobile analytical and real-time imaging device given the fact that many fine arts cannot be transported. The highly sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector, Timepix, is capable of detecting and resolving subtle and low-contrast differences in the inner composition of a wide variety of objects. Moreover, it is able to map the surface distribution of the contained elements. Several transmission and emission techniques are presented which have been proposed and tested for the analysis of painted artworks. This study focuses on the novel techniques of X-ray transmission radiography (conventional and energy sensitive) and X-ray induced fluorescence imaging (XRF) which can be realised at the table-top scale with the state-of-the-art pixel detector Timepix. Transmission radiography analyses the changes in the X-ray beam intensity caused by specific attenuation of different components in the sample. The conventional approach uses all energies from the source spectrum for the creation of the image while the energy sensitive alternative creates images in given energy intervals which enable identification and separation of materials. The XRF setup is based on the detection of characteristic radiation induced by X-ray photons through a pinhole geometry collimator. The XRF method is extremely sensitive to the material composition but it creates only surface maps of the elemental distribution. For the purpose of the analysis several sets of painted layers have been prepared in a restoration laboratory. The composition of these layers corresponds to those of real historical paintings from the 19 th century. An overview of the current status of our methods will be given with respect to the instrumentation and the application in the field of

  1. Analysis of painted arts by energy sensitive radiographic techniques with the Pixel Detector Timepix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlicka, J; Jakubek, J; Kroupa, M [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hradil, D [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, AS CR, v.v.i., ALMA, 50 68 Husinec-Oeez (Czech Republic); Hradilova, J; Mislerova, H, E-mail: jan.zemlicka@utef.cvut.cz [Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, ALMA, U Akademie 4, 170 2, Prague 7 (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    Non-invasive techniques utilizing X-ray radiation offer a significant advantage in scientific investigations of painted arts and other cultural artefacts such as painted artworks or statues. In addition, there is also great demand for a mobile analytical and real-time imaging device given the fact that many fine arts cannot be transported. The highly sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector, Timepix, is capable of detecting and resolving subtle and low-contrast differences in the inner composition of a wide variety of objects. Moreover, it is able to map the surface distribution of the contained elements. Several transmission and emission techniques are presented which have been proposed and tested for the analysis of painted artworks. This study focuses on the novel techniques of X-ray transmission radiography (conventional and energy sensitive) and X-ray induced fluorescence imaging (XRF) which can be realised at the table-top scale with the state-of-the-art pixel detector Timepix. Transmission radiography analyses the changes in the X-ray beam intensity caused by specific attenuation of different components in the sample. The conventional approach uses all energies from the source spectrum for the creation of the image while the energy sensitive alternative creates images in given energy intervals which enable identification and separation of materials. The XRF setup is based on the detection of characteristic radiation induced by X-ray photons through a pinhole geometry collimator. The XRF method is extremely sensitive to the material composition but it creates only surface maps of the elemental distribution. For the purpose of the analysis several sets of painted layers have been prepared in a restoration laboratory. The composition of these layers corresponds to those of real historical paintings from the 19{sup th} century. An overview of the current status of our methods will be given with respect to the instrumentation and the application in the field

  2. Painting recognition with smartphones equipped with inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Andrea; Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Recently, several works have been proposed in the literature to take advantage of the diffusion of smartphones to improve people experience during museum visits. The rationale is that of substituting traditional written/audio guides with interactive electronic guides usable on a mobile phone. Augmented reality systems are usually considered to make the use of such electronic guides more effective for the user. The main goal of such augmented reality system (i.e. providing the user with the information of his/her interest) is usually achieved by properly executing the following three tasks: recognizing the object of interest to the user, retrieving the most relevant information about it, properly presenting the retrieved information. This paper focuses on the first task: we consider the problem of painting recognition by means of measure- ments provided by a smartphone. We assume that the user acquires one image of the painting of interest with the standard camera of the device. This image is compared with a set of reference images of the museum objects in order to recognize the object of interest to the user. Since comparing images taken in different conditions can lead to unsatisfactory recognition results, the acquired image is typically properly transformed in order to improve the results of the recognition system: first, the system estimates the homography between properly matched features in the two images. Then, the user image is transformed accordingly to the estimated homography. Finally, it is compared with the reference one. This work proposes a novel method to exploit inertial measurement unit (IMU) measurements to improve the system performance, in particular in terms of computational load reduction: IMU measurements are exploited to reduce both the computational burden required to estimate the transformation to be applied to the user image, and the number of reference images to be compared with it.

  3. Study on the Fabrication of Paint-Type Si Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hee-Je; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-10-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention with their quantum characteristics in the research field of photochemical solar cells. Si QD was introduced as one of alternatives to conventional QD materials. However, their large particles could not penetrate inside TiO2 layer. Therefore, this work proposed the paint-type Si QD-sensitized solar cell. Its heat durability was suitable for the fabrication of paint-type solar cell. Si QDs were fabricated by multihollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition and characterized. The paste type, sintering temperature, and Si ratio were controlled and analyzed for better performance. Finally, its performance was enhanced by ZnS surface modification and the whole process was much simplified without sensitizing process.

  4. Optical measurements of paintings and the creation of an artwork database for authenticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonhee Hwang

    Full Text Available Paintings have high cultural and commercial value, so that needs to be preserved. Many techniques have been attempted to analyze properties of paintings, including X-ray analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT methods, and enable conservation of paintings from forgeries. In this paper, we suggest a simple and accurate optical analysis system to protect them from counterfeit which is comprised of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS and line laser-based topographic analysis. The system is designed to fully cover the whole area of paintings regardless of its size for the accurate analysis. For additional assessments, a line laser-based high resolved OCT was utilized. Some forgeries were created by the experts from the three different styles of genuine paintings for the experiments. After measuring surface properties of paintings, we could observe the results from the genuine works and the forgeries have the distinctive characteristics. The forgeries could be distinguished maximally 76.5% with obtained RGB spectra by FORS and 100% by topographic analysis. Through the several executions, the reliability of the system was confirmed. We could verify that the measurement system is worthwhile for the conservation of the valuable paintings. To store the surface information of the paintings in micron scale, we created a numerical database. Consequently, we secured the databases of three different famous Korean paintings for accurate authenticity.

  5. Pressure-sensitive paint on a truncated cone in hypersonic flow at incidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Erdem, E.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.; Saravanan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Global pressure map over the truncated cone is obtained at various incidence angles in Mach 5 flow. ► Successful application of AA-PSP in hypersonic flow expands operation area of this technique. ► AA-PSP reveals complex three-dimensional pattern which is difficult for transducer to obtain. ► Quantitative data provides strong correlation with colour Schlieren and oil flow results. ► High spatial resolution pressure mappings identify small scale vortices and flow separation. - Abstract: The flow over a truncated cone is a classical and fundamental problem for aerodynamic research due to its three-dimensional and complicated characteristics. The flow is made more complex when examining high angles of incidence. Recently these types of flows have drawn more attention for the purposes of drag reduction in supersonic/hypersonic flows. In the present study the flow over a truncated cone at various incidences was experimentally investigated in a Mach 5 flow with a unit Reynolds number of 13.5 × 10 6 m −1 . The cone semi-apex angle is 15° and the truncation ratio (truncated length/cone length) is 0.5. The incidence of the model varied from −12° to 12° with 3° intervals relative to the freestream direction. The external flow around the truncated cone was visualised by colour Schlieren photography, while the surface flow pattern was revealed using the oil flow method. The surface pressure distribution was measured using the anodized aluminium pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP) technique. Both top and sideviews of the pressure distribution on the model surface were acquired at various incidences. AA-PSP showed high pressure sensitivity and captured the complicated flow structures which correlated well with the colour Schlieren and oil flow visualisation results.

  6. On the Unsteadiness of a Transitional Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interaction Using Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John

    2017-11-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.

  7. Measurement of adhesion properties between topcoat paint and metallized/galvanized steel with surface energy measurement equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) Compare the adhesion properties of NEPCOAT-approved topcoat paint over : metallized or galvanized steel. Use surface-energy measuring technique to characterize the wetting properties of the liqui...

  8. The Measurement of the moisture transfer properties of paint films using the cup method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Spoel, van der W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The cup method has been used to measure the diffusion coefficient (or permeability) of water in free paint films. A dependence on the layer thickness of the diffusion coefficient could not be measured. The diffusion coefficient depends strongly on the relative humidity. The measured diffusion

  9. Occupational hazards and safety measures amongst the paint factory workers in lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Popoola, Temidayo D; Ogbudu, Bawo S; Akinyede, Akin; Coker, Herbert A B; Akintonwa, Alade

    2014-06-01

    The manufacture of paint involves a variety of processes that present with medical hazards. Safety initiatives are hence introduced to limit hazard exposures and promote workplace safety. This aim of this study is to assess the use of available control measures/initiatives in selected paint factories in Lagos West Senatorial District, Nigeria. A total of 400 randomly selected paint factory workers were involved in the study. A well-structured World Health Organization standard questionnaire was designed and distributed to the workers to elicit information on awareness to occupational hazards, use of personal protective devices, and commonly experienced adverse symptoms. Urine samples were obtained from 50 workers randomly selected from these 400 participants, and the concentrations of the heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results show that 72.5% of the respondents are aware of the hazards associated with their jobs; 30% have had formal training on hazards and safety measures; 40% do not use personal protective devices, and 90% of the respondents reported symptoms relating to hazard exposure. There was a statistically significant (p metal concentrations in the urine samples obtained from paint factory workers as compared with nonfactory workers. The need to develop effective frameworks that will initiate the integration and ensure implementation of safety regulations in paint factories is evident. Where these exist, there is a need to promote adherence to these practice guidelines.

  10. Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

    2005-08-01

    Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

  11. A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lagerström, Maria; Holmqvist, Albin; Eklund, Britta; Elwing, Hans; Dahlström, Magnus; Dahl, Peter; Dahlström, Mia

    2017-06-01

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF K α net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm 2 of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm 2 . To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. - Highlights: • A new XRF application for analysing metals in antifouling paints has been used. • Almost 700 leisure boats were analysed for tin, copper and zinc. • Over 10% of the leisure boats contained high, >400

  13. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle Z.; Lipford, William E.; Watkins, Anthony Neal

    2016-01-01

    Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  14. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Z. Goodman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  15. Terahertz thickness measurements for real industrial applications: from automotive paints to aerospace industry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Beigang, René

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for real-time thickness measurements of multilayered coatings using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed approach combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the specimen under test, a generalized modeling method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity and the precision of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Furthermore, a novel self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the car painting process and the influence of the spraying conditions and the sintering process on ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in aircraft industry. In addition, the developed approach enables for some applications the simultaneous determination of the complex refractive index and the coating thickness. Hence, a pre-calibration of the specimen under test is not required for such cases. Due to the high robustness of the self-calibration method and the genetic optimization algorithms, the approach has been successfully applied to resolve individual layer thicknesses within multi-layered coated samples down to less than 10 µm. The regression method can be applied in time-domain, frequency-domain or in both the time and frequency-domain simultaneously. The data evaluation uses general-purpose computing on graphics processing units and thanks to the developed highly parallelized algorithm lasts less than 300 ms. Thus, industrial requirements for fast thickness measurements with an "every-second-cycle" can be fulfilled.

  16. Direct Emissivity Measurements of Painted Metals for Improved Temperature Estimation During Laser Damage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    policy or position of the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government . This material is declared a work of the...U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-43 DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR...Source The laser probe in use for this test is a Daylight Solutions Unicorn II quantum cascade laser operating at 3.77 µm. According to the laser

  17. Analyzing FTIR spectra using high sensitivity compare function of FTIR software for 2-pack epoxy paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaid, Farish Irfal; Chan, Chin Han; Ong, Max Chong Hup; Winie, Tan; Harun, Mohamad Kamal

    2015-08-01

    The existing problem of oil and gas companies faced for on-site jobs of polymeric coatings on steel pipelines is that the quality of polymeric coatings varies from job to job for the same product brand from the same supplier or paint manufacturer. This can be due to the inherent problem of the reformulation of polymeric coatings or in other words adulterated polymeric coatings are supplied, where the quality of the coatings deviates from the submitted specifications for prequalification and tender purpose. Major oil and gas companies in Malaysia are calling for Coating Fingerprinting Certificate for the supply of polymeric coatings from local paint manufactures as quality assurance requirement of the coatings supplied. This will reduce the possibility of failures of the polymeric coatings, which lead to the corrosion of steel pipelines resulting in leakage of crude oil and gas to the environment. In this case, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) is a simple and reliable tool for coating fingerprinting. In this study, we conclude that, revelation of possible components of the 2-pack epoxy paints by carrying out extensive FTIR libraries search on FTIR spectra seems to be extremely challenging. Estimation of correlation of the sample spectrum to that of the reference spectrum using Compare function from one FTIR manufacturer, even the FTIR spectra are collected by different FTIR spectrometers from different FTIR manufacturers, can be made. The results of the correlation are reproducible.

  18. Measurements of tritium for radiological protection purposes in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala; Pillai, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. During dial painting process luminous paints releases tritium in air, causing air contamination. In the present paper results of a preliminary study on air monitoring and estimation of air samples in a local watch industry are given. (author). 5 refs., 2 t abs

  19. Measuring value sensitivity in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Christian; Christen, Markus; Tanner, Carmen

    2017-01-28

    Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity. We developed an instrument for assessing the sensitivity for three value groups (moral-related values, values related to the principles of biomedical ethics, strategy-related values) in a four step procedure: 1) value identification (n = 317); 2) value representation (n = 317); 3) vignette construction and quality evaluation (n = 37); and 4) instrument validation by comparing nursing professionals with hospital managers (n = 48). We find that nursing professionals recognize and ascribe importance to principle-related issues more than professionals from hospital management. The latter are more likely to recognize and ascribe importance to strategy-related issues. These hypothesis-driven results demonstrate the discriminatory power of our newly developed instrument, which makes it useful not only for health care professionals in practice but for students and people working in the clinical context as well.

  20. Identification of lapis-lazuli pigments in paint layers by PIGE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.; Mandò, P. A.; Calvo del Castillo, H.

    2004-06-01

    Lapis-lazuli is a semi-precious stone used in the past to produce a blue pigment. Its main component is lazurite, 3Na 2O·3Al 2O 3·6SiO 2·2Na 2S. The possibility of using PIXE to identify this pigment in canvas and wood painting is severely limited by the strong absorption of low-energy X-rays in the protective varnish and - when, as typical, the pigment is mixed with lead white - by the overlapping of Pb M lines with S K α. In this work we discuss the possibility of identifying lapis-lazuli by detecting sodium with PIGE. PIXE and PIGE measurements have been performed on samples containing lapis-lazuli mixed to lead white in different percentage, covered with polymeric foils to simulate the presence of varnish. At a percentage of lapis-lazuli below 50%, Na X-rays are hardly detectable even with the thinner foil; on the contrary the characteristic γ-rays are clearly detected down to about 1%. A first application has been successfully performed on the "Madonna dei fusi" by Leonardo da Vinci, in the framework of an extensive scientific investigation on the painting techniques used by the Renaissance genius.

  1. Occupational Hazards and Safety Measures Amongst the Paint Factory Workers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The need to develop effective frameworks that will initiate the integration and ensure implementation of safety regulations in paint factories is evident. Where these exist, there is a need to promote adherence to these practice guidelines.

  2. The Efforts to Increase Artistic Sensitivity of Unesa’s Art Education Students by Painting with Watercolor and Wax Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarno Winarno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artistic abilities of students who had been enrolled in Arts Educations Department of UNESA, in general, were a lack in realizing artistic aspect. It created the problems in learning and teaching of art. The purpose of this research was to increase the students’ sensitivity in creating their work. One way to solve this problem was by doing the work as much as possible, but the results were not fully obtained. So far, there were no standardized guidelines to help the improvement of the work quality in term artistic achievement level. While it became a problem in learning, there was an effort to find a simple and effective way by mixed media watercolor paint and wax. The method in this research was the design of class action research, where the research was conducted in the learning process of each cycle. Every cycle consists of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The result of this research shows an increasing of artistic quality regarding practical grades of art. However, there are other alternatives must be sought to increase students’ ability to create, view, appreciate something that is artistic. 

  3. Measurement, modeling and perception of painted surfaces: A Multi-scale Analysis of the Touch-up Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalghatgi, Suparna Kishore

    Real-world surfaces typically have geometric features at a range of spatial scales. At the microscale, opaque surfaces are often characterized by bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF), which describes how a surface scatters incident light. At the mesoscale, surfaces often exhibit visible texture -- stochastic or patterned arrangements of geometric features that provide visual information about surface properties such as roughness, smoothness, softness, etc. These textures also affect how light is scattered by the surface, but the effects are at a different spatial scale than those captured by the BRDF. Through this research, we investigate how microscale and mesoscale surface properties interact to contribute to overall surface appearance. This behavior is also the cause of the well-known "touch-up problem" in the paint industry, where two regions coated with exactly the same paint, look different in color, gloss and/or texture because of differences in application methods. At first, samples were created by applying latex paint to standard wallboard surfaces. Two application methods- spraying and rolling were used. The BRDF and texture properties of the samples were measured, which revealed differences at both the microscale and mesoscale. This data was then used as input for a physically-based image synthesis algorithm, to generate realistic images of the surfaces under different viewing conditions. In order to understand the factors that govern touch-up visibility, psychophysical tests were conducted using calibrated, digital photographs of the samples as stimuli. Images were presented in pairs and a two alternative forced choice design was used for the experiments. These judgments were then used as data for a Thurstonian scaling analysis to produce psychophysical scales of visibility, which helped determine the effect of paint formulation, application methods, and viewing and illumination conditions on the touch-up problem. The results can be

  4. A Measure of Spiritual Sensitivity for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Gerard John; Stanford, Bonnie; Caputi, Peter; Keating, Alysha-Leigh; Hyde, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Spirituality is an essential influence in a child's development. However, an age-appropriate measure of child's spiritual sensitivity is not currently available in the literature. This paper describes the development of a measure of children's spiritual sensitivity, the Spiritual Sensitivity Scale for Children (SSSC). Statistical analyses…

  5. The new numbers contrast sensitivity chart for contrast sensitivity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharkbhum Khambhiphant

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: These charts show reasonable agreement and can be used interchangeably with the MARS. It is helpful for Thai people who can only read numbers in doing the test. We can use them in routinely contrast sensitivity measurement.

  6. Dissolution rate measurements of sea water soluble pigments for antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of soluble pigments from both tin-based and tin-free chemically active antifouling (AF) paints is a key process influencing their polishing and biocide leaching rates. In this context, a low time- and resources-consuming method capable of screening the pigment behaviour in the sea...

  7. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon; Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong

    2015-01-01

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test

  8. Investigation of Unsteady Pressure-Sensitive Paint (uPSP) and a Dynamic Loads Balance to Predict Launch Vehicle Buffet Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M.; Panda, Jayanta; Ross, James C.; Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Burnside, Nathan J.; Ngo, Christina L.; Kumagai, Hiro; Sellers, Marvin; Powell, Jessica M.; Sekula, Martin K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This NESC assessment examined the accuracy of estimating buffet loads on in-line launch vehicles without booster attachments using sparse unsteady pressure measurements. The buffet loads computed using sparse sensor data were compared with estimates derived using measurements with much higher spatial resolution. The current method for estimating launch vehicle buffet loads is through wind tunnel testing of models with approximately 400 unsteady pressure transducers. Even with this relatively large number of sensors, the coverage can be insufficient to provide reliable integrated unsteady loads on vehicles. In general, sparse sensor spacing requires the use of coherence-length-based corrections in the azimuthal and axial directions to integrate the unsteady pressures and obtain reasonable estimates of the buffet loads. Coherence corrections have been used to estimate buffet loads for a variety of launch vehicles with the assumption methodology results in reasonably conservative loads. For the Space Launch System (SLS), the first estimates of buffet loads exceeded the limits of the vehicle structure, so additional tests with higher sensor density were conducted to better define the buffet loads and possibly avoid expensive modifications to the vehicle design. Without the additional tests and improvements to the coherence-length analysis methods, there would have been significant impacts to the vehicle weight, cost, and schedule. If the load estimates turn out to be too low, there is significant risk of structural failure of the vehicle. This assessment used a combination of unsteady pressure-sensitive paint (uPSP), unsteady pressure transducers, and a dynamic force and moment balance to investigate the integration schemes used with limited unsteady pressure data by comparing them with direct integration of extremely dense fluctuating pressure measurements. An outfall of the assessment was to evaluate the potential of using the emerging uPSP technique in a production

  9. ATLAS MDT neutron sensitivity measurement and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlen, S.; Hu, G.; Osborne, D.; Schulz, A.; Shank, J.; Xu, Q.; Zhou, B.

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of the ATLAS precision muon detector element, the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT), to fast neutrons has been measured using a 5.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The major mechanism of neutron-induced signals in the drift tubes is the elastic collisions between the neutrons and the gas nuclei. The recoil nuclei lose kinetic energy in the gas and produce the signals. By measuring the ATLAS drift tube neutron-induced signal rate and the total neutron flux, the MDT neutron signal sensitivities were determined for different drift gas mixtures and for different neutron beam energies. We also developed a sophisticated simulation model to calculate the neutron-induced signal rate and signal spectrum for ATLAS MDT operation configurations. The calculations agree with the measurements very well. This model can be used to calculate the neutron sensitivities for different gaseous detectors and for neutron energies above those available to this experiment

  10. Phase sensitive diffraction sensor for high sensitivity refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Varma, Manoj; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    In this study a diffraction based sensor has been developed for bio molecular sensing applications and performing assays in real time. A diffraction grating fabricated on a glass substrate produced diffraction patterns both in transmission and reflection when illuminated by a laser diode. We used zeroth order I(0,0) as reference and first order I(0,1) as signal channel and conducted ratiometric measurements that reduced noise by more than 50 times. The ratiometric approach resulted in a very simple instrumentation with very high sensitivity. In the past, we have shown refractive index measurements both for bulk and surface adsorption using the diffractive self-referencing approach. In the current work we extend the same concept to higher diffraction orders. We have considered order I(0,1) and I(1,1) and performed ratiometric measurements I(0,1)/I(1,1) to eliminate the common mode fluctuations. Since orders I(0,1) and I(1,1) behaved opposite to each other, the resulting ratio signal amplitude increased more than twice compared to our previous results. As a proof of concept we used different salt concentrations in DI water. Increased signal amplitude and improved fluid injection system resulted in more than 4 times improvement in detection limit, giving limit of detection 1.3×10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) compared to our previous results. The improved refractive index sensitivity will help significantly for high sensitivity label free bio sensing application in a very cost-effective and simple experimental set-up.

  11. Measuring Ethical Sensitivity to Radio Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Robert F.

    A study examined whether ethical sensitivity can be measured in response to radio programming. The study was interested in the extent to which a person feels a program is unethical in either its substance or its presentation. Subjects, 17 undergraduates in telecommunications at a large midwestern university, received course credit for their…

  12. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between

  13. How can we measure insulin sensitivity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovorka, R.

    1999-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common in general population and prevalent in patients with obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity, reciprocal to insulin resistance, can be measured with a variety of experimental methods ranging from the 'gold' standard glucose clamp to the simple HOMA assessment. Each method has its merit and is applicable under different circumstances. Adoption of glucose tracers in the experimental protocols and more specifically in glucose clamp and minimal model allows hepatic vs. peripheral insulin sensitivity to be discriminated and estimated separately. The objective of this review is to give an account of the minimal modelling approach and provide summary information about other measurement methods together with information about reproducibility of the most popular methods, the minimal model and the glucose clamp techniques. (author)

  14. A new importance measure for sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiao; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty is an integral part of risk assessment of complex engineering systems, such as nuclear power plants and space crafts. The aim of sensitivity analysis is to identify the contribution of the uncertainty in model inputs to the uncertainty in the model output. In this study, a new importance measure that characterizes the influence of the entire input distribution on the entire output distribution was proposed. It represents the expected deviation of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the model output that would be obtained when one input parameter of interest were known. The applicability of this importance measure was tested with two models, a nonlinear nonmonotonic mathematical model and a risk model. In addition, a comparison of this new importance measure with several other importance measures was carried out and the differences between these measures were explained. (author)

  15. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss

    OpenAIRE

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, Silvania F.; Urbach, H. Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the...

  16. Measuring sensitivity in pharmacoeconomic studies. Refining point sensitivity and range sensitivity by incorporating probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, M J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe a refinement of a previously presented method, based on the concept of point sensitivity, to deal with uncertainty in economic studies. The original method was refined by the incorporation of probability distributions which allow a more accurate assessment of the level of uncertainty in the model. In addition, a bootstrap method was used to create a probability distribution for a fixed input variable based on a limited number of data points. The original method was limited in that the sensitivity measurement was based on a uniform distribution of the variables and that the overall sensitivity measure was based on a subjectively chosen range which excludes the impact of values outside the range on the overall sensitivity. The concepts of the refined method were illustrated using a Markov model of depression. The application of the refined method substantially changed the ranking of the most sensitive variables compared with the original method. The response rate became the most sensitive variable instead of the 'per diem' for hospitalisation. The refinement of the original method yields sensitivity outcomes, which greater reflect the real uncertainty in economic studies.

  17. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  18. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  19. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  20. Polarization Sensitive Coherent Raman Measurements of DCVJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Josiah; Cooper, Nathan; Lawhead, Carlos; Shiver, Tegan; Ujj, Laszlo

    2014-03-01

    Coherent Raman spectroscopy which recently developed into coherent Raman microscopy has been used to produce label free imaging of thin layers of material and find the spatial distributions of certain chemicals within samples, e.g. cancer cells.(1) Not all aspects of coherent scattering have been used for imaging. Among those for example are special polarization sensitive measurements. Therefore we have investigated the properties of polarization sensitive CARS spectra of a highly fluorescent molecule, DCVJ.(2) Spectra has been recorded by using parallel polarized and perpendicular polarized excitations. A special polarization arrangement was developed to suppress the non-resonant background scattering from the sample. These results can be used to improve the imaging properties of a coherent Raman microscope in the future. This is the first time coherent Raman polarization sensitive measurements have been used to characterize the vibrational modes of DCVJ. 1: K. I. Gutkowski, et al., ``Fluorescence of dicyanovinyl julolidine in a room temperature ionic liquid '' Chemical Physics Letters 426 (2006) 329 - 333 2: Fouad El-Diasty, ``Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: Spectroscopy and microscopy'' Vibrational Spectroscopy 55 (2011) 1-37

  1. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  2. High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, Anna; Ras, Arno; Bloemen, Pascal; Pereira, Silvania F; Urbach, H Paul; Varghese, Babu

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the two proposed methods using Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on ISO gloss calibration standards with an optical prototype. The performance and linearity of the method was compared with different professional gloss measurement devices based on the ratio of specular to diffuse intensity. We demonstrate the feasibility for in-vivo skin gloss measurements by quantifying the temporal evolution of skin gloss after application of standard paraffin cream bases on skin. The presented method opens new possibilities in the fields of cosmetology and dermatopharmacology for measuring the skin gloss and resorption kinetics and the pharmacodynamics of various external agents.

  3. PDF sensitivity studies from ATLAS measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, Remie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Several measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are either useful to constrain the proton structure or are affected by its associated uncertainties. The strange-quark density is rather poorly known at low x. Measurements of the W+c production and the inclusive W and Z differential cross sections are found to constrain the strange-quark density. Drell-Yan cross section measurements performed above and below the Z peak region have a different sensitivity to parton flavour, parton momentum fraction x and scale Q compared to measurements on the Z peak and can also be used to constrain the photon content of the proton. Measurements of the inclusive jet and photon cross sections are standard candles and can be useful to constrain the medium and high x gluon densities. Precision electroweak studies performed by ATLAS can be limited by the current knowledge on the proton structure. Among those are the measurement of the effective weak mixing angle and the mass of the W boson. Dedicated PDF studies were perf...

  4. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  5. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-09-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  6. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-08-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  7. Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S; Burguete, R L

    2010-01-01

    In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA

  8. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  9. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, Valentina, E-mail: v.raimondi@ifac.cnr.it [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Cucci, Costanza [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Cuzman, Oana [Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage-National Research Council (CNR-ICVBC), Firenze (Italy); Fornacelli, Cristina [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Galeotti, Monica [Opificio delle Pietre Dure (OPD), Firenze (Italy); Gomoiu, Ioana [National University of Art, Bucharest (Romania); Lognoli, David [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Mohanu, Dan [National University of Art, Bucharest (Romania); Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Tiano, Piero [Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage-National Research Council (CNR-ICVBC), Firenze (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm{sup 2} to 1 mJ/cm{sup 2} and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  10. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Cucci, Costanza; Cuzman, Oana; Fornacelli, Cristina; Galeotti, Monica; Gomoiu, Ioana; Lognoli, David; Mohanu, Dan; Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello; Tiano, Piero

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm2 to 1 mJ/cm2 and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  11. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Cucci, Costanza; Cuzman, Oana; Fornacelli, Cristina; Galeotti, Monica; Gomoiu, Ioana; Lognoli, David; Mohanu, Dan; Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello; Tiano, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm 2 to 1 mJ/cm 2 and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  12. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  13. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  14. Sensitive beam current measurement for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickert, Marcus; Kurian, Febin; Reeg, Hansjoerg [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Seidel, Paul; Neubert, Ralf [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Geithner, Rene; Vodel, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Presently FAIR, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, entered the final planning phase at GSI. The new accelerator facility requires precise devices for beam current measurements due to the large dynamics in beam intensities for the various synchrotrons, transport lines and storage rings. We report on the actual developments of beam diagnostic devices for the measurement of beam intensities ranging from 5 x 10{sup 11} uranium ions down to the detection of less than 10{sup 4} antiprotons. This contribution gives an overview of the planned instruments with a focus on non-intercepting beam current transformers, and summarizes the on-going development of a cryogenic current comparator.

  15. Culturally Sensitive and Environment-Friendly Outcome Measures in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    A systematic review of evidence on culturally sensitive and environment-friendly outcome measures in ..... which included manual grass cutting/hoeing, assuming the Islamic ... who opined that the starting point for any outcome measure is to ...

  16. On the Humidity Sensitivity of Hot-Wire Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Busch, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of humidity changes on hot-wire measurements is discussed. Indications are that the humidity sensitivity parameters obtained by the authors in an earlier paper should be changed. This means, however, that the agreement between predicted and measured sensitivities ceases to exist...

  17. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  18. Defects detection and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques in paintings: a unified approach through measurements of deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    The present study is focused on two topics. The first one is a mathematical model, useful to understand the deformation of paintings, which uses straining devices, adjustable and micrometrically controlled via a pin supported in a hollow cylinder. Strains were analyzed by holographic interferometry (HI) technique using an appropriate frame. The second one concerns the need to improve the conservator's knowledge about the defect's detection and defect's propagation in acrylic painting characterized of underdrawings and pentimenti. To fulfill this task, a sample was manufactured to clarify the several uncertainties inherent the influence of external factors on their conservation. Subsurface anomalies were also retrieved by near-infrared reflectography (NIRR) and transmittography (NIRT) techniques, using LED lamps and several narrow-band filters mounted on a CMOS camera, working at different wavelengths each other and in combination with UV imaging. In addition, a sponge glued on the rear side of the canvas was impregnated with a precise amount of water by means of a syringe to verify the "stretcher effect" by the digital speckle photography (DSP) technique (using MatPIV). The same effect also affects the sharp transition of the canvas at the stretcher's edge. In this case, a possible mechanism is a direct mechanical contact between stretcher and canvas that was investigated by HI technique. Finally, advanced algorithms applied to the square heating thermography (SHT) data were very useful to detect three Mylar® inserts simulating different type of defects. These fabricated defects were also identified by optical techniques, while the visual inspection was the only one capable of detecting a biological damage.

  19. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  20. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  1. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  2. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  3. Sensitivity of different ADL measures to apraxia and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkervoort, M; Dekker, Joost; Deelman, BG

    Objective: To determine whether specifically designed activities of daily living (ADL) observations can measure disability due to apraxia with more sensitivity than the Barthel ADL Index, a conventional functional scale. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation centres and nursing

  4. Sensitivity of different ADL measures to apraxia and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkervoort, M.; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether specifically designed activities of daily living (ADL) observations can measure disability due to apraxia with more sensitivity than the Barthel ADL Index, a conventional functional scale. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation centres and nursing

  5. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  6. Kinesthetic sensitivity and related measures of hand sensitivity in children with nonproficient handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Anne O'Leary; Jacobs, Anne Burleigh

    2011-01-01

    This study compared measures of hand sensitivity and handwriting quality in children aged 10 to 12 years identified by their teachers as having nonproficient or proficient handwriting. We hypothesized that children with nonproficient handwriting have decreased kinesthetic sensitivity of the hands and digits. Sixteen subjects without documented motor or cognitive concerns were tested for kinesthetic sensitivity, discriminate tactile awareness, diadochokinesia, stereognosis, and graphesthesia. Eight children were considered to have nonproficient handwriting; 8 had proficient handwriting. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify differences between groups on sensory tests. The 2 groups showed a statistically significant difference in handwriting legibility (P = .018). No significant difference was found on tests of kinesthetic sensitivity or other measures of sensation. Children presenting with handwriting difficulty as the only complaint have similar sensitivity in hands and digits as those with proficient handwriting. Failure to detect differences may result from a small sample size.

  7. Painting for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepto, G.G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  9. Highly sensitive straightness measurement system using a ball-lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minho; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Cho, Nahm-Gyoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple optical technique to accurately measure the straightness errors of a linear stage is proposed. To improve the performance, including the measurement sensitivity and resolution of the measurement system, and to simultaneously measure two-dimensional straightness errors (2D straightness errors), an optical system was designed using a laser, a retro-reflector, a ball-lens, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D PSD). The characteristics of the measurement system were analytically and experimentally investigated. A prototype measurement system was manufactured based on the investigated results, and the performances of this system have been tested. The measuring performance of the system was easily improved by about 12 times using the proposed technique and it can be further improved. It is shown that the proposed technique can easily and effectively improve the performance of a conventional straightness measurement system based on the geometric optical method using a PSD. (paper)

  10. Velocity-space sensitivity of neutron spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron emission spectrometry (NES) measures the energies of neutrons produced in fusion reactions. Here we present velocity-space weight functions for NES and neutron yield measurements. Weight functions show the sensitivity as well as the accessible regions in velocity space for a given range...

  11. Measurement and prediction of sensitization development in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Charlot, L.A.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1985-10-01

    The effects of thermal and thermomechanical treatments on sensitization development in Type 304 and 316 stainless steels have been measured and compared to model predictions. Sensitization development resulting from isothermal, continuous cooling and pipe welding treatments has been evaluated. An empirically-modified, theoretically-based model is shown to accurately predict material degree of sensitization (DOS) as expressed by the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test after both simple and complex treatments. Material DOS is also examined using analytical electron microscopy to document grain boundary chromium depletion and is compared to EPR test results. 9 refs., 13 figs

  12. Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, R.; Morais, P.J.; Gouveia, H.; Young, C.

    2006-01-01

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

  13. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four-point...... probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary......-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO....

  14. Variable screening and ranking using sampling-based sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y-T.; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for screening insignificant random variables and ranking significant important random variables using sensitivity measures including two cumulative distribution function (CDF)-based and two mean-response based measures. The methodology features (1) using random samples to compute sensitivities and (2) using acceptance limits, derived from the test-of-hypothesis, to classify significant and insignificant random variables. Because no approximation is needed in either the form of the performance functions or the type of continuous distribution functions representing input variables, the sampling-based approach can handle highly nonlinear functions with non-normal variables. The main characteristics and effectiveness of the sampling-based sensitivity measures are investigated using both simple and complex examples. Because the number of samples needed does not depend on the number of variables, the methodology appears to be particularly suitable for problems with large, complex models that have large numbers of random variables but relatively few numbers of significant random variables

  15. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their

  16. Applying DEA sensitivity analysis to efficiency measurement of Vietnamese universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of 30 doctorate-granting universities, the universities or the higher education institutes with PhD training programs, in Vietnam, applying the sensitivity analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA. The study uses eight sets of input-output specifications using the replacement as well as aggregation/disaggregation of variables. The measurement results allow us to examine the sensitivity of the efficiency of these universities with the sets of variables. The findings also show the impact of variables on their efficiency and its “sustainability”.

  17. Paint and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of paints used for industry, the arts, and hobbies. Years ago, lead and mercury were used in ... high amounts of toluene – higher exposure than a hobby or professional painter would likely have. I work ...

  18. Monte Carlo evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherenko, S. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.kucherenko@ic.ac.uk; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. [Process Engineering Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (C.S.I.C.), C/ Eduardo Cabello, 6, 36208 Vigo (Spain); Pantelides, C.; Shah, N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A novel approach for evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures (DGSM) is presented. It is compared with the Morris and the Sobol' sensitivity indices methods. It is shown that there is a link between DGSM and Sobol' sensitivity indices. DGSM are very easy to implement and evaluate numerically. The computational time required for numerical evaluation of DGSM is many orders of magnitude lower than that for estimation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices. It is also lower than that for the Morris method. Efficiencies of Monte Carlo (MC) and quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling methods for calculation of DGSM are compared. It is shown that the superiority of QMC over MC depends on the problem's effective dimension, which can also be estimated using DGSM.

  19. Monte Carlo evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, S.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.; Pantelides, C.; Shah, N.

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach for evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures (DGSM) is presented. It is compared with the Morris and the Sobol' sensitivity indices methods. It is shown that there is a link between DGSM and Sobol' sensitivity indices. DGSM are very easy to implement and evaluate numerically. The computational time required for numerical evaluation of DGSM is many orders of magnitude lower than that for estimation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices. It is also lower than that for the Morris method. Efficiencies of Monte Carlo (MC) and quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling methods for calculation of DGSM are compared. It is shown that the superiority of QMC over MC depends on the problem's effective dimension, which can also be estimated using DGSM.

  20. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. c.; Calderon, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs

  1. Culturally Sensitive and Environment-Friendly Outcome Measures in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    to review research studies on outcome measures that were developed for ... A systematic review of evidence on culturally sensitive and environment- ... Various databases including Google Scholar, PEDro and PubMed were accessed to search for relevant empirical ... utilization of disease-specific, patient-centered outcome.

  2. Importance measures in global sensitivity analysis of nonlinear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Saltelli, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with a new method of global sensitivity analysis of nonlinear models. This is based on a measure of importance to calculate the fractional contribution of the input parameters to the variance of the model prediction. Measures of importance in sensitivity analysis have been suggested by several authors, whose work is reviewed in this article. More emphasis is given to the developments of sensitivity indices by the Russian mathematician I.M. Sobol'. Given that Sobol' treatment of the measure of importance is the most general, his formalism is employed throughout this paper where conceptual and computational improvements of the method are presented. The computational novelty of this study is the introduction of the 'total effect' parameter index. This index provides a measure of the total effect of a given parameter, including all the possible synergetic terms between that parameter and all the others. Rank transformation of the data is also introduced in order to increase the reproducibility of the method. These methods are tested on a few analytical and computer models. The main conclusion of this work is the identification of a sensitivity analysis methodology which is both flexible, accurate and informative, and which can be achieved at reasonable computational cost

  3. Bayesian randomized item response modeling for sensitive measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avetisyan, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    In behavioral, health, and social sciences, any endeavor involving measurement is directed at accurate representation of the latent concept with the manifest observation. However, when sensitive topics, such as substance abuse, tax evasion, or felony, are inquired, substantial distortion of reported

  4. Online high sensitivity measurement system for transuranic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    A measurement system for transuranic aerosols has been designed that will be able to withstand the corrosive nature of stack effluents and yet have extremely high sensitivity. It will be capable of measuring 1 maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of plutonium or americium in 30 minutes with a fractional standard deviation of less than 0.33. Background resulting from 218 Po is eliminated by alpha energy discrimination and a decay scheme analysis. A microprocessor controls all data acquisition, data reduction, and instrument calibration

  5. Sensitivity of different ADL measures to apraxia and motor impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Donkervoort, M.; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether specifically designed activities of daily living (ADL) observations can measure disability due to apraxia with more sensitivity than the Barthel ADL Index, a conventional functional scale. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. Subjects: One hundred and six left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia, hospitalized in rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. Measures: ADL observations, Barthel ADL Index, an apraxia te...

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...... dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place....

  7. Monochromatic Measurements of the JPSS-1 VIIRS Polarization Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Waluschka, Eugene; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a critical property that must be characterized for spaceborne remote sensing instruments designed to measure reflected solar radiation. Broadband testing of the first Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS-1) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) showed unexpectedly large polarization sensitivities for the bluest bands on VIIRS (centered between 400 and 600 nm). Subsequent ray trace modeling indicated that large diattenuation on the edges of the bandpass for these spectral bands was the driver behind these large sensitivities. Additional testing using the National Institute of Standards and Technologies Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources was added to the test program to verify and enhance the model. The testing was limited in scope to two spectral bands at two scan angles; nonetheless, this additional testing provided valuable insight into the polarization sensitivity. Analysis has shown that the derived diattenuation agreed with the broadband measurements to within an absolute difference of about0.4 and that the ray trace model reproduced the general features of the measured data. Additionally, by deriving the spectral responsivity, the linear diattenuation is shown to be explicitly dependent on the changes in bandwidth with polarization state.

  8. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  9. Measurement Properties of the Central Sensitization Inventory: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerbo, Thomas; Colasurdo, Joseph; Dunn, Sally; Unger, Jacob; Nijs, Jo; Cook, Chad

    2018-04-01

    Central sensitization (CS) is a phenomenon associated with several medical diagnoses, including postcancer pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, whiplash, and fibromyalgia. CS involves an amplification of neural signaling within the central nervous system that results in pain hypersensitivity. The purpose of this systematic review was to gather published studies of a widely used outcome measure (the Central Sensitization Inventory [CSI]), determine the quality of evidence these publications reported, and examine the measurement properties of the CSI. Four databases were searched for publications from 2011 (when the CSI was developed) to July 2017. The Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was applied to evaluate methodological quality and risk of bias. In instances when COSMIN did not offer a scoring system for measurement properties, qualitative analyses were performed. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Quality of evidence examined with the COSMIN checklist was determined to be good to excellent for all studies for their respective measurement property reports. Interpretability measures were consistent when publications were analyzed qualitatively, and construct validity was strong when examined alongside other validated measures relating to CS. An assessment of the published measurement studies of the CSI suggest the tool generates reliable and valid data that quantify the severity of several symptoms of CS. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  10. The minimum measurable dose of the sensitive Harshaw TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1991-01-01

    The TL-dose response was measured for the sensitive Harshaw manufactured phosphors (CaF 2 :Dy and CaF 2 :Tm), taking chips from the same batch and from different batches. The relative standard deviations were fitted to a semiempirical expression, from which the minimum measurable doses were derived and compared to the minimum measurable dose calculated by taking 3 times the standard deviation of unirradiated chips. The contribution of the individual calibration of each TLD chip was checked, as well

  11. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori eMizokami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  12. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  13. Painting for nuclear power stations and machinery and equipments according to quality assurance program of ANSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Shinzo; Tsuchiya, Yukikazu.

    1979-01-01

    Recently, painting for nuclear power stations is carried out with the paints made domestically, and these paints are tested and judged generally according to the items of performance evaluation decided by the American National Standard Institute. In Japan, there is no standard regarding the paints for nuclear power stations. Painting is very important process, and it is appropriate to introduce quality assurance program into it. In this paper, the contents of ANSI standard concerning the paints and painting for nuclear power stations are explained, and the outline of the painting of heat exchangers carried out in accordance with the quality assurance program in the Tamano Shipyard, Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., is described. The test items for evaluating the general performance of the paints, the testing method for evaluating the endurance at the time of an accident, the quality assurance for the paints used for the facilities handling radiation and others are explained. Various problems arise when the quality assurance program of ANSI is applied actually to painting. It is difficult to judge the quality of paints and painting with numerical values, and much efforts were required to establish the quality assurance organization. The conditions for painting, the handling of many documents, the measures to unsatisfactory painting and so on caused much difficulties. (Kako, I.)

  14. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. ...... simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.......We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We...

  15. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  16. Surrogate indicators of sensitivity in gynecologic cytology: Can they be used to improve the measurement of sensitivity in the laboratory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renshaw Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring the sensitivity of screening in gynecologic cytology in real life is problematic. However, other quality measures may correlate with sensitivity, including the atypical squamous cells (ASC/squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL ratio. Whether these other measures can function as "surrogate indicators" for sensitivity and improve the assessment of sensitivity in the laboratory is not known. Materials and Methods: We compared multiple quality measures with true screening sensitivity in a variety of situations. Results: The abnormal rate, ASC rate, and ASC/SIL ratio were all highly correlated (r = .83 or greater with sensitivity when the overall laboratory sensitivity was low (85% but became less correlated (.64 or less or uncorrelated when the screening sensitivity was higher (88% or 95%, respectively. Sensitivity was more highly correlated with the abnormal rate than the ASC/SIL ratio at low screening sensitivity. While thresholds could be set that were highly sensitive and specific for suboptimal screening, these thresholds were often less than one standard deviation away from the mean. Conclusion: The correlation of the abnormal rate and the ASC/SIL ratio with sensitivity depends on overall sensitivity. Standards to define minimum screening sensitivity can be defined, but these standards are relatively narrow. These features may limit the utility of these quality measures as surrogates for sensitivity.

  17. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source ( 239 PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  18. Sensitivity of bronchial responsiveness measurements in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Lotte; Buchvald, Frederik F; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt

    2006-01-01

    of 402 infants (median age, 6 weeks). Forced flow-volume measurements were obtained by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique and were compared with indexes of tidal breathing, measurements of transcutaneous oxygen (Ptco(2)), and auscultation during methacholine challenge testing....... RESULTS: Ptco(2) was the most sensitive parameter to detect increasing airway obstruction during methacholine challenge, followed by forced expiratory volume at 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). Both were superior to other indexes of forced spirometry as well as tidal breathing indexes and auscultation. Coefficients...

  19. Imagined memories of painting

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Maia Schmidt, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Pintura, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 A Tese é compsota por dois volumes, um em portugês, outro em inglês Visual imagery, narratives and locations have always been linked to the study of memory. Memory has always been linked to art history and historical shifts in the study of memory had a direct impact on the history of painting. Painting was based on stories and served to make those stories memorable. Since then there have been numerous inve...

  20. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available , and have doubts about it, you are wel- come to contact the NBRl for advice. It is always best when buying a paint system to select the products of a single manufacturer. the grain as it dries. Several coats can be used to give a high-gloss finish... rendering Those who have lived on a farm will probably remember how surplus fat used to be treated with an alkali to make soap. The same thing can happen at the point where some oil paints come in contact with the wall. The alkali, which is always...

  1. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  2. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  3. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  4. A Bayesian ensemble of sensitivity measures for severe accident modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Department of Basic Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Di Maio, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaio@polimi.it [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Vagnoli, Matteo [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Chair on System Science and Energetic Challenge, Fondation EDF – Electricite de France Ecole Centrale, Paris, and Supelec, Paris (France); Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We propose a sensitivity analysis (SA) method based on a Bayesian updating scheme. • The Bayesian updating schemes adjourns an ensemble of sensitivity measures. • Bootstrap replicates of a severe accident code output are fed to the Bayesian scheme. • The MELCOR code simulates the fission products release of LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment. • Results are compared with those of traditional SA methods. - Abstract: In this work, a sensitivity analysis framework is presented to identify the relevant input variables of a severe accident code, based on an incremental Bayesian ensemble updating method. The proposed methodology entails: (i) the propagation of the uncertainty in the input variables through the severe accident code; (ii) the collection of bootstrap replicates of the input and output of limited number of simulations for building a set of finite mixture models (FMMs) for approximating the probability density function (pdf) of the severe accident code output of the replicates; (iii) for each FMM, the calculation of an ensemble of sensitivity measures (i.e., input saliency, Hellinger distance and Kullback–Leibler divergence) and the updating when a new piece of evidence arrives, by a Bayesian scheme, based on the Bradley–Terry model for ranking the most relevant input model variables. An application is given with respect to a limited number of simulations of a MELCOR severe accident model describing the fission products release in the LP-FP-2 experiment of the loss of fluid test (LOFT) facility, which is a scaled-down facility of a pressurized water reactor (PWR).

  5. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  6. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1CIDEPINT (CONICET–CICPBA): Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Tecnología de Pinturas,. Calle 52e/121 y 122, .... plus SOFTCORR 352 software. 2.2 Experimental paints ..... tigaciones Científicas y Técnicas), CICPBA (Comisión de.

  7. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  8. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...

  9. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  10. Painting Patterns with Pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerg, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art unit for middle school students where they created their own original pattern through the use of "ClarisWorks Paint." Discusses the procedure for the project and the evaluation used at the end of the unit. Emphasizes the importance of learning about computers. (CMK)

  11. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  12. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Özben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Levi Sandri, P.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Jülich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10 -5 for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10 -6 in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.

  13. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantjes, N.P.M. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dzordzhadze, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gebel, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gonnella, F. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Gray, F.E. [Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Hoek, D.J. van der [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Imig, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kruithof, W.L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Lazarus, D.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Messi, R. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Moricciani, D. [INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Morse, W.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Noid, G.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); and others

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10{sup -5} for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10{sup -6} in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.

  14. Wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier for extremely high sensitivity continuous measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier based on the series of an integrator and a differentiator stage, having an additional feedback loop to discharge the standing current from the device under test (DUT) to ensure an unlimited measuring time opportunity when compared to switched discharge configurations while maintaining a large signal amplification over the full bandwidth. The amplifier shows a flat response from 0.6 Hz to 1.4 MHz, the capability to operate with leakage currents from the DUT as high as tens of nanoamperes, and rail-to-rail dynamic range for sinusoidal current signals independent of the DUT leakage current. Also available is a monitor output of the stationary current to track experimental slow drifts. The circuit is ideal for noise spectral and impedance measurements of nanodevices and biomolecules when in the presence of a physiological medium and in all cases where high sensitivity current measurements are requested such as in scanning probe microscopy systems.

  15. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  16. Measurement of neutron sensitivity of self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahant, A.K.; Yeshuraja, V.; Ghodke, Shobha

    2005-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs ) will form the part of Reactor Instrumentation in the upcoming 500 MWe power reactors. ECIL has developed Vanadium and Cobalt SPNDs for NPCIL to be used in regulation and protection channels. Experimental determination of neutron sensitivity of the vanadium and cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) was carried out in A-l location of Apsara reactor at BARC. The measurements involved determination of total detector signal, its various components and the thermal neutron flux at the detector location. The paper describes the experimental techniques used to measure various parameters required to evaluate the neutron sensitivity of the SPNDs and also the parameters required to ascertain the integrity of SPNDs. Neutron flux measurement was done by gold foil irradiation technique. The predominant signal component from the vanadium SPND is Ib the current due to activation of the vanadium emitter, it forms about 85% of the total signal. The other components I n,γ due to the capture gamma rays of 52 V and I externalγ produced by the external reactor gamma rays contribute about 10% and 5% respectively to the total signal. Whereas in the cobalt SPND the main signal component is due to the capture gamma rays of 60 Co and accounts for about the 95% of the total signal. Remaining 5% signal is due to external reactor gamma rays. (author)

  17. Sensitive measurement of positron emitters eluted from HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Makoto; Kida, Takayo; Suzuki, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    For sensitive analysis of the radioactive-metabolite in human PET, a radio-HPLC system coupled to a newly designed positron detector was constructed. The detector had the advantages of low noise level (1.7±1.0 cpm) and high sensitivity (32±1%) due to coincidence counting and large BGO crystals. Furthermore, the detector was easy to move, since a pair of the BGO housings coupled to photomultipliers was effectively arranged in parallel and a HPLC cell with different volume could be inserted between the BGO housing. This radio-HPLC system was useful for analyzing samples with low radioactivity. It was applied to the measurement of [ 11 C]FLB457 in plasma, having high affinity and high selectivity with dopamine D2 receptors. Extremely low radioactivity of [ 11 C]FLB457 (2500 dpm) could be analyzed by using the radio-HPLC system. The performance of this detector was compared with those of commercially available systems that had been used as sensitive detectors for HPLC

  18. Sensitivity of different ADL measures to apraxia and motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkervoort, Mireille; Dekker, Joost; Deelman, Betto G

    2002-05-01

    To determine whether specifically designed activities of daily living (ADL) observations can measure disability due to apraxia with more sensitivity than the Barthel ADL Index, a conventional functional scale. Cross-sectional study. Rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. One hundred and six left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia, hospitalized in rehabilitation centres and nursing homes. ADL observations, Barthel ADL Index, an apraxia test, Motricity Index, Functional Motor Test. Multivariate analyses showed that the specific ADL observations were associated with severity of apraxia (and not with motor impairments). The Barthel ADL Index was associated with motor impairments (and not with severity of apraxia). The assessment of disability in stroke patients with apraxia cannot rely only on the Barthel ADL Index. In addition, the specific ADL observation procedure is needed to measure disability due to apraxia.

  19. Psychophysical measures of sensitivity to facial expression of emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMarneweck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of two simple, objective, psychophysical measures of the ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion that vary in intensity from a neutral facial expression and to discriminate between varying intensities of emotional facial expression. The stimuli were created by morphing photographs of models expressing four basic emotions, anger, disgust, happiness and sadness with neutral expressions. Psychometric functions were obtained for 15 healthy young adults using the Method of Constant Stimuli with a two-interval forced-choice procedure. Individual data points were fitted by Quick functions for each task and each emotion, allowing estimates of absolute thresholds and slopes. The tasks give objective and sensitive measures of the basic perceptual abilities required for perceiving and interpreting emotional facial expressions.

  20. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  1. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co 60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we

  2. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  3. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  4. Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, Ethan; Udpa, Lalita; Smith, James A.; Wachs, Katelyn

    2016-07-01

    Determining Confounding Sensitivities In Eddy Current Thin Film Measurements Ethan Gros, Lalita Udpa, Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 James A. Smith, Experiment Analysis, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 Eddy current (EC) techniques are widely used in industry to measure the thickness of non-conductive films on a metal substrate. This is done using a system whereby a coil carrying a high-frequency alternating current is used to create an alternating magnetic field at the surface of the instrument's probe. When the probe is brought near a conductive surface, the alternating magnetic field will induce ECs in the conductor. The substrate characteristics and the distance of the probe from the substrate (the coating thickness) affect the magnitude of the ECs. The induced currents load the probe coil affecting the terminal impedance of the coil. The measured probe impedance is related to the lift off between coil and conductor as well as conductivity of the test sample. For a known conductivity sample, the probe impedance can be converted into an equivalent film thickness value. The EC measurement can be confounded by a number of measurement parameters. It is the goal of this research to determine which physical properties of the measurement set-up and sample can adversely affect the thickness measurement. The eddy current testing is performed using a commercially available, hand held eddy current probe (ETA3.3H spring loaded eddy probe running at 8 MHz) that comes with a stand to hold the probe. The stand holds the probe and adjusts the probe on the z-axis to help position the probe in the correct area as well as make precise measurements. The signal from the probe is sent to a hand held readout, where the results are recorded directly in terms of liftoff or film thickness. Understanding the effect of certain factors on the measurements of film thickness, will help to evaluate how accurate the ETA3.3H spring

  5. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  6. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  7. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  8. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  9. Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-11

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  10. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Jobe, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  11. Applications of optical coherence tomography in the non-contact assessment of automotive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Samuel; Zhang, Jinke; Williams, Bryan M.; Zheng, Yalin; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2017-06-01

    The multiple layer paint systems on modern cars serve two end purposes, they firstly protect against corrosion and secondly give the desired visual appearance. To ensure consistent corrosion protection and appearance, suitable Quality Assurance (QA) measures on the final product are required. Various (layer thickness and consistency, layer composition, flake statistics, surface profile and layer dryness) parameters are of importance, each with specific techniques that can measure one or some of them but no technique that can measure all or most of them. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3D imaging technique with micrometre resolution. Since 2016, OCT measurements of layer thickness and consistency, layer composition fingerprint and flake statistics have been reported. In this paper we demonstrate two more novel applications of OCT to automotive paints. Firstly, we use OCT to quantify unwanted surface texture, which leads to an "orange peel" visual defect. This was done by measuring the surface profiles of automotive paints, with an unoptimised precision of 37 nm over lateral range of 7 mm, to quantify texture of less than 500 nm. Secondly, we demonstrate that OCT can measure how dry a coating layer is by measuring how fast it is still shrinking quasiinstantaneously, using Fourier phase sensitivity.

  12. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  13. Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, K.; Dik, J.; Leeuw, M.; Whitson, A. den; Tortora, J.; Coan, P.; Nemoz, C.; Bravin, A.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

  14. PET imaging for the quantification of biologically heterogeneous tumours: measuring the effect of relative position on image-based quantification of dose-painting targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, Keisha C; Barbee, David L; Kissick, Michael W; Jeraj, Robert

    2010-01-01

    measurement of contrast recovery values which were larger than 30%. However, the magnitudes of the errors were found to depend on the size of the sphere and method of image reconstruction. The error values from standard OSEM images of the 5 mm diameter sphere were 20-35%, and for the 10 mm diameter sphere were 5-10%. The position-dependent variation of contrast recovery can result in changes in spatial distribution within images of heterogeneous tumours. In experiments simulating random set-up errors during imaging of two HN patients, the expectation value of the correlation was ∼1.0 for these tumours; however, Pearson correlation coefficient values as low as 0.8 were observed. Moreover, variations within the images can drastically change the delineation of biological target volumes. The errors in target delineation were more prominent in very heterogeneous tumours. As an example, in a pair of images with a correlation of 0.8, there was a 36% change in the volume of the dose-painting target delineated at 50%-of-max-SUV (ROI 50% ). The results of these studies indicate that the contrast recovery and spatial distributions of tracer within PET images are susceptible to changes in the position of the patient/tumour at the time of imaging. As such, random set-up errors in HN patients can result in reduced correlation between subsequent image-studies of the same tumour.

  15. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges

  16. Rapid and sensitive measure of gluconeogenesis in isolated bovine hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azain, M.J.; Kasser, T.R.; Atwell, C.A.; Baile, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Available methods for determining glucose synthesis from radiolabelled precursors using ion exchange column chromatography limit the number of samples that can be processed. To facilitate this process, a rapid method for determining glucose synthesis from 3-carbon precursors was developed using suspensions of anion and cation exchange resins. Hepatocytes were prepared from calf liver by collagenase perfusion of the caudate lobe. Isolated cells were incubated with 14 C-labelled lactate or propionate in the presence or absence of glucagen and/or palmitate. Glucose synthesis was determined by vortexing an aliquot of cell suspension with a 50% slurry of anion exchange resin (acetate form), followed by cation exchange resin. After centrifugation 14 C-glucose was recovered in the supernatant and measured by scintillation counting. Using this method, more than 95% of unused labelled precursor was bound to the ion exchange resin and essentially 100% of 14 C-glucose tracer was recovered in the supernatant. In hepatocyte suspensions, radioactivity recovered in the supernatants was confirmed to be glucose by pre-incubating aliquots of media with glucose oxidase prior to addition of ion exchange resins. The present system allows determination of hepatic gluconeogenesis, is sensitive to substrate and hormonal manipulations and has the capacity for processing several hundred samples per day

  17. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C. S. C.; Borges, V. F.; Freitas, S.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L. O.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48+/-0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (PgCyr-1) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06+/-0.1PgCyr-1) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25+/-0.14PgCyr-1, which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39+/-0.10PgCyr-1 previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  18. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S.; Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F.; Labrador, A.; Pradell, T.

    2008-01-01

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10μm for FT-IR and 30 to 50 μm squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  19. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F. [CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Labrador, A. [LLS, BM16-ESRF, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pradell, T. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10{mu}m for FT-IR and 30 to 50 {mu}m squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  20. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  1. Measures of uncertainty, importance and sensitivity of the SEDA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.; Caruso, A.; Vinate, H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the estimation of the uncertainty on the results of the SEDA code (Sistema de Evaluacion de Dosis en Accidentes) in accordance with the input data and its parameters. The SEDA code has been developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica for the estimation of doses during emergencies in the vicinity of Atucha and Embalse, nuclear power plants. The user should feed the code with meteorological data, source terms and accident data (timing involved, release height, thermal content of the release, etc.) It is designed to be used during the emergency, and to bring fast results that enable to make decisions. The uncertainty in the results of the SEDA code is quantified in the present paper. This uncertainty is associated both with the data the user inputs to the code, and with the uncertain parameters of the code own models. The used method consisted in the statistical characterization of the parameters and variables, assigning them adequate probability distributions. These distributions have been sampled with the Latin Hypercube Sampling method, which is a stratified multi-variable Monte-Carlo technique. The code has been performed for each of the samples and finally, a result sample has been obtained. These results have been characterized from the statistical point of view (obtaining their mean, most probable value, distribution shape, etc.) for several distances from the source. Finally, the Partial Correlation Coefficients and Standard Regression Coefficients techniques have been used to obtain the relative importance of each input variable, and the Sensitivity of the code to its variations. The measures of Importance and Sensitivity have been obtained for several distances from the source and various cases of atmospheric stability, making comparisons possible. This paper allowed to confide in the results of the code, and the association of their uncertainty to them, as a way to know the limits in which the results can vary in a real

  2. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  3. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Y; Baz, A; Aldraihem, O

    2012-01-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  4. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite α-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4ṡ2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  5. Prediction of optical properties of paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurikovič, Roman; Ágošton, Tomaš

    2007-09-01

    The field of predictive rendering concerns itself with those methods of image synthesis which yield results that do not only look real, but are also radiometrically correct renditions of nature, i.e., which are accurate predictions of what a real scene would look like under given lighting conditions. A real coating consists of pigments, effect pigments, clear lacquer and glaze. A novel and unique combination of real parameters that are commonly measured in the industry and a theoretical reflectance model consisting of measurable parameters is required. Here, the authors design perception parameters and put them into well known surface reflection functions such as He and Torrance. The original contributions are the study of the sub-surface scattering of real paint and the prediction of its appearance in rendered images by the proposed model of light reflection beneath the paint surface.

  6. Variance estimation for sensitivity analysis of poverty and inequality measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of poverty and inequality are often based on application of a single equivalence scale, despite the fact that a large number of different equivalence scales can be found in the literature. This paper describes a framework for sensitivity analysis which can be used to account for the variability of equivalence scales and allows to derive variance estimates of results of sensitivity analysis. Simulations show that this method yields reliable estimates. An empirical application reveals that accounting for both variability of equivalence scales and sampling variance leads to confidence intervals which are wide.

  7. Sensitivity of charge transport measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    an intuitive, visual explanation for experimental misassignment of carrier type in n-type ZnO and agree with published experimental results for holes in a uniform material. These results simplify calculation and plotting of the sensitivities on an N x N grid from a problem of order N5 to one of order N3...

  8. Technique for Measuring Speed and Visual Motion Sensitivity in Lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kevin L.; Burke, Darren

    2008-01-01

    Testing sensory characteristics on herpetological species has been difficult due to a range of properties related to physiology, responsiveness, performance ability, and the type of reinforcer used. Using the Jacky lizard as a model, we outline a successfully established procedure in which to test the visual sensitivity to motion characteristics.…

  9. A measure-valued differentiation approach to sensitivities of quantiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidergott, B.F.; Volk-Makarewicz, W.

    2016-01-01

    Quantiles play an important role in modelling quality of service in the service industry and in modelling risk in the financial industry. The recent discovery that efficient simulation-based estimators can be obtained for quantile sensitivities has led to an intensive search for sample-path

  10. A simple procedure for measuring pharyngeal sensitivity: a contribution to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Dematteis, M; Levy, P; Pepin, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe apnoea may have an impaired pharyngeal dilating reflex related to decreased pharyngeal sensitivity. The accuracy of a simple new procedure to measure pharyngeal sensitivity and to diagnose sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was investigated.

  11. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  12. Drop weight impact measurements of HE sensitivity: modified detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D N; Brown, G W; Tappan, B C; Oshwald, D M; Koby, J R; Schoonover, M L

    2014-01-01

    High explosives small-scale sensitivity testing has been a hallmark of safety screening since WWII. Sensitivity testing was once crude and simple; broom sticks were used to scrape explosives on the floor while experimenters would look, listen, and smell for signs of a reaction. Since then, a wide variety of testing apparatus have been developed to explore the effects of different stimuli on explosives. In concert with the development of the machines themselves, the reaction detection methods have also evolved. This paper's focus is on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) drop weight impact machine and reaction detection methods. A critical evaluation of results is presented with cautionary examples of false positives that can occur with non-explosive materials.

  13. How Sensitive is Intergenerational Earnings Mobility to Different Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; D. Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The article provides various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility based on Danish administrative register information. The aim is to calculate how sensitive the results are to different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components enabling the most accurate cross country comp...... find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found higher than in the UK and USA....

  14. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  15. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, Isabella; Massanisso, Paolo; Cremisini, Carlo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Fantini, Michele; Morabito, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides [it

  16. The abstract unconscious in painting

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David

    2009-01-01

    The Abstract Unconscious in Painting addresses painting as experiential process, critically examining the psychological factors involved in the formation of imagery as it emerges through imaginative responses to the process of mark making and the structuring of space and form. The paper sets this process in relation to theoretical material drawn from Jungian and Post Jungian Psychology ( Avens, 1980; Hillman, 1975) the arts ( Gombrich, 1960; Kuspit, 2000; McKeever, 2005; Worringer, 1908) and ...

  17. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  18. Cross-Sensitivity Of Aethalometer Measurements To Relative Humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2005-03-01

    Absorptive light reduction by atmospheric aerosols is important with respect to their climate forcing. An instrument to measure light absorption is the aethalometer, which is routinely used to measure the attenuation of light transmitted through aerosol-laden fibre filters. Measurements have shown that the condensable gases require a correction for artefacts. We present the first corrections for hydrophobic Palas soot-laden filters for the whole humidity range, enhancing the accuracy of aethalometer datasets. (author)

  19. Sensitive measurement of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R D; Watson, R A; Daintree, E J; Hopkins, J; Lasenby, A N; Beckman, J; Sanchez-Almeida, J; Rebolo, R

    1987-04-02

    Extensive high sensitivity observations of the cosmic microwave background have been made on an angular scale of 8/sup 0/ covering a substantial fraction of the northern sky. An observed anisotropy in the sky emission at a level of ..delta..T/T = 3.7 x 10/sup -5/ has been detected (T is temperature). This level should strictly be interpreted as an upper limit to the cosmic microwave background fluctuations. It is possibly the direct imprint of density perturbations in the early Universe.

  20. Sensitive measurement of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.D.; Watson, R.A.; Daintree, E.J.; Hopkins, J.; Lasenby, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive high sensitivity observations of the cosmic microwave background have been made on an angular scale of 8 0 covering a substantial fraction of the northern sky. An observed anisotropy in the sky emission at a level of ΔT/T = 3.7 x 10 -5 has been detected (T is temperature). This level should strictly be interpreted as an upper limit to the cosmic microwave background fluctuations. It is possibly the direct imprint of density perturbations in the early Universe. (author)

  1. Cylinder gauge measurement using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, W. Doyle

    2007-01-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) has been used to determine the diameter of cylindrical pins based on the shift in a laser beam's centroid. The centroid of the light beam is defined here as the weighted average of position by the local intensity. A shift can be observed in the centroid of an otherwise axially symmetric light beam, which is partially obstructed. Additionally, the maximum shift in the centroid is a unique function of the obstructing cylinder diameter. Thus to determine the cylinder diameter, one only needs to detect this maximum shift as the cylinder is swept across the beam

  2. Measurements of Pressure of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter Using Pressure-Sensitive Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inose, Naoto; Ide, Masao

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes measurements of pressures at the focal region of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL) using pressure-sensitive papers. At the focal region of ESWL, ordinary hydrophones are quickly damaged, because of very high pressures. Recently, measurements of pressure at the focal region of ESWL using pressure-sensitive paper have been advised. Therefore, we have studied the effectiveness of pressure-sensitive papers in the measurement of high acoustic pressures at the focal region of ESWL.

  3. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  4. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Monitor Stress Kinetics in Drying Process of Commercial Latex Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo de Lourenço

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 μm to 21 μm in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint, and one part paint and one part water (50% paint. It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 μm and 10.4 μm were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings.

  5. Optimization of Robotic Spray Painting process Parameters using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidhambara, K. V.; Latha Shankar, B.; Vijaykumar

    2018-02-01

    Automated spray painting process is gaining interest in industry and research recently due to extensive application of spray painting in automobile industries. Automating spray painting process has advantages of improved quality, productivity, reduced labor, clean environment and particularly cost effectiveness. This study investigates the performance characteristics of an industrial robot Fanuc 250ib for an automated painting process using statistical tool Taguchi’s Design of Experiment technique. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array by considering three factors and five levels for each factor. The objective of this work is to explore the major control parameters and to optimize the same for the improved quality of the paint coating measured in terms of Dry Film thickness(DFT), which also results in reduced rejection. Further Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is performed to know the influence of individual factors on DFT. It is observed that shaping air and paint flow are the most influencing parameters. Multiple regression model is formulated for estimating predicted values of DFT. Confirmation test is then conducted and comparison results show that error is within acceptable level.

  6. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer has been constructed and tested. Coupling to gravity signals is obtained by having two superconducting proof masses modulate magnetic fields produced by persistent currents. The induced electrical currents are differenced by a passive superconducting circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device. The experimental behavior of this device has been shown to follow the theoretical model closely in both signal transfer and noise characteristics. While its intrinsic noise level is shown to be 0.07 E Hz/sup -1/2/ (1 Eequivalent10/sup -9/ sec/sup -2/), the actual performance of the gravity gradiometer on a passive platform has been limited to 0.3--0.7 E Hz/sup -1/2/ due to its coupling to the environmental noise. The detailed structure of this excess noise is understood in terms of an analytical error model of the instrument. The calibration of the gradiometer has been obtained by two independent methods: by applying a linear acceleration and a gravity signal in two different operational modes of the instrument. This device has been successfully operated as a detector in a new null experiment for the gravitational inverse-square law. In this paper we report the design, fabrication, and detailed test results of the superconducting gravity gradiometer. We also present additional theoretical analyses which predict the specific dynamic behavior of the gradiometer and of the test

  7. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ozben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Sandri, P. Levi; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY

  8. Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraparprachoom, N.; Mishima, K.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (∼80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

  9. Materials with low DC magnetic susceptibility for sensitive magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, R; Kendrick, R; Khosravi, M; Peters, M; Smith, E; Snow, W M; Dennis, L

    2016-01-01

    Materials with very low DC magnetic susceptibility have many scientific applications. To our knowledge however, relatively little research has been conducted with the goal to produce a totally nonmagnetic material. This phrase in our case means after spatially averaging over macroscopic volumes, it possesses an average zero DC magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the DC magnetic susceptibility of three different types of nonmagnetic materials at room temperature: (I) solutions of paramagnetic salts and diamagnetic liquids, (II) liquid gallium–indium alloys and (III) pressed powder mixtures of tungsten and bismuth. The lowest measured magnetic susceptibility among these candidate materials is in the order of 10 −9 cgs volume susceptibility units, about two orders of magnitude smaller than distilled water. In all cases, the measured concentration dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is consistent with that expected for the weighted sum of the susceptibilities of the separate components within experimental error. These results verify the well-known Wiedemann additivity law for the magnetic susceptibility of inert mixtures of materials and thereby realize the ability to produce materials with small but tunable magnetic susceptibility. For our particular scientific application, we are also looking for materials with the largest possible number of neutrons and protons per unit volume. The gallium–indium alloys fabricated and measured in this work possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature liquid, and the tungsten-bismuth pressed powder mixtures possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature solid. This ratio is a figure of merit for a certain class of precision experiments that search for possible exotic spin-dependent forces of Nature. (paper)

  10. Fatigue is a reliable, sensitive and unique outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minnock, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in patients with RA. Measurement of fatigue in clinical trials and in clinical practice requires scales that are reproducible, sensitive to change and practical. This study examined the reliability and sensitivity to change of fatigue and its relative independence as an outcome measure in RA.

  11. Regulating antifouling paints for leisure boats - a patchwork of rules across three Baltic Sea countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymenvaara, Sara; Anker, Helle Tegner; Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how the use of antifouling paints for leisure boats is regulated in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. All three countries appear to apply a somewhat fragmented approach to the different matters related to antifouling paints, including environmental quality (e.g. water quality...... sufficient measures and conduct. Environmental protection regulation, including waste legislation, generally excludes smaller leisure boat marinas and boat clubs from permitting and waste management requirements. In product regulation, the authorisation and/or restriction rules of antifouling paints...

  12. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the behavioural and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task—administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioural data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain’s attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings.

  13. Sensitive and simple method for measuring wire tensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Mishina, M.

    1982-08-01

    Measuring tension of wires in drift chambers and multiwire proportional chambers after construction is an important process because sometimes wires get loose after soldering, crimping or glueing. One needs to sort out wires which have tensions below a required minimum value to prevent electrostatic instabilities. There have been several methods reported on this subject in which the wires were excited either with sinusoidal current under magnetic field or with sinusoidal voltage electrostatically coupled to the wire, searching for a resonating frequency with which the wires vibrate mechanically. Then the vibration is detected either visually, optically or with magnetic pick-up directly touching the wires. Any of these is only applicable to the usual multiwire chamber which has open access to the wire plane. They also need fairly large excitation currents to induce a detectable vibration to the wires. Here we report a very simple method that can be used for any type of wire chamber or proportional tube system for measuring wire tension. Only a very small current is required for the wire excitation to obtain a large enough signal because it detects the induced emf voltage across a wire. A sine-wave oscillator and a digital voltmeter are sufficient devices aside from a permanent magnet to provide the magnetic field around the wire. A useful application of this method to a large system is suggested

  14. Can extremely enhanced clinical sensitivity to radiotherapy be detected by measuring chromosomal damage in lymphocytes in vitro?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Gebhart, E.; Neubauer, S.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in patients with extreme acute and chronic reactions after curative radiotherapy under the assumption of increased genetic radiosensitivity. 16 patients were retrospectively examined 1 to 108 months after radiotherapy. All had undergone definitive or postoperative curative radiotherapy for cancer. None of them had known genetic disorders with increased radiosensitivity. 4 patients were considered as having probably increased radiosensitivity; they had shown poor tolerance to radiotherapy (1 severe acute reaction with cessation of radiotherapy in bladder cancer and subsequent bladder shrinkage after 45 Gy, 1 acute skin reaction well above average with subsequent fibrosis after irradiation for regional recurrence of breast cancer, 1 radiation myelitis after palliative irradiation with 5 x 5 Gy for lung cancer, 1 severe acute reaction after mediastinal irradiation for lung cancer). 12 patients were considered as having normal tolerance to radiotherapy. They had tolerated radiotherapy well with normal acute reactions and no or minimal signs of late radiation sequelae. Lymphocyte cultures were prepared from all patients and irradiated with 0.7 and 2 Gy, respectively; 1 culture served as control (0 Gy). Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were stained using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with a 3-colour-chromosome-in-situ suppression technique. Chromosomal breaks were counted in 200 to 1000 mitoses. The 4 patients with increased clinical radiation sensitivity showed also increased chromosomal radiation induced damage as compared to the 12 patients with normal radiation tolerance. Patients with increased clinical radiosensitivity exhibited increased chromosomal damage in lymphocytes in vitro measured with chromosome painting with a FISH-technique. This technique may be used to detect patients with severely enhanced radiosensitivity. The results suggest that if radiosensitivity is abnormally elevated this may be

  15. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  16. A Sensitive Measurement for Estimating Impressions of Image-Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mie; Matouge, Shingo; Mori, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Noboru; Kasuga, Masao

    We have investigated Kansei Content that appeals maker's intention to viewer's kansei. An SD method is a very good way to evaluate subjective impression of image-contents. However, because the SD method is performed after subjects view the image-contents, it is difficult to examine impression of detailed scenes of the image-contents in real time. To measure viewer's impression of the image-contents in real time, we have developed a Taikan sensor. With the Taikan sensor, we investigate relations among the image-contents, the grip strength and the body temperature. We also explore the interface of the Taikan sensor to use it easily. In our experiment, a horror movie is used that largely affects emotion of the subjects. Our results show that there is a possibility that the grip strength increases when the subjects view a strained scene and that it is easy to use the Taikan sensor without its circle base that is originally installed.

  17. Measurements of the sensitivity of radiochromic film using ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, J. A.; Shortino, J. P.; Ellison, D. M.; Freeman, C. G.; Sangster, T. C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is used in several diagnostics as a dosimeter that chromatically responds to incident particles. This response depends on the fluence, energy, and species of the incident particles. A 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator is used to create a monoenergetic ion beam which is scattered off a thin gold target onto a strip of RCF. A surface barrier detector is positioned behind a small hole in the film to measure the ion fluence on the nearby film. Once the film develops, it is scanned to examine its optical density. A response curve is acquired by fitting a three parameter formula to optical density and dose. These calibration curves can be used to help determine incident doses in a variety of situations.

  18. Reference value sensitivity of measures of unfair health inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Most politicians and ethical observers are not interested in pure health inequalities, as they want to distinguish between different causes of health differences. Measures of “unfair” inequality - direct unfairness and the fairness gap, but also the popular standardized concentration index - therefore neutralize the effects of what are considered to be “legitimate” causes of inequality. This neutralization is performed by putting a subset of the explanatory variables at reference values, e.g. their means. We analyze how the inequality ranking of different policies depends on the specific choice of reference values. We show with mortality data from the Netherlands that the problem is empirically relevant and we suggest a statistical method for fixing the reference values. PMID:24954998

  19. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  20. Innovative method for ultra-sensitive measurement of krypton isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavielle, B.; Gilabert, E.; Thomas, B.; Rebeix, R.; Canchel, G.; Moulin, C.; Topin, S.; Pointurier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Kr 81 (T 1/2 = 2.29*10 5 y), that is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and Kr 85 (T 1/2 = 10.77 y), that is produced in the fission of nuclear fuels, are considered as the right chronometer elements for the dating of underground waters, polar ice, of for tracking civil and military nuclear activities. The use of Kr 81 and Kr 85 implies the development of extracting lines and detection devices with so high accuracy that only a few thousands of krypton atoms can be detected. The approach developed aims at detecting Kr 81 and Kr 85 in 1 liter of air and 20 liters of water. 3 steps are necessary. The first step consists in separating and purifying the krypton. The extraction of gases from water is made by helium bubbling. Chemically active gases like N 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and O 2 are eliminated by chemical traps while Ar si separated by cryogenics. The second step involves a double focus mass spectrometer designed to perform an important enrichment in Kr 81 and Kr 85 . The last step is the high-accuracy measurement of krypton isotopes performed with the new tool named FAKIR (Facility for Analyzing Krypton Isotopic Ratios) that is based on UV laser ionization and on the mass-discrimination of the ions through their time of flight

  1. Automated full-3D digitization system for documentation of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaszewski, Maciej; Adamczyk, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Michoński, Jakub; Załuski, Wojciech; Bunsch, Eryk; Bolewicki, Paweł

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a fully automated 3D digitization system for documentation of paintings is presented. It consists of a specially designed frame system for secure fixing of painting, a custom designed, structured light-based, high-resolution measurement head with no IR and UV emission. This device is automatically positioned in two axes (parallel to the surface of digitized painting) with additional manual positioning in third, perpendicular axis. Manual change of observation angle is also possible around two axes to re-measure even partially shadowed areas. The whole system is built in a way which provides full protection of digitized object (moving elements cannot reach its vicinity) and is driven by computer-controlled, highly precise servomechanisms. It can be used for automatic (without any user attention) and fast measurement of the paintings with some limitation to their properties: maximum size of the picture is 2000mm x 2000mm (with deviation of flatness smaller than 20mm) Measurement head is automatically calibrated by the system and its possible working volume starts from 50mm x 50mm x 20mm (10000 points per square mm) and ends at 120mm x 80mm x 60mm (2500 points per square mm). The directional measurements obtained with this system are automatically initially aligned due to the measurement head's position coordinates known from servomechanisms. After the whole painting is digitized, the measurements are fine-aligned with color-based ICP algorithm to remove any influence of possible inaccuracy of positioning devices. We present exemplary digitization results along with the discussion about the opportunities of analysis which appear for such high-resolution, 3D computer models of paintings.

  2. Analysis of fresco paintings by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Musilek, L.; Kopecka, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we present the application of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) to examine fresco paintings from the Karlstejn castle. The X-ray fluorescence apparatus built and operated in the Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Research of Ancient Monuments was used for the purpose of fresco paintings measurements. The X-ray sources (radionuclides) generate the characteristic X-ray photons from the sample. The Si(Li) detector measures numbers and energies of photons emitted from the specimen. The energy and number of photons detected can be converted into kind and amount of measured atoms. These results give data for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. XRFA is relatively simple and non-destructive method. Capability of in-situ measurement is one of big advantages of this method. The radionuclide sources of exciting radiation (e.g. 55 Fe enables the excitation of elements with Z up to 23, 238 Pu is used in interval of Z from 20 to 39 etc.) were used. An Si(Li) semiconductor detector with a 5 l Dewar vessel and portable spectroscopy system enable the in situ measurement. Narrow collimation of the exciting beam makes it possible to select the measured area of fresco painting. The valuable fresco paintings from the Karlstejn castle were investigated in this way. The measurements were carried out in collaboration with the Analytical Laboratory of the State Institute for the Preservation of Historic Monuments. A suitable analysis of paintings makes it possible to detect the kind of colours and evaluate changes in the surface colour of paintings and suggest useful and timely procedures for their conservation and restoration. (author)

  3. Frames as visual links between paintings and the museum environment: An analysis of statistical image properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eRedies

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Frames provide a visual link between artworks and their surround. We asked how image properties change as an observer zooms out from viewing a painting alone, to viewing the painting with its frame and, finally, the framed painting in its museum environment (museum scene. To address this question, we determined three higher-order image properties that are based on histograms of oriented luminance gradients. First, complexity was measured as the sum of the strengths of all gradients in the image. Second, we determined the self-similarity of histograms of the orientated gradients at different levels of spatial analysis. Third, we analyzed how much gradient strength varied across orientations (anisotropy. Results were obtained for three art museums that exhibited paintings from three major periods of Western art. In all three museums, the mean complexity of the frames was higher than that of the paintings or the museum scenes. Frames thus provide a barrier of complexity between the paintings and their exterior. By contrast, self-similarity and anisotropy values of images of framed paintings were intermediate between the images of the paintings and the museum scenes, i.e., the frames provided a transition between the paintings and their surround. We also observed differences between the three museums that may reflect modified frame usage in different art periods. For example, frames in the museum for 20th century art tended to be smaller and less complex than in the two other two museums that exhibit paintings from earlier art periods (13th-18th century and 19th century, respectively. Finally, we found that the three properties did not depend on the type of reproduction of the paintings (photographs in museums, scans from books or images from the Google Art Project. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the relation between frames and paintings by measuring physically defined, higher-order image properties.

  4. Investigation of leaching of an antifouling agent from marine paint formulations using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Gursharan Singh; Kalgutkar, D.B.; Patil, S.P.; Jayachandran, N.; Unni, V.K.P.

    2012-01-01

    A radiotracer technique was used to investigate the leaching of an antifouling agent from different marine paint formulations with an objective to select the best paint formulation for bulk production. The antifouling agent (Diuron) itself was labeled with carbon-14 (half-life: 5,730 years, β-energy: 156 keV) and used as a radiotracer. The different paint formulations added with radiolabeled Diuron were applied onto suitably selected substrates and measured for initial intensity of β-radiation using a Geiger-Muller detector connected to a ratemeter. The painted substrates were subjected to shower tests for a pre-decided time and subsequently measured for β-radiations. The comparison of intensity of β-radiations in substrates prior and post shower tests provides information about leaching of antifouling agent Diuron from the paint formulation. The high leaching percentage of antifouling agent Diuron post shower tests indicates non-suitability of paint formulation for marine and civil structures. However, low leaching rate of Diuron will make a paint formulation more efficient and suitable. Based on the results of investigation, a paint formulation with minimum leaching rate was identified and selected for bulk production by a paint company. (author)

  5. Workplace protection of air-fed visors used in paint spraying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsover, J; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, B; Vaughan, N

    2006-04-01

    Air-fed visors are commonly used for protection against exposure to airborne isocyanates during paint spraying. Protection levels for this class of equipment are theoretically adequate, yet isocyanate sensitization in this occupation still occurs. The work reported here set out to establish the level of respiratory protection that is achieved during real paint spraying activities when air-fed visors are used. The work also examined the effects of reduced air supply flow rates on this type of respiratory protection. The workplace study highlighted common problems that occur when attempting to measure protection factors, and process and interpret the collected data. Many of the environments included in this study did not exhibit challenge concentrations high enough to reliably measure the workplace protection factor of this class of device. When detection limits are taken into consideration, the remaining field data suggest that an assigned protection factor in the region of 40 may be appropriate. When well maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, air-fed visors are capable of providing a good level of respiratory protection. The protection given by air-fed visors is strongly dependent on the air flow supplied to them. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that protection falls as the air supply falls. This is a gradual process and does not suddenly occur at any particular air supply flow. Observations made during the field tests indicate that there may be other activities associated with the spraying process that need to be taken into consideration when looking for sources of respiratory sensitization.

  6. Enhancement of the measurement sensitivity at large aberrations of an optical system of hologram recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyalikov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The method of the measurement sensitivity enhancement with compensation of aberrations based on rewriting object and master holograms recorded on one common carrier using the double-exposure method is considered. Experimental studies indicated the proposed technique of the enhancement of the measurement sensitivity to be promising in the case of large aberrations of an optical system for initial hologram recording. The reconstructed interferograms are presented with enhanced sensitivity of measurements by a factor of 16 characterizing the quality of exit windows of a glass cuvette. 16 refs., 3 figs

  7. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  8. Materials science challenges in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-01-23

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  9. Materials science challenges in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-02-01

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  10. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  11. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  12. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Krarup Andersen, Cecil; Baadsgaard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight painti...

  13. Sensitivity study of micro four-point probe measurements on small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2010-01-01

    probes than near the outer ones. The sensitive area is defined for infinite film, circular, square, and rectangular test pads, and convergent sensitivities are observed for small samples. The simulations show that the Hall sheet resistance RH in micro Hall measurements with position error suppression...

  14. Deterministic phase measurements exhibiting super-sensitivity and super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Ježek, Miroslav; Madsen, Lars S.

    2018-01-01

    Phase super-sensitivity is obtained when the sensitivity in a phase measurement goes beyond the quantum shot noise limit, whereas super-resolution is obtained when the interference fringes in an interferometer are narrower than half the input wavelength. Here we show experimentally that these two...

  15. A Measure of Cultural Competence as an Ethical Responsibility: Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Collins, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the psychometric qualifications of a new video-based measure of school professionals' ethical sensitivity toward issues of racial intolerance in schools. The new scale, titled the Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test (Quick-REST) is based on the ethical principles commonly shared by school-based professional…

  16. Fluorescence from colours used for japanese painting under N_2 laser excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Tadaki

    1988-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra have been measured for various colours used for Japanese painting in order to identify the pigments in paintings. Fluorescence was observed in various natural and synthetic colours. The fluorescence intensities of these colours are generally weaker than those of oil colours.

  17. Studies on the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Binbin; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaodun

    2014-01-01

    Thermal effects on steel structures exposed to solar radiation are significant and complicated. Furthermore, the solar radiation absorption coefficient of steel surface with different paintings is the main factor affecting the non-uniform temperature of spatial structures under solar radiation. In this paper, nearly two hundreds steel specimens with different paintings were designed and measured to obtain their solar radiation absorption coefficients using spectrophotometer. Based on the test results, the effect of surface color, painting type, painting thickness on the solar radiation absorption coefficient was analyzed. The actual temperatures under solar radiation for all specimens were also measured in summer not only to verify the absorption coefficient but also provide insight for the temperature distribution of steel structures with different paintings. A numerical simulation and simplified formula were also conducted and verified by test, in order to study the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation. The results have given an important reference in the future research of thermal effect of steel structures exposed to solar radiation. - Highlights: • Solar radiation absorptions for steel with different paintings were measured. • The temperatures of all specimens under solar radiation were measured. • The effect of color, thickness and painting type on solar absorption was analyzed. • A numerical analysis was conducted and verified by test data. • A simplified formula was deduced and verified by test data

  18. Use of Direct Current Resistivity Measurements to Assess AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Ramaiany Carneiro; Mecury, José Manoel Rivas; Tanaka, Auro Atsumi; Sousa, Regina Célia de

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility of using direct current electrical resistivity measurements to evaluate AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel sensitization. ASTM A262 – Practice A and double loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests were performed to assess the degree of sensitization (DoS) qualitatively and quantitatively, and electrical resistivity (ER) was measured by the four-point direct-current potential drop method. The results indicate that the DoS incr...

  19. Radioactivity measurements for determining bacterial increase and sensitivity to antibiotics. [/sup 14/C tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszsagi-Nagy, E [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest; Lendvay, J [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1976-01-01

    The authors elaborated a sensitive and objective measuring method for determining the bacteria increase in biological material and the sensitivity to antibiotics. When /sup 14/C glucose is added to the medium as the single source of sugar, the respiratory carbon dioxide formed by the bacteria reflects the rate of increase. The released /sup 14/C dioxide can be measured continuously without loss to the environment and the degree of bacterial infection and the antibiotic activity, respectively, can be determined.

  20. Epoxy-paint stripping using TEA CO2 laser: Determination of threshold fluence and the process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, A. K.; Sahu, Shasikiran; Mandloi, V.; Ittoop, M. O.; Khattak, B. Q.; Tiwari, M. K.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the threshold fluence for laser paint stripping can be accurately estimated from the heat of gasification and the absorption coefficient of the epoxy-paint. The threshold fluence determined experimentally by stripping of the epoxy-paint on a substrate using a TEA CO2 laser matches closely with the calculated value. The calculated threshold fluence and the measured absorption coefficient of the paint allowed us to determine the epoxy paint thickness that would be removed per pulse at a given laser fluence even without experimental trials. This was used to predict the optimum scan speed required to strip the epoxy-paint of a given thickness using a high average power TEA CO2 laser. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) studies were also carried out on laser paint-stripped concrete substrate to show high efficacy of this modality.

  1. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The γ rays sensitivity measurement of CeF3 scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mengchun; Zhou Dianzhong; Li Rurong; Wang Zhentong; Yang Hongqiong; Zhang Jianhua; Hu Qingyuan; Peng Taiping

    2003-01-01

    The CeF 3 is an abio-scintillator developed in recent years, which are insensitive to neutron and sensitive to gamma rays and respond quickness. The relationship of CeF 3 scintillation detector gamma rays sensitivity with the change of crystal thickness was measured. The CeF 3 scintillation detector is composed by high liner current photomultiplier tube of CHφT3, CHφT5 and CeF 3 scintillator. The detector gamma rays sensitivity of purple photocell and common photocell with CeF 3 scintillator were measured too

  3. The measurement of the radioactive aerosol diameter by position sensitive detectors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Kanamori, Masashi; Seki, Akio.

    1981-10-01

    The measurement of the diameter of radioactive aerosol, in particular plutonium aerosol, is very important for the internal dose estimation. Determination of the diameter of radioactive aerosol is performed by using the position sensitive detectors. Position sensitive semiconductor detectors and Scintillation detectors with IIT tube are used as the position sensitive detector. The filter paper with the radioactive aerosols is contacted to the PSD which is connected to the data processor so that the diameter of the aerosol is calculated from the measured radioactivity. (author)

  4. Sensitivity Measurement of Transmission Computer Tomography: thePreliminary Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, Chomsin-S; Sudjatmoko; Kusminarto; Agung-BS Utomo; Suparta, Gede B

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports result of preliminary experimental study onmeasurement method for sensitivity of a computed tomography (CT) scanner. ACT scanner has been build at the Department of Physics, FMIPA UGM and itsperformance based on its sensitivity was measured. The result showed that themeasurement method for sensitivity confirmed this method may be developedfurther as a measurement standard. Although the CT scanner developed has anumber of shortcoming, the analytical results from the sensitivitymeasurement suggest a number of reparations and improvements for the systemso that improved reconstructed CT images can be obtained. (author)

  5. Paratingent Derivative Applied to the Measure of the Sensitivity in Multiobjective Differential Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the sensitivity of differential programs of the form subject to where and are maps whose respective images lie in ordered Banach spaces. Following previous works on multiobjective programming, the notion of -optimal solution is used. The behaviour of some nonsingleton sets of -optimal solutions according to changes of the parameter in the problem is analysed. The main result of the work states that the sensitivity of the program is measured by a Lagrange multiplier plus a projection of its derivative. This sensitivity is measured by means of the paratingent derivative.

  6. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, L; Bozzoli, F; Rainieri, S; Pagliarini, G; Bochicchio, G; Tessadri, B

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect

  7. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  8. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Resistive plate chamber neutron and gamma sensitivity measurement with a {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Altieri, S.; Baratti, V.; Barnaba, O.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Colaleo, A.; DeVecchi, C.; Guida, R. E-mail: roberto.guida@pv.infn.it; Iaselli, G.; Imbres, E.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Musitelli, G.; Nardo, R.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Romano, F.; Torre, P.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Volpe, F

    2003-06-21

    A bakelite double gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC), operating in avalanche mode, has been exposed to the radiation emitted from a {sup 252}Cf source to measure its neutron and gamma sensitivity. One of the two gaps underwent the traditional electrodes surface coating with linseed oil. RPC signals were triggered by fission events detected using BaF{sub 2} scintillators. A Monte Carlo code, inside the GEANT 3.21 framework with MICAP interface, has been used to identify the gamma and neutron contributions to the total number of collected RPC signals. A neutron sensitivity of (0.63{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} (average energy 2 MeV) and a gamma sensitivity of (14.0{+-}0.5)x10{sup -3} (average energy 1.5 MeV) have been measured in double gap mode. Measurements done in single gap mode have shown that both neutron and gamma sensitivity are independent of the oiling treatment.

  10. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara; Bossi, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate...... for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical...

  11. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  12. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty

  13. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man [Nuclear Reactor Safety Lab., KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty.

  14. Microscopy and the Mystery of Pablo Picasso's Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Volker

    A deep connection to our past and shared cultural heritage must be preserved to foster a balanced society where all humanity can thrive. This talk will describe analysis of paint materials used by Pablo Picasso at the nanoscale, as only possible at the brightest synchrotron sources. It will highlight how new imaging techniques can reveal the invisible, bringing to light underlying compositions of old masters' paintings. This in turn enables the writing of new art history and provides important material clues that can assist with attribution and authentication. We will explain how the use of new technology can lead to new discoveries, which, in turn, can change the public's and the specialists' perception of great works of art. ∖In collaboration with scientists from The Art Institute of Chicago we have teamed up to study the chemical make up of zinc oxide pigments used in artworks by Pablo Picasso. We will show how highly focused X-ray beams with nanoscale spatial resolution and trace element sensitivity have helped to determine that Picasso has used conventional house paint in some of his paintings. Surprisingly, the study gives also new insights into the pigment material zinc oxide, which has also great potential in a variety of applications such as in spintronics or as transparent electrodes in solar panels. Work at the Advanced Photon Source and the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract DEAC02-06CH11357.

  15. Improving sensitivity to magnetic fields and electric dipole moments by using measurements of individual magnetic sublevels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Teng; Weiss, David S.

    2018-03-01

    We explore ways to use the ability to measure the populations of individual magnetic sublevels to improve the sensitivity of magnetic field measurements and measurements of atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs). When atoms are initialized in the m =0 magnetic sublevel, the shot-noise-limited uncertainty of these measurements is 1 /√{2 F (F +1 ) } smaller than that of a Larmor precession measurement. When the populations in the even (or odd) magnetic sublevels are combined, we show that these measurements are independent of the tensor Stark shift and the second order Zeeman shift. We discuss the complicating effect of a transverse magnetic field and show that when the ratio of the tensor Stark shift to the transverse magnetic field is sufficiently large, an EDM measurement with atoms initialized in the superposition of the stretched states can reach the optimal sensitivity.

  16. Comparison of global sensitivity analysis techniques and importance measures in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovo, E.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Tarantola, S.; Saltelli, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses application and results of global sensitivity analysis techniques to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models, and their comparison to importance measures. This comparison allows one to understand whether PSA elements that are important to the risk, as revealed by importance measures, are also important contributors to the model uncertainty, as revealed by global sensitivity analysis. We show that, due to epistemic dependence, uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis of PSA models must be performed at the parameter level. A difficulty arises, since standard codes produce the calculations at the basic event level. We discuss both the indirect comparison through importance measures computed for basic events, and the direct comparison performed using the differential importance measure and the Fussell-Vesely importance at the parameter level. Results are discussed for the large LLOCA sequence of the advanced test reactor PSA

  17. A simple method to measure critical angles for high-sensitivity differential refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilio, S C

    2012-01-16

    A total internal reflection-based differencial refractometer, capable of measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index in real time, is presented. The device takes advantage of the phase difference acquired by s- and p-polarized light to generate an easily detectable minimum at the reflected profile. The method allows to sensitively measuring transparent and turbid liquid samples.

  18. Water-Based Automobile Paints Potentially Reduce the Exposure of Refinish Painters to Toxic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Jen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lead-containing dusts is a global public health concern. This work addresses an important issue of whether eco-friendly water-based paints reduce the exposure potential of auto-repainting workers to metals. With this aim, metal levels in automobile paints and worker metal exposure were measured using both solvent- and water-based paints. The levels of metals, and particularly Pb, Cr (total, Fe, and Cu, in solvent-based paints varied greatly among colors and brands. Lead concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (~0.25 μg/g to 107,928 μg/g (dry film across all samples. In water-based paints, the concentrations of Pb and Cr (total were generally two to three orders of magnitude lower, but the concentrations of Al and Cu exceeded those in some solvent-based paints. The personal short-term exposure of workers who applied water-based paints of popular colors, such as black and white, were generally low, with Pb levels of less than <4 µg/m3 and Cr (total levels of less than 1 µg/m3. Conversely, mean short-term exposure to Pb during the painting of a yellow cab using solvent-based paints were 2028 µg/m3, which was ~14 times the Taiwan short-term permissible exposure limit, while the mean level of exposure to Cr (total was 290 µg/m3, which was well below the exposure limit. This study demonstrates that water-based paints reduce the exposure potential to lead, and highlights the importance of source control in limiting the toxic metals in paints.

  19. Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Falcucci, C.; Jaksic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based μXRF , μPIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based μXRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 μm) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

  20. Environmental coefficients of the free-field sensitivity of measurement microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras-Rosell, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of measurement microphones, both pressure and free field, is affected by changes in the environmental conditions, mainly temperature and static pressure. Static pressure and temperature coefficients for the pressure sensitivity have been the object of previous studies focused...... on Laboratory Standard microphones and few working standard microphones. The literature describes frequency dependent values for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. However, there is no description of the environmental coefficients of the free-field sensitivity though there have been...... some implementations that attempt to take care of the differences between the coefficients for the two types of sensitivities. Measuring the coefficients in a free field poses some challeng; it is not so easy to change neither the static pressure nor the temperature inside anechoic room within...

  1. Measurement and prediction of thermochemical history effects on sensitization development in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Charlot, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    The effects of thermal and thermomechanical treatments on sensitization development in Type 304 and 316 stainless steels have been measured and compared to model predictions. Sensitization development resulting from isothermal, continuous cooling and pipe welding treatments has been evaluated. An empirically modified, theoretically based model is shown to accurately predict material degree of sensitization (DOS) as expressed by the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test after both simple and complex treatments. Material DOS is also examined using analytical electron microscopy to document grain boundary chromium depletion and is compared to EPR test results

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Unsteady Flow Fields and Impact of Measurement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Misaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of data assimilation arises from a large difference between the sizes of a state vector to be determined, that is, the number of spatiotemporal mesh points of a discretized numerical model and a measurement vector, that is, the amount of measurement data. Flow variables on a large number of mesh points are hardly defined by spatiotemporally limited measurements, which poses an underdetermined problem. In this study we conduct the sensitivity analysis of two- and three-dimensional vortical flow fields within a framework of data assimilation. The impact of measurement strategy, which is evaluated by the sensitivity of the 4D-Var cost function with respect to measurements, is investigated to effectively determine a flow field by limited measurements. The assimilation experiment shows that the error defined by the difference between the reference and assimilated flow fields is reduced by using the sensitivity information to locate the limited number of measurement points. To conduct data assimilation for a long time period, the 4D-Var data assimilation and the sensitivity analysis are repeated with a short assimilation window.

  3. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched

  4. Limitation of leakage rate measurement sensitivity; Limitation de la sensibilite des mesures de debit de fuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paigne, Jacques [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Services de Physique Appliquee (France)

    1964-08-15

    This note reports an experimental study which aimed at determining to which extent an enclosure degassing could affect the sensitivity of a helium detection cell because of an increased background noise. The author first describes the measurement method and the helium partial pressure measurement method. He then reports an application to leakage rate measurements, and discusses the influence of background noise (influence of degassing, and influence of atmospheric air)

  5. Voxel-based measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in layered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2018-03-01

    We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances. The results clarified the sensitivity ratio between the surface layer and the deep layer at each source-detector distance for each model and identified changes in the deep measurement area when one of the detectors was close to the light source. A comparison was made with the results from continuous-wave spectroscopy. The study also identified measurement challenges that arise when the surface layer is inhomogeneous. Findings on the measurement sensitivity of SRS at each voxel and in each layer can support the correct interpretation of measured values when near-infrared oximetry or functional near-infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate different tissue structures. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  7. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

  8. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMallon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  10. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  11. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  12. The Monitoring and Analysis of the Chinese Traditional Architecture Painting Decay - the Case of Jilan Pavilion in the Summer Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, L.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Z.; Liu, G.

    2017-08-01

    The painting is one of the most decorative elements of ancient Chinese architecture and it is sensitive to the natural environment. The outdoor painting is very easily to be affected by the natural environment and its color is easily to decay. In order to study the relationship between the painting decay and the physical environment, the two paintings on both east and west inner eaves of Jilan Pavilion beside the Kunming Lake in Summer Palace are taken as the research objects, because these two paintings are painted at the same period but their decay degrees are greatly different. Since 2013, the research group regularly monitors the color decay of these two paintings. Meanwhile, the physical environment around these two paintings has been monitored. Based on the analysis of the monitor data, it can be seen that the illumination is the major factor that causes the decay of the painting. Meanwhile, by using the ECOTECT software to stimulate the light environment around the Jilan Pavilion, it can be seen that it is the mirror reflection of the lake that causes the result that the illumination of the west eave (face east) is stronger than that of the east eave (face west).

  13. Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines: Subcontract Report, July 1999--December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D. P., Jr.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Good, R. E.; Sernka, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the numbers of avian collisions with wind turbines, several measures have been employed with various levels of success. One hypothesis is that painting turbine blades to increase their visibility may reduce avian fatalities. This study examined the effects of painting wind turbine blades with UV-reflective paint on bird use and mortality at the Foote Creek Rim Wind Plant in Carbon County, Wyoming.

  14. Highly transparent poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings for the conservation of matte painted artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, A.; Gherardi, Francesca; Goidanich, S.; Delaney, J. K.; de la Rie, E. R.; Ubaldi, M. C.; Toniolo, L.; Simonutti, R.

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite coating based on TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) is used as consolidant of matte painted surfaces (temperas, watercolors, modern paintings). The aim of this work is to provide advances in the conservation of these works of art, while preserving their optical appearance, in terms of colour and gloss. Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) measurements of a painting-model (an acrylic black monochrome) treated with the nanocomposite coatings revealed that it...

  15. A setup for measurement of beam stability and position using position sensitive detector for Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, R.K.; Joshi, D.K.; Tyagi, Y.; Soni, R.S.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    The 450 MeV electron synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 is operational at RRCAT. A set-up has been developed to measure the relative transverse positional stability of the electron beam and its position with microns resolution using position sensitive photodiodes. The set-up has been installed at the diagnostics beam line of Indus-1. Synchrotron light from photo physics beamline was reflected out by inserting a Ni coated mirror and was focused onto a duo-lateral position sensitive photodiode by using two mirrors of 1.25 meter focal length to obtain unity magnification. The set-up consists of a duo-lateral position sensitive detector (PSD), precision processing electronics and a PC based data acquisition system. A computer program captures the processed signals on to a PC using GPIB interface and displays vertical position of the beam in real time. The paper describes the salient features of the setup developed for measurement of beam stability. (author)

  16. A Florescence Detection Module for Photodynamic Therapy Optimization by Measuring the Concentration of Photo sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Navarro, Joel; Stolik Isakina, Suren; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose M. de; Valor Reed, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a portable fluorescence detection system designed and built for dosimetry control applications in Photodynamic Therapy is presented. The system excites the used photo sensitizer drug with a modulated laser light source and subsequently measures the radiance of the emitted fluorescent light. Since the fluorescent radiance is directly related to the photosensitizers concentration, this measurement allows for real-time monitoring of the photo sensitizer concentration in the treated tissue. The system is thought to permit adjusting the therapeutic regime in order to optimize the expected therapy results. In the developed system, a synchronous detection technique is employed to recover the fluorescence signals embedded in noisy backgrounds and lit environments. A scanning probe with a 405 nm diode laser is used to excite the photo sensitizer, while a detection wavelength range from 590 nm to 700 nm has been implemented. (Author)

  17. On the achievable field sensitivity of a segmented annular detector for differential phase contrast measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzhuber, Felix, E-mail: felix.schwarzhuber@ur.de; Melzl, Peter; Zweck, Josef

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Practical guide to calibrate a DPC setup considering geometrical parameters. • Optimizing the field sensitivity of a segmented annular DPC detector. • Determination of maximum electric and magnetic field sensitivity of a DPC setup. - Abstract: Differential phase contrast microscopy measures minute deflections of the electron probe due to electric and/or magnetic fields, using a position sensitive device. Although recently, pixelated detectors have become available which also serve as a position sensitive device, the most frequently used detector is a four-segmented annular semiconducting detector ring (or variations thereof), where the difference signals of opposing detector elements represent the components of the deflection vector. This deflection vector can be used directly to quantitatively determine the deflecting field, provided the specimen’s thickness is known. While there exist many measurements of both electric and magnetic fields, even at an atomic level, until now the question of the smallest clearly resolvable field value for this detector has not yet been answered. This paper treats the problem theoretically first, leading to a calibration factor κ which depends solely on simple, experimentally accessible parameters and relates the deflecting field to the measured deflection vector. In a second step, the calibration factor for our combination of microscope and detector is determined experimentally for various combinations of camera length, condenser aperture and spot size to determine the optimum setup. From this optimized condition we determine the minimum change in field which leads to a clearly measurable signal change for both HMSTEM and LMSTEM operation. A strategy is described which allows the experimenter to choose the setup giving the highest field sensitivity. Quantification problems due to scattering processes in the specimen are addressed and ways are shown to choose a setup which is less sensitive to these artefacts.

  18. On the achievable field sensitivity of a segmented annular detector for differential phase contrast measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzhuber, Felix; Melzl, Peter; Zweck, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Practical guide to calibrate a DPC setup considering geometrical parameters. • Optimizing the field sensitivity of a segmented annular DPC detector. • Determination of maximum electric and magnetic field sensitivity of a DPC setup. - Abstract: Differential phase contrast microscopy measures minute deflections of the electron probe due to electric and/or magnetic fields, using a position sensitive device. Although recently, pixelated detectors have become available which also serve as a position sensitive device, the most frequently used detector is a four-segmented annular semiconducting detector ring (or variations thereof), where the difference signals of opposing detector elements represent the components of the deflection vector. This deflection vector can be used directly to quantitatively determine the deflecting field, provided the specimen’s thickness is known. While there exist many measurements of both electric and magnetic fields, even at an atomic level, until now the question of the smallest clearly resolvable field value for this detector has not yet been answered. This paper treats the problem theoretically first, leading to a calibration factor κ which depends solely on simple, experimentally accessible parameters and relates the deflecting field to the measured deflection vector. In a second step, the calibration factor for our combination of microscope and detector is determined experimentally for various combinations of camera length, condenser aperture and spot size to determine the optimum setup. From this optimized condition we determine the minimum change in field which leads to a clearly measurable signal change for both HMSTEM and LMSTEM operation. A strategy is described which allows the experimenter to choose the setup giving the highest field sensitivity. Quantification problems due to scattering processes in the specimen are addressed and ways are shown to choose a setup which is less sensitive to these artefacts.

  19. Measurement of cell respiration and oxygenation in standard multichannel biochips using phosphorescent O2-sensitive probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashina, Alina V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Dmitriev, Ruslan I

    2013-09-07

    Measurement of cell oxygenation and oxygen consumption is useful for studies of cell bioenergetics, metabolism, mitochondrial function, drug toxicity and common pathophysiological conditions. Here we present a new platform for such applications which uses commercial multichannel biochips (μ-slides, Ibidi) and phosphorescent O2 sensitive probes. This platform was evaluated with both extracellular and intracellular O2 probes, several different cell types and treatments including mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition, depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) and inhibition of V-ATPase and histone deacetylases. The results show that compared to the standard microwell plates currently used, the μ-slide platform provides facile O2 measurements with both suspension and adherent cells, higher sensitivity and reproducibility, and faster measurement time. It also allows re-perfusion and multiple treatments of cells and multi-parametric analyses in conjunction with other probes. Optical measurements are conducted on standard fluorescence readers and microscopes.

  20. Fisher Information and the Quantum Cramér-Rao Sensitivity Limit of Continuous Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements with quantum systems rely on our ability to trace the differences between experimental signals to variations in unknown physical parameters. In this Letter we derive the Fisher information and the ensuing Cramér-Rao sensitivity limit for parameter estimation by continuous...

  1. Sensitivity to Change of Objectively-Derived Measures of Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity to change of measures of sedentary behavior derived from body worn sensors in different intervention designs. Results from two intervention studies: "Stand up for Your Health" (pre-post home-based study with older adults not in paid employment) and "Stand Up Comcare"…

  2. The Need for Context-Sensitive Measures of Educational Quality in Transnational Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyvis, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the current approach to educational quality formation in transnational higher education promotes educational imperialism, and that guidelines and practices should be altered to embrace context-sensitive measures of quality. The claims are sustained by findings from a study that investigated how academics understood and…

  3. A position-sensitive start detector for time-of-flight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Shikazono, Naomoto; Isoyama, Goro.

    1978-08-01

    A position-sensitive start detector for a time-of-flight measurement is described. In this detector microchannel plates were used to obtain time and position signals simultaneously. A time resolution of 121 psec FWHM and a position resolution of 0.28 mm FWHM were obtained for α-particles from an 241 Am source. (auth.)

  4. The sensitivity of capital services measurement : Measure all assets and the cost of capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, R.

    The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their impact on U.S. capital services at the industry and aggregate

  5. The Sensitivity of Capital Services Measurement : Measure all assets and the cost of capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series, some entailing differing assumptions about firm behaviour. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their

  6. Neutron autoradiography: working-out method and application in investigations of test paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalicki, A.; Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.; Koziel, A.; Dabkowski, L.; Wierzchnicka, M.; Strzalkowski, L.; Ostrowski, T.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron-induced autoradiography was carried out at MARIA research reactor in Poland. The paintings were exposed to the thermal neutrons. As a result, the radionuclides emitting beta particles and gamma rays were created from some of the elements existing in the painting. Beta particles were detected during successive exposure to a series of X-ray medical-sensitive films. The obtained images--blackening of the films depends mainly on the nuclear characteristic of recorded radionuclides and exposure parameters. The main purpose of this work was to work out a method, build a special stand and test sample paintings using neutron autoradiography. Samples of paintings were investigated and according to the obtained results, optimum test parameters have been selected: neutron irradiation conditions and autoradiographs exposure conditions

  7. Differences in reactions to paintings by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzella, D J

    2000-08-01

    38 male and 55 female college students rated digitized color facsimiles of 40 paintings that varied in artistic period (Renaissance, Rococo, Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, 20th Century) and subject matter (portrait, landscape, still life, behavior depiction) on 12 7-point semantic differential scales, e.g., simple-complex. Women judged the content of Rococo and Impressionist paintings as more pleasing than did men and Impressionist paintings evoked greater feelings of pleasure and relaxation among women than among men. In addition, paintings that depicted behaviors evoked more pleasure and alertness among women than among men. The results were interpreted in terms of underlying differences between men and women in perceptual style and emotional sensitivity.

  8. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  9. Measurement of Retinal Sensitivity on Tablet Devices in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; Guymer, Robyn H; Jung, Chang J; Goh, Jonathan K; Ayton, Lauren N; Luu, Chi D; Lawson, David J; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    We compared measurements of central retinal sensitivity on a portable, low-cost tablet device to the established method of microperimetry in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A customized test designed to measure central retinal sensitivity (within the central 1° radius) on a tablet device was developed using an open-source platform called PsyPad. A total of 30 participants with AMD were included in this study, and all participants performed a practice test on PsyPad, followed by four tests of one eye and one test of the other eye. Participants then underwent standardized microperimetry examinations in both eyes. The average test duration on PsyPad was 53.9 ± 7.5 seconds, and no significant learning effect was observed over the examinations performed ( P = 1.000). The coefficient of repeatability of central retinal sensitivity between the first two examinations on PsyPad was ±1.76 dB. The mean central retinal sensitivity was not significantly different between PsyPad (25.7 ± 0.4 dB) and microperimetry (26.1 ± 0.4 dB, P = 0.094), and the 95% limits of agreement between the two measures were between -4.12 and 4.92 dB. The measurements of central retinal sensitivity can be performed effectively using a tablet device, displaying reasonably good agreement with those obtained using the established method of microperimetry. These findings highlight the potential of tablet devices as low-cost and portable tools for developing and performing visual function measures that can be easily and widely implemented.

  10. Painting rusted steel: The role of aluminum phosphosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, S.N.; Amo, B. del; Carbonari, R.O.; Di Sarli, A.R.; Romagnoli, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Aluminum phosphosilicate is an acid pigment which could act as mild phosphating agent. •Aluminum phosphosilicate can phosphatize iron oxides on rusted surfaces. •Aluminum phosphosilicate is compatible with acid binders. •Aluminum phosphosilicate could replace chromate in complete painting schemes. •Aluminum phosphosilicate primers improve paints adhesion on rusted surfaces. -- Abstract: Surface preparation is a key factor for the adequate performance of a paint system. The aim of this investigation is to employ a wash-primer to accomplish the chemical conversion of rusted surface when current cleaning operations are difficult to carry out. The active component of the wash-primer was aluminum phosphosilicate whose electrochemical behavior and the composition of the generated protective layer, both, were studied by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Primed rusted steel panels were coated with an alkyd system to perform accelerated tests in the salt spray chamber and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). These tests were conducted in parallel with a chromate wash primer and the same alkyd system. Results showed that the wash-primer containing aluminum phosphosilicate could be used satisfactorily to paint rusted steel exhibiting a similar performance to the chromate primer

  11. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  12. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  13. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  14. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  15. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  16. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  17. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of

  18. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  19. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  20. Pursuing atmospheric water vapor retrieval through NDSA measurements between two LEO satellites: evaluation of estimation errors in spectral sensitivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facheris, L.; Cuccoli, F.; Argenti, F.

    2008-10-01

    NDSA (Normalized Differential Spectral Absorption) is a novel differential measurement method to estimate the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along a tropospheric propagation path between two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. A transmitter onboard the first LEO satellite and a receiver onboard the second one are required. The NDSA approach is based on the simultaneous estimate of the total attenuations at two relatively close frequencies in the Ku/K bands and of a "spectral sensitivity parameter" that can be directly converted into IWV. The spectral sensitivity has the potential to emphasize the water vapor contribution, to cancel out all spectrally flat unwanted contributions and to limit the impairments due to tropospheric scintillation. Based on a previous Monte Carlo simulation approach, through which we analyzed the measurement accuracy of the spectral sensitivity parameter at three different and complementary frequencies, in this work we examine such accuracy for a particularly critical atmospheric status as simulated through the pressure, temperature and water vapor profiles measured by a high resolution radiosonde. We confirm the validity of an approximate expression of the accuracy and discuss the problems that may arise when tropospheric water vapor concentration is lower than expected.

  1. High force measurement sensitivity with fiber Bragg gratings fabricated in uniform-waist fiber tapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieduwilt, Torsten; Brückner, Sven; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in the waist of tapered photosensitive fibers offer specific attractive properties for sensing applications. A small-diameter fiber reduces structural influences for imbedded fiber sensing elements. In the case of application as a force-sensing element for tensile forces, sensitivity scales inversely with the fiber cross-sectional area. It is therefore possible to increase force sensitivity by several orders of magnitude compared to Bragg grating sensors in conventionally sized fibers. Special requirements for such Bragg grating arrangements are discussed and experimental measurements for different fiber taper diameters down to 4 µm are presented

  2. Measurements of reciprocity law failure in green-sensitive X-ray films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B A; Eisenberg, H; Bjärngard, B E

    1978-02-01

    Reciprocity law failure was measured for four brands of medical x-ray films exposed with intensifying screens. Three of the films are green light-sensitized for use in combination with green light-emitting rare-earth screens. These films showed larger reciprocity failure effects than one conventional blue-sensitive film, Dupont Cronex-2. Development conditions had a small effect on reciprocity failure. As part of the investigation, a detector was constructed with a response that accurately monitors the light emission from the double screen-cassette combination over a wide range of x-ray photon energies.

  3. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  4. Lead content of dried films of domestic paints currently sold in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebamowo, Eugenious O.; Scott Clark, C.; Roda, Sandy; Agbede, Oluwole A.; Sridhar, Mynepalli K.C.; Adebamowo, Clement A.

    2007-01-01

    Children are at higher risk from lead exposure because their developing neural system is susceptible to its neurotoxic effects. We studied lead levels of paints manufactured in Nigeria in 2006. Lead levels in 5 colors of paints, each from different manufacturers were measured using flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy. We found that 96% of the paints had higher than recommended levels of lead. The mean lead level of paints ranged from 84.8 to 50,000 ppm, with mean of 14,500 ppm and median of 15,800 ppm. The main determinant of lead levels was color of the paint. As lead levels in paint sold in the past years in Nigeria are likely to be at least as high as that currently sold, it is likely that many existing houses contain dangerously high levels of lead. Efforts need to be undertaken to assess the presence of high lead levels in existing housing and if detected, intervention programs for eliminating risk of exposure should be developed in addition to measures to increase awareness and enforce regulations leading to the elimination of lead based domestic paint

  5. Sensitivity of film measured off-axis ratios to film calibration curve using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Diana; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)

  6. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 mu mol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based...... for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used...... measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized "sensing chemistry" that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded...

  7. Quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high-sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.; Topper, J. L.; Farnell, C. C.; Yalin, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements of different target materials due to ion bombardment. The differential sputter yields can be integrated to find total yields. Possible ion beam conditions include ion energies in the range of 30-350 eV and incidence angles of 0 deg. - 70 deg. from normal. A four-grid ion optics system is used to achieve a collimated ion beam at low energy (<100 eV) and a two-grid ion optics is used for higher energies (up to 750 eV). A complementary weight loss approach is also used to measure total sputter yields. Validation experiments are presented that confirm high sensitivity and accuracy of sputter yield measurements.

  8. Measurements of skin friction in water using surface stress sensitive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crafton, J W; Fonov, S D; Jones, E G; Goss, L P; Forlines, R A; Fontaine, A

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of skin friction on hydrodynamic surfaces is of significant value for the design of advanced naval technology, particularly at high Reynolds numbers. Here we report on the development of a new sensor for measurement of skin friction and pressure that operates in both air and water. This sensor is based on an elastic polymer film that deforms under the action of applied normal and tangential loads. Skin friction and pressure gradients are determined by monitoring these deformations and then solving an inverse problem using a finite element model of the elastic film. This technique is known as surface stress sensitive films. In this paper, we describe the development of a sensor package specifically designed for two-dimensional skin friction measurements at a single point. The package has been developed with the goal of making two-dimensional measurements of skin friction in water. Quantitative measurements of skin friction are performed on a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer in the 12 inch water tunnel at Penn State University. These skin friction measurements are verified by comparing them to measurements obtained with a drag plate as well as by performing two-dimensional velocity measurements above the sensor using a laser Doppler velocimetry system. The results indicate that the sensor skin friction measurements are accurate to better than 5% and repeatable to better than 2%. The directional sensitivity of the sensor is demonstrated by positioning the sensor at several orientations to the flow. A final interesting feature of this sensor is that it is sensitive to pressure gradients, not to static pressure changes. This feature should prove useful for monitoring the skin friction on a seafaring vessel as the operating depth is changed

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, I S; Koh, D

    1992-02-01

    5 production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). 2 of the workers had concomitant sensitization to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitizer both in persons producing the chemical and among end-users of TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitizing alternatives should be explored.

  10. Sensitivity studies on the multi-sensor conductivity probe measurement technique for two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worosz, Ted [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 230 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bernard, Matt [The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Kong, Ran; Toptan, Aysenur [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 230 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 230 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hoxie, Chris [The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Revised conductivity probe circuit to eliminate signal “ghosting” among sensors. • Higher sampling frequencies suggested for bubble number frequency and a{sub i} measurements. • Two-phase parameter sensitivity to measurement duration and bubble number investigated. • Sensors parallel to pipe wall recommended for symmetric bubble velocity measurements. • Sensor separation distance ratio (s/d) greater than four minimizes bubble velocity error. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to advance the local multi-sensor conductivity probe measurement technique through systematic investigation into several practical aspects of a conductivity probe measurement system. Firstly, signal “ghosting” among probe sensors is found to cause artificially high bubble velocity measurements and low interfacial area concentration (a{sub i}) measurements that depend on sampling frequency and sensor impedance. A revised electrical circuit is suggested to eliminate this artificial variability. Secondly, the sensitivity of the probe measurements to sampling frequency is investigated in 13 two-phase flow conditions with superficial liquid and gas velocities ranging from 1.00–5.00 m/s and 0.17–2.0 m/s, respectively. With increasing gas flow rate, higher sampling frequencies, greater than 100 kHz in some cases, are required to adequately capture the bubble number frequency and a{sub i} measurements. This trend is due to the increase in gas velocity and the transition to the slug flow regime. Thirdly, the sensitivity of the probe measurements to the measurement duration as well as the sample number is investigated for the same flow conditions. Measurements of both group-I (spherical/distorted) and group-II (cap/slug/churn-turbulent) bubbles are found to be relatively insensitive to both the measurement duration and the number of bubbles, as long as the measurements are made for a duration long enough to capture a collection of samples characteristic to a

  11. Sensitive element of multifunctional sensor for measuring temperature, strain and magnetic field induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive element of multifunctional sensor for measuring temperature, strain and magnetic field induction has been developed based on the studies of electrical conductivity and magnetoresistance of silicon and germanium microcrystals in the temperature range 4.2—70 K, strain ±1.5*10–3 rel.un. and magnetic fields of 0—14 T. The feature of the sensitive element is the using of the p- and n-type conductivity germanium microcrystals as mechanical and magnetic field sensors, respectively, and the p-type silicon microcrystal — as temperature sensor. That allows providing the compensation of temperature influence on piezoresistance and on sensitivity to the magnetic field.

  12. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen, generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen, to remove soot and charred varnish from the surface of a painting. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by reflectance measurements from selected areas made during the removal of soot from acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and varnished oil paint substrates. For the latter substrate, treatment also involved the removal of damaged varnish and paint binder from the surface.

  13. High Throughput Measurement of Locomotor Sensitization to Volatilized Cocaine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filošević, Ana; Al-Samarai, Sabina; Andretić Waldowski, Rozi

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila . We have developed a new behavioral test, FlyBong, which combines delivery of volatilized cocaine (vCOC) to individually housed flies with objective quantification of their locomotor activity. There are two main advantages of FlyBong: it is high-throughput and it allows for comparisons of locomotor activity of individual flies before and after single or multiple exposures. At the population level, exposure to vCOC leads to transient and concentration-dependent increase in locomotor activity, representing sensitivity to an acute dose. A second exposure leads to further increase in locomotion, representing locomotor sensitization. We validate FlyBong by showing that locomotor sensitization at either the population or individual level is absent in the mutants for circadian genes period (per) , Clock (Clk) , and cycle (cyc) . The locomotor sensitization that is present in timeless (tim) and pigment dispersing factor (pdf) mutant flies is in large part not cocaine specific, but derived from increased sensitivity to warm air. Circadian genes are not only integral part of the neural mechanism that is required for development of locomotor sensitization, but in addition, they modulate the intensity of locomotor sensitization as a function of the time of day. Motor-activating effects of cocaine are sexually dimorphic and require a functional dopaminergic transporter. FlyBong is a new and improved method for inducing and measuring locomotor sensitization

  14. High Throughput Measurement of Locomotor Sensitization to Volatilized Cocaine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filošević

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila. We have developed a new behavioral test, FlyBong, which combines delivery of volatilized cocaine (vCOC to individually housed flies with objective quantification of their locomotor activity. There are two main advantages of FlyBong: it is high-throughput and it allows for comparisons of locomotor activity of individual flies before and after single or multiple exposures. At the population level, exposure to vCOC leads to transient and concentration-dependent increase in locomotor activity, representing sensitivity to an acute dose. A second exposure leads to further increase in locomotion, representing locomotor sensitization. We validate FlyBong by showing that locomotor sensitization at either the population or individual level is absent in the mutants for circadian genes period (per, Clock (Clk, and cycle (cyc. The locomotor sensitization that is present in timeless (tim and pigment dispersing factor (pdf mutant flies is in large part not cocaine specific, but derived from increased sensitivity to warm air. Circadian genes are not only integral part of the neural mechanism that is required for development of locomotor sensitization, but in addition, they modulate the intensity of locomotor sensitization as a function of the time of day. Motor-activating effects of cocaine are sexually dimorphic and require a functional dopaminergic transporter. FlyBong is a new and improved method for inducing and measuring locomotor

  15. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Demonstration of a Sensitive Method to Measure Nuclear-Spin-Dependent Parity Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntaş, Emine; Ammon, Jeffrey; Cahn, Sidney B.; DeMille, David

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects in atoms and molecules arise from Z0 boson exchange between electrons and the nucleus, and from the magnetic interaction between electrons and the parity-violating nuclear anapole moment. We demonstrate measurements of NSD-PV that use an enhancement of the effect in diatomic molecules, here using the test system 138Ba 19. Our sensitivity surpasses that of any previous atomic parity violation measurement. We show that systematic errors can be suppressed to at least the level of the present statistical sensitivity. We measure the matrix element W of the NSD-PV interaction with total uncertainty δ W /(2 π )<0.7 Hz , for each of two configurations where W must have different signs. This sensitivity would be sufficient to measure NSD-PV effects of the size anticipated across a wide range of nuclei including 137Ba in 137BaF, where |W |/(2 π )≈5 Hz is expected.

  17. The Research of Screw Thread Parameter Measurement Based on Position Sensitive Detector and Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Q B; Ding, Z L; Chen, J C; Ai, L L; Yuan, F

    2006-01-01

    A technique and system of measuring screw thread parameter based on the theory of laser measurement is presented in this paper, which can be carried out the automated measurement of screw thread parameter. An inspection instrument was designed and produced, which included exterior imaging system of optical path, transverse displacement measurement system, axial displacement measurement system, and a module to deal with, control and assess the data in the upper system. The inspection and estimate of the screw thread contour curve were completed by using position sensitive device (PSD) as photoelectric detector to measure the coordinate data of the screw thread contour curve in the transverse section, and using precise raster to measure the axial displacement of the precision worktable under the screw thread test criterion., computer can gives a measured result according to coordinate data of the screw thread obtained by PSD. The relation between measured spot and image is established, and optimum design of the system organization are introduced, including the image length of receiving lens focal length optical system and the choice of PSD , and some main factor affected measuring precision are analyzed. The experimental results show that the measurement uncertainty of screw thread minor diameter can reach 0. 5μm, which can meet most requests for the measurement of screw thread parameter

  18. Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belval-Haltier, E [Inst. de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I{sub 2} which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with {sup 131}I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I{sub 2} adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  19. Laboratory measurements and model sensitivity studies of dust deposition ice nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ice nucleating properties of mineral dust particles to understand the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties to two different representations of contact angle in the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT. These contact angle representations are based on two sets of laboratory deposition ice nucleation measurements: Arizona Test Dust (ATD particles of 100, 300 and 500 nm sizes were tested at three different temperatures (−25, −30 and −35 °C, and 400 nm ATD and kaolinite dust species were tested at two different temperatures (−30 and −35 °C. These measurements were used to derive the onset relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice required to activate 1% of dust particles as ice nuclei, from which the onset single contact angles were then calculated based on CNT. For the probability density function (PDF representation, parameters of the log-normal contact angle distribution were determined by fitting CNT-predicted activated fraction to the measurements at different RHice. Results show that onset single contact angles vary from ~18 to 24 degrees, while the PDF parameters are sensitive to the measurement conditions (i.e. temperature and dust size. Cloud modeling simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity of cloud properties (i.e. ice number concentration, ice water content, and cloud initiation times to the representation of contact angle and PDF distribution parameters. The model simulations show that cloud properties are sensitive to onset single contact angles and PDF distribution parameters. The comparison of our experimental results with other studies shows that under similar measurement conditions the onset single contact angles are consistent within ±2.0 degrees, while our derived PDF parameters have larger discrepancies.

  20. The position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Koichi; Yoshida, Koji; Yanagimoto, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    We studied the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gave the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of parallel imaging (PI). Sensitivity correction processing that referred to the sensitivity distribution of the body coil improved regional uniformity more than the sensitivity uniformity correction filter with a fixed correction factor. In addition, the position dependent influence to give the SNR measurement in PI was different from the sensitivity correction processing. Therefore, if we divide SNR of the sensitivity correction processing image by SNR of the original image in each pixel and calculate SNR ratio, we can show the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the SNR measurement in PI. It is with an index of the sensitivity correction processing precision. (author)

  1. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 μm) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI) [de

  2. Entropy as a new measure of mechanical pain sensitivity in the masseter muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanosoto, Tomohiro

    ENTROPY AS A NEW MEASURE OF MECHANICAL PAIN SENSITIVITY IN THE MASSETER MUSCLE Author Block: E. E. Castrillon1, H. Sato2,3, T. Tanosoto4, T. Arima4, L. Baad-Hansen1, P. Svensson1, 1Clinical Oral Physiology, Århus Univ., Aarhus, Denmark, 2Dept. of Dentistry & Oral Physiology, Sch. of Med., Keio Un...... injections (Pmechanical pain sensitivity that captures new aspects of spatial characteristics and could therefore complement more classical assessments of TMD pain patients.......ENTROPY AS A NEW MEASURE OF MECHANICAL PAIN SENSITIVITY IN THE MASSETER MUSCLE Author Block: E. E. Castrillon1, H. Sato2,3, T. Tanosoto4, T. Arima4, L. Baad-Hansen1, P. Svensson1, 1Clinical Oral Physiology, Århus Univ., Aarhus, Denmark, 2Dept. of Dentistry & Oral Physiology, Sch. of Med., Keio Univ......., Tokyo, Japan, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Sci., Tokyo, Japan, 4Dept. of Oral Rehabilitation, Graduate Sch. of Dental Med., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan : Aim of Investigation: Manual palpation is a psychophysical technique to evaluate mechanical pain sensitivity in craniofacial muscles...

  3. Computing derivative-based global sensitivity measures using polynomial chaos expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, B.; Mai, C.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of computer experiments sensitivity analysis aims at quantifying the relative importance of each input parameter (or combinations thereof) of a computational model with respect to the model output uncertainty. Variance decomposition methods leading to the well-known Sobol' indices are recognized as accurate techniques, at a rather high computational cost though. The use of polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) to compute Sobol' indices has allowed to alleviate the computational burden though. However, when dealing with large dimensional input vectors, it is good practice to first use screening methods in order to discard unimportant variables. The derivative-based global sensitivity measures (DGSMs) have been developed recently in this respect. In this paper we show how polynomial chaos expansions may be used to compute analytically DGSMs as a mere post-processing. This requires the analytical derivation of derivatives of the orthonormal polynomials which enter PC expansions. Closed-form expressions for Hermite, Legendre and Laguerre polynomial expansions are given. The efficiency of the approach is illustrated on two well-known benchmark problems in sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • Derivative-based global sensitivity measures (DGSM) have been developed for screening purpose. • Polynomial chaos expansions (PC) are used as a surrogate model of the original computational model. • From a PC expansion the DGSM can be computed analytically. • The paper provides the derivatives of Hermite, Legendre and Laguerre polynomials for this purpose

  4. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  5. Development of Bio-Based Paint by using Methyl Esters from Palm Oil for Corrosion Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibah Musa; Miradatul Najwa Muhd Rodhi; Najmiddin Yaakob; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Paint is used as a means of protection to prevent surfaces from being corroded over time. This research is focused on the development of a Bio-based paint made from palm oil methyl ester (POME) which originated from crude palm oil (CPO). New formulation paint has been developed to protect the pipeline from corrosion thus reducing the cost of the operation. Bio-based paint is made up of four components which are solvent, binder, additives, and pigment. The solvent in the bio-based paint is POME. The additives used are wetting and dispersing agent. The pigment used in the bio-based paint is TiO 2 . The formulation was developed by using a constant amount of additives and binder but varying the amount of POME at 10 ml, 15 ml, 20 ml, 25 ml and 30 ml with addition of water. The Standard Testing Methods for measuring the corrosion rate (ASTM G5-94(2011)) was carried out for each sample. In conclusion, it is proven that in the making of bio-based paint formulation for better corrosion inhibitor; the best amount of binder, additives and de-foam that should be used is 20 ml, 10 ml and 10 ml, respectively. (author)

  6. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio [Organic OptoElectronics Laboratory, Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA—SS 14.5, km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.fraleoni@elettra.trieste.it, E-mail: afraleoni@units.it [Organic OptoElectronics Laboratory, Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA—SS 14.5, km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Flextronics Laboratory, Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste. V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (TS) (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  7. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  8. A new measure of uncertainty importance based on distributional sensitivity analysis for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Tak, Nam Il; Chun, Moon Hyun

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to propose a new measure of uncertainty importance based on distributional sensitivity analysis. The new measure is developed to utilize a metric distance obtained from cumulative distribution functions (cdfs). The measure is evaluated for two cases: one is a cdf given by a known analytical distribution and the other given by an empirical distribution generated by a crude Monte Carlo simulation. To study its applicability, the present measure has been applied to two different cases. The results are compared with those of existing three methods. The present approach is a useful measure of uncertainty importance which is based on cdfs. This method is simple and easy to calculate uncertainty importance without any complex process. On the basis of the results obtained in the present work, the present method is recommended to be used as a tool for the analysis of uncertainty importance

  9. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement....... These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the “micropipette interfacial area-expansion method” was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion...... for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6 cm2/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, “single microdroplet catching method”, to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet...

  10. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  11. An examination of the parametric properties of four noise sensitivity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kamp, Irene; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Lopez-Barrio, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Noise sensitivity (NS) is a personality trait with a strong influence on reactions to noise. Studies of reaction should include a standard measure of NS that is founded on a theoretically justified definition of NS, and examination of existing NS measures' parametric properties (internal consiste......, demographics and lifestyle). A standard NS measure should demonstrate high reliability, and should predict responses to noise. Discussion is welcomed and will focus on validation strategies and optimizing the study design.......Noise sensitivity (NS) is a personality trait with a strong influence on reactions to noise. Studies of reaction should include a standard measure of NS that is founded on a theoretically justified definition of NS, and examination of existing NS measures' parametric properties (internal...... consistency; stability; convergent and predictive validity). At each of 6 laboratory centres (Aalborg; London; Sydney; Dortmund; Madrid, Amsterdam), participants will complete four NS measures on each of two occasions. In one occasion, participants will complete a task while exposed to recorded aircraft noise...

  12. Novel design and sensitivity analysis of displacement measurement system utilizing knife edge diffraction for nanopositioning stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChaBum; Lee, Sun-Kyu; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and sensitivity analysis of a knife edge-based optical displacement sensor that can be embedded with nanopositioning stages. The measurement system consists of a laser, two knife edge locations, two photodetectors, and axillary optics components in a simple configuration. The knife edge is installed on the stage parallel to its moving direction and two separated laser beams are incident on knife edges. While the stage is in motion, the direct transverse and diffracted light at each knife edge is superposed producing interference at the detector. The interference is measured with two photodetectors in a differential amplification configuration. The performance of the proposed sensor was mathematically modeled, and the effect of the optical and mechanical parameters, wavelength, beam diameter, distances from laser to knife edge to photodetector, and knife edge topography, on sensor outputs was investigated to obtain a novel analytical method to predict linearity and sensitivity. From the model, all parameters except for the beam diameter have a significant influence on measurement range and sensitivity of the proposed sensing system. To validate the model, two types of knife edges with different edge topography were used for the experiment. By utilizing a shorter wavelength, smaller sensor distance and higher edge quality increased measurement sensitivity can be obtained. The model was experimentally validated and the results showed a good agreement with the theoretically estimated results. This sensor is expected to be easily implemented into nanopositioning stage applications at a low cost and mathematical model introduced here can be used for design and performance estimation of the knife edge-based sensor as a tool.

  13. Thomson scattering measuring device using high sensitivity photomultipliers: 16% up to 860nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.

    1976-03-01

    Photomultipliers with high quantum efficiency were used to observe the entire rubis laser light spectrum scattered by a plasma. The optical and electronic acquisition device used to study this spectrum is described. The spectra obtained revealed a dissymmetry larger than that expected from relativistic theory. These results could not be interpreted. The diagnostic sensitivity allows the measurement of low electron densities (2.10 12 ecm -3 ) [fr

  14. Measurement of radon in air by α track method enhancement detection sensitivity using a lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Y.; Tanaka, F.

    1983-01-01

    A new α track method is proposed for the measurement of 222 Rn concentration in environmental levels. This involves collecting radon daughters on the surface of pilot lamp and detecting α-particles emitted from the nuclides ( 218 Po and 214 Po) by a detector (LR 115). The detection sensitivity of this method is 6 times greater than that of the conventional α track method. (author)

  15. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  16. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  17. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  18. Preparation of water paint by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1984-01-01

    The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of γ-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

  19. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Marković, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjić and Marković, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  20. Development of a position-sensitive fission counter and measurement of neutron flux distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Kakuta, Tsunemi

    2001-08-01

    A position-sensitive fission counter (PSFC) that operates in high neutron flux and high gamma-ray background such as at the side of a power reactor vessel has been developed. Neutron detection using the PSFC with a solenoid electrode is based on a delay-line method. The PSFC that has the outer diameter of 25 mm and the sensitive length of 1000 mm was manufactured for investigation of the performances. The PSFC provided output current pulses that were sufficiently higher than the alpha noise, though the PSFC has a solenoid electrode and large electrode-capacitance. The S/N ratio of PSFC outputs proved to be higher than that of ordinary fission counters with 200 mm sensitive length. A performance test to measure neutron flux distributions by a neutron measuring system with the PSFC was carried out by the side of a graphite pile, W2.4 x H1.4 x L1.2 m, with neutron sources, Am-Be 370 GBq x 2. It was confirmed that the neutron flux distribution was well measured with the system. (author)

  1. Haplotype reconstruction error as a classical misclassification problem: introducing sensitivity and specificity as error measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lamina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistically reconstructing haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes, can lead to falsely classified haplotypes. This can be an issue when interpreting haplotype association results or when selecting subjects with certain haplotypes for subsequent functional studies. It was our aim to quantify haplotype reconstruction error and to provide tools for it. METHODS AND RESULTS: By numerous simulation scenarios, we systematically investigated several error measures, including discrepancy, error rate, and R(2, and introduced the sensitivity and specificity to this context. We exemplified several measures in the KORA study, a large population-based study from Southern Germany. We find that the specificity is slightly reduced only for common haplotypes, while the sensitivity was decreased for some, but not all rare haplotypes. The overall error rate was generally increasing with increasing number of loci, increasing minor allele frequency of SNPs, decreasing correlation between the alleles and increasing ambiguity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, with the analytical approach presented here, haplotype-specific error measures can be computed to gain insight into the haplotype uncertainty. This method provides the information, if a specific risk haplotype can be expected to be reconstructed with rather no or high misclassification and thus on the magnitude of expected bias in association estimates. We also illustrate that sensitivity and specificity separate two dimensions of the haplotype reconstruction error, which completely describe the misclassification matrix and thus provide the prerequisite for methods accounting for misclassification.

  2. The Effect of Classical Music on Painting Quality and Classroom Behaviour for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Russell F.; Riddoch, Jane V.

    2007-01-01

    There are few studies measuring the effects on painting quality of playing background classical music at special schools. Primary students with severe intellectual disabilities (N=24) were taught abstract painting in a two-part method. The first part involved a Pictorial Only method and the second, immediately following it, involved a Pictorial…

  3. Position sensitive proportional counter for measurement of tritium labelled gas movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Chizuo; Nakamoto, Makihiko; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1984-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional counter of a charge division type with a single resistive anode wire was constructed for the measurement of the movement of 3 H labelled gas which is flowing or diffusing in a pipe. The introduction of resistors between the anode wire and pre-amplifiers brought a uniform detection efficiency for 3 H β-rays throughout the counter. The position resolution was 3.1 mm FWHM. Detection efficiency was almost 100% uniformly over about 700 mm in the total anode length of 740 mm. The movement of 3 H labelled gas could be measured effectively. (author)

  4. Sensitive Mid-IR Laser Sensor Development and Mass Spectrometric Measurements in Shock Tube and Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-11-01

    With global emission regulations becoming stringent, development of new combustion technologies that meet future emission regulations is essential. In this vein, this dissertation presents the application of sensitive diagnostic tools to validate and improve chemical kinetic mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the design of new combustion technologies. First, a novel high sensitivity laser-based sensor with a wide frequency tuning range (900 – 1000 cm-1) was developed utilizing pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. The novel laser-based sensor was illustrated by measuring trace amounts of multiple combustion intermediates, namely ethylene, propene, allene, and 1-butene in a static cell at ambient conditions. Subsequently, pulsed CRDS technique was utilized to develop an ultra-fast, high sensitivity diagnostic to monitor trace concentrations of ethylene in shock tube pyrolysis experiments. This diagnostic represented the first ever successful application of CRDS technique to transient species measurements in a shock tube. The high sensitivity and fast time response (10μs) diagnostic may be utilized for measuring other key neutrals and radicals which are crucial in the oxidation chemistry of practical fuels. Secondly, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) was employed to measure relative cation mole fractions in atmospheric and low-pressure (30 Torr) flames of methane/oxygen diluted in argon. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames were 4 examined to evaluate the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Spatial distribution of cations was compared with predictions of an existing ion chemistry model. Based on the extensive measurements carried out in this work, modifications were suggested to improve the ion chemistry model to enhance the fidelity of such mechanisms. In-depth understanding of flame ion chemistry is vital to model the interaction of flames with electric fields and thereby pave the way to enable active combustion control

  5. Conceptual design of elliptical cavities for intensity and position sensitive beam measurements in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjari, M S; Chen, X; Hülsmann, P; Litvinov, Yu A; Nolden, F; Piotrowski, J; Steck, M; Stöhlker, Th

    2015-01-01

    Position sensitive beam monitors are indispensable for the beam diagnostics in storage rings. Apart from their applications in the measurements of beam parameters, they can be used in non-destructive in-ring decay studies of radioactive ion beams as well as enhancing precision in the isochronous mass measurement technique. In this work, we introduce a novel approach based on cavities with elliptical cross-section, in order to compensate the limitations of known designs for the application in ion storage rings. The design is aimed primarily for future heavy ion storage rings of the FAIR project. The conceptual design is discussed together with simulation results. (paper)

  6. Piezoelectric paints as one approach to smart structural materials with health-monitoring capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shigenori; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1998-08-01

    Piezoelectric paints have a potential to change a conventional structural material into an intelligent material system with health-monitoring capabilities such as vibration sensing and damage detection. Such paints were prepared using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder as a pigment and epoxy resin as a binder. The obtained paints were coated on aluminum test specimens, and were cured at room temperature or at 150 0964-1726/7/4/002/img5, thus forming the paint films having different thicknesses of 25-300 0964-1726/7/4/002/img6. These films were then poled at room temperature, and were evaluated with regard to the sensitivities as vibration and acoustic emission sensors in the frequency ranges of 0-250 Hz and 0-1.0 MHz, respectively. This paper mainly describes the effects of the film thickness and the cure temperature on the poling behavior of the PZT/epoxy paint film. This paper describes also the application of the paint film as a vibration modal sensor integrated into a structural material.

  7. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  8. Computer-animated stimuli to measure motion sensitivity: constraints on signal design in the Jacky dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kevin L; Rieucau, Guillaume; Burke, Darren

    2017-02-01

    Identifying perceptual thresholds is critical for understanding the mechanisms that underlie signal evolution. Using computer-animated stimuli, we examined visual speed sensitivity in the Jacky dragon Amphibolurus muricatus , a species that makes extensive use of rapid motor patterns in social communication. First, focal lizards were tested in discrimination trials using random-dot kinematograms displaying combinations of speed, coherence, and direction. Second, we measured subject lizards' ability to predict the appearance of a secondary reinforcer (1 of 3 different computer-generated animations of invertebrates: cricket, spider, and mite) based on the direction of movement of a field of drifting dots by following a set of behavioural responses (e.g., orienting response, latency to respond) to our virtual stimuli. We found an effect of both speed and coherence, as well as an interaction between these 2 factors on the perception of moving stimuli. Overall, our results showed that Jacky dragons have acute sensitivity to high speeds. We then employed an optic flow analysis to match the performance to ecologically relevant motion. Our results suggest that the Jacky dragon visual system may have been shaped to detect fast motion. This pre-existing sensitivity may have constrained the evolution of conspecific displays. In contrast, Jacky dragons may have difficulty in detecting the movement of ambush predators, such as snakes and of some invertebrate prey. Our study also demonstrates the potential of the computer-animated stimuli technique for conducting nonintrusive tests to explore motion range and sensitivity in a visually mediated species.

  9. Meeting report: Measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints within the first years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Hauser, R.; Swan, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    An international workshop tided "Assessing Endocrine-Related Endpoints within the First Years of Life" was held 30 April-1 May 2007, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Representatives from a number of pregnancy cohort studies in North America and Europe presented options for measuring various endocrine......-sensitive endpoints in early life and discussed issues related to performing and using those measures. The workshop focused on measuring reproductive tract developmental endpoints [e.g., anogenital distance (AGD)], endocrine status, and infant anthropometry. To the extent possible, workshop participants strove...... on the genital exam. Although a number of outcome measures recommended during the genital exam have been associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, little is known about how predictive these effects are of later reproductive health or other chronic health conditions....

  10. [Nusing-sensitive indicadors: an opportunity for measuring the nurse contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Campmany, Carme; Icart-Isern, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The measures directed at improving the management and funding of health services that justify the measurement of performance and the purchase of services based on results, have a direct influence on nursing. In this context, concerns about the value and contribution of nursing have been demonstrated worldwide over the last decades. Therefore efforts are being made to ensure that nurses contribute to promote the transformation of health systems. This requires identifying their contribution to the health system and, specifically, in relation to health outcomes. In recent decades, there has been a growing demand to achieve measures which allow nurses to demonstrate and assume responsibility for their contribution. The research and development of nursing-sensitive indicators and results, and its application, provide an opportunity to measure the contribution and professional performance in achieving these set objectives, in order to improve population health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of three-dimensional deformations using digital holography with radial sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Christian; Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Jr.; G. Armando

    2010-07-10

    A measurement system based on digital holography for the simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and radial in-plane displacement fields for the assessment of residual stress is presented. Two holograms are recorded at the same time with a single image taken by a digital camera, allowing the separate evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane movement. An axis-symmetrical diffractive optical element is used for the illumination of the object, which causes radial sensitivity vectors. By the addition and, respectively, the subtraction, of the four phase maps calculated from two camera frames, the in-plane and out-of-plane deformation of an object can be calculated separately. The device presented is suitable for high-speed, high-resolution measurement of residual stress. In addition to the setup, first measurement results and a short comparison to a mature digital speckle pattern interferometry setup are shown.

  12. Historical origins of Petrykivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting is a part of Ukrainian folk art. Domestic science of folk art has originated and has been developing primarily as a study of archaeological antiquities and artistic monuments of the past. Scientific papers, which comprehended the process of folk art development, began to appear in the late nineteenth century, Archaeological Congresses became the impetus for their appearance. Being a representative of the decorative painting, Petrikivsky decorative painting is rooted by its murals to Tripoli. It was created as a peasant domestic drawing. Inexhaustible diversity of local variants of Petrikivsky decorative painting, its evolutionary change, the individual characteristics of paintings of hundreds of famous Ukrainian artists do not even allow comparing it to any other European counterparts, each of which is characterized only by some individual techniques. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the significant boost in its distribution and development when it «came down» from walls to paper. Paper pictures - malyovky - were stucked to walls following the traditional rules of domestic interior’s decoration. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the official status in 1913, when E. Evenbah, by the initiative of D.I. Yavornytsky, gathered the collection of Petrikivsky decorative painting’s malyovkas and organized the exhibition in St. Petersburg. Motives of painting are rooted into the local flora and fauna and into the historical tradition. However, Petrikivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist, it is the stylization of local flowers, fruits and birds. First names of Masters of Petrikivsky decorative painting, which appeared in historical sources, were T. Pata, N. Bilokin, I. Pavlenko. Their official recognition happened in 1930 after their participation in the first republican exhibition, which was later shown

  13. Specificity and sensitivity of noninvasive measurement of pulmonary vascular protein leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauber, I.M.; Pluss, W.T.; VanGrondelle, A.; Trow, R.S.; Weil, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques employing external counting of radiolabeled protein have the potential for measuring pulmonary vascular protein permeability, but their specificity and sensitivity remain unclear. The authors tested the specificity and sensitivity of a double-radioisotope method by injecting radiolabeled albumin ( 131 I) and erythrocytes (/sup 99m/Tc) into anesthetized dogs and measuring the counts of each isotope for 150 min after injection with an external gamma probe fixed over the lung. They calculated the rate of increase of albumin counts measured by the probe (which reflects the rate at which protein leaks into the extravascular space). To assess permeability the authors normalized the rate of increase in albumin counts for changes in labeled erythrocyte signal to minimize influence of changes in vascular surface area and thus derived an albumin leak index. They measured the albumin leak index and gravimetric lung water during hydrostatic edema (acutely elevating left atrial pressure by left atrial balloon inflation: mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure = 22.6 Torr) and in lung injury edema induced by high- (1.0 g/kg) and low-dose (0.25 g/kg) intravenous thiourea. To test specificity hydrostatic and high-dose thiourea edema were compared. The albumin leak index increased nearly fourfold from control after thiourea injury (27.2 +/- 2.3 x 10-4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.9 x 10-4 min-1) but did not change from control levels after elevating left atrial pressure (8.9 +/- 1.2 x 10-4 min-1) despite comparable increases in gravimetric lung water. To test sensitivity the authors compared low-dose thiourea with controls. Following low-dose thiourea, the albumin leak index nearly doubled despite the absence of a measurable increase in lung water

  14. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  15. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  16. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  17. Studies on analytical method and nondestructive measuring method on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimura, Kichiro; Arioka, Koji; Horai, Manabu; Noguchi, Shigeru.

    1982-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used as structural materials for the machine and equipment of various kinds of plants, such as thermal power, nuclear power, and chemical plants. The machines and equipment using this kind of material, however, have the possibility of suffering corrosion damage while in service, and these damages are considered to be largely due to the sensitization of the material in sometimes. So, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for grasping the sensitization of the material more in detail and a quantitative nondestructive measuring method which is applicable to various kinds of structures in order to prevent the corrosion damage. From the above viewpoint, studies have been made on the analytical method based on the theory of diffusion of chromium in austenitic stainless steels and on Electro-Potentiokinetics Reactivation Method (EPR Method) as a nondestructive measuring method, using 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels having different carbon contents in base metals. This paper introduces the results of EPR test on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels and the correlation between analytical and experimental results. (author)

  18. Cost-Sensitive Feature Selection of Numeric Data with Measurement Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an essential process in data mining applications since it reduces a model’s complexity. However, feature selection with various types of costs is still a new research topic. In this paper, we study the cost-sensitive feature selection problem of numeric data with measurement errors. The major contributions of this paper are fourfold. First, a new data model is built to address test costs and misclassification costs as well as error boundaries. It is distinguished from the existing models mainly on the error boundaries. Second, a covering-based rough set model with normal distribution measurement errors is constructed. With this model, coverings are constructed from data rather than assigned by users. Third, a new cost-sensitive feature selection problem is defined on this model. It is more realistic than the existing feature selection problems. Fourth, both backtracking and heuristic algorithms are proposed to deal with the new problem. Experimental results show the efficiency of the pruning techniques for the backtracking algorithm and the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm. This study is a step toward realistic applications of the cost-sensitive learning.

  19. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  20. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  1. Measurement of Systematic Error Effects for a Sensitive Storage Ring EDM Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imig, Astrid; Stephenson, Edward

    2009-10-01

    The Storage Ring EDM Collaboration was using the Cooler Synchrotron (COSY) and the EDDA detector at the Forschungszentrum J"ulich to explore systematic errors in very sensitive storage-ring polarization measurements. Polarized deuterons of 235 MeV were used. The analyzer target was a block of 17 mm thick carbon placed close to the beam so that white noise applied to upstream electrostatic plates increases the vertical phase space of the beam, allowing deuterons to strike the front face of the block. For a detector acceptance that covers laboratory angles larger than 9 ^o, the efficiency for particles to scatter into the polarimeter detectors was about 0.1% (all directions) and the vector analyzing power was about 0.2. Measurements were made of the sensitivity of the polarization measurement to beam position and angle. Both vector and tensor asymmetries were measured using beams with both vector and tensor polarization. Effects were seen that depend upon both the beam geometry and the data rate in the detectors.

  2. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  3. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  4. Sensitivity Measurement of a long SPND by a Split Neutron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young San; Park, Sang Jun; Jung, Hwan Sung

    2006-01-01

    A Self Powered neutron Detector (SPND) has been used effectively as an in-core neutron monitor for a long time both in nuclear research reactors and power reactors due to its very simple dimensions and structures. For power reactor applications, Rhodium, Vanadium, Platinum, and Silver are usually used as the typical emitter materials for the SPNDs. The SPNDs with a Rhodium emitter (Rh-SPNDs) are most frequently used at Korean Standard Nuclear Power stations (KSNP) as a fixed incore neutron detector. This paper describes a new method to measure the neutron sensitivity of the Rh-SPNDs with a long sensitive length at a horizontal beam tube of HANARO by a split irradiation of them

  5. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  6. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  7. Capabilities and limitations of handheld Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for the analysis of colourants and binders in 20th-century reverse paintings on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Simon; Stege, Heike; Bretz, Simone; Hahn, Oliver

    2018-04-01

    A non-invasive method has been carried out to show the capabilities and limitations of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for identifying of colourants and binders in modern reverse glass paintings. For this purpose, the reverse glass paintings "Zwei Frauen am Tisch" (1920-22), "Bäume" (1946) (both by Heinrich Campendonk), "Lofoten" (1933) (Edith Campendonk-van Leckwyck) and "Ohne Titel" (1954) (Marianne Uhlenhuth), were measured. In contrast to other techniques (e.g. panel and mural painting), the paint layers are applied in reverse succession. In multi-layered paint systems, the front paint layer may no longer be accessible. The work points out the different spectral appearance of a given substance (gypsum, basic lead white) in reverse glass paintings. However, inverted bands, band overlapping and derivative-shaped spectral features can be interpreted by comparing the spectra from the paintings with spectra from pure powders and pigment/linseed oil mock-ups. Moreover, the work focuses on this method's capabilities in identifying synthetic organic pigments (SOP). Reference spectra of three common SOP (PG7, PY1, PR83) were obtained from powders and historical colour charts. We identified PR83 and PY1 in two reverse glass paintings, using the measured reference spectra. The recorded DRIFTS spectra of pure linseed oil, gum Arabic, mastic, polyvinyl acetate resin and bees wax can be used to classify the binding media of the measured paintings.

  8. Soluble salts: their incidence on the protection of metallic structures by paint coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of soluble salts at the metal/paint interface is known to have a detrimental effect on the integrity of most paint systems. Though this is a long-standing problem, it has recently come to receive greater attention from the protective coatings industry. In the paper the following points are reviewed: degradation mechanisms of the metal/paint system, the role of the metallic substrate, the nature, origin and detection os soluble salts, expected levels of soluble salts in practice, critical thresholds of soluble salts and risk levels for premature failures, role of the type and thickness of paint systems and exposure conditions, and prevention measures. The author presents an overview of the subject, making reference to the related research that has been carried out by him and his co-workers over the last 16 years. (Author) 58 refs

  9. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis in investigation of pigments from historic paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Tluchor, D.; Kokta, L.; Dryak, P.; Rowinska, L.; Walis, L.; Vosatka, A.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used in determining the composition of used pigments, their age and origin. Microsamples from paintings with a weight of less than 10 -7 kg were taken with a hollow needle, irradiated in quartz ampoules for 20 hours in a reactor with a density of thermal neutrons of 10 13 cm -2 .s -1 and then in different configurations measured with a Ge(Li) detector. From the amount of obtained data (various paintings, different colours) a data bank will be established enabling speedy comparative evaluations. As an example the problem of the excellent white in Rubens' paintings is dealt with and the dating is discussed of the early beginnings of the use of zinc white in Guardi's paintings. (M.D.)

  10. 2D imaging and 3D sensing data acquisition and mutual registration for painting conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Marras, Luciano; Pampaloni, Enrico M.; Pelagotti, Anna; Pezzati, Luca; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-01-01

    We describe the application of 2D and 3D data acquisition and mutual registration to the conservation of paintings. RGB color image acquisition, IR and UV fluorescence imaging, together with the more recent hyperspectral imaging (32 bands) are among the most useful techniques in this field. They generally are meant to provide information on the painting materials, on the employed techniques and on the object state of conservation. However, only when the various images are perfectly registered on each other and on the 3D model, no ambiguity is possible and safe conclusions may be drawn. We present the integration of 2D and 3D measurements carried out on two different paintings: "Madonna of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci, and "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", by Pisanello, both painted in the XV century.

  11. Self-training-based spectral image reconstruction for art paintings with multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Haisong; Diao, Changyu; Ye, Zhengnan

    2017-10-20

    A self-training-based spectral reflectance recovery method was developed to accurately reconstruct the spectral images of art paintings with multispectral imaging. By partitioning the multispectral images with the k-means clustering algorithm, the training samples are directly extracted from the art painting itself to restrain the deterioration of spectral estimation caused by the material inconsistency between the training samples and the art painting. Coordinate paper is used to locate the extracted training samples. The spectral reflectances of the extracted training samples are acquired indirectly with a spectroradiometer, and the circle Hough transform is adopted to detect the circle measuring area of the spectroradiometer. Through simulation and a practical experiment, the implementation of the proposed method is explained in detail, and it is verified to have better reflectance recovery performance than that using the commercial target and is comparable to the approach using a painted color target.

  12. Measurement of spatial dose-rate distribution using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Torii, T.; Nozaki, T.; Ando, H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the radiation detectors using plastic scintillation fibers (PSF) have been developed to measure the positions exposed to radiation such as neutrons and high energy charged particles. In particular, the time of flight (TOF) method for measuring the difference of time that two directional signals of scintillation light reach both ends of a PSF is a rather simple method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of fast neutron fluence rate. It is possible to use the PSF in nuclear facility working areas because of its flexibility, small diameter and long length. In order to apply TOF method to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution, the characteristic tests of a detector using PSFs were carried out. First, the resolution of irradiated positions and the counting efficiency were measured with collimated gamma ray. The sensitivity to unit dose rate was also obtained. The measurement of spatial dose rate distribution was also carried out. The sensor is made of ten bundled PSFs, and the experimental setup is described. The experiment and the results are reported. It was found that the PSF detector has the good performance to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution. (K.I.)

  13. Technical Note: Robust measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile in breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Aili K., E-mail: aili.maki@sri.utoronto.ca; Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Yaffe, Martin J. [Departments of Medical Imaging and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the repeatability of the measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile (SSP) in reconstructed breast tomosynthesis volumes. Methods: A grid of aluminum ball-bearings (BBs) within a PMMA phantom was imaged on breast tomosynthesis systems from three different manufacturers. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values were measured for the SSPs of the BBs in the reconstructed volumes. The effect of transforming the volumes from a Cartesian coordinate system (CCS) to a cone-beam coordinate system (CBCS) on the variability in the FWHM values was assessed. Results: Transforming the volumes from a CCS to a CBCS before measuring the SSPs reduced the coefficient of variation (COV) in the measurements of FWHM in repeated measurements by 56% and reduced the dependence of the FWHM values on the location of the BBs within the reconstructed volume by 76%. Conclusions: Measuring the SSP in the volumes in a CBCS improves the robustness of the measurement.

  14. [Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

    2007-01-01

    Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices.

  15. Normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signal with functional activity measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaroh Takagaki

    Full Text Available In general, signal amplitude in optical imaging is normalized using the well-established DeltaF/F method, where functional activity is divided by the total fluorescent light flux. This measure is used both directly, as a measure of population activity, and indirectly, to quantify spatial and spatiotemporal activity patterns. Despite its ubiquitous use, the stability and accuracy of this measure has not been validated for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of mammalian neocortex in vivo. In this report, we find that this normalization can introduce dynamic biases. In particular, the DeltaF/F is influenced by dye staining quality, and the ratio is also unstable over the course of experiments. As methods to record and analyze optical imaging signals become more precise, such biases can have an increasingly pernicious impact on the accuracy of findings, especially in the comparison of cytoarchitechtonic areas, in area-of-activation measurements, and in plasticity or developmental experiments. These dynamic biases of the DeltaF/F method may, to an extent, be mitigated by a novel method of normalization, DeltaF/DeltaF(epileptiform. This normalization uses as a reference the measured activity of epileptiform spikes elicited by global disinhibition with bicuculline methiodide. Since this normalization is based on a functional measure, i.e. the signal amplitude of "hypersynchronized" bursts of activity in the cortical network, it is less influenced by staining of non-functional elements. We demonstrate that such a functional measure can better represent the amplitude of population mass action, and discuss alternative functional normalizations based on the amplitude of synchronized spontaneous sleep-like activity. These findings demonstrate that the traditional DeltaF/F normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signals can introduce pernicious inaccuracies in the quantification of neural population activity. They further suggest that normalization

  16. Designing a new test for contrast sensitivity function measurement with iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vallejo, Manuel; Remón, Laura; Monsoriu, Juan A; Furlan, Walter D

    2015-01-01

    To introduce a new application (ClinicCSF) to measure Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) with tablet devices, and to compare it against the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT). A total of 42 subjects were arranged in two groups of 21 individuals. Different versions of the ClinicCSF (.v1 and .v2) were used to measure the CSF of each group with the same iPad and the results were compared with those measured with the FACT. The agreements between ClinicCSF and FACT for spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (cpd) were represented by Bland-Altman plots. Statistically significant differences in CSF of both groups were found due to the change of the ClinicCSF version (piPad retina showed no significant differences with FACT test when the same contrast sensitivity steps were used. In addition, it is shown that the accurateness of a vision screening could be improved with the use of an appropriate psychophysical method. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. New measure of insulin sensitivity predicts cardiovascular disease better than HOMA estimated insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Kavita; Khoo, Chin Meng; Leow, Melvin K S; Khoo, Eric Y H; Isaac, Anburaj V; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, Sendhil S; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter; Lee, Jeannette; Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of insulin sensitivity may better identify individuals at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. To examine whether a combination of anthropometric, biochemical and imaging measures can better estimate insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and provide improved prediction of cardio-metabolic risk, in comparison to HOMA-IR. Healthy male volunteers (96 Chinese, 80 Malay, 77 Indian), 21 to 40 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2). Predicted ISI (ISI-cal) was generated using 45 randomly selected Chinese through stepwise multiple linear regression, and validated in the rest using non-parametric correlation (Kendall's tau τ). In an independent longitudinal cohort, ISI-cal and HOMA-IR were compared for prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using ROC curves. The study was conducted in a university academic medical centre. ISI measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, along with anthropometric measurements, biochemical assessment and imaging; incident diabetes and CVD. A combination of fasting insulin, serum triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) provided the best estimate of clamp-derived ISI (adjusted R(2) 0.58 versus 0.32 HOMA-IR). In an independent cohort, ROC areas under the curve were 0.77±0.02 ISI-cal versus 0.76±0.02 HOMA-IR (p>0.05) for incident diabetes, and 0.74±0.03 ISI-cal versus 0.61±0.03 HOMA-IR (pHOMA-IR. This may be useful for estimating insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  18. Real-time tricolor phase measuring profilometry based on CCD sensitivity calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Cao, Yiping; He, Dawu; Chen, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    A real-time tricolor phase measuring profilometry (RTPMP) based on charge coupled device (CCD) sensitivity calibration is proposed. Only one colour fringe pattern whose red (R), green (G) and blue (B) components are, respectively, coded as three sinusoidal phase-shifting gratings with an equivalent shifting phase of 2π/3 is needed and sent to an appointed flash memory on a specialized digital light projector (SDLP). A specialized time-division multiplexing timing sequence actively controls the SDLP to project the fringe patterns in R, G and B channels sequentially onto the measured object in one over seventy-two of a second and meanwhile actively controls a high frame rate monochrome CCD camera to capture the corresponding deformed patterns synchronously with the SDLP. So the sufficient information for reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) shape in one over twenty-four of a second is obtained. Due to the different spectral sensitivity of the CCD camera to RGB lights, the captured deformed patterns from R, G and B channels cannot share the same peak and valley, which will lead to lower accuracy or even failing to reconstruct the 3D shape. So a deformed pattern amending method based on CCD sensitivity calibration is developed to guarantee the accurate 3D reconstruction. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed RTPMP method. The proposed RTPMP method can obtain the 3D shape at over the video frame rate of 24 frames per second, avoid the colour crosstalk completely and be effective for measuring real-time changing object.

  19. Assessing decision quality in patient-centred care requires a preference-sensitive measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Cunich, Michelle; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    A theory-based instrument for measuring the quality of decisions made using any form of decision technology, including both decision-aided and unaided clinical consultations is required to enable person- and patient-centred care and to respond positively to individual heterogeneity in the value...... aspects of decision making. Current instruments using the term 'decision quality' have adopted a decision- and thus condition-specific approach. We argue that patient-centred care requires decision quality to be regarded as both preference-sensitive across multiple relevant criteria and generic across all...

  20. Phase-sensitive measurements of vortex dynamics in the terahertz domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, B.; Spielman, S.; Orenstein, J.; Nemeth, D.T.; Ludwig, F.; Clarke, J.; Merchant, P.; Lew, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Phase-sensitive spectroscopy is used to characterize fully the complex resistivity tensor of YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films in the mixed state, in the frequency range 100 to 500 GHz and temperature range 10 K to T c . We compare our results with the predictions of a vortex model containing three parameters: viscosity, pinning, and Magnus force. The viscosity and Magnus parameter we measure are in disagreement with theoretically predicted values. We show that the discrepancies can be explained by incorporating the effects of a highly anisotropic or d-wave gap

  1. Sensitivity analysis of magnetic field measurements for magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan; Scheffler, Klaus; Ehses, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical use of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) still requires significant sensitivity improvements. Here, the measurement of the current-induced magnetic field (DBz,c) is improved using systematic efficiency analyses and optimization of multi-echo spin echo...... (MESE) and steady-state free precession free induction decay (SSFP-FID) sequences. Theory and Methods: Considering T1, T2, and T 2 relaxation in the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the MR magnitude images, the efficiency of MESE and SSFP-FID MREIT experiments, and its dependence on the sequence...

  2. New measure of insulin sensitivity predicts cardiovascular disease better than HOMA estimated insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Venkataraman

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Accurate assessment of insulin sensitivity may better identify individuals at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a combination of anthropometric, biochemical and imaging measures can better estimate insulin sensitivity index (ISI and provide improved prediction of cardio-metabolic risk, in comparison to HOMA-IR. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthy male volunteers (96 Chinese, 80 Malay, 77 Indian, 21 to 40 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2. Predicted ISI (ISI-cal was generated using 45 randomly selected Chinese through stepwise multiple linear regression, and validated in the rest using non-parametric correlation (Kendall's tau τ. In an independent longitudinal cohort, ISI-cal and HOMA-IR were compared for prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD, using ROC curves. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university academic medical centre. OUTCOME MEASURES: ISI measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, along with anthropometric measurements, biochemical assessment and imaging; incident diabetes and CVD. RESULTS: A combination of fasting insulin, serum triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR provided the best estimate of clamp-derived ISI (adjusted R(2 0.58 versus 0.32 HOMA-IR. In an independent cohort, ROC areas under the curve were 0.77±0.02 ISI-cal versus 0.76±0.02 HOMA-IR (p>0.05 for incident diabetes, and 0.74±0.03 ISI-cal versus 0.61±0.03 HOMA-IR (p<0.001 for incident CVD. ISI-cal also had greater sensitivity than defined metabolic syndrome in predicting CVD, with a four-fold increase in the risk of CVD independent of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Triglycerides and WHR, combined with fasting insulin levels, provide a better estimate of current insulin resistance state and improved identification of individuals with future risk of CVD, compared to HOMA-IR. This may be useful for estimating insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in clinical and

  3. Measurement and analysis of field-induced crystallographic texture using curved position-sensitive diffraction detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines measurement and analysis methodologies created for determining the structural responses of electroceramics to an electric field. A sample stage is developed to apply electric fields to ceramic materials at elevated temperatures during neutron diffraction experiments. The tested...... employing a curved positive sensitive detector. Methodologies are proposed to account for the geometrical effects when vector fields are applied to textured materials with angularly dispersive detector geometries. Representative results are presented for the ferroelectric (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (BNT-6BT...

  4. A new measurement for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: psychometric criteria and genetic validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eReuter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST represents one of the most influential biologically-based personality theories describing individual differences in approach and avoidance tendencies. The most prominent self-report inventory to measure individual differences in approach and avoidance behavior to date is the BIS/BAS scale by Carver & White (1994. As Gray & McNaughton (2000 revised the RST after its initial formulation in the 1970/80s, and given the Carver & White measure is based on the initial conceptualization of RST, there is a growing need for self-report inventories measuring individual differences in the revised behavioral inhibition system (BIS, behavioral activation system (BAS and the fight, flight, freezing system (FFFS. Therefore, in this paper we present a new questionnaire measuring individual differences in the revised constructs of the BIS, BAS and FFFS in N = 1814 participants (German sample. An English translated version of the new measure is also presented and tested in N = 299 English language participants. A large number of German participants (N = 1090 also filled in the BIS/BAS scales by Carver & White (1994 and the correlations between these measures are presented. Finally, this same subgroup of participants provided buccal swaps for the investigation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a gene. Here, a functional genetic polymorphism (rs11174811 on the AVPR1a gene was shown to be associated with individual differences in both the revised BIS and classic BIS dimensions.

  5. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  6. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J.; Winchester, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of NP size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accurately correct for a decrease in instrument sensitivity of up to 50 % for 30 nm and 60 nm gold nanoparticles. PMID:26894759

  7. Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi Maino, D.; Ciancabilla, L.; Gandolfi, G.; Maino, G.; Bruni, S.; Ferriani, S.; Visparelli, D.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the higher magnification with respect to traditional optical microscopes, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been extensively applied in recent years to the investigation of elemental composition of many different types of artistic objects. The back-scattered and secondary electrons produced when the SEM electron beam hits the sample can be detected and converted in electronic signals which give rise to images of the scanned area. These images can be recorded in digital format and stored on a computer for subsequent processing. Moreover, in addition to the back-scattered and secondary electrons, the impact of the electron beam on the sample produces a X-ray spectrum, which can be further processed and analysed using an X-ray spectrometer coupled to the SEM. Therefore, it is possible to yield the chemical composition of the sample, analogously to the X-ray fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be applied to the characterization of paint layers, making ultra-thin sections in which the paint and ground layers are preserved intact. In comparison with usual SEM measurements, the TEM technique is more precise, because of the higher spatial resolution in both the microanalysis and diffraction modes, of the order of 10-20 nm. This precision allows unique identification of each component in the layer and determination of the crystallographic structure, thus characterizing even the smallest particles of each pigment and pointing out minor components. It is then possible to establish whether a pigment is natural, manufactured, its origin as well as approximate datations. In this work, we describe the research activities performed in the laboratory recently established at the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) Applied Physics Division, where dedicated SEM and TEM are connected by a suitable imaging system to a powerful computing system for image acquisition and processing. Use has

  8. Determination of diuron and the antifouling paint biocide Irgarol 1051 in Dutch marinas and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoree, M.H.; Swart, C.P.; van der Horst, A.; van Hattum, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive LC-electrospray MS-MS method using off-line solid-phase extraction for the determination of diuron and Irgarol 1051 has been developed, enabling determination of both compounds at sub-ppt levels. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 are used as alternatives for tributyltin in antifouling paints that

  9. Basophil sensitivity through CD63 or CD203c is a functional measure for specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Ronald

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subcutaneous Immunotherapy (SCIT modifies the allergic response and relieves allergic symptoms. SCIT is the only and a very effective treatment for insect venom allergy. We hypothesized that basophil sensitivity, measured through the basophil activation test, would decrease during SCIT up dosing. Expression of CD203c was compared to CD63 as marker for basophil activation, using a Bland Altman plot and ROC curves. Methods Patients (n = 18 starting subcutaneous SCIT for wasp allergy with an up dosing scheme of 7 to 11 weeks were enrolled. Heparinised blood samples were drawn at weeks 1-4, 7 and at the first maintenance visit. Basophils were stimulated at 7 log dilutions of V. vespula allergen for 15 min, and were stained with CD203c and CD63. Basophils were identified as CD203c+ leukocytes, and the proportion of CD63+ and CD203c+ cells were plotted against allergen concentration. A sigmoid curve was fitted to the points, and the allergen concentration at which half of the maximal activation was achieved, LC50, was calculated. In another series of experiments, LC50 calculated in whole blood (AP was subtracted from LC50 calculated with basophils suspended in plasma from a nonatopic donor (HS to determine the protective effect of soluble factors in blood of patients treated with SCIT. Results Heparin blood basophil activation was similar through CD63 and CD203c. Basophils were significantly more sensitized three weeks after initiation of SCIT compared to baseline (p Conclusion Basophil activation is a versatile and sensitive tool that measures changes in the humoral immune response to allergen during SCIT.

  10. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  11. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rui Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness.

  12. Pressure pain sensitivity: A new method of stress measurement in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, Søren; Holmager, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    to induce hyperalgesia.The aim of the present study was to evaluate hyperalgesia by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) in patients with IHD, and compare PPS to questionnaires measuring depressive symptoms, reduced psychological wellbeing, and QOL as markers of stress. Design. A cross-sectional study of 361......Abstract Background. Chronic stress is prevalent in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and worsens the long-term prognosis. Chronic stress is vaguely defined, but is associated with depressive symptoms, reduced psychological wellbeing, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Stress seems...... subjects with IHD. Methods. PPS was measured on the sternum, and compared to the questionnaires: Clinical stress symptoms score (CSS), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, and SF-36 QOL score. Results. PPS correlated to CSS (r = 0.20, p

  13. External meeting: KATRIN - direct measurement of neutrino masses with sub-eV sensitivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY - ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 18 April 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium KATRIN - direct measurement of neutrino masses with sub-eV sensitivity by Prof. Guido Drexlin, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT The major scientific objective of the international Karlsruhe Tritum Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is the model independent measurement of the electron neutrino mass in tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV. In the cosmological context, this allows an investigation of whether massive relic neutrinos left over from the Big Bang play a specific role as hot dark matter in the evolution of large scale structures of the universe. In particle physics KATRIN will allow for discrimination between different neutrino mass models (either of quasi-degenerate or hierarchical pattern).The key components of KATRIN comprise...

  14. Measurement of slice sensitivity profile for a 64-slice spiral CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanya; Qin Weichang; Wang Wei; Lu Chuanyou

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and evaluate slice sensitivity profile (SSP) and the full width at half-maximum(FWHM) for a 64-slice spiral CT system. Methods: Using the same CT technique and body mode as those used for clinical CT, delta phantom was scanned with Somatom Sensation 64-slice spiral CT. SSPs and FWHM were measured both with reconstruction slice width of 0.6 mm at pitch=0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and with reconstruction slice width of 0.6, 1.0, 1.5 mm at pitch=1 respectively. Results: For normal slice width of 0. 6 mm, the measured FWHM, i.e. effective slice width, is 0.67, 0.67, 0.66, 0.69, 0.69 mm at different pitch. All the measured FWHM deviate less than 0.1 mm from the nominal slice width. The measured SSPs are symmetrical, bell-shaped curves without far-reaching tails, and show only slight variations as a function of the spiral pitch. When reconstruction slice width increase, relative SSP become wider. Conclusions: The variation of pitch hardly has effect all on SSP, effective slice width, and z-direction spatial resolution for Sensation 64-slice spiral CT system, which is helpful to optimize CT scanning protocol. (authors)

  15. Improved sample preparation and counting techniques for enhanced tritium measurement sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Aalseth, C.; Bailey, V. L.; Mace, E. K.; Overman, C.; Seifert, A.; Wilcox Freeburg, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tritium (T) measurements offer insight to a wealth of environmental applications including hydrologic tracking, discerning ocean circulation patterns, and aging ice formations. However, the relatively short half-life of T (12.3 years) limits its effective age dating range. Compounding this limitation is the decrease in atmospheric T content by over two orders of magnitude (from 1000-2000 TU in 1962 to testing in the 1960's. We are developing sample preparation methods coupled to direct counting of T via ultra-low background proportional counters which, when combined, offer improved T measurement sensitivity (~4.5 mmoles of H2 equivalent) and will help expand the application of T age dating to smaller sample sizes linked to persistent environmental questions despite the limitations above. For instance, this approach can be used to T date ~ 2.2 mmoles of CH4 collected from sample-limited systems including microbial communities, soils, or subsurface aquifers and can be combined with radiocarbon dating to distinguish the methane's formation age from C age in a system. This approach can also expand investigations into soil organic C where the improved sensitivity will permit resolution of soil C into more descriptive fractions and provide direct assessments of the stability of specific classes of organic matter in soils environments. We are employing a multiple step sample preparation system whereby organic samples are first combusted with resulting CO2 and H2O being used as a feedstock to synthesize CH4. This CH4 is mixed with Ar and loaded directly into an ultra-low background proportional counter for measurement of T β decay in a shallow underground laboratory. Analysis of water samples requires only the addition of geologic CO2 feedstock with the sample for methane synthesis. The chemical nature of the preparation techniques enable high sample throughput with only the final measurement requiring T decay with total sample analysis time ranging from 2 -5 weeks

  16. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Barrett, Mark; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

  17. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

  18. The influence of photocatalytic interior paints on indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Joonas; Wirtanen, Leif

    2008-06-01

    A clean indoor air is important for the well-being and health of people. Lately, new photocatalytic paints have been launched on the market, which are claimed to have air-purifying effects. Photocatalysis initiates radical reactions. Radicals are formed when a photocatalyst (e.g. TiO2) is subjected to radiation. Typical radicals are the hydroxyl radical (radOH) and the superoxide radical (radO2-). Radicals cause chain reactions, which degrade and decompose organic compounds. The end products of these chain reactions are water and carbon dioxide, if the reactions are fully completed (mineralization). If mineralization does not take place, then a great number of side products can be formed, whose properties are not well understood. The side products of photocatalytic reactions can be permanent and stabile. The decomposition of indoor air impurities on the surface of photocatalytic paints is not obvious. The ability of photocatalytic indoor paints to reduce chemical indoor air impurities is the key issue of this study. Six different paints with different binder systems, such as lime, polyorganic siloxane, silica sol-gel and organic binders, were examined. The experiments were divided into three topics: degradation of an organic binder, photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of five different indoor air VOCs. All tests were carried out in an environmental test chamber under dynamic conditions. The test results indicate that many indoor pollutants are generated under normal- and UVA-light. Typical compounds formed include formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, etc. A clear decrease of formaldehyde or the VOC mixture concentration was not observed. All possibly generated compounds could not be collected or analyzed in this research project, but the measurements show that photocatalytic reactions do not generate only carbon dioxide and water. Photocatalytic decomposition of indoor air impurities can, however

  19. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identi......Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could...... be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for Me......V Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples...

  20. Connoisseurship Evaluation In Digital Painting Among Art Teachers In Malaysian Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimah A. Samah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Connoisseurship evaluation is a form of evaluation and educational inquiry having qualitative characteristics. In this study, these skills are seen among Malaysian art teachers in secondary schools. Quality assessment depends on the evaluator who has the ability of some aspects. Among these are qualitative nuances experiences as well as ability to judge the goodness of the quality artwork. This study aims to look at the quality and evaluation skills of art teachers in Malaysia. The quality of the work will be seen on school students’ digital painting. The evaluation includes composition elements, color, interpretation and creativity of the digital painting. This study employed a quasi-experimental methodology with a single-group design to examine the digital painting among 53 students selected from schools in two districts of Selangor. The paintings were examined by two teachers in art and design education. The group’s production of painting was analyzed using Manova repeated measures to determine the skills of evaluating among the art teachers.There was a similarity in marks given among the teachers in four aspects of productive dimensions: composition, color manipulation, interpretation and creativity. This indicated that teachers were able to evaluate according to their expertise in art and design. This study offered a means to assist teachers with appropriate evaluation strategies in digital painting. In theory, this study will add to the understanding of cognitive systems and human information processing that relate to visual imagery system and skill of evaluation.

  1. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka; Marković, Nikola; Anghelone, Marta; Stoytschew, Valentin; Jakšić, Milko

    2017-09-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples were not embedded in the resin as is usually done when imaging of paint samples using different techniques in the field of cultural heritage.

  2. The influence of film-screen color sensitivity and type of measurement device on kVp measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R W; Price, S C

    1989-01-01

    Three methods for evaluating radiographic kVp were studied: the Wisconsin Test Cassette, the Noninvasive Evaluator of Radiation Outputs (NERO), and the Dynalyzer. The Dynalyzer kVp readings were the highest and were followed by NERO and cassette readings in descending order. By film type, the cassette readings ranged from Kodak OG (green sensitive), TMG (green sensitive), XK (blue sensitive), and XRP (blue sensitive) in descending order. The results show that there is significant variation between the methods.

  3. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinones in water-based paints: a retrospective study of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Emmanuelle; Aerts, Olivier; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Debons, Michèle; Milpied, Brigitte; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Waton, Julie; Ferrier-Le Bouëdec, Marie C; Lartigau, Isabelle; Pecquet, Catherine; Assier, Haudrey; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Bernier, Claire; Castelain, Florence; Collet, Evelyne; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Genillier, Nathalie; Girardin, Pascal; Pralong, Pauline; Tetart, Florence; Vital-Durand, Dominique; Soria, Angele; Barbaud, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones has been recognized as a health hazard. To collect epidemiological, clinical and patch test data on airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinone-containing paints in France and Belgium. A descriptive, retrospective study was initiated by the Dermatology and Allergy Group of the French Society of Dermatology, including methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI)- and/or MI-sensitized patients who developed airborne allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to isothiazolinone-containing paint. Forty-four cases were identified, with mostly non-occupational exposure (79.5%). Of the patients, 22.5% of also had mucosal symptoms. In several cases, the dermatitis required systemic corticosteroids (27.3%), hospitalization (9.1%), and/or sick leave (20.5%). A median delay of 5.5 weeks was necessary to enable patients to enter a freshly painted room without a flare-up of their dermatitis. Approximately one-fifth of the patients knew that they were allergic to MI and/or MCI/MI before the exposure to paints occurred. Our series confirms that airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones is not rare, and may be severe and long-lasting. Better regulation of isothiazolinone concentrations in paints, and their adequate labelling, is urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The measurement of phi 60 mm x 600 mu m silicon PIN detector gamma sensitivity and time respond

    CERN Document Server

    Hu Meng Chun; Ye Wen Ying

    2002-01-01

    phi 60 mm x 600 mu m silicon PIN detector is a large area and high sensitive one which has been developed in near years. The authors have measured their gamma sensitivity and the time response. The experiment and theoretical calculated results in: sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma sensitivity is about 5 fC centre dot cm sup 2 /MeV, the rise time is about 10 ns and the half-high-width time is about 35 ns

  5. Choice as a dependent measure in autoshaping: sensitivity to frequency and duration of food presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, M; Poling, A

    1982-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that rate, latency, and percentage of trials with at least one response are somewhat insensitive measures of the strength of autoshaped responding. In the present studies, these measures were contrasted with the allocation of responding during simultaneous choice tests, a measure of response strength frequently used in operant paradigms. In two experiments, nine pigeons were exposed to a forward pairing autoshaping procedure. Training sessions consisted of the successive presentation of three stimuli, each followed by food on either 100%, 50%, or 0% of the trials. Choice testing involved the simultaneous presentation of the three stimuli. In Experiment I, all pigeons consistently directed their initial choice responses and the majority of subsequent responses to the stimulus always followed by food, despite the fact that during training sessions the response rates of most birds were highest in the presence of the stimulus followed by food on 50% of the trials. In Experiment II, rate, latency, and percentage of trials with at least one response did not change appreciably as a function of duration of feeder presentations. However, choice responding was lawfully affected by duration of feeder presentations. These data suggest that choice is perhaps a more sensitive measure of the strength of autoshaped responding than other, more commonly employed, indices. PMID:7097152

  6. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  7. Simulation and measurement of short infrared pulses on silicon position sensitive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapohl, D; Esebamen, O X; Nilsson, H E; Thungstroem, G

    2011-01-01

    Lateral position sensitive devices (PSD) are important for triangulation, alignment and surface measurements as well as for angle measurements. Large PSDs show a delay on rising and falling edges when irradiated with near infra-red light. This delay is also dependent on the spot position relative to the electrodes. It is however desirable in most applications to have a fast response. We investigated the responsiveness of a Sitek PSD in a mixed mode simulation of a two dimensional full sized detector. For simulation and measurement purposes focused light pulses with a wavelength of 850 nm, duration of 1μs and spot size of 280μm were used. The cause for the slopes of rise and fall time is due to time constants of the device capacitance as well as the photo-generation mechanism itself. To support the simulated results, we conducted measurements of rise and fall times on a physical device. Additionally, we quantified the homogeneity of the device by repositioning a spot of light from a pulsed ir-laser diode on the surface area.

  8. Does air gas aesthesiometry generate a true mechanical stimulus for corneal sensitivity measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosch, Daniela S; Pult, Heiko; Albon, Julie; Purslow, Christine; Murphy, Paul J

    2018-03-01

    Belmonte Ocular Pain Meter (OPM) air jet aesthesiometry overcomes some of the limitations of the Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. However, for true mechanical corneal sensitivity measurement, the airflow stimulus temperature of the aesthesiometer must equal ocular surface temperature (OST), to avoid additional response from temperature-sensitive nerves. The aim of this study was to determine: (A) the stimulus temperature inducing no or least change in OST; and (B) to evaluate if OST remains unchanged with different stimulus durations and airflow rates. A total of 14 subjects (mean age 25.14 ± 2.18 years; seven women) participated in this clinical cohort study: (A) OST was recorded using an infrared camera (FLIR A310) during the presentation of airflow stimuli, at five temperatures, ambient temperature (AT) +5°C, +10°C, +15°C, +20°C and +30°C, using the OPM aesthesiometer (duration three seconds; over a four millimetre distance; airflow rate 60 ml/min); and (B) OST measurements were repeated with two stimulus temperatures (AT +10°C and +15°C) while varying stimulus durations (three seconds and five seconds) and airflow rates (30, 60, 80 and 100 ml/min). Inclusion criteria were age measures (analysis of variance) and appropriate post-hoc t-tests were applied. (A) Stimulus temperatures of AT +10°C and +15°C induced the least changes in OST (-0.20 ± 0.13°C and 0.08 ± 0.05°C). (B) OST changes were statistically significant with both stimulus temperatures and increased with increasing airflow rates (p air stimulus of the Belmonte OPM because its air jet stimulus with mechanical setting is likely to have a thermal component. Appropriate stimulus selection for an air jet aesthesiometer must incorporate stimulus temperature control that can vary with stimulus duration and airflow rate. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  9. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Francesca; Rose, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  10. THE MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE PAINTING DECAY – THE CASE OF JILAN PAVILION IN THE SUMMER PALACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The painting is one of the most decorative elements of ancient Chinese architecture and it is sensitive to the natural environment. The outdoor painting is very easily to be affected by the natural environment and its color is easily to decay. In order to study the relationship between the painting decay and the physical environment, the two paintings on both east and west inner eaves of Jilan Pavilion beside the Kunming Lake in Summer Palace are taken as the research objects, because these two paintings are painted at the same period but their decay degrees are greatly different. Since 2013, the research group regularly monitors the color decay of these two paintings. Meanwhile, the physical environment around these two paintings has been monitored. Based on the analysis of the monitor data, it can be seen that the illumination is the major factor that causes the decay of the painting. Meanwhile, by using the ECOTECT software to stimulate the light environment around the Jilan Pavilion, it can be seen that it is the mirror reflection of the lake that causes the result that the illumination of the west eave (face east is stronger than that of the east eave (face west.

  11. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Francesca [The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source and Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  12. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  13. Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; Měch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

    2013-05-01

    Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available.

  14. Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

  15. Measurement of M. luteus endonuclease-sensitive lesions by alkaline elution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornace, Jr, A J [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA). Lab. for Experimental Pathology

    1982-01-01

    The UV-endonuclease approach to detect DNA damage has been combined with the alkaline elution technique with a resultant marked increase in sensitivity compared to the conventional method using alkaline sedimentation. DNA from UV-irradiated cells was digested on an inert filter with an extract from Micrococcus luteus and then analyzed by alkaline elution. Endonuclease-sensitive sites (endo-sites) were measured after doses of 0.08-0.7 Jm/sup -2/ of UV-radiation. An estimate of endo-site production with UV radiation, 0.27 endo-sites/10/sup 8/ daltons of DNA/0.1 Jm/sup -2/, was similar to that usually seen at higher doses by others. With repair incubation, approx. 50% of the endo-sites were removed in 4 h by normal human fibroblasts after 0.2 or 0.4 Jm/sup -2/, no appreciable repair was seen in xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts from complementation group A after 24 h of repair incubation. No photoreaction of UV damage due to 0.4 Jm/sup -2/ was detected in normal human fibroblasts.

  16. Measurement of M. luteus endonuclease-sensitive lesions by alkaline elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The UV-endonuclease approach to detect DNA damage has been combined with the alkaline elution technique with a resultant marked increase in sensitivity compared to the conventional method using alkaline sedimentation. DNA from UV-irradiated cells was digested on an inert filter with an extract from Micrococcus luteus and then analyzed by alkaline elution. Endonuclease-sensitive sites (endo-sites) were measured after doses of 0.08-0.7 Jm -2 of UV-radiation. An estimate of endo-site production with UV radiation, 0.27 endo-sites/10 8 daltons of DNA/0.1 Jm -2 , was similar to that usually seen at higher doses by others. With repair incubation, approx. 50% of the endo-sites were removed in 4 h by normal human fibroblasts after 0.2 or 0.4 Jm -2 , no appreciable repair was seen in xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts from complementation group A after 24 h of repair incubation. No photoreaction of UV damage due to 0.4 Jm -2 was detected in normal human fibroblasts. (orig./AJ)

  17. Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM-K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Jung, Na Young; Rauch, Sheila A M; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a Korean version of Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). A Korean version of the IPSM (IPSM-K) was produced through forward translation, reconciliation, and back translation. A total of 338 healthy, non-clinical participants were selected through screening and clinical interview, and they each were given a set of questionnaires including IPSM-K. All subscales, as well as a full-scale IPSM-K showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.73-0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was significant, with coefficient r ranging between .80 and .94. In terms of convergent validity, IPSM-K showed the significant positive correlation with sociotropy and autonomy subscale of Personal Style Inventory-II, as well as with neuroticism subscale of Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Personality Inventory. IPSM-K had no correlation with Social Desirability Scale, thus demonstrated divergent validity with social desirability. A factor analysis of the scale was conducted and five factors emerged (low self-confidence, interpersonal awareness, lack of assertiveness/separation anxiety, interpersonal vulnerability, and need for approval). This study demonstrated that IPSM-K could be useful in assessing interpersonal sensitivity in Korean population. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of adaptive enrichment trial designs to accrual rates, time to outcome measurement, and prognostic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchen Qian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive enrichment designs involve rules for restricting enrollment to a subset of the population during the course of an ongoing trial. This can be used to target those who benefit from the experimental treatment. Trial characteristics such as the accrual rate and the prognostic value of baseline variables are typically unknown when a trial is being planned; these values are typically assumed based on information available before the trial starts. Because of the added complexity in adaptive enrichment designs compared to standard designs, it may be of special concern how sensitive the trial performance is to deviations from assumptions. Through simulation studies, we evaluate the sensitivity of Type I error, power, expected sample size, and trial duration to different design characteristics. Our simulation distributions mimic features of data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort study, and involve two subpopulations based on a genetic marker. We investigate the impact of the following design characteristics: the accrual rate, the time from enrollment to measurement of a short-term outcome and the primary outcome, and the prognostic value of baseline variables and short-term outcomes. To leverage prognostic information in baseline variables and short-term outcomes, we use a semiparametric, locally efficient estimator, and investigate its strengths and limitations compared to standard estimators. We apply information-based monitoring, and evaluate how accurately information can be estimated in an ongoing trial.

  19. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E; Fabian, David M; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2013-08-21

    Identifying natural, organic dyes and pigments is important for the conservation, preservation, and historical interpretation of works of art. Although previous SERS studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for red lake pigments using various pretreatment conditions, corresponding investigations of yellow lake pigments and paints are relatively sparse. Here, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is used to identify a variety of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint. High-quality SERS spectra of yellow dyestuffs (i.e., turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries) and corresponding paints could be obtained with or without sample pretreatment using microliter quantities of HCl and methanol at room temperature. However, the SERS spectra of yellow lake pigments (i.e., Stil de Grain, Reseda lake) and their corresponding oil paints were only observed upon sample pretreatment. Ultimately, we demonstrate a reliable sample treatment protocol for SERS-based identification of turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries, Stil de Grain, and Reseda lake as well as for microscopic samples of the corresponding oil paints.

  1. FARADAY CUP AWARD: High Sensitivity Tune Measurement using Direct Diode Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gasior, M

    2012-01-01

    Direct Diode Detection (3D) is a technique developed at CERN initially for the LHC tune measurement system, to reach a sensitivity allowing observation of beam betatron oscillations with amplitudes below a micrometre. In this technique simple peak diode detectors are used to convert short beam pulses from a beam position pick-up into slowly varying signals. Their DC components, constituting a large background related to beam offsets, are suppressed by series capacitors, while the small signals related to beam oscillations are passed to the subsequent stages for amplification and filtering. As the demodulated beam oscillation signals are already in the kHz range, their processing is simple and they can be digitised with high resolution audio ADCs. This paper presents the history as well as the adventures of the 3D development and prototyping, along with some technical details. It documents a very efficient collaboration between CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), with contributions from other labora...

  2. Plasmonic nanoshell functionalized etched fiber Bragg gratings for highly sensitive refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Jörg; Feizpour, Amin; Schade, Wolfgang; Reinhard, Björn M

    2015-02-15

    A novel fiber optical refractive index sensor based on gold nanoshells immobilized on the surface of an etched single-mode fiber including a Bragg grating is demonstrated. The nanoparticle coating induces refractive index dependent waveguide losses, because of the variation of the evanescently guided part of the light. Hence the amplitude of the Bragg reflection is highly sensitive to refractive index changes of the surrounding medium. The nanoshell functionalized fiber optical refractive index sensor works in reflectance mode, is suitable for chemical and biochemical sensing, and shows an intensity dependency of 4400% per refractive index unit in the refractive index range between 1.333 and 1.346. Furthermore, the physical length of the sensor is smaller than 3 mm with a diameter of 6 μm, and therefore offers the possibility of a localized refractive index measurement.

  3. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay: a sensitive technique for measuring radiation-induced chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, M.; Morley, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was demonstrated by the detection in human lymphocytes of in vitro exposures of as low as 0.02 Gy of X-rays. To determine the suitability of this new method for measuring in vivo exposure to radiation the authors have performed initial longitudinal studies on (a) cancer patients undergoing partial body fractionated radiotherapy and (b) BALB-C mice following in vivo whole body irradiation with acute single doses of X-rays. The results for radiotherapy patients indicate that the dose fractions have an additive effect on the observed micronucleus frequency which appeared to decline following three months after completion of therapy. Results with irradiated mice showed a sharp increase in micronucleus frequency for splenocytes sampled immediately after treatment and the rate of decline in micronucleus frequency during the first week after treatment was dose-dependent. (author)

  4. High-sensitivity measurements for low-level TRU wastes using advanced passive neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, both passive- and active-neutron nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been used to measure the uranium and plutonium content in 200-ell drums. Because of the heterogeneity of the wastes, representative sampling is not possible and NDA methods are preferred over destructive analysis. Active-neutron assay systems are used to measure the fissile isotopes such as 235 U, 23 Pu, and 241 Pu; the isotopic ratios are used to infer the total plutonium content and thus the specific disintegration rate. The active systems include 14-MeV-neutron (DT) generators with delayed-neutron counting, (D,T) generators with the differential die-away technique, and 252 Cf delayed-neutron shufflers. Passive assay systems (for example, segmented gamma-ray scanners)5 have used gamma-ray sessions, while others (for example, passive drum counters) used passive-neutron signals. We have developed a new passive-neutron measurement technique to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the NDA of plutonium scrap and waste. This new 200-ell-drum assay system combines the classical NDA method of counting passive-neutron totals and coincidences from plutonium with the new features of ''add-a-source'' (AS) and multiplicity counting to improve the accuracy of matrix corrections and statistical techniques that improve the low-level detectability limits. This paper describes the improvements we have made in passive-neutron assay systems and compares the accuracies and detectability limits of passive- and active-neutron assay systems

  5. Evaluating stereoscopic displays: both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Maurice H. P. H.; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Kort, Yvonne A. W.

    2011-03-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure potential performance advantages. However, completion time and accuracy may not fully reflect all the benefits of stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we argue that perceived workload is an additional valuable indicator reflecting the extent to which users can benefit from using stereoscopic displays. We performed an experiment in which participants were asked to perform a visual path-tracing task within a convoluted 3D wireframe structure, varying in level of complexity of the visualised structure and level of disparity of the visualisation. The results showed that an optimal performance (completion time, accuracy and workload), depend both on task difficulty and disparity level. Stereoscopic disparity revealed a faster and more accurate task performance, whereas we observed a trend that performance on difficult tasks stands to benefit more from higher levels of disparity than performance on easy tasks. Perceived workload (as measured using the NASA-TLX) showed a similar response pattern, providing evidence that perceived workload is sensitive to variations in disparity as well as task difficulty. This suggests that perceived workload could be a useful concept, in addition to standard performance indicators, in characterising and measuring human performance advantages when using stereoscopic displays.

  6. Prenatal expectations in Mexican American women: development of a culturally sensitive measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Tanaka, Rika; Cmic, Keith; Cirnic, Keith; Gonzales, Nancy; Enders, Craig; Luecken, Linda J

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal expectations describe various domains a woman envisions in preparation for her role as a new mother and influence how women transition into the maternal role. Although the maternal role is strongly influenced by the prevailing familial and sociocultural context, research characterizing prenatal expectations in ethnic minority and low-income women is lacking. As part of the largest growing minority group in the USA, Latina mothers represent an important group to study. Two hundred and ten low-income Mexican American women were administered the Prenatal Experiences Scale for Mexican Americans (PESMA) that was adapted to capture specific cultural aspects of prenatal expectations. Measures of current support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic characteristics were also completed to assess validity. Exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors of prenatal expectations: paternal support, family support, and maternal role fulfillment. Associations among these subscales and demographic and cultural variables were conducted to characterize women who reported higher and lower levels of expectations. The PESMA demonstrated good concurrent validity when compared to measures of social support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic constructs. A culturally sensitive measure of prenatal expectations is an important step towards a better understanding of how Mexican American women transition to the maternal role and identify culturally specific targets for interventions to promote maternal health.

  7. Prenatal expectations in Mexican American women: Development of a culturally-sensitive measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L.; Roubinov, Danielle S.; Tanaka, Rika; Crnic, Keith; Gonzales, Nancy; Enders, Craig; Luecken, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal expectations describe various domains a woman envisions in preparation for her role as a new mother and influence how women transition into the maternal role. Although the maternal role is strongly influenced by the prevailing familial and sociocultural context, research characterizing prenatal expectations in ethnic minority and low-income women is lacking. As part of the largest growing minority group in the U.S., Latina mothers represent an important group to study. Methods Two hundred and ten low-income Mexican American women were administered the Prenatal Experiences Scale for Mexican Americans (PESMA) that was adapted to capture specific cultural aspects of prenatal expectations. Measures of current support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic characteristics were also completed to assess validity. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors of prenatal expectations: Paternal Support, Family Support, and Maternal Role Fulfillment. Associations among these subscales, and demographics and cultural variables were conducted to characterize women who reported higher and lower levels of expectations. The PESMA demonstrated good concurrent validity when compared to measures of social support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic constructs. Conclusions A culturally sensitive measure of prenatal expectations is an important step towards a better understanding of how Mexican American women transition to the maternal role and identify culturally specific targets for interventions to promote maternal health. PMID:23592028

  8. Temperature sensitivity study of eddy current and digital gauge probes for nuclear fuel rod oxide measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Faith R.; Lind, R. Paul; Smith, James A.

    2018-04-01

    Novel fuels are part of the nationwide effort to reduce the enrichment of Uranium for energy production. Performance of such fuels is determined by irradiating their surfaces. To test irradiated samples, the instrumentation must operate remotely. The plate checker used in this experiment at Idaho National Lab (INL) performs non-destructive testing on fuel rod and plate geometries with two different types of sensors: eddy current and digital thickness gauges. The sensors measure oxide growth and total sample thickness on research fuels, respectively. Sensor measurement accuracy is crucial because even 10 microns of error is significant when determining the viability of an experimental fuel. One parameter known to affect the eddy current and thickness gauge sensors is temperature. Since both sensor accuracies depend on the ambient temperature of the system, the plate checker has been characterized for these sensitivities. The manufacturer of the digital gauge probes has noted a rather large coefficient of thermal expansion for their linear scale. It should also be noted that the accuracy of the digital gauge probes are specified at 20°C, which is approximately 7°C cooler than the average hot-cell temperature. In this work, the effect of temperature on the eddy current and digital gauge probes is studied, and thickness measurements are given as empirical functions of temperature.

  9. Assessing decision quality in patient-centred care requires a preference-sensitive measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltoft, Mette; Cunich, Michelle; Salkeld, Glenn; Dowie, Jack

    2014-01-01

    A theory-based instrument for measuring the quality of decisions made using any form of decision technology, including both decision-aided and unaided clinical consultations is required to enable person- and patient-centred care and to respond positively to individual heterogeneity in the value aspects of decision making. Current instruments using the term ‘decision quality’ have adopted a decision- and thus condition-specific approach. We argue that patient-centred care requires decision quality to be regarded as both preference-sensitive across multiple relevant criteria and generic across all conditions and decisions. MyDecisionQuality is grounded in prescriptive multi criteria decision analysis and employs a simple expected value algorithm to calculate a score for the quality of a decision that combines, in the clinical case, the patient’s individual preferences for eight quality criteria (expressed as importance weights) and their ratings of the decision just taken on each of these criteria (expressed as performance rates). It thus provides an index of decision quality that encompasses both these aspects. It also provides patients with help in prioritizing quality criteria for future decision making by calculating, for each criterion, the Incremental Value of Perfect Rating, that is, the increase in their decision quality score that would result if their performance rating on the criterion had been 100%, weightings unchanged. MyDecisionQuality, which is a web-based generic and preference-sensitive instrument, can constitute a key patient-reported measure of the quality of the decision-making process. It can provide the basis for future decision improvement, especially when the clinician (or other stakeholders) completes the equivalent instrument and the extent and nature of concordance and discordance can be established. Apart from its role in decision preparation and evaluation, it can also provide real time and relevant documentation for the patient

  10. One-Port Electronic Detection Strategies for Improving Sensitivity in Piezoelectric Resonant Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxu Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a one-port mechanical resonance detection scheme utilized on a piezoelectric thin film driven silicon circular diaphragm resonator and discusses the limitations to such an approach in degenerate mode mass detection sensors. The sensor utilizes degenerated vibration modes of a radial symmetrical microstructure thereby providing both a sense and reference mode allowing for minimization of environmental effects on performance. The circular diaphragm resonator was fabricated with thickness of 4.5 µm and diameter of 140 µm. A PZT thin film of 0.75 µm was patterned on the top surface for the purposes of excitation and vibration sensing. The device showed a resonant frequency of 5.8 MHz for the (1, 1 mode. An electronic interface circuit was designed to cancel out the large static and parasitic capacitance allowing for electrical detection of the mechanical vibration thereby enabling the frequency split between the sense and reference mode to be measured accurately. The extracted motional current, proportional to the vibration velocity, was fed back to the drive to effectively increase the Q factor, and therefore device sensitivity, by more than a factor of 8. A software phase-locked loop was implemented to automatically track the resonant frequencies to allow for faster and accurate resonance detection. Results showed that by utilizing the absolute mode frequencies as an indication of sensor temperature, the variation in sensor temperature due to the heating from the drive electronics was accounted for and led to an ultimate measurement sensitivity of 2.3 Hz.

  11. One-Port Electronic Detection Strategies for Improving Sensitivity in Piezoelectric Resonant Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Hedley, John; Keegan, Neil; Spoors, Julia; Gallacher, Barry; McNeil, Calum

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a one-port mechanical resonance detection scheme utilized on a piezoelectric thin film driven silicon circular diaphragm resonator and discusses the limitations to such an approach in degenerate mode mass detection sensors. The sensor utilizes degenerated vibration modes of a radial symmetrical microstructure thereby providing both a sense and reference mode allowing for minimization of environmental effects on performance. The circular diaphragm resonator was fabricated with thickness of 4.5 µm and diameter of 140 µm. A PZT thin film of 0.75 µm was patterned on the top surface for the purposes of excitation and vibration sensing. The device showed a resonant frequency of 5.8 MHz for the (1, 1) mode. An electronic interface circuit was designed to cancel out the large static and parasitic capacitance allowing for electrical detection of the mechanical vibration thereby enabling the frequency split between the sense and reference mode to be measured accurately. The extracted motional current, proportional to the vibration velocity, was fed back to the drive to effectively increase the Q factor, and therefore device sensitivity, by more than a factor of 8. A software phase-locked loop was implemented to automatically track the resonant frequencies to allow for faster and accurate resonance detection. Results showed that by utilizing the absolute mode frequencies as an indication of sensor temperature, the variation in sensor temperature due to the heating from the drive electronics was accounted for and led to an ultimate measurement sensitivity of 2.3 Hz. PMID:27792154

  12. Luminance noise as a novel approach for measuring contrast sensitivity within the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cierra M; McAnany, J Jason

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which different types of luminance noise can be used to target selectively the inferred magnocellular (MC) and parvocellular (PC) visual pathways. Letter contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured for three visually normal subjects for letters of different size (0.8°-5.3°) under established paradigms intended to target the MC pathway (steady-pedestal paradigm) and PC pathway (pulsed-pedestal paradigm). Results obtained under these paradigms were compared to those obtained in asynchronous static noise (a field of unchanging luminance noise) and asynchronous dynamic noise (a field of randomly changing luminance noise). CS was measured for letters that were high- and low-pass filtered using a range of filter cutoffs to quantify the object frequency information (cycles per letter) mediating letter identification, which was used as an index of the pathway mediating CS. A follow-up experiment was performed to determine the range of letter duration over which MC and PC pathway CS can be targeted. Analysis of variance indicated that the object frequencies measured under the static noise and steady-pedestal paradigms did not differ significantly (p ≥ 0.065), but differed considerably from those measured under the dynamic noise (both p noise, and in dynamic noise. These data suggest that the spatiotemporal characteristics of noise can be manipulated to target the inferred MC (static noise) and PC (dynamic noise) pathways. The results also suggest that CS within these pathways can be measured at long stimulus durations, which has potential importance in the design of future clinical CS tests.

  13. Lower-energy neutron sources for increasing the sensitivity of nuclear gages for measuring the water content of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of a gage using a nuclear source for measuring the water content of bulk materials, such as plastic concrete, is increased by use of a lithium or fluorine neutron nuclear source. 3 figures

  14. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  15. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Reitz, Matthias; Bolar, Divya S; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Schmidt, Nils O; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7 T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml · kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s(∧)-1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s(∧)-1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s-(∧)1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml · min(∧)-1 · 100 g(∧)-1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P effects of anesthesia and trauma due to micro probe insertion are strong confounding factors and need close attention for study planning and conduction of experiments. Investigation of the correlation of perfusion and oxygenation sensitive MRI methods with micro probe measurements in pathologic tissue such as tumors is now of compelling interest

  16. Characterisation of preparation layers in nine Danish Golden Age canvas paintings by SEM–EDX, FTIR and GC–MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Andreotti, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    added in order to increase flexibility and durability of ready primed canvases that were stored and sold in rolls. Moreover, the egg–oil emulsion has the advantage of being more viscous than a pure oil paint and could thus be used without sizing the canvas, rendering the primed canvas less stiff......This study explores the materials used in the preparation layers of nine paintings from the Danish Golden Age as a first approach to understanding the variation in use of materials in the nineteenth century as well as the potential for their degradation. Paintings on canvas have traditionally been...... suspected to be particularly sensitive to high moisture levels because of the changing quality of materials in the nineteenth century. The explanations have partly included the mechanisation of production methods and partly a more experimental approach to painting. Additionally, collagen-based glue sizing...

  17. Measurement system for high-sensitivity LIBS analysis using ICCD camera in LabVIEW environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, S M; Popov, A M; Zorov, N B; Labutin, T A

    2014-01-01

    A measurement system based on ultrafast (up to 10 ns time resolution) intensified CCD detector ''Nanogate-2V'' (Nanoscan, Russia) was developed for high-sensitivity analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). LabVIEW environment provided a high level of compatibility with variety of electronic instruments and an easy development of user interface, while Visual Studio environment was used for creation of LabVIEW compatible dll library with the use of ''Nanogate-2V'' SDK. The program for camera management and laser-induced plasma spectra registration was created with the use of Call Library Node in LabVIEW. An algorithm of integration of the second device ADC ''PCI-9812'' (ADLINK) to the measurement system was proposed and successfully implemented. This allowed simultaneous registration of emission and acoustic signals under laser ablation. The measured resolving power of spectrometer-ICCD system was equal to 12000 at 632 nm. An electron density of laser plasma was estimated with the use of H-α Balmer line. Steel spectra obtained at different delays were used for selection of the optimal conditions for manganese analytical signal registration. The feature of accumulation of spectra from several laser pulses was shown. The accumulation allowed reliable observation of silver signal at 328.07 nm in the LIBS spectra of soil (C Ag = 4.5 ppm). Finally, the correlation between acoustic and emission signals of plasma was found. Thus, technical possibilities of the developed LIBS system were demonstrated both for plasma diagnostics and analytical measurements

  18. Sensitivity of SWOT discharge algorithm to measurement errors: Testing on the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Micheal; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Yoon, Yeosang; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2019, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will utilize a Ka-band radar interferometer to measure river heights, widths, and slopes, globally, as well as characterize storage change in lakes and ocean surface dynamics with a spatial resolution ranging from 10 - 70 m, with temporal revisits on the order of a week. A discharge algorithm has been formulated to solve the inverse problem of characterizing river bathymetry and the roughness coefficient from SWOT observations. The algorithm uses a Bayesian Markov Chain estimation approach, treats rivers as sets of interconnected reaches (typically 5 km - 10 km in length), and produces best estimates of river bathymetry, roughness coefficient, and discharge, given SWOT observables. AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) consists of a radar interferometer similar to SWOT, but mounted aboard an aircraft. AirSWOT spatial resolution will range from 1 - 35 m. In early 2013, AirSWOT will perform several flights over the Sacramento River, capturing river height, width, and slope at several different flow conditions. The Sacramento River presents an excellent target given that the river includes some stretches heavily affected by management (diversions, bypasses, etc.). AirSWOT measurements will be used to validate SWOT observation performance, but are also a unique opportunity for testing and demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the discharge algorithm. This study uses HEC-RAS simulations of the Sacramento River to first, characterize expected discharge algorithm accuracy on the Sacramento River, and second to explore the required AirSWOT measurements needed to perform a successful inverse with the discharge algorithm. We focus on the sensitivity of the algorithm accuracy to the uncertainty in AirSWOT measurements of height, width, and slope.

  19. Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Lawman, Samuel; Zheng, Yalin; Williams, Dominic; Zhang, Jinke; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an analytical tool for nondestructively characterizing the individual paint layer thickness of multiple layered automotive paints. A graph-based segmentation method was used for automatic analysis of the thickness distribution for the top layers of solid color paints. The thicknesses measured with OCT were in good agreement with the optical microscope and ultrasonic techniques that are the current standard in the automobile industry. Because of its high axial resolution (5.5 μm), the OCT technique was shown to be able to resolve the thickness of individual paint layers down to 11 μm. With its high lateral resolution (12.4 μm), the OCT system was also able to measure the cross-sectional area of the aluminum flakes in a metallic automotive paint. The range of values measured was 300-1850  μm2. In summary, the proposed OCT is a noncontact, high-resolution technique that has the potential for inclusion as part of the quality assurance process in automobile coating.

  20. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdi, Adibe; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Dehghan, Naser; Heidari, Emad; Masumi, Yusef; Abbaszadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Lead-based shields are the standard method of intraoperative radiation protection in the radiology and nuclear medicine department. Human lead toxicity is well documented. The lead used is heavy, lacks durability, is difficult to launder, and its disposal is associated with environmental hazards. The aim of this study was to design a lead free paint for protection against X and gamma rays. In this pilot st we evaluated several types of nano metal powder that seemed to have good absorption. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, was used to model the attenuation of X-ray photons in paints with different designs. Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the attenuation properties of each paint design. Among the different nano metal powder, nano tungsten trioxide and nano tin dioxide were the two most appropriate candidates for making paint in diagnostic photon energy range. Nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best protection in both simulation and experiments. After this step, attempts were made to produce appropriate nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paints. The density of this nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paint was 4.2 g/cm 3 . The MCNP simulation and experimental measurements for HVL (Half-Value Layer) values of this shield at 100 kVp were 0.25 and 0.23 mm, respectively. The results showed the cost-effective lead-free paint can be a great power in absorbing the X-rays and gamma rays and it can be used instead of lead

  1. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 552 Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); Knollenberg, P. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  2. A Method for Rapid Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity on Mobile Touch-Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers are now pervasive, making them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Here we de- scribe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. A proto- type has been developed for Apple Computer's iPad/iPod/iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing, http://hsi.arc.nasa.gov/groups/scanpath/research.php). Preliminary data show good agreement with estimates obtained from traditional psychophysical methods as well as newer rapid estimation techniques. Issues relating to device calibration are also discussed.

  3. Azimuthally sensitive Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry measured with the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramling, Johanna Lena

    2011-07-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical pions emitted in high-energy particle collisions provide information about the size of the source region in space-time. If analyzed via HBT Interferometry in several directions with respect to the reaction plane, the shape of the source can be extracted. Hence, HBT Interferometry provides an excellent tool to probe the characteristics of the quark-gluon plasma possibly created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. This thesis introduces the main theoretical concepts of particle physics, the quark gluon plasma and the technique of HBT interferometry. The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is explained and the first azimuthallyintegrated results measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with ALICE are presented. A detailed two-track resolution study leading to a global pair cut for HBT analyses has been performed, and a framework for the event plane determination has been developed. The results from azimuthally sensitive HBT interferometry are compared to theoretical models and previous measurements at lower energies. Oscillations of the transverse radii in dependence on the pair emission angle are observed, consistent with a source that is extended out-of-plane.

  4. Volumetric breast density measurement: sensitivity analysis of a relative physics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the sensitivity and robustness of a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement system to errors in the imaging physics parameters including compressed breast thickness (CBT), tube voltage (kVp), filter thickness, tube current-exposure time product (mAs), detector gain, detector offset and image noise. 3317 raw digital mammograms were processed with Volpara(®) (Matakina Technology Ltd, Wellington, New Zealand) to obtain fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV), breast volume (BV) and VBD. Errors in parameters including CBT, kVp, filter thickness and mAs were simulated by varying them in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) tags of the images up to ±10% of the original values. Errors in detector gain and offset were simulated by varying them in the Volpara configuration file up to ±10% from their default values. For image noise, Gaussian noise was generated and introduced into the original images. Errors in filter thickness, mAs, detector gain and offset had limited effects on FGV, BV and VBD. Significant effects in VBD were observed when CBT, kVp, detector offset and image noise were varied (p applications such as tracking density change over time, it remains to be seen how accurate the measures need to be.

  5. Direct measurement for organic solvents diffusion using ultra-sensitive optical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir R.; Elias, Catherine M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, novel techniques using ultra-sensitive chemical optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGM) are proposed through two different configurations. The first one will use a composite micro-sphere, when the solvent interacts with the polymeric optical sensors through diffusion the sphere start to swallow that solvent. In turn, that leads to change the morphology and mechanical properties of the polymeric spheres. Also, these changes could be measured by tracking the WGM shifts. Several experiments were carried out to study the solvent induced WGM shift using microsphere immersed in a solvent atmosphere. It can be potentially used for sensing the trace organic solvents like ethanol and methanol. The second configuration will use a composite beam nitrocellulose composite (NC) structure that acts as a sensing element. In this configuration, a beam is anchored to a substrate in one end, and the other end is compressing the polymeric sphere causing a shift in its WGM. When a chemical molecule is attached to the beam, the resonant frequency of the cantilever will be changed for a certain amount. By sensing this certain resonant frequency change, the existence of a single chemical molecule can be detected. A preliminary experimental model is developed to describe the vibration of the beam structure. The resonant frequency change of the cantilever due to attached mass is examined imperially using acetone as an example. Breath diagnosis can use this configuration in diabetic's diagnosis. Since, solvent like acetone concentration in human breath leads to a quick, convenient, accurate and painless breath diagnosis of diabetics. These micro-optical sensors have been examined using preliminary experiments to fully investigate its response. The proposed chemical sensor can achieve extremely high sensitivity in molecular level.

  6. A Short Measure of the Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory - RSQ17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čolović, Petar; Smederevac, Snežana; Oljača, Milan; Nikolašević, Željka; Mitrović, Dušanka

    2018-04-03

    The need for a research and practical tool, such as a short, reliable, and valid personality assessment test, suggests researchers to create shortened versions of original instruments. Reinforcement sensitivity questionnaire (RSQ) was created in line with some basic premises of revised Reinforcement sensitivity theory, which proposes three motivational and emotional systems: Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), responsible for scanning environment for potential threats, Behavioral activation system (BAS), responsible for aproaching behavior, and the Fight/Flight/Freeze system (FFFS), responsible for behavior in the present threat. RSQ comprises five scales: BIS, BAS, Fight, Flight, and Freeze. The aim of this study was to develop a short version of RSQ, which would be beneficial to both research and practical purposes. Item response theory analyses were used for item selection. The study comprised two samples of participants, whereby Sample 1 (N = 837, 34.6% male, aged 18 - 82, M = 31.63, SD = 13.54) served as the derivation sample, while Sample 2 (818 participants, 43.6% male, 18-75 years, M = 29.65, SD = 12.52) served as validation sample. Factorial validity of the short RSQ was examined on both Sample 1 and Sample 2. Convergent and divergent validity of the short RSQ was examined using RST-PQ, Jackson-5, BIS/BAS scales, and Big Five Inventory. The results point to satisfactory internal consistency, factorial validity, and construct validity of the short RSQ, suggesting that it is an adequate measure for research settings or other contexts which require the use of short personality questionnaires.

  7. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens; Reitz, Matthias; Schmidt, Nils O.; Bolar, Divya S.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml.kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s and -1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s and -1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s and 1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml.min and -1.100g and -1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level. We found good

  8. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neuroradiology; Reitz, Matthias; Schmidt, Nils O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurosurgery; Bolar, Divya S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States). Radiology; Adalsteinsson, Elfar [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2015-05-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml.kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s {sup and} -1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s {sup and} -1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s {sup and} 1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml.min {sup and} -1.100g {sup and} -1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood

  9. Recent studies of laser science in paintings conservation and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Fotakis, Costas

    2010-06-15

    The removal of aged and deteriorated molecular overlayers from the surface of paintings is a delicate and critical intervention in Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation. This irreversible action gets particularly complicated given the multitude of materials that may be present within a painted work of art (often in ultrathin layers or traces), as well as the exceptional sensitivity of the original surfaces to environmental conditions such as heat, light, and so on. Lasers hold an important role among the available cleaning methodologies, as they enable high control and accuracy, material selectivity, and immediate feedback. Still, prior to their implementation, it is imperative to optimize the cleaning parameters, so to ensure that any potential implications to the remaining materials are minimal and well understood. Toward this aim, research at IESL-FORTH is focused on both refining and continuously updating the laser-cleaning protocols (by introducing novel laser technologies into the field, i.e., ultrashort laser pulses), as well as on investigating and studying the nature and extent of laser-induced physicochemical alterations to the involved materials. In this Account, extended work for the understanding of ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation of polymers is presented. Emphasis is placed on the use of model systems (polymers doped with chromophores of known photochemistry) to examine the in-depth laser-induced modifications at the processed surfaces and thus to illustrate the dependence of their nature and extent on laser parameters and material properties. Furthermore, studies for the potential use of femtosecond UV pulses to overcome certain limitations involved with the nanosecond ablation of molecular overlayers from CH surfaces are highlighted. In particular, it is demonstrated that in the femtosecond regime any chemical modifications are, qualitatively and quantitatively, highly defined, limited and nearly independent of the material properties, such as the

  10. Measurements of gluon spin-sensitive quantities at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the scaled jet energies (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) and the Ellis-Karliner angle (cosθ EK ), which are sensitive to the spill of the gluon, in the 3-jet hadronic events from the e + e - annihilation at the Z 0 resonance. The experiment is performed with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The data used in this analysis was collected during the 1992 physics run, which includes 10,252 hadronic Z 0 events that have CDC information written out. Only charged tracks measured in the central drift chamber are used for the measurements of the above variables. The raw data are found to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations passing the same set of track and event selection cuts. A bin-to-bin correction is done for the distributions of x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , and cosθ EK to account for the effects of hadronization, detector acceptance and resolution. The corrected data is compared to the parton level distributions of x 1 , x 2 , x 3 , and cosθ EK simulated from the vector QCD model and the scalar gluon model respectively. The systematic errors, calculated for all the bins in these distributions, are obtained by comparing the results from different sets of track and event selection cuts, from different hadronization models and from different Monte Carlo programs. Good agreement is found between data and the vector QCD model. The scalar gluon model strongly disagrees with the data

  11. Measurements of gluon spin-sensitive quantities at the Z0 resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Cheng -Gang [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the scaled jet energies (x1, x2, x3) and the Ellis-Karliner angle (cosθEK), which are sensitive to the spill of the gluon, in the 3-jet hadronic events from the e+e- annihilation at the Z0 resonance. The experiment is performed with the SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The data used in this analysis was collected during the 1992 physics run, which includes 10,252 hadronic Z0 events that have CDC information written out. Only charged tracks measured in the central drift chamber are used for the measurements of the above variables. The raw data are found to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations passing the same set of track and event selection cuts. A bin-to-bin correction is done for the distributions of x1, x2, x3, and cosθEK to account for the effects of hadronization, detector acceptance and resolution. The corrected data is compared to the parton level distributions of x1, x2, x3, and cosθEK simulated from the vector QCD model and the scalar gluon model respectively. The systematic errors, calculated for all the bins in these distributions, are obtained by comparing the results from different sets of track and event selection cuts, from different hadronization models and from different Monte Carlo programs. Good agreement is found between data and the vector QCD model. The scalar gluon model strongly disagrees with the data.

  12. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups.

  13. Measurements of Crossflow Instability Modes for HIFiRE 5 at Angle of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    First, the new model accommodated IR heating measurements. The IR method alleviates roughness and steps induced by temperature-sensitive paint, and it...dominated by the strongly inflected boundary layer in this region. This inflection is due to the convergence of flow from the higher-pressure sides of

  14. Age determination of paintings by 210Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilot, E.; Apers, D.

    1977-01-01

    Often the 210 Pb method for age determination of paintings is inoperative because the initial 210 Pb activity of undated lead oxide cannot be determined. This difficulty could be removed if the ores could be identified from which the lead white was prepared. It would be possible to measure the initial 210 Pb activity directly in Pb ores or in identical Pb oxides from properly dated pictures. Some results show that Pb ores can be identified by the isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb. A systematic study of Pb ores and pigment isotopic composition is necessary. (author)

  15. Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2010-02-01

    While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

  16. Using anti-corrosive paints on ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J

    1969-02-07

    Anit-corrosive paints on the outside of ship's hulls fall into 3 groups: the area below the water, the boot- topping area at the waterline, and the weatherwork including the hull and superstructure. Typical formulations of primer and paint are given for use in each section. Anti-corrosion paints must always be considered in conjunction with the kind and amount of surface preparation that can be given. The requirement for faster descaling techniques and higher standards of surface preparation has led to the introduction of automated centrifugal abrasive blasting machines for all new plates and sections. If it is not possible to remove old coatings by abrasive blasting, then the traditional method of chipping followed by wire brushing must be used. The removal of mill scale by abrasive blasting can produce a clean metal surface which is liable to rapid corrosion unless it is painted immediately. A pre-fabrication or shop primer is used which is normally applied by airless spray equipment synchronized with the sand blasting machinery.

  17. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  18. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study...

  19. What is lead-based paint?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The number of variety of lead-abatement regulations and requirements make it difficult and confusing to identify and properly respond to dangerous levels of lead in every situation. Definitions of ''lead-based paint'' and three test methods for lead detection are described to help determine when and how to test for the presence of lead

  20. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art

  1. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  2. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  3. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  4. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...

  5. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  6. Simulations of color development in tinted paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent,

  7. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  9. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  10. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nens, B.; Trocellier, P.; Engelmann, C.; Lahanier, C.

    1982-09-01

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given [fr

  11. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  12. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative...

  13. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark...... consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed by results, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5......-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro...

  14. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  15. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of

  16. Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

  17. Alteration of blue pigment in artificial iris in ocular prosthesis: effect of paint, drying method and artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Fernandes, Aline Úrsula Rocha; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Hadadd, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2011-02-01

    The artificial iris is the structure responsible for the dissimulation and aesthetics of ocular prosthesis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the color stability of artificial iris of microwaveable polymerized ocular prosthesis, as a function of paint type, drying method and accelerated aging. A total of 40 discs of microwaveable polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated, and divided according to the blue paint type (n = 5): hydrosoluble acrylic, nitrocellulose automotive, hydrosoluble gouache and oil paints. Paints where dried either at natural or at infrared light bulb method. Each specimen was constituted of one disc in colorless acrylic resin and another colored with a basic sclera pigment. Painting was performed in one surface of one of the discs. The specimens were submitted to an artificial aging chamber under ultraviolet light, during 1008 h. A reflective spectrophotometer was used to evaluate color changes. Data were evaluated by 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). All paints suffered color alteration. The oil paint presented the highest color resistance to artificial aging regardless of drying method. Copyright © 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): Potential impact on aquafarming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huanyun; Shen Rulang; Liang Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment. - Highlights: → Use of antifouling paints in boat maintenance was deemed a main source of DDTs. → The majority of antifouling paint-derived DDTs was sequestered in sediment. → Fish feed has remained the main input source of DDTs in fish body. - The potential impact from the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints on aquafarming environment is examined.

  19. Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

  20. Track sensitivity and the surface roughness measurements of CR-39 with atomic force microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, N; Amemiya, K; Takahashi, H; Kyan, A; Ogura, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been applied to evaluate the surface roughness and the track sensitivity of CR-39 track detector. We experimentally confirmed the inverse correlation between the track sensitivity and the roughness of the detector surface after etching. The surface of CR-39 (CR-39 doped with antioxidant (HARZLAS (TD-1)) and copolymer of CR-39/NIPAAm (TNF-1)) with high sensitivity becomes rough by the etching, while the pure CR-39 (BARYOTRAK) with low sensitivity keeps its original surface clarity even for the long etching.

  1. Radon emanation chamber: High sensitivity measurements for the SuperNEMO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulé, B. [Université Bordeaux 1, Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    Radon is a well-known source of background in ββ0ν experiments due to the high Q{sub β} value of one of its daughter nucleus, {sup 214}Bi. The SuperNEMO collaboration requires a maximum radon contamination of 0.1 mBq/m{sup 3} inside its next-generation double beta decay detector. To reach such a low activity, a drastic screening process has been set for the selection of the detector's materials. In addition to a good radiopurity, a low emanation rate is required. To test this parameter, a Radon Emanation Setup is running at CENBG. It consists in a large emanation chamber connected to an electrostatic detector. By measuring large samples and having a low background level, this setup reaches a sensitivity of a few μ Bq. m{sup −2}. d{sup −1} and is able to qualify materials used in the construction of the SuperNEMO detector.

  2. Sensitivity analyses of woody species exposed to air pollution based on ecophysiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dazhi; Kuang, Yuanwen; Zhou, Guoyi

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution has been of a major problem in the Pearl River Delta of south China, particularly during the last two decades. Emissions of air pollutants from industries have already led to damages in natural communities and environments in a wide range of the Delta area. Leaf parameters such as chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf area (LA), dry weight (DW) and leaf mass per area (LMA) had once been used as specific indexes of environmental stress. This study aims to determine in situ if the daily variation of chlorophyll fluorescence and other ecophysiological parameters in five seedlings of three woody species, Ilex rotunda, Ficus microcarpa and Machilus chinensis, could be used alone or in combination with other measurements for sensitivity indexes to make diagnoses under air pollution stress and, hence, to choose the correct tree species for urban afforestation in the Delta area. Five seedlings of each species were transplanted in pot containers after their acclimation under shadowing conditions. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were made in situ by a portable fluorometer (OS-30, Opti-sciences, U.S.A). Ten random samples of leaves were picked from each species for LA measurements by area-meter (CI-203, CID, Inc., U.S.A). DW was determined after the leaf samples were dried to a constant weight at 65 degrees C. LMA was calculated as the ratio of DW/LA. Leaf N content was analyzed according to the Kjeldhal method, and the extraction of pigments was carried out according Lin et al. The daily mean Fv/Fm (Fv is the variable fluorescence and Fm is the maximum fluorescence) analysis showed that Ilex rotunda and Ficus microcarpa were more highly resistant to pollution stress, followed by Machilus chinensis, implying that the efficiency of photosystem II in I. rotunda was less affected by air pollutants than the other two species. Little difference in daily change of Fv/Fm in I. rotunda between the polluted and the clean site was also observed. However, a relatively large

  3. High-sensitivity measurements of the excitation function for Bhabha scattering at MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsertos, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Armbruster, P.; Kienle, P.; Krusche, B.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1989-02-01

    Using a monochromatic e + beam scattered on a Be foil and a high-resolution detector device, the excitation function for elastic e + e - scattering was measured with a statistical accuracy of 0.25% in 1.4 keV steps in the c.m.-energy range between 770 keV and 840 keV (1.79 - 1.86 MeV/c 2 ) at c.m. scattering angles between 80 0 and 100 0 (FWHM). Within the experimental sensitivity of 0.5 b.eV/sr (c.m.) for the energy-integrated differential cross section no resonances were observed (97% CL). From this limit we infer that a hypothetical spinless resonant state should have a width of less than 1.9 meV corresponding to a lifetime limit of 3.5x10 -13 s. This limit establishes the most stringent bound for new particles in this mass range derived from Bhabha scattering and is independent of assumptions about the internal structure of the hypothetical particles. Less sensitivite limits were, in addition, derived around 520 keV c.m. energy (≅ 1.54 MeV/c 2 ) from an investigation with a thorium and a mylar foil as scatterers. (orig.)

  4. A high-throughput and sensitive method to measure Global DNA Methylation: Application in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaev Sergey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide changes in DNA methylation are an epigenetic phenomenon that can lead to the development of disease. The study of global DNA methylation utilizes technology that requires both expensive equipment and highly specialized skill sets. Methods We have designed and developed an assay, CpGlobal, which is easy-to-use, does not utilize PCR, radioactivity and expensive equipment. CpGlobal utilizes methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes, HRP Neutravidin to detect the biotinylated nucleotides incorporated in an end-fill reaction and a luminometer to measure the chemiluminescence. The assay shows high accuracy and reproducibility in measuring global DNA methylation. Furthermore, CpGlobal correlates significantly with High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE, a gold standard technology. We have applied the technology to understand the role of global DNA methylation in the natural history of lung cancer. World-wide, it is the leading cause of death attributed to any cancer. The survival rate is 15% over 5 years due to the lack of any clinical symptoms until the disease has progressed to a stage where cure is limited. Results Through the use of cell lines and paired normal/tumor samples from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC we show that global DNA hypomethylation is highly associated with the progression of the tumor. In addition, the results provide the first indication that the normal part of the lung from a cancer patient has already experienced a loss of methylation compared to a normal individual. Conclusion By detecting these changes in global DNA methylation, CpGlobal may have a role as a barometer for the onset and development of lung cancer.

  5. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT...

  6. Investigating the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2‑based oil paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Smout, M.; Dekker, N; Kooyman, P.J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2-based oil paints. Titanium white oil paint exists in a multitude of different recipes, and the effect of the formulation on photocatalytic binder
    degradation kinetics is unknown. These formulations

  7. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied....C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section... TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA...

  8. Longitudinal measurements of luminance and chromatic contrast sensitivity: comparison between wavefront-guided LASIK and contralateral PRK for myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Barreto Junior, Jackson; Lago, Marcos; Bechara, Samir Jacob; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the postoperative contrast sensitivity functions between wavefront-guided LASIK eyes and their contralateral wavefront-guided PRK eyes. The participants were 11 healthy subjects (mean age=32.4 ± 6.2 years) who had myopic astigmatism. The spatial contrast sensitivity functions were measured before and three times after the surgery. Psycho and a Cambridge graphic board (VSG 2/4) were used to measure luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow spatial contrast sensitivity functions (from 0.85 to 13.1 cycles/degree). Longitudinal analysis and comparison between surgeries were performed. There was no significant contrast sensitivity change during the one-year follow-up measurements neither for LASIK nor for PRK eyes. The comparison between procedures showed no differences at 12 months postoperative. The present data showed similar contrast sensitivities during one-year follow-up of wave-front guided refractive surgeries. Moreover, one year postoperative data showed no differences in the effects of either wavefront-guided LASIK or wavefront-guided PRK on the luminance and chromatic spatial contrast sensitivity functions.

  9. Sensitivity to mental effort and test-retest reliability of heart rate variability measures in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Yadav, Rajeev; Yung, Iris; Zajdel, Daniel P; Oken, Barry S

    2011-10-01

    To determine (1) whether heart rate variability (HRV) was a sensitive and reliable measure in mental effort tasks carried out by healthy seniors and (2) whether non-linear approaches to HRV analysis, in addition to traditional time and frequency domain approaches were useful to study such effects. Forty healthy seniors performed two visual working memory tasks requiring different levels of mental effort, while ECG was recorded. They underwent the same tasks and recordings 2 weeks later. Traditional and 13 non-linear indices of HRV including Poincaré, entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were determined. Time domain, especially mean R-R interval (RRI), frequency domain and, among non-linear parameters - Poincaré and DFA were the most reliable indices. Mean RRI, time domain and Poincaré were also the most sensitive to different mental effort task loads and had the largest effect size. Overall, linear measures were the most sensitive and reliable indices to mental effort. In non-linear measures, Poincaré was the most reliable and sensitive, suggesting possible usefulness as an independent marker in cognitive function tasks in healthy seniors. A large number of HRV parameters was both reliable as well as sensitive indices of mental effort, although the simple linear methods were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radial measurements of IMF-sensitive absorption features in two massive ETGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sam P.; Davies, Roger L.; Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.

    2018-03-01

    We make radial measurements of stellar initial mass function (IMF) sensitive absorption features in the two massive early-type galaxies NGC 1277 and IC 843. Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrogaph (SWIFT), we obtain resolved measurements of the Na I 0.82 and FeH 0.99 indices, amongst others, finding both galaxies show strong gradients in Na I absorption combined with flat FeH profiles at ˜0.4 Å. We find these measurements may be explained by radial gradients in the IMF, appropriate abundance gradients in [Na/Fe] and [Fe/H], or a combination of the two, and our data are unable to break this degeneracy. We also use full spectral fitting to infer global properties from an integrated spectrum of each object, deriving a unimodal IMF slope consistent with Salpeter in IC 843 (x = 2.27 ± 0.17) but steeper than Salpeter in NGC 1277 (x = 2.69 ± 0.11), despite their similar FeH equivalent widths. Independently, we fit the strength of the FeH feature and compare to the E-MILES and CvD12 stellar population libraries, finding agreement between the models. The IMF values derived in this way are in close agreement with those from spectral fitting in NGC 1277 (x_{CvD}=2.59^{+0.25}_{-0.48}, x_{E-MILES}=2.77± 0.31), but are less consistent in IC 843, with the IMF derived from FeH alone leading to steeper slopes than when fitting the full spectrum (x_{CvD}=2.57^{+0.30}_{-0.41}, x_{E-MILES}=2.72± 0.25). This work highlights the importance of a large wavelength coverage for breaking the degeneracy between abundance and IMF variations, and may bring into doubt the use of the Wing-Ford band as an IMF index if used without other spectral information.

  11. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  12. Studies on irradiation resisting paints for concrete structures in nuclear power plant, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Daizo; Sumino, Masahiro; Goto, Tomoaki.

    1978-01-01

    It is necessary for irradiation resisting paints to adhere tightly to concrete in order to exhibit superior effects. Adhesion of paints to concrete is greatly affected by moisture content and the form of moisture in concrete. Further, adhesion will probably be affected by differences in concrete surface conditions between floors, walls and ceilings. Therefore, experiments were conducted with concrete to make clear allowable moisture conditions and the influence of these concrete surfaces. The following results were obtained. (1) Adhesion of paint becomes stronger as pF-value increases, that is, as moisture content falls. (2) The allowable pF-values and moisture contents were respectively 5.5 over and 4.5% under at floor, 4.4 over and 4.9% under at wall, and 4.3 over and 5% under at ceiling. (3) Fractures of paint films under these allowable conditions occurred in paint-concrete composites, and the fractured concrete thickness than was 0.5-0.8 mm and measured adhesion strength was 33 kg/cm 2 . (auth.)

  13. THE COMPARISON BETWEEN NMF AND ICA IN PIGMENT MIXTURE IDENTIFICATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE PAINTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the colour in painting cultural relics observed by our naked eyes or hyperspectral cameras is usually a mixture of several kinds of pigments, the mixed pigments analysis will be an important subject in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration. This paper aims to find a more effective method to confirm the types of every pure pigment from mixture on the surface of paintings. Firstly, we adopted two kinds of blind source separation algorithms, which are independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization, to extract the pure pigment component from mixed spectrum respectively. Moreover, we matched the separated pure spectrum with the pigments spectra library built by our team to determine the pigment type. Furthermore, three kinds of data including simulation data, mixed pigments spectral data measured in laboratory, and the spectral data of an ancient painting were chosen to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms. And the accuracy was compared between the two algorithms. Finally, the experimental results show that non-negative matrix factorization method is more suitable for endmember extraction in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration.

  14. The Comparison Between Nmf and Ica in Pigment Mixture Identification of Ancient Chinese Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Lyu, S.; Hou, M.; Yin, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Since the colour in painting cultural relics observed by our naked eyes or hyperspectral cameras is usually a mixture of several kinds of pigments, the mixed pigments analysis will be an important subject in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration. This paper aims to find a more effective method to confirm the types of every pure pigment from mixture on the surface of paintings. Firstly, we adopted two kinds of blind source separation algorithms, which are independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization, to extract the pure pigment component from mixed spectrum respectively. Moreover, we matched the separated pure spectrum with the pigments spectra library built by our team to determine the pigment type. Furthermore, three kinds of data including simulation data, mixed pigments spectral data measured in laboratory, and the spectral data of an ancient painting were chosen to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms. And the accuracy was compared between the two algorithms. Finally, the experimental results show that non-negative matrix factorization method is more suitable for endmember extraction in the field of ancient painting conservation and restoration.

  15. Hazardous properties of paint residues from the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajasaari, Kati; Kulovaara, Maaret; Joutti, Anneli; Schultz, Eija; Soljamo, Kari

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this study was to screen nine excess paint residues for environmental hazard and to evaluate their disposability in a non-hazardous or hazardous-waste landfill. These residues were produced in the process of spray-painting furniture. Residues were classified according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties. Leaching properties were determined with the European standard SFS-EN 12457-2 leaching-test. The toxicity of the leaching-test eluates was measured with plant-, bacteria- and enzyme-inhibition bioassays. Total organic carbon, formaldehyde and solvent concentrations in the solid wastes and in the leaching-test eluates were analysed. It seemed likely that leached formaldehyde caused very high acute toxicity in leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues. This hypothesis was based on the fact that the formaldehyde concentrations in the leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues were 62-75 times higher than the EC50 value reported in the literature for formaldehyde. The results of the water-curtain booth residues showed that the samples with the highest TOC and aromatic solvent concentrations were also the most toxic. The studied excess paint residues were complex organic mixtures and contained large amounts of compounds not identifiable from chemical data. Therefore, the evaluation of the hazard based solely on available chemical data is unlikely to be sufficient, as evidenced by our study. Our results show that harmful compounds remain in the solid waste and the toxicity results of their leaching-test eluates show that toxicity may leach from residues in contact with water at landfill sites. They also confirm the benefit of combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays in assessing the potential environmental hazard of complex organic mixtures found in wastes. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  17. Sensitive measurement of endotoxin by radio-rocket immunoelectrophoresis using [125I]Staphylococcus aureus protein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.; Alam, S.; Young, L.S.; Chesebro, K.

    1981-01-01

    Antibody directed against the core glycolipid antigen (CGL) of the mutant Salmonella minnesota Re 595 has been shown to cross-react with endotoxin from bacteria within the group Enterobacteriaceae. Using this cross-reactive CGL antibody the authors have developed a sensitive (250 pg) radio-rocket immunoelectrophoretic technique to measure endotoxin. They used the principles of rocket immunoelectrophoresis and increased the sensitivity by using 125 I-labelled staphylococcal protein A which serves as a sensitive probe to bind to the Fc portion of the IgG complexed with antigen. The rocket-shaped [ 125 I]protein A labelled immune complexes were detected by radioautography. The sensitivity is 100-fold greater than conventional Coomassie brilliant blue staining. Measurement of CGL was inhibited by normal human serum. However, the assay had the capacity to quantitate endotoxin in buffer extracts of clinically isolated Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Analysis of various preparations of CGL obtained from different investigators demonstrated wide variation in their immunoreactivity. Because of the significant cross-reaction to detect various endotoxins this method has the potential to measure endotoxemia and assess the immunochemical quality of various endotoxin preparations. Additionally, the techniques of using [ 125 I]protein A has wide applicability for the sensitive measurement of other antigens. (Auth.)

  18. Sensitive measurement of endotoxin by radio-rocket immunoelectrophoresis using (/sup 125/I)Staphylococcus aureus protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P; Alam, S; Young, L S; Chesebro, K [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Center for the Health Sciences

    1981-06-16

    Antibody directed against the core glycolipid antigen (CGL) of the mutant Salmonella minnesota Re 595 has been shown to cross-react with endotoxin from bacteria within the group Enterobacteriaceae. Using this cross-reactive CGL antibody the authors have developed a sensitive (250 pg) radio-rocket immunoelectrophoretic technique to measure endotoxin. They used the principles of rocket immunoelectrophoresis and increased the sensitivity by using /sup 125/I-labelled staphylococcal protein A which serves as a sensitive probe to bind to the Fc portion of the IgG complexed with antigen. The rocket-shaped (/sup 125/I)protein A labelled immune complexes were detected by radioautography. The sensitivity is 100-fold greater than conventional Coomassie brilliant blue staining. Measurement of CGL was inhibited by normal human serum. However, the assay had the capacity to quantitate endotoxin in buffer extracts of clinically isolated Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Analysis of various preparations of CGL obtained from different investigators demonstrated wide variation in their immunoreactivity. Because of the significant cross-reaction to detect various endotoxins this method has the potential to measure endotoxemia and assess the immunochemical quality of various endotoxin preparations. Additionally, the techniques of using (/sup 125/I)protein A has wide applicability for the sensitive measurement of other antigens.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a new SWIR-channel measuring tropospheric CH 4 and CO from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongma, Rienk T.; Gloudemans, Annemieke M. S.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Aben, Ilse; de Vries, Johan; Escudero-Sanz, Isabel; van den Oord, Gijsbertus; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2006-08-01

    In preparation for future atmospheric space missions a consortium of Dutch organizations is performing design studies on a nadir viewing grating-based imaging spectrometer using OMI and SCIAMACHY heritage. The spectrometer measures selected species (O 3, NO II, HCHO, H IIO, SO II, aerosols (optical depth, type and absorption index), CO and CH4) with sensitivity down to the Earth's surface, thus addressing science issues on air quality and climate. It includes 3 UV-VIS channels continuously covering the 270-490 nm range, a NIR-channel covering the 710-775 nm range, and a SWIR-channel covering the 2305-2385 nm range. This instrument concept is, named TROPOMI, part of the TRAQ-mission proposal to ESA in response to the Call for Earth Explorer Ideas 2005, and, named TROPI, part of the CAMEO-proposal prepared for the US NRC decadal study-call on Earth science and applications from space. The SWIR-channel is optional in the TROPOMI/TRAQ instrument and included as baseline in the TROPI/CAMEO instrument. This paper focuses on derivation of the instrument requirements of the SWIR-channel by presenting the results of retrieval studies. Synthetic detector spectra are generated by the combination of a forward model and an instrument simulator that includes the properties of state-of-the-art detector technology. The synthetic spectra are input to the CO and CH 4 IMLM retrieval algorithm originally developed for SCIAMACHY. The required accuracy of the Level-2 SWIR data products defines the main instrument parameters like spectral resolution and sampling, telescope aperture, detector temperature, and optical bench temperature. The impact of selected calibration and retrieval errors on the Level-2 products has been characterized. The current status of the SWIR-channel optical design with its demanding requirements on ground-pixel size, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio will be presented.

  20. Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. IV. Measurement of intracellular protector concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.J.; Stobbe, C.C.; Hettiaratchi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitization of hypoxic V79 Chinese hamster cells by 0.5 mM misonidazole at approximately 0-4 degrees C is substantially enhanced by pretreating the cells overnight with 0.1 mM buthionine sulfoximine, which lowers the cellular glutathione content to 5% of control values (from 4 mM to approximately 0.2 mM). The enhanced sensitization is reversed by concentrations of exogenous cysteine that are much lower (0.02 mM) than the original glutathione content. Reduced Co-enzyme A affords reversal of the enhancing effect at concentrations of about 1 mM. Sodium ascorbate gives no protection at all even at concentrations of 2 mM. The intracellular concentration of the reducing agents was measured using a spin-through oil technique. There was no diffusion of Co-A (MW greater than 750) or ascorbate (excluded by charge) into the cells. In contrast, cysteine was rapidly concentrated by factors of 4-10, even at the low temperatures used. Extracellular ascorbate's inability to radioprotect argues against electron transfer across the cell membrane as a mechanism for radioprotection. This mechanism could have explained the ability of exogenous thiols to radioprotect in former studies using glutathione, and in the present studies using Co-A. The potential of cysteine to be concentrated by cells poses a problem in the interpretation of exogenous protection by non-diffusing thiols, since trace contamination by cysteine could lead to the actual protection observed. Cysteine could also be formed by exchange reactions of exogenous thiols with the disulfide of cysteine, present in all media formulations

  1. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  2. Development of paints with infrared radiation reflective properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Coser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge buildings situated in hot regions of the Globe need to be agreeable to their residents. Air conditioning is extensively used to make these buildings comfortable, with consequent energy consumption. Absorption of solar visible and infrared radiations are responsible for heating objects on the surface of the Earth, including houses and buildings. To avoid excessive energy consumption, it is possible to use coatings formulated with special pigments that are able to reflect the radiation in the near- infrared, NIR, spectrum. To evaluate this phenomenon an experimental study about the reflectivity of paints containing infrared-reflective pigments has been made. By irradiating with an IR source and by measuring the surface temperatures of the samples we evaluated: color according to ASTM D 2244-14, UV/VIS/NIR reflectance according to ASTM E 903-12 and thermal performance. Additionally, the spectral reflectance and the IR emittance were measured and the solar reflectance of the samples were calculated. The results showed that plates coated with paints containing IR-reflecting pigments displayed lower air temperature on the opposite side as compared to conventional coatings, indicating that they can be effective to reflect NIR and decrease the temperature of buildings when used in roofs and walls.

  3. Conservation of Paintings. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) performed a chemical analysis of the terracotta from Tiberius's villa on the island of Capri for the first time at the end of the eighteenth century, more and more sensitive and mutually complementary physicochemical methods are being developed to study works of art and archaeological artefacts. Technological studies, studies of manufacturing techniques, of the appearance of ageing and methods for determining the age of objects are performed, firstly, to determine the authenticity of works of art, secondly, to obtain information on the technology and techniques that were used by a given master, and, thirdly, to indicate the optimum conservation techniques that should be used during renovation and conservation work of a given object. The selection of the research method used must each time be well thought out, taking into consideration mainly the purpose of the test and the nature of the tested object. For a long time now, nuclear techniques have been considered to be one of the most important research techniques for identifying works of art, due to their great sensitivity and the possibility of discovering features that are invisible to the naked eye. These methods can generally be divided into three categories: (i) The first category covers various radiography techniques such as X ray radiography, xeroradiography, computed tomography, thermal neutron induced autoradiography, X ray induced autoelectronography, gamma radiography and neutronography. These make it possible to obtain information on the internal construction of an object, they do not require that samples be collected from the object and, in this sense, are nondestructive methods. The information obtained from this type of research often comprises basic information on the object which may be expanded and supplemented using other methods. (ii) The second category includes all the analytical techniques using nuclear techniques which allow microelements to be

  4. Analysis of the painting 'The first mass in Brazil' (Vitor Meireles) using a portable XRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2007-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence was used to analyze the painting 'The First Mass in Brazil', identifying the pigments used by the artist, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and visible alterations in the paint layer, in order to settle the best procedures to its recovery. This painting, executed by Vitor Meireles in 1860, is one of the most powerful and definitive images ever created by a Brazilian artist. The measurements were carried out with a portable EDXRF system consisting of a TF3005 x-ray tube from Oxford with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of zinc and lead white pigments. Some pigments used by the artist were: ochre, umbra, vermilion, Prussian blue, chromium oxide and cobalt blue. (author)

  5. Non-destructive synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping of a Roman painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooryhee, E.; Anne, M.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Martinetto, P.; Rondot, S.; Bardies, I.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The history and the properties of materials are deduced not only from their elemental and molecular signatures, but also from their exact phase compositions, and from the structures and the defects of their constituents. Here we implement a non-destructive synchrotron X-ray based method, which combines both the quantitative structural content of diffraction and the imaging mode. As a demonstration case, the pigments of a Roman wall painting are examined. The joined elemental and mineral maps mimic the major features of the painting. Different structural phases made of common atomic elements are differentiated. Textures and graininess are measured and related to the artist's know-how. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Skull Resistivity on the Relative Sensitivity Distributions of EEG and MEG Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malmivuo, J

    2001-01-01

    The authors have previously published calculations that show that, despite the high resistivity of the skull, the spatial sensitivity of magnetoencephalography, MEG, is no better than that of electroencephalography, EEG...

  7. Sensitive Mid-IR Laser Sensor Development and Mass Spectrometric Measurements in Shock Tube and Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-01-01

    CRDS technique was utilized to develop an ultra-fast, high sensitivity diagnostic to monitor trace concentrations of ethylene in shock tube pyrolysis experiments. This diagnostic represented the first ever successful application of CRDS technique

  8. Sensitizing Effects of Pretreatment Measures on Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Diane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored sensitizing effects of pretreatment assessment on posttreatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and interactive effects of personal dispositions for information seeking. Oncology patients rated side effects experienced previously (experimental condition), or parking conditions (control). Posttreatment, nausea of experimentals was…

  9. Mutagen Sensitivity, Apoptosis, and Polymorphism in DNA Repair as Measures of Prostate Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Radoslav

    2006-01-01

    .... We also created a computerized database of the samples in Microsoft Access. We developed assays for mutagen sensitivity, comet assay, and apoptosis in white blood cells exposed to bleomycin and ionizing radiation to evaluate...

  10. Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity as measured in a large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Guy A; Schober, Justine M; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; T'Sjoen, Guy; Vlietinck, Robert; Hoebeke, Piet B

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The sensitivity of the foreskin and its importance in erogenous sensitivity is widely debated and controversial. This is part of the actual public debate on circumcision for non-medical reason. Today some studies on the effect of circumcision on sexual function are available. However they vary widely in outcome. The present study shows in a large cohort of men, based on self-assessment, that the foreskin has erogenous sensitivity. It is shown that the foreskin is more sensitive than the uncircumcised glans mucosa, which means that after circumcision genital sensitivity is lost. In the debate on clitoral surgery the proven loss of sensitivity has been the strongest argument to change medical practice. In the present study there is strong evidence on the erogenous sensitivity of the foreskin. This knowledge hopefully can help doctors and patients in their decision on circumcision for non-medical reason. To test the hypothesis that sensitivity of the foreskin is a substantial part of male penile sensitivity. To determine the effects of male circumcision on penile sensitivity in a large sample. The study aimed at a sample size of ≈1000 men. Given the intimate nature of the questions and the intended large sample size, the authors decided to create an online survey. Respondents were recruited by means of leaflets and advertising. The analysis sample consisted of 1059 uncircumcised and 310 circumcised men. For the glans penis, circumcised men reported decreased sexual pleasure and lower orgasm intensity. They also stated more effort was required to achieve orgasm, and a higher percentage of them experienced unusual sensations (burning, prickling, itching, or tingling and numbness of the glans penis). For the penile shaft a higher percentage of circumcised men described discomfort and pain, numbness and unusual sensations. In comparison to men circumcised before puberty, men circumcised during adolescence or

  11. Postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity: an exploration of possible social media-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Callinan, Laura S; Mayes, Linda C; Smith, Megan V

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, directly observed maternal sensitivity, and the content and themes of pictures posted on a mobile application. Data on 20 participants were analyzed. Results suggested that mothers' scoring as more intrusive on the maternal sensitivity scale tended to post a higher proportion of photos of themselves interacting with their babies. An association between higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms and a lower proportion of posts of baby smiling photos was also suggested.

  12. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  13. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanchas Garcia-Zarco, S.; Alfosin Perez, V.; Suarez Garcia, A.; Urrejola Madrinan, S.; Sanchez Bermudez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  14. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints......BACKGROUND: In view of the current epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), it is important to clarify the extent of use of MI and related isothiazolinones in paints currently available for the consumer and worker in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the use and concentrations...... of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  15. Rapid Rule-Out of Acute Myocardial Injury Using a Single High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Yader; Smith, Stephen W; Shah, Anoop S V; Anand, Atul; Chapman, Andrew R; Love, Sara A; Schulz, Karen; Cao, Jing; Mills, Nicholas L; Apple, Fred S

    2017-01-01

    Rapid rule-out strategies using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays are largely supported by studies performed outside the US in selected cohorts of patients with chest pain that are atypical of US practice, and focused exclusively on ruling out acute myocardial infarction (AMI), rather than acute myocardial injury, which is more common and associated with a poor prognosis. Prospective, observational study of consecutive patients presenting to emergency departments [derivation (n = 1647) and validation (n = 2198) cohorts], where high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) was measured on clinical indication. The negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic sensitivity of an hs-cTnI concentration rules out acute myocardial injury, regardless of etiology, with an excellent NPV and diagnostic sensitivity, and identifies patients at minimal risk of AMI or cardiac death at 30 days. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02060760. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Colour Dematerialization in Spiritual Literature and Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik

    2017-01-01

    Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...

  17. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  18. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  19. Painting radioprotection at the nuclear eve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelli, Aurelien; Travadel, Sebastien; Guarnieri, Franck; Parizel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The CEA Marcoule centre is one of the first pillar of the French nuclear industry. The radiation protection department (SPR) of the centre benefited from the artistic skill of Jacques Castan who illustrated the safety campaigns of the SPR since 1959 and fed an imagination about radiation protection. His most ambitious creation was a wall painting in a staircase, made in 1962. This article describes the symbolic meaning of this work of art, which is today missing

  20. Intumescent paint as fire protection coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. R.S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a compendium on intumescent paint and its main features regarding chemical composition, thermophysical properties and performance as a fire-retardant material. Some of the main technical publications and lines of research on the subject are presented herein. The purpose of this paper is to show the current stage of the technical research being conducted on the topic and enable a better understanding of this fire-retardant material.